CHINA (PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA) Zhongguo or Middle Kingdom -20x larger than Philippines -1/4 of Asia 9562904 km -N:Siberia and

Mongolia, S: China Sea, E: Pacific Ocean, W:Tibet -Beijing: Capital, Seat of Imperial power -Shanghai: business and commerce center, de-facto business capital -Parts, China Proper (mainland and 18 provinces), outlying territories of Manchuria Sinkiang and Tibet PEOPLE: Yellow Race, 1.2 billion pop. -china descended from Yuanmo-ancestor of modern man -Peking Man settled in Huang Ho Valley(yellow river) -Shang=Huang Ho people -Mixture of Han, Mongol, Miao, Tartar, Tibetan RELIGION:Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism LANG: CHINESE, Standard mandarin. 50k Chinese characters Philosophy began in China. Chinese Philosophers from Zhon Dynasty: Confucius(Kung Fu-tze) name, revered/respected, teacher. Lao Tzufounder of Taoism, Mencius-greatest disciple of Confucious. HISTORY -Middle Kingdom=Center of the World -europeans called it China from Chin dynasty -Westerners in asia after 18th C Industrial Revolution CHINESE DYNASTIES XIA HSIA DYNASTY (2205-1766 BC) EMPEROR YU -1st dynasty -Ch’eng T’ang protected the nobles -Shang priests made sacrifices -Diviners wrote questions on bones and turtle shells -bronze vessels were made; wheel came into use

-Chou Hsin=incompetent, wicked, last emperor SHANG DYNASTY(1766-1122 BC) -advanced writing system -bronze, metallurgy -1st Chinese calendar and cities -Shang-Ti was a powerful God CHOU DYNASTY of ZHOU DYNASTY (1207-771 BC) -CHO KING (son of heaven) exercised fearless political and military power over their VASSAL (land holder in return for services) -time of enormous intellectual development -China’s oldest surviving literatureChinese classics -China’s golden age of philosophy -LONGEST RULING DYNASTY -FEUDALISM- European Medieval Social and Economic system which land was worked by serfs and held by vassals in exchange for military and other services -Civil service system improved bureaucracy CHIN (QIN) DYNASTY (221-206 BC) SHOH HUANG TI (1st Sovereign Emperor) -Chine derived its name from this dynasty -Philosophy with pragmatic aspect (result oriented) -Great Wall of China was built to strengthen the northern frontier walls as a form of defense to keep TARTARS out -LIU PANG, farmer, overthrew the weak ruler and founded the HAN DYNASTY HAN DYNASTY (206 BC-221 AD) LIU PANG, EMPEROR WU TI(martial emperor) -brought strength and prosperity to China -Emperor Wu Ti waged war against nomadic HSIUNG-NU tribes in the North and gained control of the SILK ROAD(Xian to Tyre) -SEISMOGRAPH was invented -BUDDHISM was introduced this time -END: political corruption and over taxation to farmers SUI DYNASTY (590-618 AD) -brief rule of 2 emperors

