Preface

(iii)

SYMBOLS

= ! 1 # 2 $ . j k U d z 1 3 Y 1 M

equal to not equal to less than less than or equal to greater than greater than or equal to equavalent to union intersection universal Set belongs to does not belong to proper subset of subset of or is contained in not a proper subset of not a subset of or is not contained in complement of A empty set or null set or void set

T N R W Z 3 + = || ( ` a

symmetric difference natural numbers real numbers whole numbers integers triangle angle perpendicular to parallel to implies therefore since (or) because absolute value approximately equal to congruent

-

| (or) : such that / (or) , / r ! Y identically equal to pi plus or minus end of the proof

Al (or) A c Q (or) { } n(A)

number of elements in the set A

P(A) power set of A P(A) probability of the event A

(iv)

CONTENT
1. THEORY OF SETS
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Introduction Description of Sets Representation of a Set Different kinds of Sets Set Operations Representation of Set Operations using Venn Diagram

1-32
1 1 3 7 17 25

2.

REAL NUMBER SYSTEM
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Introduction Decimal Representation of Rational Numbers Irrational Numbers Real Numbers Surds Four Basic Operations on Surds Rationalization of Surds Division Algorithm

33-65
33 36 43 44 53 56 60 63

3.

SCIENTIFIC NOTATIONS OF REAL NUMBERS AND LOGARITHMS
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Scientific Notation Converting Scientific Notation to Decimal Form Logarithms Common Logarithms

66-88
66 69 71 80

4.

ALGEBRA
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Introduction Algebraic Expressions Polynomials Remainder Theorem Factor Theorem Algebraic Identities Factorization of Polynomials Linear Equations Linear Inequations in One Variable

89-123
89 89 90 96 99 101 107 116 121

5.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY
5.1 5.2 5.3 Introduction Cartesian Coordinate System Distance between any Two Points

124-142
124 125 133

(v)

6.

TRIGONOMETRY
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Introduction Trigonometric Ratios Trigonometric Ratios of Some Special Angles Trigonometric Ratios for Complementary Angles Method of using Trigonometric Tables

143-163
143 143 149 154 157

7.

GEOMETRY
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Introduction Geometry Basics Quadrilateral Parallelograms Circles

164-183
164 165 169 170 174

8.

MENSURATION
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Introduction Sectors Cubes Cuboids

184-199
184 185 193 195

9.

PRACTICAL GEOMETRY
9.1 9.2 9.3 Introduction Special line segments within Triangles The Points of Concurrency of a Triangle

200-212
200 201 205

10.

GRAPHS
10.1 Introduction 10.2 Linear Graph 10.3 Application of Graphs

213-220
213 213 217

11.

STATISTICS
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 Introduction Graphical Representation of Frequency Distribution Mean Median Mode

221-246
221 221 228 237 242

12.

PROBABILITY
12.1 12.1 12.3 12.4 Introduction Basic Concepts and Definitions Classification of Probability Probability - An Empirical Approach

247-262
247 248 250 250

(vi)

Theory of Sets

THEORY OF SETS
No one shall expel us from the paradise that Cantor has created for us - DaVID HILBert

Main Targets
● ● ● ● ● ● To describe a set To represent sets in descriptive form, set builder form and roster form To identify different kinds of sets To understand and perform set operations To use Venn diagrams to represent sets and set operations To use the formula involving problems GeorG Cantor (1845-1918)

n (A , B) simple word

The basic ideas of set theory were developed by the German mathematician Georg Cantor (1845-1918). He worked on certain kinds of infinite series particularly on Fourier series. Most mathematicians accept set theory as a basis of modern mathematical analysis. Cantor’s work was fundamental to the later investigation of Mathematical logic.

1.1

Introduction

the concept of set is vital to mathematical thought and is being used in almost every branch of mathematics. In mathematics, sets are convenient because all mathematical structures can be regarded as sets. Understanding set theory helps us to see things in terms of systems, to organize things into sets and begin to understand logic. In chapter 2, we will learn how the natural numbers, the rational numbers and the real numbers can be defined as sets. In this chapter we will learn about the concept of set and some basic operations of set theory.

1.2

Description of Sets

We often deal with a group or a collection of objects, such as a collection of books, a group of students, a list of states in a country, a collection of coins, etc. Set may be consider of as a mathematical way of representing a collection or a group of objects.
1

Chapter 1

Key Concept

Set

A set is a collection of well-defined objects. The objects of a set are called elements or members of the set. The main property of a set in mathematics is that it is well-defined. This means that given any object, it must be clear whether that object is a member (element) of the set or not. the objects of a set are all distinct, i.e., no two objects are the same. Which of the following collections are well-defined? (1) (2) (3) (4) the collection of male students in your class. the collection of numbers 2, 4, 6, 10 and 12. the collection of districts in tamil nadu. the collection of all good movies.

(1), (2) and (3) are well-defined and therefore they are sets. (4) is not well-defined because the word good is not defined. Therefore, (4) is not a set. Generally, sets are named with the capital letters A, B, C, etc. the elements of a set are denoted by the small letters a, b, c, etc. Reading Notation ! ‘is an element of’ or ‘belongs to’

If x is an element of the set A, we write x ! A . g ‘is not an element of’ or ‘does not belong to’

If x is not an element of the set A, we write x g A . For example, Consider the set A = "1, 3, 5, 9 , . 1 is an element of A, written as 1 ! A 3 is an element of A, written as 3 ! A 8 is not an element of A, written as 8 g A
2

. For example. A Solution (i) 3 ! A ( a 3 is an element of A) (ii) 7 g A ( a 7 is not an element of A) (iii) 0 g A ( a 0 is not an element of A) (iv) 2 ! A ( a 2 is an element of A) 1.. 4. A (iii) 0 . A (ii) 7 .1 Let A = "1... 5.3 Representation of a Set a set can be represented in any one of the following three ways or forms. (i) (ii) (iii) the set of all natural numbers... This is known as the Descriptive form of specification... (i) (ii) (iii) Descriptive Form Set-Builder Form or rule Form roster Form or tabular Form 1. 3 . 2. A (iv) 2 .. 6 . the description must allow a concise determination of which elements belong to the set and which elements do not.. ..Theory of Sets Example 1. Fill in the blank spaces with the appropriate symbol ! or g ... the set of all letters in the english alphabets. (i) 3 .....3.... 3. the set of all prime numbers less than 100.1 Descriptive Form Key Concept Descriptive Form one way to specify a set is to give a verbal description of its elements...

(i) (ii) rk Let A be the set of even natural numbers less than 11.Chapter 1 1. e }. . 1. (element F is listed twice) (iii) In a roster form the elements in a set can be written in anY order. 6.2 Set-Builder Form or Rule Form Key Concept Set-Builder Form Set-builder notation is a notation for describing a set by indicating the properties that its members must satisfy. 1.3.3. F. F. In roster form we write A = ". O.1 # x 1 5 . (not all elements are listed) "C. O. Reading Notation ‘|’or ‘:’ We read it as “a is the set of all x such that x is a letter in the word CHennaI” For example. "C. E . 4 . 4. A={ C. 4. For example.3 Roster Form or Tabular Form Key Concept Roster Form Listing the elements of a set inside a pair of braces { } is called the roster form. E . P = " x : x is a prime number less than 100 . Let A be the set of letters in the word “CoFFee”. So. F. In roster form we write A = "2.1. o. i. 10 .e. 0. 3. By convention. in roster form of the set A the following are invalid. the elements in a set should not be repeated. 8. such that a = " x : x is a letter in the word CHENNAI . R a em (i) (ii) In roster form each element of the set must be listed exactly once. (i) (ii) (iii) N = " x : x is a natural number . A = " x : x is a letter in the English alphabet . A = " x : x is an integer and . 2.

Hence in roster form A = {1. e. 9. 13. 64} Solution (i) the set of all positive integers which are multiples of 7 in roster form is {7. 8} 5 . Set . (v) ellipsis can be used only if enough information has been given so that one can figure out the entire pattern. each of them represents the same set (iv) If there are either infinitely many elements or a large finite number of elements. So. then three consecutive dots called ellipsis are used to indicate that the pattern of the listed elements continues. as in "5.Theory of Sets the following are valid roster form of the set containing the elements 2. the set contains the elements 1. 5. 13. 4. 11. 9. the set of all prime numbers less than 20. 19} Example 1. 2. 17. 3. 4. 6. "2. i. Representation of sets in Different Forms Descriptive Form the set of all vowels in english alphabet the set of all odd positive integers less than or equal to 15 the set of all perfect cube numbers between 0 and 100 Example 1. 7. 3. 3. 28. 7.Builder Form { x : x is a vowel in the english alphabet} { x : x is an odd number and 0 1 x # 15 } { x : x is a perfect cube number and 0 1 x 1 100 } Roster Form {a. 3 . 2 . 8. "2. . or "3. 21. 4. 11. 2. 12. 6. 3 and 4. g. 8. g . 3. 5. 6. 3. 6.3 Write the set A = { x : x is a natural number # 8} in roster form. 7. 15} {1. 5. 15. 5. 4 . 60 . 14. 7. "4.g} (ii) the set of all prime numbers less than 20 in roster form is {2.2 List the elements of the following sets in roster form: (i) (ii) the set of all positive integers which are multiples of 7. o. Solution A = { x : x is a natural number # 8 }. u} {1. 7. 27. 3.

5 . Example 1. 1.4 Cardinal Number Key Concept Cardinal Number the number of elements in a set is called the cardinal number of the set. 1.1. 3. n ! N . thursday. 6.. 5}.4 represent the following sets in set-builder form (i) (ii) X = {Sunday. (i) (ii) A = {x : x is a prime factor of 12} B = {x : x ! W. 1 . tuesday. 1 . 1 . 4. the denominators of the elements are 1. g 2 3 4 5 ` the set-builder form is A = $ x : x = 1 . 1 . 4. 4.Chapter 1 Example 1. ` the cardinal number of A is 7 i. n (A) = 7 . For example. 2. B = {0. Saturday} A = $1. 1 . 3. 0. 2.3. 1 . tuesday. 3} and hence n(A) = 2. Consider that the set A = #. the set B has six elements and hence n(B) = 6 . Hence in set builder form. Friday. the set A has 7 elements. Monday. thursday. So. Reading Notation n(A) number of elements in the set A the cardinal number of the set A is denoted by n(A). 3. g . Wednesday. 3. 6 Solution (i) Factors of 12 are 1. x # 5} We write the set A in roster form as A = {2. 2. x # 5} .5 Find the cardinal number of the following sets. 3. 4. Saturday} the set X contains all the days of a week. 2. (ii) B = {x : x ! W. g . In tabular form.e. 1 . the prime factors of 12 are 2. Wednesday. 1 . we write X = {x : x is a day in a week} (ii) A = $1. . Monday. 2 3 4 5 Solution (i) X = {Sunday. Friday. n 1. 12..

1 # x # 2 }.4 Different Kinds of Sets Key Concept Empty Set 1. A = { } and n(A) = 0. X = {.4.2 Finite Set Key Concept Finite Set If the number of elements in a set is zero or finite. (i) Consider the set A of natural numbers between 8 and 9. For example. 2} and n(X) = 4 ` X is a finite set Note The cardinal number of a finite set is finite 7 .4. So. there is no natural numbers between 8 and 9. then the set is called a finite set.. ` A is a finite set (ii) Consider the set X = {x : x is an integer and .Theory of Sets 1.1 The Empty Set a set containing no elements is called the empty set or null set or void set. there are no natural numbers which are less than 1. 0. Reading Notation Q or { } empty set or null set or Void set the empty set is denoted by the symbol Q or { } For example. Consider the set A = # x : x < 1. ` A ={ } Note Think and Answer ! What is n (Q) ? the concept of empty set plays a key role in the study of sets just like the role of the number zero in the study of number system. x ! N .1 . 1. 1.

3 Infinite Set Key Concept Infinite Set A set is said to be an infinite set if the number of elements in the set is not finite.4. x ! N } B = {x : x is an even prime number} the set of all positive integers greater than 50. W = {0. 52..Chapter 1 1. 10. Consider the set A = {x : x is an integer and 1 < x < 3}. Example 1. A = { 2 } i. a has only one element ` A is a singleton set 8 . 53. then X = {51. .. 2. Solution (i) A = {x : x is a multiple of 5. For example. the only even prime number is 2 ` B = { 2 } and hence B is a finite set. g } The set of all whole numbers contain infinite number of elements ` W is an infinite set Note The cardinal number of an infinite set is not a finite number. 3. (ii) B = {x : x is even prime numbers}.} ` X is an infinite set. e..4. (iii) Let X be the set of all positive integers greater than 50.} ` A is an infinite set. Let W = the set of all whole numbers.. 1. 20.. 1. . x ! N } = {5..6 State whether the following sets are finite or infinite (i) (ii) (iii) A = {x : x is a multiple of 5.4 Singleton Set Key Concept Singleton Set a set containing only one element is called a singleton set For example. i. e. 15.

5. A and B are equivalent if n(A) = n(B).6 Equal Sets Key Concept Equal Sets ` A. the null set Q the set having the null set as its only element {Q } the set having zero as its only element { 0 } (i) (ii) (iii) 1. two sets A and B. 10 } and B = { 3. 11 }. otherwise the sets are said to be unequal.5 Equivalent Set Key Concept Equivalent Set two sets A and B are said to be equivalent if they have the same number of elements In other words.4. 9 . In other words. 8. For example. are said to be equal if (i) every element of A is also an element of B and (ii) every element of B is also an element of A. regardless of order.B two sets A and B are said to be equal if they contain exactly the same elements. Here n(A) = 4 and n(B) = 4 1.4. 6. Reading Notation . Reading Notation = ! equal When two sets A and B are equal we write A = B. 9. we write A ! B .Theory of Sets m Re ark It is important to recognise that the following sets are not equal. equivalent A and B are equivalent is written as A c B Consider the sets A = { 7. not equal When they are unequal.

4. c } Set A and set B contain exactly the same elements ` A = B Note If two sets A and B are equal.Chapter 1 For example. 14} Since A and B have exactly the same elements. d } and B = { d. 6. c. x ! N and x # 14 } State whether A = B or not. 8. x ! N and x # 14 } In roster form. B = {2. then n(A) = n(B). 4.7 Subset Key Concept Subset a set A is a subset of set B if every element of A is also an element of B. A = B 1. 6. In symbol we write A 3 B Reading Notation 3 is a subset of (or) is contained in read A 3 B as ‘A is a subset of B’ or ‘A is contained in B’ M is not a subset of (or) is not contained in read A M B as ‘A is not a subset of B’ or ‘A is not contained in B’ For example. 4. 9.4. if n(A) = n(B). 10 } 10 . 12. But. 6.7 Let A = {2. 10. 14} and B = {x : x is a multiple of 2. 10. 12. 14} and B = {x : x is a multiple of 2. 8. 9} and B = { 7. a. Consider the sets A = {7. 10. b. then A and B need not be equal thus equal sets are equivalent but equivalent sets need not be equal Example 1. 12. 8. b. 8. Solution A = {2. Consider the sets A = { a. 8.

A 3 B . thus Q 3 {a. 8} and B = { 5. 11 .4.e. 7. the converse is also true i. but the relations x = {x} and x 3 {x} are not correct. then A = B.. 7.e. 1. In symbol we write A 1 B . (iii) the empty set Q is a proper subset of every set except itself (Q has no proper subset). but Q ! {a. 8 } every element of A is also an element of B and A ! B ` A is a proper subset of B m Re ark (i) Proper subsets have atleast one element less than its superset (ii) no set is a proper subset of itself. the notation A 3 B means A is a subset of B. c} is true. Consider the sets A = {5.e. if A = B then A 3 B and B 3 A every set (except Q ) has atleast two subsets. Q and the set itself. Q 3 A .e. 6. Note (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) every set is a subset of itself i. i. ` A is a subset of B. A is a proper subset of B For example. B is called super set of A.Theory of Sets We see that every element of A is also an element of B.. It is true that x ! {x}.8 Proper Subset Key Concept Proper Subset a set A is said to be a proper subset of set B if A 3 B and A ! B . i. Reading Notation 1 is a proper subset of read A 1 B as. A 3 A for any set A the empty set is a subset of any set i. the notation x ! A denotes x is an element of A. c} is not true. Q 1A if A is a set other than Q (iv) It is important to distinguish between ! and 3. b.e. for any set A If A 3 B and B 3 A . b.

5.{8. 6. 8} Solution (a) {4. 11. 5. So. c} -----. 6. 5. the element 14 belongs to {8. 11. 7. 13} 3 {8. 1. 11. 5. we can also place 1 in the blank. 7} is also an element of {4. b. can be placed in each blank to make a true statement. c. 8}. g} Example 1. c} ----.9 Decide whether 1. e. (a) {4. b} and hence they are equal. b} So.{4.4. 8} (b) the element a belongs to {a. 5. 13} is proper subset of {8. So. 5. b.8 Write 3 or M in each blank to make a true statement.13.11. {a. 11. Reading Notation P(A) Power set of A the power set of a set A is denoted by P(A) 12 . c} is not a proper subset of {a. 3 or both. 11. 7. 6. 13} is also an element in the set {8. 6. f. f. g} So. 11. 13.11. 13.Chapter 1 Example 1. 7. 8} Since every element of {4. place 3 in the blank. c. 5. c} is also an element of {a. c. 13. 14} also. f. 7} 3 {4. 13. 7. b. 13} ----. e.{b. g} Solution (i) every element of the set {8. 13} 1 {8.{4. b. 14} {a. 7} ----. b. b. c} M {b. 14}. 6. c} but not to {b. 13} ` {8. place M in the blank ` {a. (i) (ii) {8. 14} the set of all subsets of A is said to be the power set of the set A. b} Hence we can only place 3 in the blank. place 3 in the blank ` {8.{a. ` {4. 14} (ii) every element of {a. 7} ----.9 Power Set Key Concept Power Set (b) {a. 13. 6. 11. 5. 11. c. 11. 6. 6. 11. 14} but does not belong to {8. ` {8.

