/AUTHOR: Jimale Abbas Sheikh Ali

Student registration number: 090

Date: 18/02/2011

AKNOWLEDGEMENT Thanks to Allah who allowed me this opportunity or chance to go for home report work and to gain a lot of experience and interview skills and training also I would have thank to people who was given hand and helped me possible to collect this report such Nadif and seller Hasan Cateye. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE


1.2. Background of study area____________________________________1 CHAPTER TWO

Objectives ________________________________________________2

2.1. METHODOLOGICAL ISUES _________________________________2 2.2. Assessment approach ________________________________________2 CHAPTER THREEE: ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT

3.0. INTRODUCTION__________________________________________3 3.1. Borame milk market ______________________________________3 3.2. Milk market hygine situation ________________________________3 3.3. Borama livestock market ___________________________________4 3.4. Market facilities and prices_________________________________4 3.4.1. Sources of market depend on _______________________________5 3.5. Dynamics of livestock market ________________________________5 3.5.1. Key actors in the livestock markets of the Borame________________6

3.5.2. Ongoing and potential constrains to a livestock traders and producers in Borame _____________________________________________________7 CHAPTER FOUR: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION_________7 4.1. Conclusion _______________________________________________7 4.2. Recommendation __________________________________________7 Annex1-2

1.0. Introduction In holidays stvs students especially second year are sent to individual home report that concerns livestock facilities may found in their capital, regions and districts of Somalia or Somaliland and gain new experiences to livestock sector activities that going on so the places fulfilled this report is Borame milk market, types of milk market and he components of milk market and livestock market ,market infrastructures and the main species traded in the market . 1.2. Background of the study area Borame is the capital city of Awdal province in the northern Somaliland region .in climate is cold because it is surrounded by mountains; most of city population’s lifestyle depends on livestock and farms near the town. The cist’s limited rain fall usually comes in December and may.

Study Area (Borama)

2.0. Objectives The objectives of the home work report were intended as follows  To acquire professional skills in home report before returning from holidays  To improve their skills collecting and processing their data  To obtain individual report

To exercise on knowledge skills and techniques that every students acquired in the past two years course work.

2.1. Methodological issues 2.2. Assessment approach The assessment was conducted between “10 January -10february” by second year students individually by Abbas sheikh Ali Jimale collected from Borama . This was followed by in –depth interview market actors using an interview guide the was collectively developed by Borame, lastly individual author held site visit s to pastoral settlements livestock market and milk market and retail and whole sale premises to collect data main interview were applied on

1. Observation


3. Data collection Activities carried out The activities carried out during the field studies as are flows

Borame milk market

2. Livestock market and key actors in the market

Introduction 3.0.Borame milk market This market locates northern west of the town and it is the largest milk market structure however this market was built by previous Somali socialist government and its not repaired and also after 20 years the market was divided into many parts for almost three sections. Now most of the milk are bought from Somalis region five especially villages such Harawo ,Caracad , khunjed ,Googti by using vehicles that milk are transported to the market. Milk always f available in the market are ; camel milk and cattle milk thought sheep and goat milk rare or not found in the market .most milk are classified according to their quality and time they exist as fresh or sour milk ,fresh milk are expensive than sour milk .

3.1. Milk market Hygiene situation

Sanitation process of the market is poor at prosperous autumn seasons because this is considered that milk market will had remnanants of milk in vessels’ for weeks this may be caused for handling many times in the process of selling to the consumer, in other hand dry seasons is reverse because of scarcity of milk because of many animals had missed for their enough forages or grasses also may be met drought seasons and the milk productivity of may be at lower than the normal production. Now sanitation process is good is good for the sake of milk scarcity and no remnants milk in the market. Challenges of milk market Lack of proper hygiene Lack of milk inspectors Lack of perfect market High taxes 3.3.Borama livestock market The market locates to the northern west part of the Borame town and it was started early 1980 the market has an area about 1.5km2,also has different sections of selling cattle, camel, goat ,sheep .for moment an interview was written there was flock of camels transported to intended vehicle though January has low demand compare to other months these camels are remnants of the last demand that time ended during shipment of livestock going to Berbera port . The table below shows the price and taxes of animal Grades of animals Grade one Grade two Grade three Price per animal $50 $40 $30 Tax per one animal $1 $0.5 $0.4

3.4. Market facilities and prices Now the market has three rooms one for last local government intended to collect money others two were veterinary inspectors that control animals that came the

market to determine healthy or not ,if the animal is unhealthy inspect and prescribe a drug to the owner the market has one water point and two embankments intended transportation, small teashops. Usually the price at the market goes high exporting rate during special occasions like months of Shacban ,the holy month of Ramadan and large festival Idull Adhha and Idul Haj(months October and November ),January and February exporting rate decrease or in the year 2000 the kingdom of Saudia Arabai imposed an import ban on all livestock and livestock products from Somalia in response to health risks related to epizootic rift valley .the ban lasted 10 years until September 2009 affecting local economies and causing changes in livestock marketing , this ban prosecuted ever below the graph to the Somalis expotorer,pastorolists and agro pastoralists or unemployment.