lyric poetry known as Cisubtle expression of landscapes -painting. grandson. wealth. established the capital at Peking(Beijiing) and founded the YUAN DYNASTY -THE POLOS. way of life -civil war ended Mongol rule MING DYNASTY (1368-1644)-Brilliant CHU-YUAN-CHANG -Institutionalized Totalitarianism -Flogging(whipping) of high officials became practice -China became the Ministers of the Orient Seas MANCHU or CH’ING DYNASTY (16501911) TAITSUNG -area greater than former dynasty -trade was the source of conflict bet the West -end of Bristish West Indian Company. destruction of Opium trade -end of Ching Dynasty led to establishment of the Republican . capitalism. world’s first printed book -TU FU. emphasis was placed on spiritual rather than emotional elements -KUNGU-the oldest extant form of Chines opera -Zhao Mengfu-Chinese landscape printing -Yuan dynasty opera=Cantonese opera -MING dynasty-Gao Qi-greatest poet of the era -QING dynasty-Bejing opera was introduced -Qing poetry-Yuan Mei-unusually clear and elegant language -Chinese painting(guoha) -Paifang is a Feng Shui designed gate of China town SUNG DYNASTY (900-1280 AD) GENERAL CHAO KUANGYIN -New age of prosperity -beginning of Modern China -early trade with Philippines -foot-binding MONGOL RULE/YUAN DYNASTY GENGHIS KHAN/KUBLAI KHAN -centralized government from Pacific to Western Christendom in Poland -Kublai Khan. feudalism. communist takeover -Past History of China built on a Marxist model of progression= slavery. greatest poet -LI YIAN. wrote a book presenting fascinating stories of wonders. greatest poetress Government in China – spearheaded by SUN-YAT-SEN and CHANG-KAI-SHEK -END: Emperor HENRY PU YI abdicated throne and led an ordinary life CHINESE SAW THEIR DOMAIN AS SELFSUFFICIENT CENTER of the UNIVERSE =precursor of the name ZHOUNGUO (MIDDLE KINGDOM OR CENTRAL NATION) -1911. Venetian Merchants. two-millenia old imperial government was brought down -1949.-responsible for the reconstruction of the Great wall of China -laid the foundation of Tang Dynasty TANG DYNASTY (618-906 AD) In Xian by LI YUAN -greatest dynasty that ruled CHINA -border from Korea to the borders of Persia -Ch’ang-an (Sian).BUDDHIST architecture and sculpture -TANG dynasty open to foreign influence -TANG considered as the Golden Age of Chinese poetry and Chinese opera was introduced -greatest Chinese poets: Li Po and Tu Fu -Song dynasty. Capital City -period of Buddhism -DIAMOND SUTRA. and socialism -Historiography was subordinated to working class (proletarian) -Cultural Revolution altered the objectivity of historians ARTS Imperial China-porcelain was introduced -Chinese poets: Cao Cao and Tao Qian -calligraphy and painting -work done on silk until invention of paper -SUI and TANG dynasty.

Lang:Niponggo -4. rice farming. and Cultural capital -SHIKOKU-smallest and least populated -KYUSHU-southernmost -OKINAWA-farthest of Japan’s region Original inhabitant of Japan-AINUS -intermarriages of Ainus and Mongolians and Malays RELIGION: Shinto-national and expresses love and respect for nature. iron and bronze making brought by immigrants -development of social hierarchy in small countries or KUNI -country of Yamataoikoku and unification of 30 smaller tribes ruled by shaman queen HIMIKO -Book of Wei-records people whose physical descriptions… ANCIENT and CLASSICAL JAPAN Yamato polity-main ruling power in Japan KOFUN period-defined by a tumulusbuilding cultue Key-hole shaped tumuli=KOFUN ASUKA period-time in w/c the capital was in Asuka near present-day Nara -contact between Backje Kingdomsouthern Korea and Yamato state -intro of Buddhism to Japan from Backje people and military support from Yamato to Backje -replaced by Tang Dynasty during the Nara period w/c introduced centralized imperial gov’t. Buddhism JAPANESE lang: Nihonggo. Honshu(L).south. latin alphabet. W:sea of Japan -TOHOKU-economically depressed area. shamanism. aesthetics ad religion KOFUN PERIOD -named after the burial mounds (KOFUN) -establishment of strong military states -establishment of dominant polity in Yamato LEGENDS IN TWO ANCIENT BOOKS -KOJIKI (record of ancient matters) -NIHONGI (Chronicles of Japan) -say that the country was created by the gods JAPAN Nippon=source of the Sun -GOvt: Parliamentary Democracy. Sendai-largest city in Northern Honshu -CHUBU-most populated region -KANTO-political and economic centers of Japan -CHUFOKU. E: P. Sanyo (Sunny Side). used in modern Japanese JAPAN HISTORY -KANTO-Preceramic Paleolithic sites-stone tools have been found -Tokugawa Shogunate(military dictatorship)-long period of Isolation from foreign influence -Treaty of Kanagawa bet USA opened its ports=industrialization and modernization PRE-HISTORY . 4 main: Hokkaido. Shikoku.O. agglutinative language -combination of 3 kinds of scripts -KANJI (Chinese script) -HIRAGANA -KATAKANA (2-syllabic scripts) -ROMAJI.-Chinese opera-Tang Dynasty-Emperor Xuanzong -Pear Garden-1st known opera troupe in China=Disciples of the Pear Garden JOMON PERIOD -Jomon=patterns of plaited cord -Ainu descended from Jomon period -people lived in wood stilt house and engaged In rudimentary or crude form of agriculture using chipped stones for tools -worship Bear(Kuma) -unearthed pottery and figures YAYOI PERIOD -introduction of Rice agriculture -influx of weaving.. Sanin (Shady side) -KINKI-2nd most populous. Kyushu -N : sea of Okhotsk.233 islands.