{4}.1 13 . {6}. {6}. {5}. 5}} Solution A = {3. 6. "3 . 7} this information is shown in the following table number of elements number of subsets 0 1 = 20 1 2 = 21 2 4 = 22 3 8 = 23 this table suggests that as the number of elements of the set increases by one. Example 1.3}. 4} . ""4. {7}. 4} .3. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) the set A = Q has only itself as a subset the set A = {5} has subsets Q and {5} the set A = {5. 7}. "3 . Let A = {. Let us find a rule to tell how many subsets are there for a given finite set. 5}} ` P (A) = "Q. 6} the set A = {5. 6}. 7} has subsets Q. the number of subsets doubles. ""4. then the power set of A is P (A) = "Q..Theory of Sets For example. {4.3}. {5. 5}} the subsets of A are Q. {. 5}} . i. {6. {5. the number of subsets in each case is a power of 2.. {4. 5 . 6} has subsets Q. n (A) = m & n [P (A)] = 2 m ` The number of proper subsets of a set with m elements is 2 m . Number of Subsets of a Finite Set For a set containing a very large number of elements.. 7} and {5.. {4. thus we have the following generalization The number of subsets of a set with m elements is 2 m the 2m subsets includes the given set itself. {4.. {3.3. {. 6.10 Write down the power set of A = {3. {. {3. 5 . {5}.3. {4}. {5.e. it is difficult to find the number of subsets of the set. {. 4 } the subsets of A are Q..

4. 5.A (v) 7 ----. 6. Hence. 12. 4. 12.1 = 256 . 14} Solution (i) A = {3.1 1. 4. 3.1 = 255 the number of proper subsets = 25 . 5. Insert the appropriate symbol ! or g in the blank spaces (i) (iv) 0 ----. 4. 7} (ii) A = {1. (ii) A = {1.1 = 31 Exercise 1. 6. Write the following sets in roster form (i) (ii) A = {x : x ! N. 5. n (A) = 5 . 1. the collection of all students in your school the collection of all even numbers Let A = {0. Write the following sets in Set-Builder form (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) the set of all positive even numbers the set of all whole numbers less than 20 the set of all positive integers which are multiples of 3 the set of all odd natural numbers less than 15. So. 2. 3. the collection of good books the collection of prime numbers less than 30 the collection of ten most talented mathematics teachers.A (ii) 6 ----.11 Find the number of subsets and proper subsets of each set (i) A = {3. . 7} . 9. the number of subsets = n 6 P (A) @ = 25 = 32 . 2 2 14 .A 4 ----. Which of the following are sets? Justify your answer. 4. n (A) = 8 . the set of all letters in the word ‘taMILnaDU’ 4. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 2. 9. now. 14} .A (iii) 3 ----.1 1 x 1 11 . 3.1 = 32 . ` the number of subsets = 28 = 25 # 23 = 32 # 2 # 2 # 2 = 256 the number of proper subsets = 28 . 5}. 2 1 x # 10} B = $ x : x ! Z. 2.Chapter 1 Example 1.A 3. 2. 5.

3. Which of the following sets are equivalent? (i) (ii) (iii) A = {2. 75} X = {x : x is a even natural number} Y = {x : x is a multiple of 6 and x > 0} P = the set of letters in the word ‘KarIManGaLaM’ 8. B = {4.. 5.1. B = {1. . 7.3 # x # 5. 0 # x 1 5 } 9. 1} 15 .. y ! W} P = {x : x is an integer. 3. 10}. 7.} B = {0. n ! N and n 1 5} B = {x : x is a consonant in english alphabet} X = {x : x is an even prime number} P = {x : x < 0. 2. Which of the following sets are equal? (i) A = {1. 5. 4}. n ! N and n # 5} M = {x : x = 2y . 6. 3. x ! W } Q = { x: . 2. 3. . (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 6. 2. 5. 9.. o. 16. 4. i. 11} C = {1. 3. 25} P = {x : x is a letter in the word ‘Set tHeorY’} Q = {x : x is a prime number between 10 and 20} A = {x : x = 5 n. 9} X = {x : x ! N.1 1 x 1 6}.Theory of Sets (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 5.. 4. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 7. C = {x : x is a prime number and a divisor of 6} X = {x : x = 2 n. Y = {x : x is vowel in the english alphabet} P = {x : x is a prime number and 5 1 x 1 23 } Q = {x : x ! W. y # 5. 1. u} B = {1. 4. x ! Z } Write the following sets in Descriptive form Find the cardinal number of the following sets Identify the following sets as finite or infinite (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) A = {4. 8. e. x2 # 16} A = {a. 6. 9.

11. 16}. 8} (ii) {a } ----. If n 6 P (A) @ = 1 . examine whether A = {x : x is a positive integer divisible by 3} is a subset of B = {x : x is a multiple of 5.2. c} (iv) {d} ----. 11} 11. B = {11. find n(a) (ii) If n (A) = 3. 16. Is Q = {Q} ? Why ? Which of the sets are equal sets? State the reason. . d. e. 12. 15.3. 6. 19}. E = {. . 0. C = {14. From the sets given below. H = {10. find n 6 P (A) @ If n 6 P (A) @ = 512 . 1.. 17. f.1. (i) {3} ----. 4. 12. (i) (iii) (iv) 19. 7.. find n 6 P (A) @ 18. x ! N } Q = {10. find n(a) . 6} (iii) {8. 20. c} (iii) a = {5. 15. 18} ----. 18. 13.3 # x 1 2} (i) Is X a subset of Y ? (ii) Is Y a subset of X ? 15. 14}.{a. x ! N } 16. c. 18. b. 25 30. Q. 0. {0}. G = {11. F = {10. 18} X = {2.. Fill in the blanks with 3 or M to make each statement true. . 12. A = {12. Let X = {. 2} and Y = {x : x is an integer and . 11 }. b. 8} Y = {x : x is a positive even integer 0 < x < 10} (iv) P = {x : x is a multiple of 10. 8} (iv) A = Q 17. 22}. x g N} If A = Q . Write down the power sets of the following sets. 4. 18} B = {a. 14. 14}. (i) a = {x.{18. g} X = {x : x ! W.{a. (i) (ii) (iii) A = {13. Find the number of subsets and the number of proper subsets of the following sets. } 10. 4. c} 14. 24} D = {13. 12. 2. 14. . y} (ii) X = {a.11 }. {Q} 13. 8. b.Chapter 1 (ii) (iii) A = {4. what can you say about the set A? 16 If n 6 P (A) @ = 1024 . 22.{0. B = {8. 11. b. 16. select equal sets. 6.

12} 1 B 1. U = {n : n d Z} Remark the universal set may change from problem to problem. C Find n(A). n(C). the universal set is denoted by U. For example. then the universal set U is the set of all integers.Theory of Sets 20. we use diagrammatic representations called Venn Diagrams to visualise the relationships between sets and set operations.5 SET OPERATIONS We use diagrams or pictures in geometry to John Venn (1834-1883) 1. 20. State whether the following are true (t) or False (F) (a) 7 ! B (c) {15. 1. Let A = {x : x is a natural number < 11} B = {x : x is an even number and 1 < x < 21} C = {x : x is an integer and 15 # x # 25 } (i) (ii) (iii) List the elements of A. B. Sometimes it is useful to consider a set which contains all elements pertinent to a the set that contains all the elements under consideration in a given discussion is called the universal set. 25} 1 C (b) 16 g A (d) {10.1 Venn Diagrams explain a concept or a situation and sometimes we also use them to solve problems.. 17 . Key Concept Universal Set a John British Venn (1834-1883) used mathematician diagrammatic representation as an aid to visualize various relationships between sets and set operations.e. If the elements currently under discussion are integers. n(B). i.2 The Universal Set given discussion.5. In mathematics.5.

We write the union of sets A and B as A .5. 1. B as ‘a union B’ In symbol. b.5. the universal set is generally represented by a rectangle and its proper subsets by circles or ovals inside the rectangle. h} . B = {x : x ! A or x ! B} 18 .1 Complement Set the set of all elements of U (universal set) that are not elements of A 3 U is called the complement of A.Chapter 1 In Venn diagrams. Reading Notation . 1. Reading Notation In symbol. f. g. h} and A = {b. Union read A . We write the names of its elements inside the figure. 1. 1.2 Note Al (shaded portion) Fig. the complement of set A is represented as shown in Fig. c. f} A Al U In Venn diagram Al . the complement of A is denoted by Al or A c . e.3 Complement of a Set Key Concept A 3 1 5 6 4 7 8 U Fig.4 Union of Two Sets Key Concept Union of Sets the union of two sets A and B is the set of elements which are in A or in B or in both A and B. g.2 (i) (Al )l = A (ii) Ql = U (iii) U l = Q 1. B . d. c. Al = {a. Al = {x : x ! U and x g A} For example. Let then U = {a. e. d. A .

B = B A. 8 (repeated) ` A . 15} the union of two sets can be represented by a Venn diagram as shown in Fig.A = A (ii) A. then A . 5.4.A Example 1. 11. 1.12 Find the union of the following sets. 6 . 2. there are no elements in Y ` X . 4. 4. 12. We denote it as A + B . 10.Theory of Sets For example. (i) A = {1. 6. 6} and B = {4. 7.3 Note A B U U A . Y = Q . 12. 8} (ii) X = {3. 10. 5} and Y = Q Think and Answer ! Can we say A 1 (A . Reading Notation + Intersection read A + B as ‘A intersection B’ Symbolically.5}. 6} and B = {4. 8} (ii) = {3. 13. 3. B = {9. 3. Al = U If a is any subset of U.B = B.5. 6. 7. U = U A 3 B if and only if A . 5. 3. B (shaded portion) Fig. 14. 3. 15}. 6. 2. 2. B) ? Solution (i) A = {1. 12.5 Intersection of Two Sets Key Concept Intersection of Sets the intersection of two sets A and B is the set of all elements common to both A and B.3 (i) (iv) (v) A. 14} and B = {9. B) and B 1 (A . B = {1. 14. we write A + B = {x : x ! A and x ! B} 19 .Q = A (iii) (vi) A . 8} 1. 5. Y = {3. 5. 5. 7. 5} 1. 13. 6. 5. 7. 5. 1. then A . Let A = {11. 4. 2. 4.

13.7respectively A B B A B A B3A Fig. 9.1. 15}.6 Disjoint Sets Key Concept A .5 1. 14.13 Find A + B if (i) A = { 10. f} . 11.6 A + B (shaded portion) Fig. 11.4 (i) A+A = A (ii) (iv) A+Q = Q A+B = B+A Think and Answer ! Can we say (A + B) 1 A and (A + B) 1 B ? (iii) A + Al = Q (v) If A is any subset of U. 12 and 13 are common in both A and B.7 Disjoint Sets two sets A and B are said to be disjoint if there is no element common to both A and B. e} and B = {a. then A + U = A (vi) If A 3 B if and only if A + B = A Example 1. Let A = {a.6 and in Fig. 1.Chapter 1 For example. 13} and B = {12. b. 9. 1.1. 13} (ii) A = {5. 11}. there is no element in common and hence A + B = Q Remark When B 3 A .5. B = Q Solution (i) A = {10. 13. the union and intersection of two sets A and B are represented in Venn diagram as shown in Fig.1. d. ` A + B = {a. c.1. 11} and B = Q . 15} (ii) A = {5. then A + B = Q 20 . B = {12. e.4 Note A B U A + B (shaded portion) Fig.1. e} the intersection of two sets can be represented by a Venn diagram as shown in Fig. d. ` A + B = {12. 14. In other words. d. if A and B are disjoint sets. B (shaded portion) Fig. 12. 13}. 12.

1. 6.9 (ii) If A + B ! Q . 7} and B = {1. 3. So A and B are disjoint sets. 6. 9. So A + B = Q . 3. 9}. 5.7 Difference of Two Sets Key Concept Difference of two Sets the difference of the two sets A and B is the set of all elements belonging to A but not to B. 3} 21 . U A B two disjoint sets A and B are represented in Venn diagram as shown in Fig. 3.14 Given the sets A = {4. 9}. 1. we write : B . 13}. Consider the sets A = {2.1. Hence A and B are disjoint sets. 7} and B = {1. 7. 13} To find A . We have A + B = Q . 12. 8} and B = {11.B .8 Note (i) the union of two disjoint sets A and B are represented in Venn diagram as shown in Fig. 5. 11} and B = {5. Reading Notation A-B A difference B (or) A minus B In symbol. 7. Find A + B . we remove the elements of B from A. Consider the sets A = {5. 6.9 Example 1.1. 5.8 Disjoint sets Fig. Solution A = {4.Theory of Sets For example.B = {2.5. we write : A . B (shaded portion) Fig. ` A .1. the difference of the two sets is denoted by A . 8.B .A = {x : x ! B and x g A} For example. 7.B = {x : x ! A and x g B} Similarly. 8. then the two sets A and B are said to be overlapping sets A U B A . 11.

d} and B = {b. 3.A) = {a.B) . 3.A) For example. c. f } ` A D B = (A .B Solution A = {. f} the symmetric difference of two sets A and B can be represented by Venn diagram as shown in Fig.1.A If A = {. 5} . d.11.B = {a.1. We have A . 5} . . (i) A .B) .15 a -B Fig. e.2. (B . 3.A + A = B (iv) U .12 . (ii) A .1.5.11 (ii) B . B = {. e.A = { 5 } 1.Chapter 1 Note (i) Generally. c. find (i) A .2. 0. the shaded portion represents the difference of the two sets A B U A B U Example 1.8 Symmetric Difference of Sets Key Concept Symmetric Difference of Sets the symmetric difference of two sets A and B is the union of their differences and is denoted by A D B .1. 4}.12 the shaded portion represents the symmetric difference of the two sets A and B.10 B -a Fig. A . 4} and B = {. f} .1. 0.1. 3. 0.1.A) Fig.B = B .10 and in Fig. Reading Notation ADB A symmetric B thus.Al = A (iii) U . 4} (ii) B . 22 U A B A-B B-A A 3 B = (A . b.A = Al the difference of two sets A and B can be represented by Venn diagram as shown in Fig.1. A D B = (A .A = {e. c} and B .1.B) . Consider the sets A = {a.2.1.B = {. .B ! B . (B . (B .A .

52.16 If A = {2. 3. B and A + B for the following sets. 56}. e}. . e. 18. If A = {x : x is a multiple of 5 . 9}. 5. 10. a. x # 20 and n ! N} and Y = { x : x = 4n. 3.A = {9. 2 1 x # 7} and B = {x : x ! W. 6.2 Find A . 7. x # 30 and x ! N } B = {1. 2. 8} . 10} (iii) P = {x : x is a prime < 15} Q = {x : x is a multiple of 2 and x < 16} (iv) R = {a. 3. So = {2. List the elements of the set {x : x ! P + Q} 5. 5. 11} and B = {5. 8. Find (i) A . 15.3. x # 5} and B = { x : x is a prime number less than 11} (iv) A = {x : x ! N. we can find the elements of A 3 B .Theory of Sets Note (i) A 3 A = Q (ii) A 3 B = B 3 A (iii) From the Venn diagram 1. 3. (i) (ii) A = {0. 25}. = {2. Example 1. S = {d. find A 3 B . 3. 6. 6} and B = {. b. 7. 0. 4.1. 7. So. 11. we can write A 3 B = " x: x g A + B . 35.B) . B (ii) A + B 3. 1. 7. 21. d. 13}. Solution Given a A-B A3B 1. 13} Exercise 1. 2. 2. Q = {prime numbers}. 7. 11. 3. B = {x : x is an even number < 10. 4. c. 7. Y (ii) X + Y U = {1. 8} and B = Q (iii) A = {x : x ! N. 4.A) = {2. 6. 4. b. 3} and B . 13}. P = {numbers divisible by 7}. 2.12. 9. 9. 4. 6. 12. 9. 7. 0 # x # 6} 2. x ! N } X = {1. c} 23 . 5. Hence = (A . 4. 11} and B = {5. (B . 12. If X = {x : x = 2n. x # 20 and n ! W } Find (i) X . Y = {0. 13} . by listing the elements which are not common to both A and B. 17. State which of the following sets are disjoint (i) (ii) A = {2. 5} A = {2.

A = {1. 5. (i) List the elements of U. (N . 15. b. 16. . 10. b. d. B . 9. 4. 18}. Y = {b. 11. (i) (ii) If U = {x : 0 # x # 10. Bl (iii) N l . 6. d. F. e. A = {a. Q = {x : x 1 5. 15. g. 6. 9} and B = {2. h. 5}. 20.4.A) Let U = {x : x is a positive integer less than 50}. 9. k} P = {x : 3 1 x 1 9. 17. g. (i) (ii) X = {a.N If U = {x :1 # x # 10. Use the Venn diagram 1. 25}. 2. 15. B find (i) Al find (i) M .1. .Chapter 1 6. A = {x : x is divisible by 4} and B = {x : x leaves a remainder 2 when divided by 14}. E . f. f. 8. If U = {a. c.N 7. 9. G l + H l . B = {. 18}.B and B . n (A + B) . G and H Find G l . 11} and N = {7. x ! N}. 5. List the elements of E. B)l . (v) M + (M . 0. 3.A (v) n (A .A 11. H)l and n (G + H)l 5 G 1 4 8 2 6 10 9 U H 3 Fig. 3. 8.N) (vi) N .M (iii) A + B (iii) Al .13 to answer the following questions (i) (ii) 14. 15. h}. 12} and D = {5. 12. If A = {3. then what is A ? (ii) (A . M = {3. 7. 10}. B = {4.M) (vii) n (M . F and E + F Find n (U) . 11. g. . h} . 1. x ! N} . H l . find (i) A .B (ii) B . 7. 7. find (i) A .C (iii) C .N) 10. (A . A . 3} 13. 1.13 Use the Venn diagram 1.14 to answer the following questions (i) (ii) List U.C) (vi) n (B . 12. d} and B = {b.2. A + B . f. 9. F) and n (E + F) 3 E 1 2 4 7 9 11 10 F U Fig. Find the symmetric difference between the following sets. 0. n (E . c.3. 17}. find Al If U is the set of natural numbers and Al is the set of all composite numbers. x ! W} and A = {x : x is a multiple of 3}.D (iv) D .M (iv) (A + B)l (iv) Al + Bl (iv) M l . 20}. C = {2. g} . x ! W} (iii) A = {. 8. 10. 2. 3. e. d.3. 12. 9. B)l (ii) Bl (ii) N . Given that U = {3. n (G .14 24 . A and B (ii) Find A .

