Chemistry Chapter 14 (Metals) (Finalized Notes) Chapter 14.1: Metals Introduction.

How are the properties of metals related to their structure?
1. Heat conductivity: Atoms in a metal are packed tightly into layers and held together by metallic bonds. Therefore, metals have high densities, melting points and boiling points . 2. Physical Properties: In a pure metal, atoms are arranged in order and are in the same size. This makes it easy for layers of atoms to slide over each other when a force is applied. This makes metals a. Soft, b. Ductile (drawn into fine wires without breaking) c. Malleable (beaten into thin sheets) 3. Heat and Electrical Conductivity: The outermost electrons of the atoms can be easily broken away, thus the structure of metals is a positive metal ions surrounded by a sea of mobile electrons. a. These electrons can move and conduct electricity when they are connected to an electric source. b. Heat energy can also be transferred easily by the mobile electrons. c. Therefore this makes metals good conductors of heat and electricity.

b. Form ionic compounds like metal chlorides/oxides, (Chp 6) c. React with acid to give hydrogen and a salt (Chp 11) d. React with oxygen to form basic oxides or amphoteric oxides (Chp 11) 2. Reaction of metals with water/steam: a. Some metals react with cold water to form the metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas. b. Other less reactive metals react with steam to form metal oxide and hydrogen gas. (Note: Metal oxide is formed as the metal hydroxides thermally decompose (split up on heating) to give the oxide and water) Metal Potassium Sodium Calcium Magnesium Reaction with water/steam Explodes with cold water Reacts very fast with cold water, often explodes Reacts quickly with cold water, producing lots of bubbles Reacts very slowly with cold water, producing a few bubbles of gas after a few days. Reacts violently with steam to produce magnesium oxide and hydrogen gas. No reaction with water, but reacts readily with steam. Hot iron reacts slowly with steam. No reaction.

Zinc Iron

Chapter 14.2: Alloys What are alloys and why are they used?
1. An alloy is a mixture of a metal with one or a few other elements. a. Bronze Alloy of Copper + Tin b. Brass Alloy of Copper + Zinc c. Stainless Steel Alloy of iron, chromium, nickel, carbon. d. Steel Alloy of Iron + Carbon 2. Metals are widely used in the form of alloys as: a. Metals are made harder and stronger. Atoms of the added element have a different size than that of the pure metal, breaking the regular arrangement of atoms and preventing them to slide over easily. b. They improve the appearance of metals. c. They are more resistant to corrosion. d. They are used to lower the melting point of metals, where the second metal acts as an impurity.

Lead, Copper, Silver

3. Reaction of metals with dilute hydrochloric acid: Many metals react with dilute acids to form a salt and hydrogen. a. When hydrochloric acid is used, a metal chloride and hydrogen gas is formed. Metal Reaction with dilute HCl Explosive reaction.

Potassium Sodium Calcium Reacts violently Magnesium Reacts rapidly Zinc Reacts quickly Iron Reacts slowly Lead, Copper, Silver No reaction occurs. Note: PbCl 2 (Lead Chloride) is an insoluble salt. As an insoluble layer of salt will form outside the metal, the reaction will stop halfway. 4. Reduction of Metal Oxides with Carbon a. The reactivity of metals can be compared by studying how easily metal oxides decompose. b. The more reactive a metal is, the more difficult it is to decompose it oxides ± reduce the oxide

Chapter 14.3: Th e Reactivity Series How is the order of reactivity determined?
1. Metals can undergo many reactions, e.g. a. Form positive ions by loss of electrons through oxidation, (Chp 13)