-Nara became the the first permanent capital -political developments were limited HEIAN PERIOD -final period of Classical Japanese history -peak of the Japanese imperial court -The Tale of Genji-the world’s oldest surviving novel By Lady Murasaki -KANA. military. and judicial matters controlled by the BUSHI class -Shogun. founded the unbroken line of kings that ruled Japan to the present. de facto ruler -Taira and Minamoto families struggled for power -defeat of the Taira. emperor Antoku was drowned -Yoritomo. with divine origin -TENNO. ASUKA PERIOD -proto-japanese Yamato polity gradually became a clearly centralized state applying a code of governing laws such as TAIKA reform and TAIHO codes -Prince Shotoku devoted his efforts to spread Buddhism and Chinese culture -credited with bringing peace to Japan through the proclamation of JUSHICHIJO KENPO-17 article constitution -first uses the word NIHON as a name for the emerging state NARA PERIOD -1st emergence of a strong Japanese state -Imperial rescript by Empress Genmei the move of the Capital to Heijo-kyo (NARA) -modelled on the capital Chinese Tang dynasty. gained the title “shogun”-barbarian subduing general -KAMAKURA SHOGUNATE established by Minamoto -BUSHIDO-samurai code-way of the warrior called for discipline. indigenous writing system -FUJIWARAS ruled under the titles SESSHO and KAMPAKU (regents) -civil war emerged a society led by samurai clans under the rule of a SHOGUN FEUDAL JAPAN -powerful regional families (daimyo) -military rule of warlords (shogun) -emperor remain as the de jure figurehead KAMAKURA PERIOD -Japanese medieval era -civil. divine wind is credited with devastating Mongol invasion -Mongol repercussions=extinction of Kamakura shogunates\ -Muromachi period to Meiji restoration MUROMACHI PERIOD -governance of Ashikaga/Muromachi Shogunate -established by Ashikaga Takauji who seized political power from emperor GoDaigo ending Kemmu restoration -last shogun Ashikaga Yoshiaki was driven out of the capital by Oda Nobunaga -also known as Nanboku-cho= 2 Imperial courts -later. and JEWEL=the symbols of imperial authority -JIMMU TENNO-75 year reign. hara-kui or “belly-slitting” -Mongol invasion=traumatic event -Kamikaze-famous typhoon. Chang’an. official name of Japanese emperors -MIRROR. Minamoto leader. SENGOKU PERIOD=WARRING STATES PERIOD -intense internal warfare -arrival of Portuguese Nanban traders -Battle of Nagashino AZUCHI-MOMOYAMA PERIOD -marks the military unification and stabilization -campaign of Oda Nobunaga achieved later by Gen Toyotomi Hideyoshi -name came from Azuchi castle and Momoyama castle .-Sun goddess AMATERASU semt her grandson Prince NINIGHI to rule Japan -JIMMU TENNO descended from this royal line -Jimmu. SWORD. legendary sovereign (tenno)-first emperor of Japan. and selfcontrol on and off the battlefield -Dishonor=SEPPUKU or ritual suicide. duty.

tighter restrictions. expelled traders -Will Adams. Saratoga. Susquehanna -Perry returned to establish the Treaty of Peace and Amity at the Convention of Kanagawa MEIJI RESTORATION -renewed contact with the west -Emperor meiji initiated many reforms -feudal system was abolished -Meiji Constitution: Western legal system.-Hideyoshi invaded Korea -Tokugawa Ieyasu emerged victorious at the Battle of Sekigahara EDO PERIOD -200 daimyo -Tokugawa clan -samurai clans above the commoners -Boshin war=shogunate collapsed SECLUSION POLICY -Tokugawa Shogunate -Tokugawa Iyeyasu disliked foreigners. and a quasi-parliamentary constitutional gov’t WARS with CHINA and RUSSIA -line of advantage -Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War d/t tensions over Korea and Manchuria -Japan=dominant power in the Far East . Mississippi. Tokugawa’s adviser in navigation -SHOGUN DYEMITSU-issued the Seclusion Decree -400 years END: Commodore Matthew Perry brought the BLACK SHIPS(kurofune). Plymouth.