Bhl U (c) Al . Bl A Fig. A B U A B U A + B (shaded portion) Fig.19 U A B A + Bl (shaded portion) Fig 1. 1.21 .6 (a) Representation of Set Operations Using Venn Diagram We shall now give a few more representations of set operations in Venn diagrams A.20.Theory of Sets 1. 1.16 Step 1 : Shade the region Al U B Step 2 : Shade the region Bl Al . Bl (shaded portion) Fig. 1. 25 Al + B (shaded portion) Fig. 1.18 U A B ^ A + Bhl (shaded portion) Fig. 1.15 U B A Fig.17 U A B Similarly the shaded regions represent each of the following set operations. 1.B U A B A B (b) ^ A .

1. Contains the elements of the set B but not in A U A B Draw a Venn diagram similar to one at the side and shade the regions representing the following sets (i) Al (ii) Bl Solution (i) Al A B (iii) Al . region 1 region 2 region 3 region 4 Example 1. Bl (shaded portion) Fig.23 tip to shade Shaded region 1 and 4 Set Al Al (shaded portion) Fig. B)l U (v) Al + Bl Fig. 2 and 4 (iii) Al . 1.17 Fig. 1.Chapter 1 Re rk ma We can also make use of the following idea to represent sets and set operations in Venn diagram.26 26 Al . 1. 1.25 U A B tip to shade Set Al Bl Shaded region 1 and 4 1 and 2 1. Bl . this numbering is arbitrary. these four regions are numbered for reference. 1 A 2 3 4 B U In Fig.22 Contains the elements outside of both the sets A and B Contains the elements of the set A but not in B Contains the elements common to both the sets A and B. Bl (iv) (A .24 U A B tip to shade Set Bl Shaded region 1 and 2 (ii) Bl Bl (shaded portion) Fig. Bl Al . 1.22 the sets A and B divide the universal set into four regions.

3.18 From the given Venn diagram. 3. 1. 5. 4. B)l Shaded region 2. 6.29 B-A Example 1.B) + n (A + B) n (B) = n (B . when A + B = Q n (A) + n (Al ) = n (U) A-B U A B A+B Fig.B) + n (A + B) + n (B . B) = n (A) + n (B). 4. 6. 6. A .n (A + B) n (A . 1. 8.B (A . 8. 9}. B)l A B U tip to shade Set A. 9} . 3 and 4 1 (A . we have the following useful results (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) n (A) = n (A . B) = n (A) + n (B) . B)l (shaded portion) Fig. 6. 7.A) + n (A + B) n (A . 1. (ii) B = {3. B (iv) A + B also verify that n (A . 7. 1. B) = n (A . B) = n (A) + n (B) . find the following (i) A (ii) B (iii) A . B = {2.27 (v) Al + Bl A B U tip to shade Set Al Bl Shaded region 1 and 4 1 and 2 1 Al + Bl (shaded portion) Fig.A) n (A .28 Important Results Al + Bl For any two finite sets A and B.}. 5.Theory of Sets (iv) (A . 9.n (A + B) Solution From the Venn diagram (i) (iii) A = {2. 9} and 27 Fig.30 (iv) A + B = {3.

f. 1. the number of people who view either of these movies is n (T .20 = 85 Hence the number of people who do not view any of these movies is 100 .n (A + B) = 6 + 7 . j} Fig.n (A + B) = n (A . e. c. d. e. n (A . n (T + E) = 20 .Chapter 1 We have n (A) = 8. b. i. Solution Let the population of the city be 100. c. B) c d b e h f i j B B U g n (A) + n (B) . B = {a. Let T denote the set of people who view tamil movies and E denote the set of people who view english movies.n (A + B) = 8 + 3 . B (iv) A + B also verify that n (A . B) = 21 By using the formula n (A .20 If n (A) = 12. now a a A n (A) + n (B) . find n (A + B) Solution Given that n (A) = 12. g.n (A + B) = n (A . 20% of the people view both tamil and english movies. h. now n (A) + n (B) .31 A . h. n (B) = 17 and n (A . B) = n (A) + n (B) . g. b.21 In a city 65% of the people view tamil movies and 40% view english movies. n (A + B) = 3 . B) = 21 . n (B) = 17 and n (A . n (B) = 7. B) Example 1.n (T + E) = 65 + 40 . then n (T) = 65. n (B) = 3.19 From the given Venn diagram find (i) A (ii) B (iii) A .n (A + B) n (A + B) = 12 + 17 . d. h} n (A) = 6. Find the percentage of people do not view any of these two movies.n (A + B) Solution From the Venn diagram (i) (iii) So. e. i. j } and (iv) A + B = {b. B) = 10. B) = n (A) + n (B) .3 = 8 Hence. h} (ii) B = {b.85 = 15 Hence the percentage of people who do not view any of these movies is 15 28 .21 = 8 Example 1. n (E) = 40. E) = n (T) + n (E) . Example 1. n (A . So. f. e.3 = 10 Hence. n (A) + n (B) . B) = 8. A = {a. n (A + B) = 3 .

x = 1000 & .1000 = 36 Hence.23 In a class of 50 students.32 In a survey of 1000 families. n (G) = 552. 1. 36 families use both the stoves.Theory of Sets Aliter From the Venn diagram the percentage of people who view at least one of these two movies is 45 + 20 + 20 = 85 Hence. find how many families use both the stoves? Solution Let E denote the set of families using electric stove and G denote the set of families using gas stove. Aliter From the Venn diagram. G) = n (E) + n (G) . If all the families use atleast one of these two types of stoves. the percentage of people who do not view any of these movies = 100 .22 tT e E 45 20 20 Fig.n (E + G) 1000 = 484 + 552 . 552 families use gas stoves. Let x be the number of families using both the stoves . n (E . then n (E) = 484. 1. then n (E + G) = x . it is found that 484 families use electric stoves.x & x = 1036 .x = . 484 .x + x + 552 . 10 students passed in both and 28 passed in science. G) = 1000 . Example 1.x = 1000 & 1036 .33 .36 x = 36 Hence. each of the student passed either in mathematics or in science or in both.x Fig. Find how many students passed in mathematics? Solution Let M = the set of students passed in Mathematics S = the set of students passed in Science 29 e E G G 484 .x x 552 .85 = 15 Example 1. Using the result n (E . 36 families use both the stoves.

7. n (S) = 28. 9. find n (A + B) and n (.) = 38.Chapter 1 then. . Place the elements of the following sets in the proper location on the given Venn U diagram. 8. find n (A . n (M . Bh = 180. 1. 1.35 If A and B are two sets such that A has 50 elements. 6. Find (i) (ii) (iii) the number of students who play Foot ball only the number of students who play Volley ball only the total number of students in the school 30 M = {5. B has 65 elements and A . 270 students play Volley ball and 120 students play both games. all the students play either Foot ball or Volley ball or both. n (A) = 13 . 11}. Find the number of persons who do not read either of the two papers. B) . B) = 30. n^ A . 8. 7. In a school. 6. 10} 2. 10. 11. 7.3 1. 4. If n (A) = 26. Find n^ Bh the population of a town is 10000. n (A) = 16. 5. If n (. then find the minimum and maximum number of elements in A . S) = 50 We have n^ M . n (A . n^ A + Bh = 60. 300 students play Foot ball. 9. Let A and B be two finite sets such that n^ A . 8. n (Al ) = 17 . n = {5. n (M + S) = 10 . M M N n U = {5. n (A + B) = 12. B ? If n (A + B) = 5. 12. 10. 3.10 n^ M h = 32 x 10 18 Fig. find n (B) .) . out of these 5400 persons read newspaper A and 4700 read newspaper B. n (B) = 10. 6. Sh & Aliter From the Venn diagram x + 10 + 18 = 50 x = 50 . n (Bl ) = 20 .Bh = 30. how many elements does A + B have? If A and B are two sets containing 13 and 16 elements respectively.28 = 22 = n^ M h + n^ S h . 9. B) = 35.n^ M + S h M M S S 50 = n^ M h + 28 . 1500 persons read both the newspapers. B has 100 elements.34 number of students passed in Mathematics = x + 10 = 22 + 10 = 32 Exercise 1. 13} Fig. n (A .

If 20 students applied neither of the two. 15. 31 . In a village there are 60 families. 95 students applied for Group I and 82 students applied for Group II in the Higher Secondary course. Draw a Venn diagram to represent this information and use it to find the percentage of the students who (i) participated in elocution only (ii) participated in Drawing only (iii) do not participate in any one of the competitions. 55 can cut tall trees. out of 100 employees in my section. 13. In a School 150 students passed X Standard examination. Pradeep recently reported the following information to the management of the utility. 12. 18 take tea. the following table shows the percentage of the students of a school who participated in elocution and Drawing competitions. how many students applied for both groups? Pradeep is a Section Chief for an electric utility company. B) . How many families speak both tamil and Urdu. How many students secured first class in English only? In a group of 30 persons. Find how many take coffee but not tea.B) = 32 + x. A and B are two sets such that n (A . 115 students secured first class in Mathematics. a village has total population 2500. Given that n (A) = n (B) . Competition Percentage of Students elocution 55 Drawing 45 Both 20 16. In an examination 150 students secured first class in English or Mathematics. Is this information correct? 11. out of these 28 families speak only tamil and 20 families speak only Urdu. out of which 1300 use brand a soap and 1050 use brand B soap and 250 use both brands. 50 can climb poles. 6 can’t do any of the two. n (B . Find the percentage of population who use neither of these soaps. the employees in his section cut down tall trees or climb poles.Theory of Sets 10. 14. Calculate (i) the value of x (ii) n (A . 11 can do both. 17. 10 take tea but not coffee. if each person takes atleast one of the drinks. Out of these 50 students obtained first class in both English and Mathematics.A) = 5x and n (A + B) = x Illustrate the information by means of a Venn diagram.

A) n (A . the union of two sets A and B is the set of elements which are in A or in B or in both A and B.B) . Otherwise. two sets A and B are said to be equal if they contain exactly the same elements.B) + n (A + B) + n (B . the number of subsets of a set with m elements is 2 m . Symmetric difference of two sets A and B is defined as A 3 B = (A . B) = n (A . the number of proper subsets of a set with m elements is 2 m . a set A is a subset of a set B if every element of A is also an element of B.A) For any two finite sets A and B.n (A + B) n (A . the intersection of two sets A and B is the set of all elements common to both A and B. B) = n (A) + n (B) . It is denoted by Al . a set A is a proper subset of set B if A 3 B and A ! B the power set of the set A is the set of all subsets of A. It is denoted by P(A). B) = n (A) + n (B). we have (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) n (A) = n (A .Chapter 1 Points to Remember › › A set is a well-defined collection of distinct objects Set is represented in three forms (i) Descriptive Form (ii) Set-builder Form (iii) roster Form the number of elements in a set is said to be the cardinal number of the set. If A and B are disjoint sets.B) + n (A + B) n (B) = n (B . a set containing no element is called the empty set If the number of elements in a set is zero or finite. (B .1 the set of all elements of the universal set that are not elements of a set a is called the complement of A. then A + B = Q the difference of two sets A and B is the set of all elements belonging to A but not to B. the set is an infinite set. when A + B = Q › › › › › › › › › › › › › › › › 32 . the set is called a finite set.A) + n (A + B) n (A .

area. a standard definition of the real numbers. George Cantor can be considered the first to suggest a rigorous definition of real numbers in 1871 A. The development of calculus around 1700 A.SIMEON POISSON Main Targets ● ● ● ● ● ● To recall Natural numbers. temperature.D. discovering mathematics and teaching mathematics . profit. 2. the Greek mathematicians led by Pythagoras realized the need for irrational numbers. He was one of the few mathematicians who understood the importance of set theory developed by Cantor.1 Introduction All the numbers that we use in normal day-to-day activities to represent quantities such as distance. To understand the existence of non terminating and non recurring decimals. He did important work in abstract algebra. Integers. The extensions became inevitable as the science of Mathematics developed in the process of solving problems from other fields. While teaching calculus for the first time at Polytechnic.. RIchaRd dedekInd (1831-1916) Richard Dedekind (1831-1916) belonged to an elite group of mathematicians who had been students of the legendary mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss. Whole numbers. used the entire set of real numbers without having defined them clearly. Dedekind came up with the notion now called a Dedekind cut. algebraic number theory and laid the foundations for the concept of the real numbers. loss. To classify rational numbers as recurring / terminating decimals.D. To represent terminating / non terminating decimals on the number line. The system of real numbers has evolved as a result of a process of successive extensions of the system of natural numbers. etc. To understand the four basic operations in irrational numbers. speed. Natural numbers came into existence when man first learnt counting.Real Number System REAL NUMBER SYSTEM Life is good for only two things. around 500 BC. time.D. Negative numbers began to be accepted around 1600 A. are called Real Numbers. 33 . The Egyptians had used fractions around 1700 BC. To rationalise the denominator of the given irrational numbers.

means ‘to count’ The set of all integers is denoted by Z Z = { g .1. 2. Z is derived from the German word ‘Zahlen’. N = {1. their negative numbers together with zero are called integers. g} 1 Remark 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The line extends endlessly only to the right side of 1. The set of all natural numbers is denoted by N. 3.2 Whole numbers The set of natural numbers together with zero forms the set of whole numbers. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 34 2 3 4 5 .. let us recall various types of numbers that you have learnt in earlier classes. 0 d W .e. 2) Every whole number need not be a natural number. 2. g } 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The line extends endlessly only to the right side of 0. The smallest natural number is 1. 3. 1. but there is no largest number as it goes up continuously. 2. The set of whole numbers is denoted by W .3.1 natural numbers The counting numbers 1. 0. . First. . 2.3 Integers The natural numbers. i. 3. g are called natural numbers. For. 2. but 0 g N 3) N 1 W W N 2. g } The line extends endlessly on both sides of 0.1. The smallest whole number is 0 Remark 1) Every natural number is a whole number. W = { 0.Chapter 2 In this chapter we discuss some properties of real numbers. 1. 2.1.2. 3.1.

1 . p Q = ' : p ! Z. 2) Every integer n is also a rational number. 3 = 3 . where p and q are both integers and q ! 0 is called a q rational number.4 . 1 3) N 1 W 1 Z 1 Q Z W Q N Important Results 1) If a and b are two distinct rational numbers. 2) Every whole number is an integer. 7 are rational numbers. .4 0 2 1 4 1 2 3 4 We find numbers in between integers 1 2 Remark 1) A rational number may be positive. since we can write n as n . 6 8 1 The set of all rational numbers is denoted by Q . q ! Z. then a + b is a rational number 2 between a and b such that a < a + b < b . . . .4 Rational numbers p A number of the form .1.3 g are called negative integers.1 Find any two rational numbers between 1 and 3 . 3) N 1 W 1 Z W N Z 2. 2 There are infinitely many rational numbers between any two given rational numbers. 3 g are called positive integers. negative or zero.2. 4 4 35 Can you correlate the word ratio with rational numbers ? 2) Think and answer ! .1.5 .Real Number System 1. Remark Think and answer ! Is zero a positive integer or a negative integer? 1) Every natural number is an integer. example 2. and q ! 0 1 q -2 3 1 -1. 2. For example.

When we divide p by q using long division method either the remainder becomes zero or the remainder never becomes zero and we get a repeating string of remainders. we observe that the remainder becomes zero after a few steps.1 1.Chapter 2 Solution A rational number between 1 and 3 = 1 ` 1 + 3 j = 1 (1) = 1 4 4 2 4 4 2 2 Another rational number between 1 and 3 = 1 ` 1 + 3 j = 1 # 5 = 5 2 4 2 2 4 2 4 8 The rational numbers 1 and 5 lie between 1 and 3 2 8 4 4 Note There are infinite number of rationals between 1 and 3 . (v) Every rational number is an integer. Find any two rational numbers between . 2. 36 . Is zero a rational number ? Give reasons for your answer. 3. (vi) Every integer is a whole number. (i) Every natural number is a whole number.5 and . we get the decimal representation q by long division. The rationals 1 and 4 4 2 5 that we have obtained in Example 2.1 are two among them 8 Exercise 2. case (i) The remainder becomes zero 7 = 0. (ii) Every whole number is a natural number. 7 7 2. (iv) Every rational number is a whole number. Then 16 16 In this example.4375 Let us express 7 in decimal form. (iii) Every integer is a rational number. State whether the following statements are true or false.2 decimal Representation of Rational numbers If we have a rational number written as a fraction p .2 .

32. we have a repeating (recurring) block of digits in the quotient.5. 11 Thus. ..0. 9 = 0. 16 16 7. 0 Key Concept When the decimal expansion of Terminating Decimal p terminates (i. In the above examples. 527 = 1.0000 Similarly. So.054 120 2 5 25 64 500 112 In these examples. 6 3.Real Number System 0. we observe that the remainders never become zero. comes to an end) q the decimal expansion is called terminating.140625.4545g . using long division method we can express the following 64 rational numbers in decimal form as 60 48 1 = 0. 11 6 7 0. case (ii) The remainder never becomes zero Does every rational number has a terminating decimal expansion? Before answering the question.1666g . let us express 5 .0000 44 60 55 50 44 60 55 50 j 1.4375 Also the decimal expansion of 7 terminates.4. 37 .4545g 11 5.e.1666g 6 7.8 = .0000 60 10 6 40 36 40 36 40 36 40 j 7 = 1. 7 and 22 in decimal form.00000000 21 10 7 30 28 20 14 60 56 40 35 50 49 10 22 = 3. Also we note that the remainders repeat after some steps. the decimal expansion of a rational number need not terminate.142857 1g j 7 ` 5 = 0.142857 142857g 7 22. 7 = 1. the decimal expansion terminates or ends after a 80 80 finite number of steps.