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8. readily it forms compounds. the more reactive metal exists as atoms hereas the less reactive metals exist as metal sulfates/nitrates/ d. i splacement eactions of Metals Sulfates/ i trates) a.e. Iron. aematite contains the mineral Iron III) Oxide. E. Action of eat on Metal Carbonates a. E uation: s) CO2 g) 9 @ 9 8 76 5 ) d A 4 21 3 Q TS R Q PI ( G B A 0 e ' c.g. Predicting the position of an unfamiliar metal in the reactivity series from a given set of experimental results.eated metal oxides are reduced. Iron. sulfides. Oxides are too stable to be reduced. c. ead. Equation: 2Ag2O g) Ag s) O2 g) Metals below carbon ( inc. Adapted from Chemistry atters and Complete ide to evel Chemistry & &% $ C:\ \Chi etal tes. Magnesium inc. he ore contains the metal as an uncombined element/compound known as a mineral. More reactive metals can displace less reactive metals from their solutions. eduction of Metal Oxides ith ydrogen a.  ¡ ¡   … £ ¡ ƒ ‚ . t e more stable t e carbonate. Conclusion: T e more reacti e t e metal. Sodium Calcium. Metals i er up in t e reacti ity series will displace metals lower t an t em) 2+ 2+ b.a. he more reactive the metal is.g. Case Study: Extracti g Iron t t m 9. i nc Iron. hereas unreactive metals tend to stay uncombined. he ionic equation is: M s) Cu aq) e aq) + Cu s) c. ead. the harder it is to extract the metal from its ore. i. eaction bet een a Metal and the Oxide of another Metal a. e. the metal oxide is reduced to pure metal and carbon is oxidi ed to carbon dioxide. q q l q p p Metal Potassium Sodium Calcium. the more reactive the metal the hi her up it is in the Reacti ity Series). Oxides are reduced by carbon. E. the more b. Before the reaction. y } x v v | { z w “ ‡ € ’ € ‘ † € „‚ ‚ ‰ “ ‚ ‰ ‚ƒ ‚ ˆ ’  ” ˆ …  € x 6. ction of eat naffected by heat. E uation: Metal Oxide Steam ecomposes into silver and carbon dioxide upon heating. he more reactive the metal is t e i er up it is in t e Reacti i ty Series). Extracting Overview: Methods of Extracti g Metals. a. b. hese reactions are also redox reactions as the more reactive metal is oxidi ed from to +2) hereas the less reactive metal is reduced from +2 to ) ts v r v Metal Potassium. Predicting the behavior of a metal from its position in the reactivity series b. „    ©  £ ¡ #  # " "!  ¨¦ ¨ ¡  ¡ ¢¥ ©¨§  £¤¦¨ ©¢ ¡ ¢¥©¨§ ¦¥¤ ¡£¢¡  ” ” ” – • 7. Metal Method of extraction Chapter etal )\Chemi try Chapter i hts eserved. ead. Atoms of the more reactive metal become ions and form compounds hereas ions of the less reactive metal change back to metals. ™ hi h h e d f hen a mixt re of metal oxide and carbon is heated. All t \S t \Chemi t S ience)\Chemi t ongman). Copper Silver eacti Oxides are not reduced by carbon. here are 2 main methods for extracting metal from ores. sing the eactivity Series: he eactivity Series is useful for: a. electrol sis) enerally. educing the metal compound ore) to the metal using carbon b. chlorides or carbonates) mixed i th large amounts of earth and rock. sing electricity to decompose the molten metal compound ore) to the metal a. very stable ecompose into metal oxide and carbon dioxide upon heating. met l i e) s) C s) 2M d. Copper Silver m k j q q o h g n c a ` b XT W UV U ED e g C Metal Potassium. A metal ill displace a less reactive metal from its oxide. Magnesium. An ore is a compound of the metal usually t e oxides. Hematite is the ore of iron. Oxides reduced by heating Sil er i e ecompose simpl eati i t out carbon. Compounds hich are higher up in the eactivity Series are more difficult to decompose by heat compared to other compounds as they are more stable. ydrogen Metal b. ydrogen can also be used for reducing metal oxides to metals. namely: a. ™ ™ ˜ to the metal. iron«) are extracted from t eir ores by reduction wit carbon. Copyri ht j\ cx . the more difficult it is to decompose its compounds. Copper Silver eacti eated metal oxides are not reduced Chapter Metals .    ~ € { 2. Sodium Calcium. . t e less li ely t e carbonate will decompose. Magnesium i nc. s q r u q h hp y u w i h f 5.k. Equation: n s) + CuO s) ’ ’ — Chemi Chapter etal i ali ed tes) / / nO s) + Cu s) ) b Y W H F .