3.4.1. Sources of the market Most of the animals localy consumed and export come fromsoround villages and what is called land of Somalis region five in such districts especially Harta sheikh, eastern wajale .although some oxen are fatenfor commercial purpose. The price of the market is affected by several factors like demand of consumers and body condition of the animal. However Cross border livestock trade is seem to be getting back to a high percentage after it has been removed livestock ban so these exports took place despite restrictions and and military operations along Somali Ethiopian border or region five that continued to effect the flow of commercial imports.

3.5. Dynamics of livestock market Livestock production and trade contribute directly or indirect to a livelihood of many house hold Somalis not only Borame economics and employment in every day. Though slight drought affected surrounding villages of livestock, the most dominant animals traded include sheep, goat, camel, cattle. Borame is one of the

rarely regions of Somaliland obtained cattle so livestock trade in this region has changed from livestock subsistence society. 3.5.1. Key actors in the livestock markets of the Borame The following market actors can be identified in livestock markets of the Borame: (a) Small scale (petty) traders: Petty traders include the ‘Gedisley’ and the ‘Gadley’. The Gedisley are traders who buy animals from producers in one market and sell them to another market in order to exploit price differentials between the two markets. The Gedisley may also try to add value to purchased animals through supplementary feeding and treatment. Many traders who are described as Gedisley operate at a local level, moving animals from village markets to larger markets in the same district or region or even larger markets in other regions or across international borders. On the other hand, a Gadley is a small‐scale livestock trader who buys animals at low cost in a market and then sells them later at a profit in the same market, usually a district market. Similar to the Gedisley, a Gadley may also try to add value to the purchased animals through supplementary grazing and feeding, or by offering treatment for health problems. (b) Agents of exporters: Agents are market participants who supply animals in response to orders or requests from actors further up the supply chain. They source and transfer animals on behalf of their clients from smaller markets to larger markets within a country or across borders based on an established rapport and trust. In some cases, agents may also act independently by using their funds and thus trading as Gedisley in addition to their role as agents. (c) Exporters: Exporters are traders who act as the final link in the chain between the local livestock marketing system and the importing country. They assemble livestock from different regions of Somaliland (including those procured from across Borders) and transport them to destination countries and arrange for their sale. (d) Brokers: Brokers, also known as the ‘Dilaal’ or ‘Dallaal’, are a central feature of livestock marketing in Borame . They are based in main markets and play a pivotal role in all transactions that are concluded in these markets. Brokers facilitate exchange between other traders, and are involved in every transaction in the market. Price is arrived at through bargaining between a buyer and seller through the facilitation of a broker. Besides facilitating exchange, brokers play the important role of guaranteeing that the livestock being traded is not stolen. Other actors include livestock producers, traders’ associations (Chambers of Commerce), veterinary departments, and port authorities.

3.5.2. Ongoing and potential constrains to a livestock traders and producers in Borama Livestock trade is the main economic activity and crucial source of income for pastoral population in this region. The cross border trade near Borame has survived periods of high political instability and uncertainly concerns because some of the perennial constrains to livestock trade in the region include political instability in the region five, stringent regulations on livestock movement in Ethiopia poor veterinary services and informal livestock trade across the border is still illegal in Ethiopia. However producer in who bring their animals in livestock Borame are faced these constrains that we mentioned above except producers in Borame surrounding villages. 5.0. Conclusion and Recommendation 5.1. Conclusion Home holidays were very interesting to every one of the students in Stvs but this report was send to second year student because it promoted the capacity preparing of home report that concerned livestock facilities those are available to their home land . This is my first time to visit many different Borama livestock market and its actors and milk market .conclusion from these activities carried out in Borama may be summarized as follows The market there is lack of insufficient shades also veterinarian effort is weak In the milk market sellers’ challenges are high and also taxes is high though dry seasons milk market of the province most depend on Somalis region five under control of Ethiopian government. 5.2. Recommendation In addition to my conclusion in the process of recommendation as follows

The local government should restrict the usage of plastic bags for entire environment and especially livestock market grassing areas To encourage the community volunteer tasks such to build milk market and improve livestock market

 To allocate number of specialized veterinary officers those would be on punctual

To give hand for cross border livestock producers, in order to bring their animals and products freely.

Milk market materials used for transportation

veterinarians inspection center in Borama

Reference Internet livestock facilities HOA (horn of Africa) Books Interview data