In this case.Chapter 2 Key Concept In the decimal expansion of Non-terminating and Recurring p when the remainder never becomes zero. the reciprocals n of natural numbers are rational numbers.5 0.142857 7 The following table shows decimal representation of the reciprocals of the first ten natural numbers.142857 1452857 g = 3.4545g = 0. To simplify the notation.125 0.25 0. 7 = 1.16 0. So.1 Type of Decimal Terminating Terminating Non-terminating and recurring Terminating Terminating Non-terminating and recurring Non-terminating and recurring Terminating Non-terminating and recurring Terminating . 38 Reciprocal 1. Obviously.16 11 6 22 = 3. we can write the expansion of 5 .3 0.45 . Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Thus we see that. we place a bar over the first block of the repeating (recurring) part and omit the remaining blocks. q we have a repeating (recurring) block of digits in the quotient.142857 0. 7 and 22 as follows. 11 6 7 5 = 0.16666g = 1. A rational number can be expressed by either a terminating or a non-terminating and recurring decimal expansion.2 0.1 0. We know that the reciprocal of a number n is 1 . the decimal expansion is called non-terminating and recurring.0 0.

2. if the decimal expansion of a number is terminating or non-terminating and recurring.474747g = 47 + 0. q ! Z and q ! 0) is not quite easy and the process is explained in the next example.2 Representing a non-terminating and Recurring decimal expansion in the form P q p The expression of non-terminating and recurring decimal expansions in the form q (p.474747g Since two digits are repeating.1 Representing a Terminating decimal expansion in the form P q p Terminating decimal expansion can easily be expressed in the form (p.3 Express the following in the form (i) 0.5625 p . q This method is explained in the following example example 2.75 (ii) 0. Then x = 0.47 . example 2. q (iii) 0. we get 100 x = 47.47 (ii) 0. We shall illustrate this with examples.2 Express the following decimal expansion in the form and q ! 0. then the number is a rational number.57 (iv) 0. (i) 0.625 = 625 = 5 1000 8 (iii) 0.2. q ! Z and q ! 0).625 = 75 = 3 100 4 (iii) 0. That is.75 Solution (i) 0.47 = 47 99 . multiplying both sides by 100.28 (ii) 0.001 p .245 (v) 0. where p and q are integers and q ! 0. 2.5625 = 5625 = 45 = 9 10000 80 16 (iv) 0. where p and q are integers q (iv) 0.4 Solution (i) Let x = 0.28 = 28 = 7 100 25 2.474747g = 47 + x 99 x = 47 x = 47 99 39 ` 0.6 (vi) 1.Real Number System The converse of this statement is also true.

multiplying both sides by 1000.x = 1 999 x = 1 x = 1 999 (iii) Let x = 0.5555g = 14 + x 9 x = 14 x = 14 9 40 = 24.57 = 52 = 26 90 90 45 (iv) Let x = 0.3 99 0.55555g Multiplying both sides by 10.57.2454545g Multiplying both sides by 100.6 . Then x = 0.57777g Multiplying both sides by 10.001001001g = 1 + 0.3 x = 24. Then x = 1.001 = 1 999 = 5. we get 10 x = 5.245 = 243 = 27 990 110 (v) Let x = 0.545454g = 24. we get 1000 x = 1.001 . Then x = 0. we get 100 x = 24. Then x = 0.5555g = 14 + 1.7777g ` 0.3 + x ` 1.5 .245 .6 = 2 9 3 3 (vi) Let x = 1.001001001g Since three digits are repeating.57777g = 5.5 = 1 5 9 .66666g = 6 + 0.Chapter 2 (ii) Let x = 0. we get 10 x = 6.6666g = 6 + x 9x = 6 x = 6 = 2 ` 0.2 9 52 x = ` 0.001001001g = 1 + x 1000 x .3 + 0.2 + 0.2454545g 99 x = 24.2 + x 9 x = 5. Then x = 0.2 x = 5. we get 10 x = 15.66666g Multiplying both sides by 10.

11 75 (iv) 17 200 p .11 = .Real Number System So. example 2. every number with a non-terminating and recurring decimal expansion can be p expressed in the form . 200 8 # 25 200 23 # 52 41 . (iii) . where p and q are integers and q not equal to zero q To determine whether the decimal form of a rational number will terminate or nonterminate we can make use of the following rule. (i) 7 16 Solution (i) 16 = 24 7 .11 has a non-terminating and recurring decimal 2 m # 5 n 75 17 = 17 = 17 . This result is based on the fact that the decimal system uses ten as its base and the prime factors of 10 are 2 and 5. n ! W .4 Without actually dividing. classify the decimal expansion of the following numbers as terminating or non-terminating and recurring. 13 has a non-terminating and recurring decimal 2 # 5 n 150 m (ii) 13 150 (iii) . (iv) p . Otherwise. So 17 has a terminating decimal expansion. . If a rational number p p can be expressed in the form m . the rational number will have a non-terminating and recurring decimal expansion. So. where p ! Z and q 2 # 5n m. 7 has a terminating decimal expansion.112 75 3#5 Since it is not in the form expansion. 7 = 7 = 16 16 24 2 4 # 50 (ii) 150 = 2 # 3 # 52 13 = 13 150 2 # 3 # 52 Since it is not in the form expansion. then the rational number will have a terminating decimal expansion.

9 into a rational number.4999g . Convert the following rational numbers into decimals and state the kind of decimal expansion.5 = 2.99999g Multiplying by 10 on both sides. Also this result is consistent with the fact that 3 # 0. 6 from the decimal 7 7 7 7 expansion of 1 . 4 . (i) 5 (ii) 11 (iii) 27 (iv) 8 64 12 40 35 Express the following decimal expansions into rational numbers.Chapter 2 example 2.9999g . 3 Similarly.18 (iv) 1. 2. 3. (ii) 0.5 Convert 0. while 3 # 1 = 1 .3 (vii) 19 (viii) . Exercise 2. it can be shown that any terminating decimal can be represented as a non-terminating and recurring decimal expansion with an endless blocks of 9s. deduce the decimal expressions of 3 . For example 6 = 5. Find the number of digits in the repeating block. 5 . Solution Let x = 0.2 1.99999g = 9 + 0.9999g = 9 + x ( ( For your Thought 9x = 9 x = 1. That is.427 (v) 7. 7 42 . Then x = 0.416 2.999g . Isn’t it surprising? Most of us think that 0. But this is not the case. 5.9 = 1. 0.333g = 0.45 4. we get 10x = 9.9 = 1.3 (iii) 0. find which of the following rational numbers have terminating decimal expansion.9 .9999g is less than 1. (i) 42 (ii) 8 2 (iii) 13 (iv) 459 100 55 500 7 (v) 1 (vi) . It is clear from the above argument that 0.9 = 1 (a 1 is rational number) We have proved 0.7 11 13 3 32 Without actual division. Express 1 in decimal form.0001 (vi) 0. Without using the long 7 7 division method. 13 Find the decimal expansions of 1 and 2 by division method. (i) 0.

it cannot be written in p the form . the pythagorians. 3 . we can generate infinitely many non-terminating and non-recurring decimal expansions by replacing the digit 8 in (1) by any natural number as we like. Numbers of this type are called irrational numbers. 2 . Thus. In fact there are infinitely many more numbers left on the number line. So. We have represented rational numbers on the number line. Note In fact. were the first to discover the numbers which cannot be written in the form of a fraction. 17 . but no block of digits repeats endlessly and so it is not recurring.3 Irrational numbers Let us have a look at the number line again. know about r : In the late 18th centurary Lambert and Legendre proved that r is irrational.Real Number System 2. r. there is a need to extend the system of rational numbers. this decimal expansion is non-terminating and non-repeating (non-recurring). e. So it cannot represent a rational number. 5 . followers of the famous Greek mathematician Pythagoras. 43 . Pythagoras 569BC . 0. In other words there are numbers whose decimal expansions are non-terminating and non-recurring. which are not rationals. Thus.2020020002g are a few examples of irrational numbers. q For example. where p and q are integers and q ! 0 . Key concept Irrational Number A number having a non-terminating and non-recurring decimal expansion is called an irrational number. Around 400 BC. We usually take 22 ( a rational number) as an approximate value for r (an irrational 7 number). We have also seen that there are infinitely many rational numbers between any two given rational numbers. These numbers are called irrational numbers.808008000800008g (1) . Is it recurring? It is true that there is a pattern in this decimal expansion. Consider the following decimal expansion 0.479 BC This is non-terminating.

Thus. The set of all real numbers is denoted by R . Dedekind proved independently that corresponding to every real number. In other words. German mathematicians.4 Real numbers Key Concept Real Numbers The union of the set of all rational numbers and the set of all irrational numbers forms the set of all real numbers. every real number is either a rational number or an irrational number.Chapter 2 Classification of Decimal Expansions decimal expansions Terminating (Rational) non-Terminating Repeating (Rational) non-Repeating (Irrational) 2. George Cantor and R. each point corresponds to a unique real number. Thus. then it must be an irrational number. The following diagram illustrates the relationships among the sets that make up the real numbers Real numbeRs R Rational Numbers Q Integers Z Whole Numbers W Natural Numbers N Irrational Numbers 44 . And every real number can be represented by a unique point on the number line. if a real number is not a rational number. on the number line. there is a unique point on the real number line and corresponding to every point on the number line there exists a unique real number.

. (iii) The square root of every positive but a not a perfect square number is an irrational number 2. 5. 1. Thus 4 .1 Representation of Irrational numbers on the number line Let us now locate the irrational numbers (i) Locating 2 on the number line.g are non-terminating and non-recurring and hence they are irrational numbers. 2 and 3 on the number line. i. (i) The decimal expansions of 3. 9 = 3. 9 .00 00 00 00 00 1 24 100 96 281 2824 28282 282841 2828423 28284265 400 281 11900 11296 60400 56564 383600 282841 10075900 8485269 159063100 141421325 17641775 h 2 = 1. (ii) The square root of every positive integer is not always irrational. Draw a number line.4142135g ` If we continue this process.4142135g 1 2.e.4. 25 = 5 g . 45 . For example. 4 = 2. Mark points O and A such that O represents the number zero and A represents the number 1. we observe that the decimal expansion has non-terminating and non-recurring digits and hence Note 2 is an irrational number. 6 . Join OB. g are rational numbers. OA = 1 unit Draw AB=OA such that AB = 1unit. 25 .Real Number System Let us find the square root of 2 by long division method.

2. ` 0. by Pythagorean theorem.Chapter 2 In right triangle OAB.83 = 0. (v) The decimal expression is non-terminating and non-recurring. ` 1. Thus. Thus. (11is not a perfect square number) 81 = 9 = 9 .6 Classify the following numbers as rational or irrational.505500555g .505500555g is an irrational number.0625 is a terminating decimal. by Pythagorean theorem. (i) 11 Solution (i) (ii) 11 is an irrational number. example 2. draw an arc to intersect the number line at C on the right side of O. OD = OC + CD 2 2 2 3 D 1 C E 2 32 1 A = ^ 2h + 1 = 3 2 O -3 -2 -1 0 1 ` OD = 1 3 3 Fig. ` 0. Join OD B 2 In right triangle OCD.83 (v) 1. 2.7 With O as centre and radius OD. (ii) Locating 3 on the number line. Clearly OC = OB = 2 . Draw CD= OC such that CD = 1 unit. Mark points O and C on the number line such that O represents the number zero and C represents the number 2 as we have seen just above. C corresponds to 2 on the number line.8333g The decimal expansion is non-terminating and recurring.0625 is a rational number.0625 (iv) 0. draw an arc to intersect the number line at E on the right side of O. 46 (ii) 81 (iii) 0. (iv) 0. OB2 = OA2 + AB2 = 12 + 12 OB2 = 2 OB = 2 -3 -2 -1 B 2 1 A C 2 O 0 1 1 2 3 Fig. a rational number.6 With O as centre and radius OB.83 is a rational number. 1 (iii) 0. Draw a number line. E represents 3 on the number line. Clearly OE = OD = 3 . ` OC = 2 2 unit.

a rational number. & x = 9.e.09 = 9 = ` 3 j 100 10 3 .8181g = 0.81 7 11 To find three irrational numbers between 5 and 9 (i...714285g Solution 7 5.8181g 49 11 9.8 In the following equations determine whether x. z represent rational or irrational numbers. an irrational number. a rational number.72022002220002g 0.75055005550005g example 2.7 Find any three irrational numbers between 5 and 9 . (iii) y2 = 3 2 (iv) z2 = 0.0000 88 10 7 20 30 11 28 90 20 88 14 20 60 j 56 40 35 50 j 5 = 0. between 0. 7 11 0.. Three such numbers are 0. there are infinitely many such numbers.714285. and 7 11 0. x2 = 81 = 92 & y= (81 is a perfect square) 3 .73033003330003g 0.8181.000000 0. a rational number.Real Number System example 2.. Infact.. (ii) x2 = 81 (iii) y2 = 3 (iv) z2 = 0. & z= 10 3 47 .714285 9 = 0.09 (i) x3 = 8 Solution (i) (ii) (8 is a perfect cube) x3 = 8 = 2 & x = 2 .) We find three numbers whose decimal expansions are non-terminating and nonrecurring. y.

5. This will help us to represent a real number on the number line.4.7 3. 6.8 Divide the portion between 3 and 4 into 10 equal parts and mark each point of division as in Fig 2.1 3.4 3.2 3. 4. Now 3.8. 2.776 lies between 3.5 3.16. 2.1011001110001g and 2. 3 and 5.6 3.776 on the number line.9 48 . the second 3.2 Representation of Real numbers on the number line We have seen that any real number can be represented as a decimal expansion.4 3. 8.72 3. 2.3 1.5 3. Let us locate 3.7 and 3. Insert any two irrational numbers between 4 and 5 .8.9) 3 3. 7.3 3.9 4 Fig.7 3. Locate 5 on the number line. let us focus on the portion between 3. Let us look closely at the portion of the number line between 3 and 4. and so on.2.76 3.9 4 3. We know that 3.12122122212222g and 0.15 and 0.6 3.77 3. 2.75 3.1 3. Find any three irrational numbers between Find any two irrational numbers between 3 and 3.1011001110001g Find any two rational numbers between 0.8 Fig. 7 7 Find any two irrational numbers between 3 and 2.8 3.78 3. Then the first mark to the right of 3 will represent 3.7 3. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 3 3.8 (Fig.74 3.8 3. 3.776 lies between 3 and 4.71 3.3 3. To view this clearly take a magnifying glass and look at the portion between 3 and 4. 5. Find a rational number and also an irrational number between 1.2122122212222g 2. 2.Chapter 2 Exercise 2. Find any two irrational numbers between 0. It will look like as shown in Fig. So.2 3.1.73 3.7 and 3.79 3.8.

777 3.8 into 10 equal parts. So 3. To view this portion clearly.78 Fig. upto 4 decimal places.27 into 10 equal parts and use a magnifying glass to visualise that 4. the next 3.263 into 10 equal parts and use a magnifying glass to visualise that 4.72.Real Number System Again divide the portion between 3.776 3.775 3. This process of visualisation of representation of numbers on the number line.77 3. let us divide this portion into 10 equal parts.10 The first mark represents 3.3 into 10 equal parts and use a magnifying glass to visualise that 4.2 and 4.3 Step 3: Divide the portion between 4. We magnify this portion. This has been illustrated in Fig. let us consider a real number with a non-terminating recurring decimal expansion and try to visualise the position of it on the number line.26 lies between 4. by the process of successive magnification.771 3.26 lies between 4.26 on the number line.779 3.71 3.7 3. Now.27 Step 4: Divide the portion between 4.77 and 3.26 lies between 4.10.2 and 4. we magnify the portion between 3.772 3.26 lies between 4 and 5 Step 2: Divide the portion between 4 and 5 into 10 equal parts and use a magnifying glass to visualise that 4.26 lies between 4.773 3.78.8 3.26 and 4. 3. 2.778 3.72 3. example 2.75 3. The first mark will represent 3.773.26 and 4.74 3. So.771.9 Again.776 is the 6th mark in this sub division. So. to see clearly as in Fig. and so on. that is upto 4.2626 Solution We locate 4.7 and 3.7 and 3.2625 and 4. the next mark 3.9 Visualise 4. 2.26 on the number line.78 3.71.11 Step 1: First we note that 4. 2.263 Step 5: Divide the portion between 4. 3. we can visualise the position of a real number with a terminating decimal expansion on the number line.776 lies between 3.262 and 4.8 as shown in Fig 2.262 and 4. and so on. by sufficient successive magnifications.2627 49 .79 3.76 3. through a magnifying glass is known as the process of successive magnification.73 3.772.774 3.

28 4.3 Properties of Real numbers ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ For any two real numbers a and b .4 1.2621 4.263 4.23 4.2627 4.269 4.262 4.5 4.264 4.9 5 4. associative.27 4.3 4.263 Fig.265 4.8 4.21 4.7 4.2628 4.29 4.2626 4.2 4.27 4.2629 4.3 4. Every real number has its negative real number.262 4.11 We note that 4.267 4. The same procedure can be used to visualize a real number with a non-terminating and non-recurring decimal expansion on the number line to a required accuracy. upto 4 decimal places. a = b or a > b or a < b The sum.262.25 4.22 4.266 4. Using the process of successive magnification (i) Visualize 3. (ii) Visualize 6.6 4. Exercise 2.26 4. product of two real numbers is also a real number.26 is visualized closer to 4.263 than to 4. 50 . 2.4 4.2 4.73 on the number line.4. The real numbers obey closure. 2.1 4. commutative and distributive laws under addition and under multiplication that the rational numbers obey.268 4.2623 4.2622 4.2625 4. difference. The number zero is its own negative and zero is considered to be neither negative nor positive. From the above discussions and visualizations we conclude again that every real number is represented by a unique point on the number line.26 4. The division of a real number by a non-zero real number is also a real number.261 4.24 4.Chapter 2 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 4.456 on the number line.2624 4. Further every point on the number line represents one and only one real number.