the limestone Carbonate is decomposed by heat to Calcium Oxide + produce carbon dioxide and Carbon Dioxide CaCO3 (s) CaO calcium oxide. most iron is converted to steel to make it tougher and stronger than iron. Air and water must be present. C:\Users\Chiamdj\Documents\Secondary 3 Documents\Chemistry (Science)\Chemistry Chapter 14 (Metals)\Chemistry Chapter 14 Metals Notes. Rust occurs when paint bridges disappears Tools. C (s) + O2 (g) CO2 (g) The hot air supplies oxygen for combustion. b. b.docx Copyright © 2010. Firstly. the carbon dioxide Carbon + Carbon rises up the furnace and react Dioxide Carbon with excess coke to form carbon Monoxide monoxide. Using a Protective Layer cars. the carbon monoxide Carbon Monoxide reduces the Iron (III) Oxide in + Iron (III) Oxide Haematite (+3) to iron (0). Iron. Type of Steel High Composition Large Uses Cutting and Special Properties Hard. a. Using alloys: A hard coating of chronomium oxide is formed on stainless steel preventing it from further corrosion. Carbon Dioxide Fe2O3 (s) + 3CO (g) 2Fe (l) + 3CO2 (g) Lastly. b. Silver Gold Electrolysis carbon steel Mild Steel Stainless Steel amounts of carbon Small amounts of carbon Iron. Magnesium. Calcium At the same time. ships as they are more reactive. In the blast furnace. Here is how Iron is extracted from Haematite. iron ore. a.6: Rusting . There are 3 main methods of rust prevention: Using a protective layer. Using a Protective Layer: The layer of substance stops air/water from reaching the metal. C (s) + CO2 (g) 2CO (g) Thirdly. the calcium oxide Calcium Oxide + formed when limestone is Silicon (IV) oxide decomposed is added to the Calcium Silicate molten iron. Acidic substances like sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide also speed up the rusting process. 2. a. (NaCl gives of ions and thus accelerates electron transfer) c. Adapted from Chemistry Matters and Complete Guide to O Level Chemistry (Longman).Chemistry Chapter 14 (Metals) (Finalized Notes) Potassium. Steel ± making involves oxidation and alloying. Sodium Calcium. Sacrificial Protection: A more reactive metal will coorde in place of the metal. Thus. Iron from the blast furnace is weak and brittle. must be machineries renewed Kitchenware Rust occurs if plastic tears Kitchen sinks. It must not be too reactive else it will explode. a. Rust. Hydrated Iron (III) oxide. c. is reddish ± brown.5: Uses of Iron and Steel Overview: Steel as an alloy of iron Painting Oil/Grease Plastic coating Galvanising (zinc plating) Tin ± plating Chrome plating Metal block of zinc/ 1. b. ships Equipment in chemical plants. It is the slow oxidation of iron to form hydrated iron (III) oxide (rust) b. Chapter 14. † Chapter 14. This is highly exothermic. The presence of sodium chloride increases the speed of rusting. Aluminum Zinc. Rusting is the corrosion of iron and steel by air and water. Gathers dust. (s) + CO2 (g) Secondly. Lead. 2. Rust Prevention 1. This is Molten Iron + also a redox reaction. kettles Gives a bright shiny finish as well Using a Sacrificial Metal Underground Magnesium/zinc corrode pipes. limestone. Haematite contains Iron (III) oxide mixed with impurities like sand and clay. Extracting Iron from Haematite a. Different types of steel with different physical properties are made by varying the amount of carbon and by adding different metals. 3. There are certain conditions for rust to occur. All Rights Reserved. Copper. machinery. using a sacrificial metal and alloys. cutlery and surgery instruments (6/3/2010) strong and malleable Strong but brittle Resistant to corrosion Reduction using carbon Found naturally uncombined as metals 4. coke (carbon) and hot air (oxygen) is added. dustbins Food cans Metal doesn¶t rust even if zinc is damaged as it is more reactive than iron Rust occurs if tin disappears taps. ships. It reacts with silicon CaO (s) + SiO2 (s) (IV) oxide and other impurities to CaSiO3 (l) form a molten slag which floats on the iron. Steel is an alloy of iron with carbon and other metals. Carbon + Large amounts of chromium and nickel boring tools (cut hard objects) Car bodies. the carbon in coke burns Carbon + Oxygen in a blast of hot air to produce Carbon Dioxide carbon dioxide. Overview: What is Rustin .

Examples of recycling: a. Aluminum recycled mainly from drink cans/food containers C:\Users\Chiamdj\Documents\Secondary 3 Documents\Chemistry (Science)\Chemistry Chapter 14 (Metals)\Chemistry Chapter 14 Metals Notes. Disadvantages of Recycling: It can cause pollution in the environment. like metal fumes from recycling process. Recycling can be used to make metals last longer. In recycling. All Rights Reserved. b. c. b. and it may be expensive due to transportation costs and costs for sorting and cleaning the metal. 2. The world¶s reserves of raw metals may last longer if: a.docx Copyright © 2010. ‡ Chapter 14. Substitutes are used to replace metals c. 3. Advantages of Recycling: It saves the limited amounts of metals on Earth. saves the cost of extracting new metals from ores. New ore deposits are found b. land can be free for other uses.Chemistry Chapter 14 (Metals) (Finalized Notes) Magnesium Stainless steel Using Alloys Surgical Contain chromium/nickel instruments which doesn¶t rust. Metals are recycled. Iron and Steel recycled from scrap metal. old metal objects are collected and melted down to produce blocks of clean metal which is then used to make objects.7: Recycling Metals ‡ . 4. a. (6/3/2010) Overview: Importance/Advanta es of Recyclin 1. Lead is recovered from car batteries. The amounts of metal on Earth are limited. Adapted from Chemistry Matters and Complete Guide to O Level Chemistry (Longman).

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