Remark If a is a rational number and (i) b is an irrational number then a + b is irrational (ii) a .b h = a . Key Concept 1. Then (ii) 2 . product and quotient of two irrational numbers may sometimes turnout to be a rational number.4. Let a and b be positive real numbers. To avoid confusion between these two we define the symbol the principal or positive square root.2 is also a square root of 4 because .2) # (. Let us state the following facts about rational numbers and irrational numbers. but . 3.b h = a2 . to mean (. difference. difference. 2 is a square root of 4 because 2 # 2 = 4 .2) = 4 .b ^a + b h^a . (i) 2 + 3 is irrational (iii) 2 3 is irrational 2. Let us now mention some useful identities relating to square roots. product or quotient of two irrational numbers need not be irrational. Then 1 2 3 4 5 6 ab = a = b a b a b ^ a + b h^ a . the sum.Real Number System Further the sum. product and quotient (except division by zero) of two rational numbers. Sum. The product or quotient of non-zero rational number and an irrational number is also an irrational number.b is irrational (iii) a b is irrational (iv) a is irrational (v) b is irrational a b For example.4 square Root of Real numbers Let a > 0 be a real number.b ^ a + b h^ c + d h = 2 ac + ad + bc + bd ^ a + b h = a + b + 2 ab 51 .3 is irrational (iv) 2 is irrational 3 a = b means b2 = a and b > 0 . The sum or difference of a rational number and an irrational number is always an irrational number 2. The result may be rational or irrational. will be rational number. However. difference.

Chapter 2 example 2.( 3 . Consider the two irrational numbers Their sum = 2 + (.2 = 2 3 is an irrational number. 3 . 3 and 2. (vi) product is not an irrational number. (iv) Consider the two irrational numbers 5 + 3 and Their difference = (5 + 3 ) . 2 and . 3 # 5 = 15 is an irrational number. (iv) difference is not an irrational number. (viii) quotient is not an irrational number. Solution (i) Consider the two irrational numbers 2 + 3 and Their sum = 2 + 3 + (ii) 3 -2 . (iii) Consider the two irrational numbers Their difference = 3 . sum is not an irrational number.5 ) = 10 is a rational number. (vii) quotient is an irrational number. Their quotient = 75 = 3 75 = 5 is a rational number.2 . 3 52 . (v) Consider the irrational numbers Their product = 3 and 5. 3 3 (viii) Consider the two irrational numbers 75 and 3 . (vii) Consider the two irrational numbers Their quotient = 15 = 15 = 5 is an irrational number. (vi) Consider the two irrational numbers Their product = 18 # 2 = 36 = 6 is a rational number. 15 and 3. (iii) difference is an irrational number.10 Give two irrational numbers so that their (i) (ii) sum is an irrational number. 3 .2 is an irrational number. 18 and 2.5.2 ) = 0 is a rational number. (v) product is an irrational number.

number.1 Index Form of a surd The index form of a surd n a is a n For example. the index form. 5 are irrational numbers. 3. why? 1 8 = ^8 h 1 5 8 can be written in index form as In the following table. are the cube roots of rational numbers.5. which cannot be expressed as cubes of any rational Surds If ‘ a ’ is a positive rational number and n is a positive integer such that n a is an irrational number. which cannot be expressed as squares of any rational number.5 surds We know that 2. Key Concept 2. 3 7 etc. Surd 5 3 Index Form 52 ^14h3 1 1 Order 2 3 4 Radicand 5 14 7 50 11 14 7 50 4 74 ^50h2 ^11h5 53 1 1 1 2 5 5 11 . notation The general form of a surd is n a is called the radical sign n is called the order of the radical. then n a is called a ‘surd’ or a ‘radical’. order and radicand of some surds are given. 2. 3 3. These are square roots of rational 3 numbers. This type of irrational numbers are called surds or radicals. a is called the radicand. 5 5 order n Radical sign a Radicand 1 Think and answer ! a 3 and a3 differ.Real Number System 2.

2 = 52 2 =5 2 Thus 5 2 is the simplest form of 2. (i) 5 . 3 3. 4 5 .5. For example.5 mixed surds A Surd is called a mixed if its rational coefficient is other than unity For example. A mixed surd can be converted into a pure surd and a pure surd may or may not be converted into a mixed surd. Thus. (ii) a is an irrational number.3 3 15 + 5 3 100 12 3 4 The numbers in Column A are surds and the numbers in Column B are irrationals. 3 81 are unlike surds.4 Pure surds A Surd is called a pure surd if its rational coefficient is unity For example.2 Reduction of a surd to its simplest Form We can reduce a surd to its simplest form.Chapter 2 Remark If n a is a surd. 3.5. 5 3 5 . 2. In the table given below both the columns A and B have irrational numbers. For example. 4 12 . 2. 80 are pure surds. A 5 3 B 2+ 3 3 7 5+ 7 10 . .5. For example.5. 4 5. then n (i) a is a positive rational number. every surd is an irrational number. (ii) 10 . Otherwise the surds are called unlike surds. but every irrational number need not be a surd. . 3 5 .6 5 are like surds. (i) 80 = 16 # 5 = 4 5 (ii) 3 2 = 54 32 # 2 = 9 # 2 = 18 (iii) 17 is a pure surd. but it cannot be converted into a mixed surd. 2. 3 4 12 are mixed surds.3 like and unlike surds Surds in their simplest form are called like surds if their order and radicand are the same. 2 3 . consider the surd Now 50 = 50 25 # 2 = 25 50 .

b we have a # n b = n ab n (iii) m n a = mn a = n m a (iv) n a = n a b b 2 3 Using (i) we have ^ a h = a . n and positive rational numbers a. (i) (i) 7 7 =7 2 1 (ii) (ii) 4 8 8 = 84 1 (iii) (iii) 3 6 6 = 63 1 (iv) 8 12 (iv) 8 12 = ^12h8 1 Solution In index form we write the given surds as follows 4 3 example 2.13 Express the following mixed surds into pure surds.12 Express the following surds in its simplest form.Real Number System Laws of Radicals For positive integers m. (i) 16 2 Solution (i) (ii) 16 2 = = = = = = 3 (ii) 3 3 2 162 # 2 256 # 2 = 33 # 2 3 (iii) 2 4 5 ^a 16 = 162 h (iv) 6 3 162 # 2 = 27 # 2 = 4 512 ^a 3 = 3 33 h 33 2 3 54 ^a 2 = 4 24 h (iii) 2 4 5 (iv) 6 3 = 24 # 5 4 = 4 16 # 5 = 80 ^a 6 = 62 h 62 # 3 36 # 3 = 108 55 . 3 a3 = ^ 3 a h = a ^n ah n (i) n =a= an (ii) n example 2.11 Convert the following surds into index form. (i) Solution (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 3 3 3 32 32 64 243 256 = = = = 3 3 (ii) 64 3 (iii) 8#3 4 = 3 243 (iv) 3 256 8#4 = 82 = 8 23 # 3 4 = 2 3 4 92 # 3 = 9 3 3 81 # 3 = 64 # 4 = 3 81 # 3 = 64 # 3 4 = 43 # 3 4 = 4 3 4 example 2.

(i) 3 + 3 (v) 2 3 Solution (i) 3+ 3 3 is a rational number and (ii) ^4 + 2 h .3 72 . 3 + 3 is irrational. Hence. 2 here 2 is rational and 3 12 # 3 = 12 # 3 = 3 is irrational. 2 is irrational.^4 . 2 2 2 19 .3 h (ii) ^4 + 2 h . 3 36 = 6. Hence.2 . 2.^2 + 19 h = 19 . is irrational. is rational.15 Identify whether the following numbers are rational or irrational.6 Four basic Operations on surds Like surds can be added and subtracted.Chapter 2 example 2.^2 + 19 h 3 is irrational. 32 = 16 # 2 = 4 2 4 is a rational number and 2 is an irrational number.19 = .27 + 5 18 16 + 8 3 54 . 32 is an irrational number. is rational. is rational. 2.16 Simplify (i) 10 2 . ` 4 2 is an irrational number and hence example 2.3 128 56 . = 4+ 2 -4+ 3 = (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 18 = 2 2 9#2 = 2 2 2 + 3 .2 . 9 # 2 = 3 .1 addition and subtraction of surds example 2.6.3 h (vi) 12 # 3 (iii) 18 2 2 (iv) 19 .^4 .2 2 + 4 32 (ii) (iii) 3 48 .14 Identify whether Solution 32 is rational or irrational.

Real Number System Solution (i) 10 2 .18 2 .4 3 2 = ^2 + 24 .2 2 + 4 # 4 # 2 = ^10 .27 + 5 18 = = 16 # 3 .3 36 # 2 .3 64 3 2 3 = 23 2 +8#3# 3 2 -43 2 = 2 3 2 + 24 3 2 .2 2 + 4 32 = 10 2 .9 # 3 + 5 9 # 2 16 3 .6.3 36 2 .17 Multiply (i) 3 13 # 3 5 Solution (i) (ii) 3 32 # 4 8 13 # 3 5 = 3 13 # 5 = 32 # 4 8 = = 4 3 65 4 32 # 8 2 5 # 23 = 4 4 28 = 4 24 # 24 = 2 # 2 = 4 2.3 128 = = 3 8 # 2 + 8 3 27 # 2 .2 + 16h 2 = 24 2 (ii) 48 .2 2 + 4 16 # 2 = 10 2 .18 + 15h 2 + ^4 .9 3 + 5 9 2 = 4 3 .4h 3 2 = 22 3 2 2.3h 3 = .2 multiplication of surds Product of two like surds can simplified using the following law.3 2 + 3 (iii) 3 16 + 8 3 54 .3 division of surds Like surds can be divided using the law n n a = b n a b 57 . n a#n b = n ab (ii) 4 example 2.6.3 3 + 15 2 = ^.3 72 .3 64 # 2 8 3 2 + 8 3 27 3 2 .

Chapter 2 example 2. we convert them to the same order and then multiplication or division is carried out. we just compare the radicands. the greatest irrational number is the one with the largest radicand. Then.20 Which is greater ? 4 5 or 3 4 Solution The orders of the given irrational numbers are 3 and 4. 3 and 4 is 12 3 = 12 36 = 12 729 3 3. We have to convert each of the irrational number to an irrational number of the same order. 4 5 = 12 44 = 12 256 4 = 12 53 = 12 125 example 2. we first convert them to the same order. (i) 3 5 = 53 = 12 12 54 (ii) 4 11 = 11 4 = 8 8 112 2.18 Simplify Solution (i) 15 54 ' 3 6 = 15 54 = 5 3 6 (ii) 3 (i) 15 54 ' 3 6 (ii) 3 128 ' 3 64 54 = 5 9 = 6 5 # 3 = 15 128 ' 3 64 = 3 3 128 = 64 3 128 = 64 3 2 Note When the order of the surds are different. Among the irrational numbers of same order.19 Convert the irrational numbers LCM of 2. 4 5 to the same order. If the order of the irrational numbers are not the same.4 Comparison of surds Irrational numbers of the same order can be compared. Solution The orders of the given irrational numbers are 2. example 2. 3 and 4. 3 4.6. 58 . Result n a = 12 m a m n 8 For example.

Now we convert each irrational number as of order 12.7 128 (ii) 7 3 2 + 6 3 16 . Now. 3 3 2 .4 3 320 4. 4. 4 4 and 3 are 3. 4 5 4 12 = 12 53 = 12 125 = 12 44 = 256 > 12 12 3 256 & 3 ` 125 4 > 4 5 example 2.50 . 3 in 2 . Identify which of the following are surds and which are not with reasons. and 4 is 12. 4 Exercise 2.3 54 (iv) 2 3 40 + 3 3 625 . 3 2 4 3 = 12 24 = = 12 43 = = 12 36 = 12 16 64 729 3 4 12 12 ` Ascending order: Descending order: 2. 4 and 2 respectively (ii) descending order 3 Solution The orders of the irrational numbers LCM of 2. (i) 2.21 Write the irrational numbers (i) ascending order 3 2.5 1.1 48 2 (iii) 4 72 . 3. (i) 5 75 + 8 108 . Express the following surds in its simplest form. 4 4. 3. Simplify the following. we convert each irrational number as of order 12.Real Number System LCM of 3 and 4 is 12. 8# 6 (ii) 90 (iii) 180 # 5 (iv) 4 5 ' 8 (v) 3 4 # 3 16 Simplify (i) ^10 + 3 h^2 + 5 h (iii) ^ 13 .2 h^ 13 + 2 h (ii) ^ 5 + 3 h 2 (iv) ^8 + 3 h^8 . (i) 3 108 (ii) 98 (iii) 192 59 (iv) 4 625 .3 h 3. 4 4.

(i) 3 4. (ii) ^a + b x h and ^a .7 Rationalization of surds Rationalization of Surds When the denominator of an expression contains a term with a square root or a number under radical sign. Let a and b be integers and x . Then Remark (i) ^a + x h and ^a . 2 or 3 4 3 (ii) 3 3 or 4 4 (iii) 3 or 4 10 Arrange in descending and ascending order. (iii) x + y and x . y be positive integers. (v) For rationalizing the denominator of a number.22 Rationalize the denominator of 2 3 Solution Multiplying the numerator and denominator of the given number by 2 = 2 # 3 = 2 3 3 3 3 3 60 3 . then each one is called the rationalizing factor of the other. (i) 5 # 18 (ii) (vi) 3 7#3 8 48 ' 8 72 (iii) 4 8 # 4 12 3#6 5 (v) 3 35 ' 2 7 7. 3 (ii) 3 2.x h are rationalizing factors of each other.b x h are rationalizing factors of each other.Chapter 2 5. the process of converting into an equivalent expression whose denominator is a rational number is called rationalizing the denominator. we multiply its numerator and denominator by its rationalizing factor. 3 4 (iii) 3 2.y are rationalizing factors of each other. (i) 6 5 (ii) 5 3 4 (iii) 3 4 5 (iv) 3 8 4 (iv) 3 6. 4 5. 6 3. Express the following as pure surds. Which is greater ? (i) 8. Simplify the following. we get . (iv) a + b is also called the conjugate of a . If the product of two irrational numbers is rational. example 2. 4 4.b is called the conjugate of a + b . 9 4 2.b and a .

24 Simplify 1 by rationalizing the denominator. The rationalizing factor is 8 + 2 5 1 8-2 5 = = 1 # 8+2 5 8-2 5 8+2 5 8+2 5 2 8 . 3+ 5 Solution Here the denominator is 3 + 5 .5 3.20 = 2^4 + 5 h 4 + 5 = 22 44 = 8+2 5 44 example 2.3 .3 5+ 3 5.Real Number System example 2. the rationalizing factor is 1 3+ 5 = 1 # 3+ 5 3.5 = 3. So.5 -2 = 7 + 1 = a + b 7 . Its conjugate is 5 . find the values of a and b .3 or the rationalizing factor is 5 .^2 5 h 2 = 8+2 5 64 .3 5.3 2 = 25 22 -3 5 -^ 3h 2 Solution Here the denominator is 8 . Rationalize the denominator of 1 5+ 3 = = example 2.25 Simplify 1 by rationalizing the denominator.3 2 = ^ 3h -^ 5h 2 = example 2.26 If Solution 7 -1 + 7 +1 3.5 2 3. 8-2 5 1 #5. 7 -1 7 +1 7 -1 = 7 -1 # 7 +1 61 7 -1 + 7 +1 7 -1 + 7 -1 7 +1 # 7 -1 7 +1 7 +1 .2 5 .5 3.3 5.3 = 5.23 1 5+ 3 Solution The denominator is 5 + 3 .5 3-5 5.

"-^1 . x 2 Exercise 2.2 (iv) 2 3 5 (viii) 2 + 3 .6 1. ` x .2 = 1 .2 h -1 2 = a + b 7 ( a = 8 . x =1+ 2 +1.27 If x = 1 + 2 .2 h.2 1-2 ` x .1 = ^1 + 2 h .4 3 (ii) (vi) 7 2+ 3 62 (iii) (vii) 75 5.1 2 2 = 7+1-2 7 + 7+1+2 7 7-1 7-1 = 8-2 7 + 8+2 7 6 6 = 8-2 7 +8+2 7 6 = 16 = 8 + 0 7 6 3 ` 8 +0 7 3 exmaple 2. find ` x .1 j x Solution x = 1 + 2 ( 1 1 = x 1+ 2 = 1 #1.2 = 2 Hence.1 j = 22 = 4. 3 = 1. (i) 3 2 (v) 5 .1h ^ 7 + 1h + 2 2 ^ 7h .2 1+ 2 1. Write the rationalizing factor of the following.2 = -^1 .Chapter 2 = ^ 7 . b = 0.1 ^ 7h .

x 2 If x = 3 + 1 . 10 . (1) We can rephrase this division.3 3 3 (vi) 5+ 2 5.414.5 2 1 10 + 5 4.8 division algorithm A series of well defined steps which gives a procedure for solving a problem is called an algorithm.3 2+5 3 2 . Rationalize the denominator of the following (i) 3 5 (ii) 2 3 3 (iii) 1 12 (iv) 2 7 11 3 (v) 33 5 9 3. If 5 + 6 = a + b 6 find the values of a and b . totally in terms of integers.5 3+2 5 5 . Then we write Fraction = Quotient + remainder divisor 13 = 3 2 + 5 5 For example.732.5 4+ 5 If x = 2 + 3 .4 .5 = a + b 5 . (ii) 6 (iii) 5 . Find the values of the following upto 3 decimal places. x 2. 8. 3. when we divide one integer by another non-zero integer. find the values of x2 + 12 .6 If If ^ 3 + 1h 2 4-2 3 5 +1 + 5 -1 = a + b 3 find the values of a and b . 4. 13 = 2(5) + 3 63 . we get an integer quotient and a remainder (generally a rational number).2 j . 9. find the values of a and b . (i) 1 11 + 3 (ii) 1 (iii) 9+3 5 1 11 + 13 (iv) 5 +1 5 -1 (v) 3 . 1. 10.Real Number System 2. 1. find the values of a and b .2 (vii) 3 +1 3 -1 (iv) (viii) 5. As we know from our earlier classes. 10 .236. without reference to the division operation. 5. 7. find the values of ` x . (i) 1 2 (v) 3 . Given that 3 .162.1 = a + b 5 . In this section we state an important property of integers called the division algorithm. 6. 5 . 5 +1 If 4 + 5 . 2. Simplify by rationalizing the denominator.

then there exist two non-negative integers q and r such that a = bq + r . 19 = 5(3) + 4 ` quotient = 3. 12 (iii) 27. 6 We write the given pair 30. 6 in the form a = bq + r . 0 # r < b as follows.28 Using division algorithm find the quotient and remainder of the following pairs. 0 # r < b . 30 = 6(5) + 0 ` quotient = 5.7 1. 0 # r < b as follows.Chapter 2 We observe that this expression is obtained by multiplying (1) by the divisor 5. Using division algorithm. In the above statement q (or) r can be zero. (iii) 30. 13 (iii) 30. q ! 0 when the remainder is not zero. q ! 0 terminates i. we have q a repeating (recurring) block of digits in the quotient. 3 (ii) 5. We refer to this way of writing a division of integers as the division algorithm. comes to an end. 64 . find the quotient and remainder of the following pairs..e. example 2. the decimal � When the decimal expansion of expansion is called non-terminating and recurring. [6 divides 30 five times and leaves the reaminder 0] remainder = 0 remainder = 3 [5 divides 19 three time and leaves the remainder 4] remainder = 4 (ii) 3. (ii) 3. If a and b are any two positive integers. 5 We write the given pair in the form a = bq + r . 3 = 13(0) + 3 ` quotient = 0. 3 Points to Remember p . 5 Solution (i) 19. 13 We write the given pair in the form a = bq + r . the q decimal is called a terminating decimal. 0 # r < b as follows. (i) 19. In this case. p � In the decimal expansion of . 6 Exercise 2. (i) 10.

. If ‘a’ is a positive rational number and n is a positive integer such that n a is an irrational number. the process of converting to an equivalent expression whose denominator is a rational number is called rationalizing the denominator. The result may be rational or irrational. Every real number is either a rational number or an irrational number. n and positive rational numbers a. product or quotient of two irrational numbers need not be irrational. If a real number is not a rational number.Real Number System � If a rational number p p . p i. q 2 # 5n m. it cannot be written in the form . there exist two non-negative integers q and r such that a = bq + r . The sum or difference of a rational number and an irrational number is always an irrational number The product or quotient of non-zero rational number and an irrational number is also an irrational number. b we have n (i) ^ n a h = a = n a n (ii) n a # n b = n ab n (iii) m n a = mn a = n m a (iv) n a = n a b b When the denominator of an expression contains a term with a square root or a number under radical sign. Otherwise. For positive integers m. then it must be an irrational number. q The union of all rational numbers and all irrational numbers is called the set of real numbers. Sum. If a and b are any two positive integers. An irrational number is a non-terminating and non-recurring decimal. q ! 0 can be expressed in the form m . the rational number will have a non-terminating repeating (recurring) decimal. 0 # r < b .e. difference. n ! W then the rational number will have a terminating decimal. then each one is called the rationalizing factor of the other. (Division Algorithm) 65 . where p ! Z and. where p and q are both integers and q ! 0 . � � � � � � � � � � A rational number can be expressed by either a terminating or a non-terminating repeating decimal. then n a is called a ‘surd’ or a ‘radical’. � � � If the product of two irrational numbers is rational.

the distance of sun from earth is about 92. square and cubical extractions of great numbers. JOHN NAPIER (1550 ..1617) John Napier was born in the Tower of Merciston. divisions.000 centimeter per second. which is now at the center of Napier University’s 3.. Napier.49 # 10.000 = 299 # 108 = 2. To apply the rules and to use logarithmic table. Napier is placed within a short lineage of mathematical thinkers beginning with Archimedes and more recent geniuses.000 mile.1 Scientific Notation Scientists. 29.Chapter 3 SCIENTIFIC NOTATIONS OF REAL NUMBERS AND LOGARITHMS Seeing there is nothing that is so troublesome to mathematical practice. nor that doth more molest and hinder calculators. To understand the rules of logarithms.000.000 = 929 # 105 = 9. thus avoiding the writing of many zeros and transposition errors.. I began therefore to consider in my mind by what certain and ready art I might remove those hindrances . The speed of light is 29. For example.99 # 1010 92.900. engineers and technicians use scientific notations when working with very large or very small numbers. with who the is credited of invention logarithms. Sir Issac Newton and Albert Einstein.29 # 107 0 $ 000549 = 549 = 5. the mass of an electron is 0 $ 000549 atomic mass units.4 66 . To convert exponential form to logarithmic form and vice-versa.900. than the multiplications.900.900.000. It is easier to express these numbers in a shorter way called Scientific Notation. only considered the study of mathematics as a hobby.49 1000000 10000 Merchiston campus. = 5. in 1550.JOHN NAPIER Main Targets ● ● ● ● To represent the number in Scientific Notation.

we define a. ` 9781 = 9. the laws of exponents form the basis for calculations using powers.781 # 103 67 .Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms That is. This gives n. a 3. To transform numbers from decimal notation to scientific notation. If the decimal is shifted to the right. The laws of exponents are given below: (i) (ii) am # an = am + n (Product law) (Quotient law) (Power law) (Combination law) am = am-n an (iii) ^a mhn = a mn (iv) a m # b m = ^a # bhm n For a ! 0 .1. Example 3. Let m and n be natural numbers and a is a real number. the decimal point at the end is usually omitted. 3 2 1 The decimal point is to be moved 3 places to the left of its original position.m = 1m . So the power of 10 is 3.1 Express 9781 in scientific notation. the exponent n is positive.zero digit to its left. N = a # 10 . Step 3: If the decimal is shifted to the left. Solution In integers. the exponent n is negative. Step 2: Count the number of digits between the old and new decimal point.1 Writing a Number in Scientific Notation The steps for converting a number to scientific notation are as follows: Step 1: Move the decimal point so that there is only one non . 9 7 8 1 . the power of 10. where 1 # a 1 10 and n is an integer. the very large or very small numbers are expressed as the product of a decimal number 1 # a 1 10 and some integral power of 10. Key Concept Scientific Notation A number N is in scientific notation when it is expressed as the product of a decimal number between 1 and 10 and some integral power of 10. and a0 = 1 .

(iv) 0.44909896 # 106 . and if the decimal point is moved r places to the right. 68 .000432078 = 4. (vi) 0. (iii) 3449098. . (v) 0. (ii) 205852 = 2 0 5 5 4 8 5 3 2 2 . Solution 0 . So the power of 10 is – 4 ` 0.96 = 3 4 6 4 5 9 4 0 3 9 2 8 .05852 # 105 . then this movement is compensated by the factor 10 p . n = –4 because the decimal point is shifted four places to the right.2 Express 0 $ 000432078 in scientific notation.00008035 = 0 .035 # 10.0063 = 0 . if the decimal point is moved p places to the left. n = 3 because the decimal point is shifted 1 three places to the left. 0 0 6 3 = 6.0063 Solution (i) 9345 = 9 3 3 (ii) 205852 (v) 0.08 # 10. (i) 9345 (iv) 0.96 (vi) 0. = 2. = 9. n = 6 because 1 the decimal point is shifted six places to the left.3 .000108 = 0 . n = 5 because the decimal 1 point is shifted five places to the left .4 . 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 3 2 0 7 8 4 The decimal point is to be moved four places to the right of its original position.4 Observe that while converting a given number into the scientific notation.r .000108 5 . 9 6 = 3.345 # 10 .3 # 10.3 Write the following numbers in scientific notation. Remark Example 3. 0 1 1 2 3 0 2 0 3 0 4 8 5 0 3 5 =8.32078 # 10. 0 1 0 2 0 3 1 4 0 8 = 1. n = –3 because the decimal point is shifted three places to the right.5 . then this movement is compensated by the factor 10.00008035 4 2 3 (iii) 3449098.Chapter 3 Example 3. n = –5 because the decimal point is shifted five places to the right.

36 # 10.00000000936 9 0 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 9 .36 9. raising to the power 3 on both sides we get.2. Step 2 : Move the decimal point the number of places specified by the power of ten: to the right if positive. 69 (ii) ^5000h4 # ^200h3 (iv) ^2000h2 ' ^0.236 5.72 # 109 (iii) 6.415 6.72 # 10 = 1720000000 9 (ii) 1. (i) ^4000000h3 (iii) ^0.236 # 105 Solution (i) (ii) 5. Step 1 : Write the decimal number. Step 3 : Rewrite the number in decimal form.36 # 10 -9 -6 0 = 0.Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms 3.1 Multiplication and Division in Scientific Notation One can find the product or quotient of very large(googolplex) or very small numbers easily in scientific notion. Example 3.236 # 105 = 523600 1. numbers in scientific notation need to be written in decimal form.7 1 2 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 (iii) 6.000006415 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 6 . To convert scientific notation to integers we have to follow these steps.6 (iv) 9.00003h5 Solution (i) First we write the number (within the brackets) in scientific notation.0001h4 .9 5. (i) 5.2 Converting Scientific Notation to Decimal Form Often.0 # 106 Now.72 1.415 # 10 (iv) 9. Add zeros if necessary. Example 3. to the left if negative. 4 1 5 1 0 = 0. 3 1 6 3. 4000000 = 4.2 1 3 2 6 3 0 4 0 5 1 .4 Write the following numbers in decimal form.415 # 10.5 Write the following in scientific notation.

87 # 109 (iii) 4.0h5 # ^10.0 # 103h 2 (1.0096 (iii) 105003 (vi) 0.0001h4 = ^2.0h3 # ^102h 4 3 = 625 # 1012 # 8 # 106 = 5000 # 1018 = 5. Represent the following numbers in scientific notation.001h3 .5 ` ^0.43 # 102 # 10.0 # 10. 2000 = 2.5h 5 5 = 243 # 10.0h4 # ^103h # ^2.0 # 102 .0 # 106 -^.0 # 106h = ^4.0001= 1.0 # 1022 10 Exercise 3.0 # 10.134 # 10.0 # 102) 3 4 3 3 = 6.4 # 1019 = ^5.00003 = 3.0 # 10.0 # 103h # (2.16 = 4.003h7 # ^0.25 # 10.6 (iv) 1. (i) 3.25 = 2.9 3.23 (iv) In scientific notation.0h4 # ^10.003) 2 ' ^30000h 70 (ii) ^1500h3 # ^0.4 (v) 9.134 # 104 (vi) 1.432 # 10.00003h5 = ^3.1 1.4 ` ^2000h2 ' ^0.0 # 103 and 200 = 2.0 # 1021 (iii) In scientific notation. (i) 749300000000 (iv) 543600000000000 (vii) 0.0 # 103 # 1018 = 5.0h3 # ^106h = 64 # 1018 (ii) In scientific notation. ` ^5000h4 # ^200h3 = ^5. (i) ^1000h2 # ^20h6 (iii) ^16000h3 ' ^200h4 (v) ^11000h3 # (0.4 # 101 # 1018 = 6.Chapter 3 ` ^4000000h3 = ^4.25 = 2. 0.0 # 103 and 0. (ii) 13000000 (v) 0.0000000022 2.86 # 107 (ii) 4.5h = ^3.0000013307 (viii) 0.0000000000009 Write the following numbers in decimal form.4h 106 = 4 #.16h = 4. Represent the following numbers in the scientific notation.0h2 # (103) 2 4 ^1.0001h2 (iv) ^0.4) 4 = ^2.43 # 10. 5000 = 5.0 # 10.0002h5 ' ^0.

Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms

3.3 Logarithms
Logarithms were originally developed to simplify complex arithmetic calculations. They were designed to transform multiplicative processes into additive ones. Before the advent of calculators, logarithms had great use in multiplying and dividing numbers with many digits since adding exponents was less work than multiplying numbers. Now they are important in nuclear work because many laws governing physical behavior are in exponential form. Examples are radioactive decay, gamma absorption, and reactor power changes on a stable period. To introduce the notation of logarithm, we shall first introduce the exponential notation for real numbers. 3.3.1 Exponential Notation Let a be a positive number. We have already introduced the notation a x , where x is an integer. We knowpthat a n is a positive number whose nth power is equal to a. Now we can see how to define a q , where p is an integer and q is a positive integer. Notice that
p 1

p = p # 1 , so if the power rule is to hold then q q
1 p p 1

a q = ` a q j = ^ a hq So, we define a q = ^ a h . For example, 8 5 = ^5 8 h and 5
q p 3 p 3 -7 3

= ^3 5 h

-7

Thus, if a > 0, we have been able to give suitable meaning to a x for all rational numbers x. Also for a > 0 it is possible to extend the definition of a x to irrational exponents x so that the laws of exponents remain valid. We will not show how a x may be defined for irrational x because the definition of a x requires some advanced topics in mathematics. So, we accept now that, for any a > 0 , a x is defined for all real numbers x and satifies the laws of exponents. 3.3.2 Logarithmic Notation If a > 0, b > 0 and a ! 1 , then the logarithm of b to the base a is the number to which a to be raised to obtain b. Key Concept Logarithmic Notation

Let a be a positive number other than 1 and let x be a real number (positive, negative, or zero). If a x = b , we say that the exponent x is the logarithm of b to the base a and we write x = log a b . x = log a b is the logarithmic form of the exponential form b = a x . In both the forms, the base is same.
71

Chapter 3

For example, Exponential Form 24 = 16 83 = 2 4 Example 3.6 Change the following from logarithmic form to exponential form. (i) log4 64 = 3 Solution (i) (ii) (ii) log16 2 = 1 4 (iii) log5 ` 1 j =- 2 iv) log10 0.1 =- 1 25
3 -2 1

Logarithmic Form log2 16 = 4 log8 2 = 1 3 log4 ` 1 j =- 3 8 2

=1 8

log4 64 = 3 ( 43 = 64
1

log16 2 = 1 ( (16) 4 = 2 4 (iii) log5 ` 1 j =- 2 ( ^5 h- 2 = 1 25 25 (iv) log10 0.1 =- 1 ( ^10h- 1 = 0.1 Example 3.7 Change the following from exponential form to logarithmic form. (i) 3 = 81 (iv) (216) 3 = 6 Solution (i) (ii) 3 = 81 ( log3 81 = 4 6- =
3 4 4 1 4

1 1296 (v) ^13h- 1 = 1 13 (ii) 6- =
4

(iii) ` 1 j4 = 1 81 27

3

1 ( log 1 =–4 6 ` 1296 j 1296

(iii) ` 1 j4 = 1 ( log 1 ` 1 j = 3 81 27 4 81 27 (vi) (216) 3 = 6 ( log216 6 = 1 3 (v)
^13h- 1 = 1 ( log13 ` 1 j = - 1
1

13

13

72

Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms

Example 3.8 Evaluate (i) log8 512 Solution (i) (ii) log27 9 (iii) log16 ` 1 j 32

Let x = log8 512 . Then 8 = 512
x

(exponential form)

8 x = 83 ( x = 3
` log8 512 = 3 (ii) Let x = log27 9 . Then 27 = 9
^33h = ^3 h2
x x

(exponential form) (convert both sides to base three)

(iii)

3x 2 3 = 3 ( 3x =2 ( x = 2 3 2 ` log27 9 = 3 Let x = log16 ` 1 j . Then 32 x (exponential form) 16 = 1 32 x ^24h = 1 (convert both sides to base two) ^2h5

2

4x

= 2- ( 4x = - 5 ( x = - 5
5

4

` log16 ` 1 j = - 5 4 32 Example 3.9 Solve the equations (i) log5 x =- 3 (ii) x = log 1 64
1 4

(iii) log x 8 = 2

(iv) x + 3 log8 4 = 0 (v) log x 7 6 = 1 3 Solution (i) log5 x =- 3 5- = x x = 13 ( x = 1 125 5 x = log 1 64 1 x (exponential form) ` 4 j = 64 1 = 43 ( 4- x = 43 ( x = - 3 x 4
73
4 3

(exponential form)

(ii)

Chapter 3

(iii) log x 8 = 2 x2 = 8 x = (iv) 8 =2 2

(exponential form)

x + 3 log8 4 = 0 ( ( - x = 3 log8 4 = log8 4 –x = log8 64
3

( ^8 h- x = 64 ( x = -2

(exponential form)

( ^8 h- x = 82 (v) log x 7 6 = 1 3
1 6 1 1

( x3 = 76
1 1 1 1

1

(exponential form)

1 3 3 We write 7 = `7 2 j . Then x 3 = `7 2 j

` x = 72 =

1

7

The Rules of Logarithms 1. Product Rule:The logarithm of the product of two positive numbers is equal to sum of their logarithms of the same base. That is, log a (M # N) = log a M + log a N 2. Quotient Rule: The logarithm of the quotient of two positive numbers is equal to the logarithm of the numerator minus the logarithm of the denominator to the same base. That is, log a ` M j = log a M - log a N N Power Rule: The logarithm of a number in exponential form is equal to the logarithm of the number multiplied by its exponent. That is, log a ^ M hn = n log a M 4. Change of Base Rule: If M, a and b are positive numbers and a ! 1 , b ! 1 , then log a M = ^log b M h # ^log a bh (i) (ii) If a is a positive number and a ! 1 , log a a = 1 If a is a positive number and a ! 1 , log a 1 = 0

3.

R

a em

qk r

(iii) If a and b are positive numbers a ! 1, b ! 1 ^log a bh # ^log b ah = 1 and log a b = 1 log b a (iv) If a and b are positive numbers and b ! 1 , blogb a = a .
74

Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms

(v)

If a > 0 , log a 0 is undefined.

(vi) If b ,x and y are positive numbers other than 1 then log b x = log b y if and only if x = y . (vii) We are avoiding 1 in the base of all logarithms because if we consider one such logarithm, say log1 9 with 1 in the base, then x = log1 9 would give 1 x = 9 . We know that there is no real number x , such that 1 x = 9 . Example 3.10 Simplify (i) log5 25 + log5 625 Solution (ii) log5 4 + log5 ` 1 j 100 [a log a ^ M # N h = log a M + log a N ]

(i) log5 25 + log5 625 = log5 ^25 # 625h

= log5 ^52 # 54h = log5 56 = 6 log5 5 [a log a ^ M hn = n log a M ] = 6^1 h = 6 (ii) log5 4 + log5 ` 1 j = log5 `4 # 1 j 100 100 [a log a a = 1] [a log a ^ M # N h = log a M + log a N ] [a log a ^ M hn = n log a M ]

= log5 ` 1 j = log5 c 12 m = log5 5- 2 = - 2 log5 5 25 5 = - 2^1 h = - 2 Example 3.11 Simplify log8 128 - log8 16 Solution log8 128 - log8 16 = log8 128 16 = log8 8 = 1 Example 3.12 Prove that log10 125 = 3 - 3 log10 2 [a log a a = 1]

[a log a ` M j = log a M - log a N ] N [a log a a = 1]

Solution 3 - 3 log10 2 = 3 log10 10 - 3 log10 2 = log10 103 - log10 23 = log10 1000 - log10 8 = log10 1000 8 = log10 125 ` log10 125 = 3 - 3 log10 2
75

Chapter 3

Example 3.13 Prove that log3 2 # log4 3 # log5 4 # log6 5 # log7 6 # log8 7 = 1 3 Solution log3 2 # log4 3 # log5 4 # log6 5 # log7 6 # log8 7 = ^log3 2 # log4 3h # ^log5 4 # log6 5h # ^log7 6 # log8 7h = log4 2 # log6 4 # log8 6 = ^log4 2 # log6 4h # log8 6 [a log a M = log b M # log a b ] = log6 2 # log8 6 = log8 2 = 1 1 = 3 log2 2 log2 23 =1 [a log2 2 = 1] 3 = Example 3.14 Find the value of 25- 2 log5 3 Solution 25- 2 log5 3 = ^52h- 2 log5 3 = 5- 4 log5 3 =5 Example 3.15 Solve log16 x + log4 x + log2 x = 7 Solution log16 x + log4 x + log2 x = 7 ( 1 =7 + 1 + 1 log x 16 log x 4 log x 2 1 + 1 + 1 =7 log x 24 log x 22 log x 2 1 =7 + 1 + 1 4 log x 2 2 log x 2 log x 2 [a n log a M = log a M n ] [a log a b = 1 ] log b a log 3-4
5

1 log2 8

[a log a b =

1 ] log b a

[a log a ^ M hn = n log a M ]

[a n log a M = log a M n ] [a blogb a = a]

= 3- 4 = 14 = 1 81 3

1 1 7 1 1 8 4 + 2 + 1 B log 2 = 7 ( 8 4 B log 2 = 7 x x 1 = 7# 4 log x 2 7 log2 x = 4 24 = x ` x = 16
76

[a log a b =

1 ] log b a

(exponential form)

log2 ^ x .log2 ^ x .1h .1h . Then log2 x = 3 23 = x ` x=8 Example 3.2h = 3 Solution log2 ^3x .1 ( 8x .2h = 3x . we get 2 + log x 10 3 2 + log x 10 = 3 ( log x 10 = 3 . log3 y = 1 31 = y ` y=3 Put y = 3 in (1).1 x-2 Cross multiplying.3x = .17 Solve log3 ^log2 xh = 1 Solution Let log2 x = y Then.16 Solve Solution 1 = 1 2 + log x 10 3 1 = 1 . we get [ a log a ` M j = log a M .1 j = 3 x-2 2 3 = 3x .18 Solve log2 ^3x .1 x-2 8 = 3x .log a N ] N (exponential form) (exponential form) (exponential form) (exponential form) 8^ x .1 .16 8x .1 + 16 ( 5x = 15 ` x=3 77 = 3x .Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms Example 3. Cross multiplying.2 = 1 x1 = 10 ` x = 10 Example 3.2h = 3 log2 ` 3x .

4 .log5 4 + 3 log49 7 = log5 ` 36 j + 3 log49 49 = log5 9 + 3^1 h 4 = log5 9 + 3 log5 5 = log5 9 + log5 ^5h3 = log5 9 + log5 125 = log5 ^9 # 125h = log5 1125 ` log5 1125 = 2 log5 6 .4 j = 1 x+2 1 5 = 7x .1 3 (ii) log 1 8 = 3 log2 25 (iv) log2 ` 25 j = log2 3 3 (vi) log a ^ M . State whether each of the following statements is true or false.log a N ] N [ a log a M = n log a M ] n (exponential form) Exercise 3.19 Prove that log5 1125 = 2 log5 6 .4 .log5 x + 2 = 1 2 log5 c 7x .4 = 5x + 10 ( 7x .N h = log a M ' log a N 78 2 .4 = 1 2 2 8 5 ` x + 2 jB log5 ` 7x .4 j2 = 1 2 x+2 1 log 7x .2 1.1 = log5 x + 2 2 Solution log5 7x .4 m = 1 2 x+2 log5 ` 7x .log5 (16) 2 + 3 # 2 log49 7 = log5 36 .5x = 10 + 4 2x = 14 ` x =7 1 2 1 2 [ a log a ` M j = log a M . ( 7x – 4 = 5(x + 2) 7x .1 log5 16 + 6 log49 7 2 Example 3.1 log5 16 + 6 log49 7 2 1 log 16 + 6 log 7 Solution 2 log5 6 5 49 2 = log5 6 .4 .1 = log5 x + 2 2 log5 7x .4 x+2 Cross multiplying.Chapter 3 Example 3. (i) log5 125 = 3 (iii) log4 ^6 + 3h = log4 6 + log4 3 (v) log 1 3 = .20 Solve log5 7x .

2 = 1 144 (iii) log5 1 = 0 (vi) log0.5 8 = . (ii) log 1 x = 3 (i) log2 x = 1 2 5 (iv) log x 125 5 = 7 (v) log x 0. Obtain the equivalent logarithmic form of the following. = 1 (v) 25 2 = 5 4 Obtain the equivalent exponential form of the following.001 = –3 Simplify the following.6 log64 4 (iv) log8 16 + log 52 8 (vi) log10 8 + log10 5 .1 = log3 ^ x + 4 h 2 Given log a 2 = x .log6 ^ x . 4. 6.Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms 2.5 .2 (vi) x + 2 log27 9 = 0 5. (i) log10 3 + log10 3 (ii) log25 35 . (i) log4 ^ x + 4h + log4 8 = 2 (ii) log6 ^ x + 4h .log25 10 2 (iii) 10.log7 121 . (ii) log9 3 = 1 (i) log6 216 = 3 2 1 = -1 (v) log64 ` j (iv) log 3 9 = 4 2 8 Find the value of the following. Solve the equation in each of the following. (i) 24 = 16 (iv) 8 -2 3 (ii) 35 = 243 1 3.0001 Solve the following equations. (viii) log3 ^ 5x . (iii) log7 21 + log7 77 + log7 88 . (i) log3 ` 1 j (ii) log7 343 81 (iv) log 1 8 (v) log10 0.3 (iii) log6 6 5 (vi) log 3 9 3 (iii) log3 y = .1 (vi) 12.1 = 0.log7 24 1 log13 8 (v) 5 log10 2 + 2 log10 3 .log2 5 = log2 125 (vii) log3 25 + log3 x = 3 log3 5 (iv) log4 ^8 log2 xh = 2 8. y and z . Find the value in each of the following in terms of x . (i) log a 15 (iv) log a ` 27 j 125 (ii) log a 8 (v) log a `3 1 j 3 79 (iii) log a 30 (vi) log a 1.1h =1 (iii) log2 x + log4 x + log8 x = 11 6 (v) log10 5 + log10 ^5x + 1h = log10 ^ x + 5h + 1 (vi) 4 log2 x . log a 3 = y and log a 5 = z .log10 4 7.2 h .

16 = 2 log10 4 .4997 .4 Common Logarithms For the purpose of calculations.16 # 10 ) = log 3. Logarithms to the base 10 are called common logarithms.4997 2.4997 31. the base of the decimal number system.6 or 316? For example.4997 .4997 . 80 .4997 . For example. (i) log10 1600 = 2 + 4 log10 2 (ii) log10 12500 = 2 + 3 log10 5 (iii) log10 2500 = 4 . Thus.1 –3 –2 –1 –4 So. we have log 316 = log (3.001 0.. the most logical number for a base is 10. no base designation is used. Scientific notation provides a convenient method for determining the characteristic. 3. log N is an integer if N is an integral power of 10.2 log10 2 (v) log5 0. 316 = 10 Therefore.4997 . Prove the following equations. log 316 = 2.4997 + 2 = 2.0001 0.4997 0. log 31.4997 log 31. 31.4997 The logarithm of a number less than 1 is negative. log 3.4997 .16 or 1. Therefore. Consider the following table. logarithm of a number between 10 and 100 is a number between 1 and 2 and so on. characteristic is 1 and mantissa is 0. In 2 scientific notation 316 = 3.Chapter 3 9. Every logarithm consists of an integral part called the characteristic and a fractional part called the mantissa.4997 log 316 = 2.e. characteristic is 0 and mantissa is 0. Notice that logarithm of a number between 1 and 10 is a number between 0 and 1 . characteristic is 2 and mantissa is 0.4997 . It is convenient to keep the mantissa positive even though the logarithm is negative.1 log5 8 + 20 log32 2 2 3 3.6 = 10 .2 10. i.2 (vi) log5 1875 = 1 log5 36 .16 + log 10 2 2 = 0.6 = 1. What about logarithm of 3. Thus.01 104 0.16 = 0.16 # 10 .6 = 1.3 10.5 log5 10 (iv) log10 0. log N means log10 N .16 = 10 .16 = 0. log 3. the power of 10 determines the characteristic of logarithm. in the discussion which follows. Number N Exponential Form of N log N 0.00125 = 3 .1 1 10 0 0 10 10 1 1 100 10 2 2 1000 10 3 3 10000 10 4 4 10.

Hence.1 + 0.6615. 2.22 Given that log 4586 = 3.6615 81 .91 Solution (i) (ii) In scientific notation. (i) log 27.791 # 10 ` The characteristic is 1 In scientific notation.86 = 1. 0. (iv) log 0. The negative sign of the characteristic is written above the characteristics as 1. 2475 = 2. etc. the characteristic of 0. 27.6615 = 3. find (i) log 45. (iii) Mantissa is always positive.02871 = 2. the characteristic is negative and is one more than the number of zeros immediately following the decimal point.000987 = 9.6615 (iv) log 0.86 (ii) log 45860 (iii) log 0. 0.6615.Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms Example 3.04586 = .004586 = .6615 = 2 .475 # 10 ` The characteristic is 3 The characteristic is also determined by inspection of the number itself according to the following rules.4586 3 4 2 1 (ii) log 0.6615 (ii) log 45860 = 4.004586 (v) log 0.3 + 0. (ii) For a number less than 1.04586 (vi) log 4.4586 = . Example 3.87 # 10` The characteristic is – 4 (iv) In scientific notation.6615 = 1 .586 = 0.21 Write the characteristic of the following.6615 (v) log 0. (i) For a number greater than 1.91 = 2.0316 is 2 .2 + 0.02871 (iii) log 0.6615 (iii) log 0. For example.871 # 10` The characteristic is –2 (iii) In scientific notation. (i) log 45.000987 (iv) log 2475.6615 (vi) log 4. the characteristic is positive and is one less than the number of digits before the decimal point.586 Solution The mantissa of log 4586 is 0.

6053 . 8. The characteristic is used only to determine the number of digits in the integral part or the number of zeros immediately after the decimal point. if log y = x.6117 We note the number in row beneath the digit 8 in front of N = 4. 5. These columns are marked with serial numbers 1 to 9.6031 . (iii) After these columns. log 40.85 = 1. Therefore. 3. 7.4.6085 . 1. we take into consideration only the mantissa. Now 40.0 in logarithmic table is given below.0.2 Antilogarithms The number whose logarithm is x. 2. then antilog x = y . The mantissas are given correct to four places of decimals. 3. 82 . Thus. Next the mean difference corresponding to 5 is 0. is called the antilogarithm of x and is written as antilog x .085 # 10 .0 .6107 . 3. 4.85 = 4. Note that the mantissas of logarithms of all the numbers consisting of same digits in same order but differing only in the position of decimal point are the same.6075 ...6096 . the given number is 40. there are again nine columns under the head mean difference.6064 . 6. the characteristic is 1.3. This table gives the value of the antilogarithm of a number correct to four places of decimal. Thus the required mantissa is 0.6112 .6112.4.6107 + 0. We shall explain how to find the mantissa of a given number in the following example.85.0005 = 0. The row in front of the number 4.0. For finding antilogarithm.1. The number is 0. Hence.3 Method of Finding Antilogarithm The antilogarithm of a number is found by using a table named ‘ANTILOGARITHMS’ given at the end of the book.. A logarithmic table consists of three parts . 9 contain the mantissas. Suppose. (i) (ii) First column contains numbers from 1. 1.1 Method of Finding Logarithm Tables of logarithm usually contain only mantissas since the characteristic can be readily determined as explained above.9 Next ten columns headed by 0.0005.6107.6042 .2 . 1 Mean Difference 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 8 8 9 9 10 4.4.6021 . upto 9.Chapter 3 3.

log 7.6243 Mean difference of 5 is 0.23 Find (i) log 86.0003 = 0.304 = 0.9380 + 0.30391 # 102 approximate it as 7.6248 = 3. Note Since the logarithmic table given at the end of this text book can be applied only to four digit number.9383 (scientific notation) (ii) 730.3 + 0.3 (scientific notation) approximate it as 4.391 (iii) log 0.Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms The method of using the table of antilogarithms is the same as that of the table of logarithms discussed above.215 = 0. To find mantissa consider the number 7.9380 Mean difference of 6 is ` ` The characteristic is 1.391= 7.6243 + 0. 0.0003 log 8. log 4.8635 ` The characteristic is 2.0005 = 0.0002 = 0.76= 8. in this section we approximated all logarithmic calculations to four digits Example 3. To find mantissa consider the number 8.21526 and .8635 (iii) 0.215 (since 2 in the fourth decimal place is less than 5).21 is 0.8633 Mean difference of 4 is ` log 730.30391 and 0.676 # 10 1 (ii) log 730.00421526 = .00421526 (scientific notation) From the table.30 is 0. To find mantissa consider the number 4.76 = 1.6248 83 ` The characteristic is –3.304 (since 9 in the fourth decimal place is greater than 5) From the table. From the table.0002 log 7.21526 # 10.9383 log 86.00421526 = 4.8633 + 0.676 = 0. log 8.391 = 2.0005 log 4.676.67 is 0.76 Solution (i) 86.6248 ` log 0.

the number contains one digit in its integral part.6709 From the table.6 + log 2.670 is 4.122 (iii) Characteristic is . the number contains one zero immediately following the decimal point.118 + 0.31 0. antilog of 0.04687 0.2 .163 = 1.9645 ` x = antilog 1.004 ` antilog 0.163 Solution (i) Let x = 42.6 # 2.8652.8652 = 73.118 Mean difference of 9 is 0.24 Find Solution (i) Characteristic is 1.Chapter 3 Example 3. Taking logarithm on both sides.328 Mean difference of 2 is antilog 1.003 = 7.6709 = 4.3351 = 1.163h = log 42.3269 = 2.009321 .331 ` (ii) Characteristic is 0.6 # 2.6294 + 0.17 # 0. Mantissa is 0. So. (i) antilog 1.6 # 2. the number contains two digits in its integral part.8652 = 7.328 + 0.3269 (iii) antilog 2.6709 From the table. Mantissa is 0.010 antilog 0.3269 From the table.003 antilog 0.15 84 (ii) 23.677 Mean difference of 9 is ` antilog 2. antilog 0.6709 = 0. we get log x = log ^42.8652 (ii) antilog 0.687 Example: 3. So.25 Find (i) 42.326 is 2.163 . Mantissa is 0.9645 = 92.677 + 0. antilog 0.010 = 4.004 = 2. So.865 is 7.

1 + 0.4335 5 5 = ^. we get log x = log ^36.3749h4 .3649 + 3. Taking logarithm on both sides.5 + 4.5739h = 4^.2956 = .5739h = .2956 = .4 + 2 + 0.2713 = (0.2956 = 2.3749h4 = 4 log 0.1 + 0. Taking logarithm on both sides.3570 ` x = antilog 9.2.3749 = 4^1.3343 = 1.4h + 4 + 0.3 + 0.17 # 0.3649 .17 # 0.8867 = 1.3343 ` x = antilog 1. we get log x = log (0.2956 = .8867 = 0.3749h4 (iii) 5 0.2713) 5 = 1 log 0.5 + 4.2 + 1 + 0.4335h = .2 + 1.27h6 = 6 log 36.8867 ` x = antilog 1.4335 = .17 + log 0.27h6 (ii) ^0.4335 5 5 5 =.1 + 0.009321 .2713 0.3343 =.27h6 .2713) 5 . Taking logarithm on both sides.27 = 6^1.Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms (ii) Let x = 23.26 Find the value of Solution (i) Let x = ^36.9694 = 1 + 0.1 + 0. Taking logarithm on both sides.4 + 2.2956 = 0. we get log x = log ^0.2 + 0.7703 85 .4335 1 1 5 = .9694 =.3570 = 2275000000 (ii) Let x = ^0.2713 5 = 1 ^1. we get log x = log ^23.2956 ` x = antilog 2.3343 =.5595h = 9.009321 = 1.2159 Example: 3.1 .009321h = log 23.01975 (iii) Let x = 5 (i) ^36.3343 = 0.

3584 = 2.81) # 4.2) 2 .3.0.5) # 3 0.2) 2 (2.7 # (65.1 (1.2 86 4 1 2 1 .0064 2 (72.2 .0064) 3 .2687 = 2+0.4487) .log (62.5) # 3 0.0.9724 = 0.3 (0.8973 3 = 3.81) 3 # (4.6040 = 4.7) # 65.5) + log (0.5) # 62.5 + 1 log 0.6040 ` x = antilog 0.0897–1+0.3 + 0.3 log 2.6263 = 2.5) .27 Simplify Solution (i) (46.7945) 3 2 = 7.7206 .3 3 2 = 4(1.23 2 = 1.3461 – 0.1 log 62.Chapter 3 Example : 3.3 (72.9269) + 1 (3.0064) 3 log x = log > 1 H 2 (72.2687) = 3+0.log 4.7 + log (65.log (72.23) (2.3) 2 4 1 4 4 1 (ii) = log (84.5764 – 1.log 4.5 . we get (84.0897 + (–1+0.2 (1.2 46.8062) .2 (2.23 Taking logarithm on both sides.3 4 H 1 3 = log 46.7076 + 1 (.5) # 62.81 .2 log 72.5) # (62.81) # 4.3) 2 = 4 log 84.81) .6263 2 = 1.23) (ii) (84.6693 + 1 (1.3584 ` x = antilog2.3) 2 Taking logarithm on both sides.81) 3 # (4.9071 – 1.23 = log 46.5) # (62.018 (84.2) 2 Let x = = 3 (2.log (2.5) # (0.0064) 3 Let x = = 2 1 2 (72.6693 + 0.23 3 1 1 (i) (46. we get log x = log > 46.0064 (84.8062) .0064 .7 + 1 log 65.3584 = 228.7) # 65.5) # (0.8603) .8142) .7 # (65.

00257 (vi) log 6. we get 0.0503 . Find the value of the following.321 (v) log 0.log 0.75 (v) log 23750000 (iii) log 2. Taking logarithm on both sides.1 + 0.3826 (vi) antilog 2. Write each of the following in scientific notation: (i) 92.453 3.2375 (ii) log 23.17 (iv) log 0.2732 87 (iii) antilog 1 .6021 = 0.9243 (v) 0. The mantissa of log 23750 is 0.375 (vi) log 0.26 # 1 log10 4 [a log a M = log b M # log a b ] [a log a b = 1 ] log b a = 1.26 Solution log4 13.7797 = 0.00002375 4.1798 .072 (iv) antilog 3.7797) = 0.9876 (iii) log 329. Using logarithmic table find the value of the following.26 = log10 13.1225 . (i) log 23.6021 = log 1.0.26 # log4 10 = log10 13.1.7797 = 1.0.1225 = x (say) 0.2798 (iii) log 0.0503 + 1 .6021 log x = log ` 1.009243 (iii) 9243 (vi) 0.6037 (ii) antilog 1.Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms Example 3.3576.0503 .(.6021 Then x = 1.2706 ` x = antilog 0.1225 .759 (v) antilog 0.0756 (ii) log 24.2706 = 1.001364 (ii) log 9. Write the characteristic of each of the following (i) log 4576 (iv) log 0.7797 = 0. (i) log 23750 (iv) log 0. Using antilogarithmic table find the value of the following.56 (v) log 0.3 1.43 (ii) 0. (i) antilog 3.0503 .865 Exercise: 3.09243 (iv) 924300 2.1225 j 0.5 (vi) log 6576 5.28 Find the value of log4 13.

42 (v) ^50.3 (vi) (ix) 3 561. N = a # 10 n . b ! 1 n x 88 .28 (xii) log3 7 Points to Remember � A number N is in scientific notation when it is expressed as the product of a decimal number 1 # a 1 10 and some integral power of 10. � If a = b (a > 0.56 (x) 3 0.49h5 (viii) 3 (iii) 0.42 (iv) 0.Chapter 3 6.4 28 # 5 729 46. a ! 1.3421 ' 0.8 (ii) 816.159 1828. then x is said to be the logarithm of b to the base a. a ! 1) .37 69.75h5 # 0.3 # 37.3 ' 37.25h3 # 3 1.928 ^42.09782 (vii) 175.log a N N � Power rule : log a (M) = n log a M � Change of base rule : log a M = log b M # log a b.7214 # 20.04623 (xi) log9 63.000645 # 82. which is written x = log a b .23 # 22.35 ^76. where 1 # a 1 10 and n is an integer . Evaluate: (i) 816. � Product rule : log a (M # N) = log a M + log a N � Quotient rule : log a ` M j = log a M .

1 Introduction The language of algebra is a wonderful instrument for expressing shortly. By the early decades of the twentieth century. Arithmetica has very little in common with traditional Greek mathematics since it is divorced from geometric methods. To solve linear inequation in one variable. The history of algebra began in ancient Egypt and Babylon.2 Algebraic Expressions An algebraic expression is an expression formed from any combination of numbers and variables by using the 89 . as well as indeterminate equations such as x2 + y2 = z2. instead of simple approximations 4. DIophAntus (200 to 284 A. a treatise that was originally thirteen books but of which only the first six have survived. Algebra has been developed over a period of 4000 years. He is known for having written Arithmetica. whereby several unknowns are involved. 4. or 214 to 298 A. To use Remainder Theorem. algebra had evolved into the study of axiomatic systems.D.CARL BOYER Main Targets ● ● ● ● ● ● ● To classify polynomials. where people learned to solve linear (ax = b) and quadratic (ax2 + bx = c) equations.Algebra ALGEBRA Mathematics is as much an aspect of culture as it is a collection of algorithms . Important new results have been discovered. To factorize a polynomial. To solve linear equations in two variables. only by the middle of the 17th Century the representation of elementary algebraic problems and relations looked much as it is today. perspicuously. but the uncertainty of this date is so great that it may be off by more than a century.) Diophantus was a Hellenistic mathematician who lived circa 250 AD. To use Factor Theorem. both determinate and indeterminate. suggestively and the exceedingly complicated relations in which abstract things stand to one another. But.D. and it is different from Babylonian mathematics in that Diophantus is concerned primarily with exact solutions. and the subject has found applications in all branches of mathematics and in many of the sciences as well. This axiomatic approach soon came to be called modern or abstract algebra. To use algebraic identities.

12x y .2xy. the resulting number is called the value of the expression for these values of variables. we mean an expression that contains only 3 those variables. Terms such as 5x y and .4xz + rx.12x yz + 3x .y .4xz . the expression 3x + 2xy is a binomial.4 is a trinomial. x . The coefficients of the polynomial above are 3. the term . in the 2 2 2 2 1 1 algebraic sum 3x y .+ 3 x . however. For instance.3 polynomials A polynomial is an algebraic expression. A constant.1 which 2 2 contains no variables. An algebraic expression with two or more terms is called a multinomial. 4xy + 1 By an algebraic expression in certain variables.12x yz has degree 3 + 1 + 2 = 6.Chapter 4 operations of addition. For instance. Each part.3y + 1 . For instance. In adding exponents. multiplication. 2 and . A coefficient such as –4. 7. 2x . A term such as . is called a constant term of the polynomial. Such a one-termed expression is called a monomial. and all variables that do appear are powers of positive integers. If an algebraic expression consists of part connected by plus or minus signs.4x . we mean an algebraic expression that contains no variables at all. the trinomial . y y Any part of a term that is multiplied by the remaining part of the term is called the 2 2 coefficient of the remaining part. An algebraic expression such as 4rr can be considered as an algebraic expression consisting of just one term.4 is not a polynomial. is called a numerical coefficient. and an algebraic expression with three terms is called a trinomial.4xz and rx. 2 1 2 4. together with the sign preceding it is called a term. For instance. the coefficient of z 2 y y is . For instance. are called like terms or similar terms. one should regard a variable with no exponent as being power one. in the polynomial 9xy .+ 3 x . If numbers are substituted for the variables in an algebraic expression. which differ only in their numerical coefficients. and the term 3x has degree one. An algebraic expression with two terms is called a binomial. exponentiation (raising powers). rr and rr r + h are algebraic expressions.2 . division.y .1 . in the term .2xy. The constant term is always regarded as having degree zero. whereas .1 is a polynomial in the variables x and y . 2 The degree of a term in a polynomial is the sum of the exponents of all the variables in that term. subtraction. . 2 2 2 For instance. the term 9xy 7 has degree 1 + 7 3 2 = 8. the terms are 3x y . 5x . in which no variables appear in denominators or under radical signs. it is called an algebraic sum. or extraction of roots.1 . The numerical coefficients of the terms in a polynomial are called the coefficients of the polynomial. which involves no y 2 2 variables. the trinomial 2 4 3x y + 2 xy . whereas the coefficient of xz is –4. 90 7 3 2 1 .

1. a2. g. x .3.1 x + g + a2 x + a1 x + a0 .1 polynomials in one Variable In this section we consider only polynomials in one variable. For instance. an . the coefficient of x is 3 and –1 is the constant term. this particular polynomial is not assigned a degree. g.1 x n . 91 Types of Polynomials Based on Number of Terms Note . 2. the polynomial considered above has degree 8. 4. trinomial Polynomials which have only three terms are named as trinomials. x respectively. in the polynomial 5x2 + 3x . a1. 3. an x n. g x 2 n-1 . Key Concept n n-1 Polynomial in One Variable 2 A polynomial in one variable x is an algebraic expression of the form p(x) = an x + an .2 types of polynomials Key Concept Monomial Polynomials which have only one term are known as monomials. a2 x2. a2. an are the coefficients of x. a0 is the constant term. the coefficient of x2 is 5. 3x and . g. 1. an . a0. Here n is the degree of the polynomial and a1.1. are the n terms of the polynomial p^ xh . The three terms of the polynomial are 5x2. Although the constant monomial 0 is regarded as a polynomial.Algebra The degree of the highest degree term that appears with nonzero coefficients in a polynomial is called the degree of the polynomial. Binomial Polynomials which have only two terms are called binomials. an .1.3. A trinomial is the sum of three monomials of different degrees.1 . A polynomial is a monomial or the sum of two or more monomials. a1 x. an are constants and n is a non negative integer. For example. 4. an ! 0 where a0. A binomial is the sum of two monomials of different degrees.1 .

b. 5 2 (i) p (x) = 3 (ii) p (y) = 2 y + 1 (iii) p^ xh = 2x3 . where c is a real number. b and c are real numbers and a ! 0.3x + 2 (xi) p (x) = 3 x + 1 92 2 (ix) p (x) = 4x (xii) p (y) = y3 + 3y .u4 4 (iv) 4x3 (viii) y + y + y (xii) y 20 18 2 Example 4. (i) x . 4x . General form : p (x) = c. x3 . Example 4. x + 2. 2 General form: p (x) =ax + bx + c where a.2 Classify the following polynomials based on their degree. y + 1 and u . Cubic polynomial A polynomial of degree three is called a cubic polynomial.x2 + 4x + 1 2 (vi) p (x) = –7 (v) p (x) = x + 3 (iv) p (x) = 3x (vii) p^ xh = x3 + 1 (x) p (x) = 3 2 (viii) p (x) = 5x . General form : p (x) = ax+b. where a and b are real numbers and a ! 0 . 4 3 20 18 2 3 2 4x + 2x + 1. General form : p (x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d . 4 23 4 2 3 3 2 (ii) 5x (vi) 3x2 (x) 2u3 + u2 + 3 (iii) 4x4 + 2x3 + 1 (vii) y + 1 (xi) u23 .Chapter 4 Key Concept Types of Polynomials Based on the Degree Constant polynomial A polynomial of degree zero is called a constant polynomial.x2.u are binomials as they contain only two terms.x (v) x + 2 (ix) 6 Solution 5x. y and 6 are monomials because they have only one term. Linear polynomial A polynomial of degree one is called a linear polynomial. 3x . Quadratic polynomial A polynomial of degree two is called a quadratic polynomial.1 Classify the following polynomials based on number of terms. c and d are real numbers and a ! 0 . where a. y + y + y and 2u + u + 3 are trinomials as they contain only three terms.

p (x) = 3 x + 1 are linear polynomials.3x + 2.1 .1 (v) 4x3 (iii) y + 3 (vi) 2x 5. Give one example of a binomial of degree 27 and monomial of degree 49 and trinomial of degree 36.4 (ii) 4x3 . (i) 2x5 . p (y) = y3 + 3y are cubic polynomials. p (.1 (v) 3 t + 2t (vi) x3 + y3 + z6 x Write the coefficient of x2 and x in each of the following. Exercise: 4. 4.1 . (ii) 5y + 2 (iii) 12 .2 = 1 + 1 .3 Zeros of a polynomial Consider the polynomial p^ xh = x2 .Algebra Solution p (x) = 3.1) . Let us find the values of p^ xh at x =.2 .1 1. –2 and 0 are the values of the polynomial p^ xh at x = –1. 93 2 . x = 1 and x = 2 .1 (iv) 1 x2 + x + 6 3 Write the degree of each of the following polynomials.x .2 . 0.4x2 + x3 (ii) 3x+1 (iii) x3 + 2 x2 + 4x .2 =. 1 and 2 respectively.x2 + 4x + 1 .6 (ii) 3x2 .2 = 0 That is.2 = 0 2 p (1) = (1) . 3. since the 2 highest degree of the variable is two. Classify the following polynomials based on their degree. (i) 3x2 + 2x + 1 (iv) y2 . 2 p (x) = x + 3 .(. since the highest degree of the variable is three. p (x) = x3 + 1 . p (x) = 5x . State whether the following expressions are polynomials in one variable or not. p (x) = –7.x + 4x3 (iv) 5 2.1 .x3 + x . (i) 4 .2 = 4 .3.2x + 1 (iii) y3 + 2 3 (iv) x . since the highest degree of the variable x is one. p (x) = 3 are constant polynomials. 2 2 2 p^ xh = 2x3 .2 = 1 .1) = (. p (x) = 4x .2 2 p (2) = (2) .2 .3x2 4.1) . Give reasons for your answer. (i) 2 + 3x . p (y) = 5 y + 1. p (x) = 3x are quadratic polynomials.

4 Find the zeros of the following polynomials. x = –1 is a zero of the polynomial p^ xh = x2 .1h = .x . (i) p^ xh = 2x . Similarly.7 . Since p^. This result was so important that it became known as the fundamental theorem of algebra.3 If p^ xh = 5x3 .24 p^2h = 5 (2) . ( 2 is also a zero of p^ xh .3 Solution (i) Given that p^ xh = 2x .9 (i) (ii) Example 4.1h (ii) p^2h Solution Given that p^ xh = 5x3 .2 . Example 4. Key Concept Zeros of Polynomial Let p^ xh be a polynomial in x.We have 2 3 = 2 3 . 2 Given that p^ xh = x .3x2 + 7x .3 (.2 .3 .9 = 40 . find (i) p^.3x2 + 7x .9 ` p^. 94 Note p^.3 = 2` x .9 . If p^ah = 0. Now.5 .3 = 2^0h = 0 p` j `2 2j 2 Hence x = 3 is the zero of p^ xh . Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) had proven in his doctoral thesis of 1798 that the polynomial equations of any degree n must have exactly n solutions in a certain very specific sense.12 + 14 . p^2h = 2 .3 j .1h = 5 (.2 (ii) .2 = 0 Hence x = 2 is the zero of p^ xh . p (2) = 0 at x = 2. Number of zeros of a polynomial # the degree of the polynomial.1) .1) + 7 (.9 = . then we say that a is a zero of the polynomial p^ xh .1h = 0.3 (2) + 7 (2) . The exact sense in which that theorem is true is the subject of the other part of the story of algebraic numbers.1) .9 ` p^2h = 33 3 2 3 2 (ii) p^ xh = x .Chapter 4 If the value of a polynomial is zero for some value of the variable then that value is known as zero of the polynomial.

Example 4. Now.1 is a root of 2x + 1 = 0 2 (ii) 2x + 1 = 0 Example 4.Now.3x .2 = 8 . Key Concept Root of a Polynomial Equation If x = a satisfies the polynomial equation p^ xh = 0. 2 Solution (i) Let p^ xh = 2x2 .3x .6 Verify whether the following are roots of the polynomial equations indicated against them. Consider the polynomial p^ xh = x .3 (3) . x .1 = 0.Algebra 4.3 (2) . x = 2.5 Find the roots of the following polynomial equations (i) x . Hence zeros of a polynomial are the roots of the corresponding polynomial equation. The value x = 1 is called the root of the polynomial equation p^ x h = 0 .6 = 0 ( x = 6 ` x = 6 is a root of x .6 = 0 Given that 2x + 1 = 0 ( 2x = .1 .2 = 0.6 . that is. p^2h = 2 (2) . x .2 . x = 1.2 = 18 . consider the polynomial equation p^ xh = 0.1 = 0 implies x = 1 .2 = 0 95 .2 = 0 ` x = 2 is a root of 2x2 .2 = 0 2 2 But p^3 h = 2 (3) .14 = 0.3x . then x = a is called a root of the polynomial equation p^ xh = 0 .9 .4 Roots of a polynomial Equations Let p^ xh be a polynomial expression in x. then p^ xh = 0 is called a polynomial equation in x. 3 (ii) x3 + 8x2 + 5x . Clearly 1 is the zero of the polynomial p^ xh = x .1 2 ` x = .6 = 0 Solution (i) (ii) Given that x .3.3x .2 = 7 ! 0 ` x = 3 is not a root of 2x2 .1 ( x = .1 . (i) 2x2 .

p^1 h = 4 (1) .5x + 6 = 0.5x + 6 = 0.b are the zeros of the divisors x + a . (ii) x2 + 4x + 3 = 0. then the remainder is p^.2 = 4-5+6-2 = 3 `The remainder is 3.5x2 + 6x .2 . Verify Whether the following are roots of the polynomial equations indicated against them. ax . If p^ xh is divided by ^ x + ah .14 = 0 Exercise 4. 3 4. (ii) p (x) = 3x + 5 (ii) 5x .Chapter 4 (ii) Let p^ xh = x3 + 8x2 + 5x . 96 3 2 . Example 4. x = . If p^ xh is divided by ^ax . x = 1.14 = 8 + 32 + 10 . 2 (iv) x3 .14 = 0 ` ` x = 1 is a root of x3 + 8x2 + 5x .a . 2. When p^ xh is divided by ^ x .ah .9x = 0 Find the roots of the following polynomial equations. If p^ xh is divided by the linear polynomial x .1 is 1.14 = 0 3 2 3 2 But p^2h = (2) + 8 (2) + 5 (2) .14 = 1 + 8 + 5 .2 1.1h the remainder is p^1 h . then the remainder is p^ah . a 3.1 . 3 (iii) x3 . 2. Now.4 Remainder theorem Remainder Theorem Let p^ xh be any polynomial and a be any real number.2 . Note 1.14 p^1 h = (1) + 8 (1) + 5 (1) .b j . a a ax + b respectively.2 is divided by x .a .5 (1) + 6 (1) .2x2 .7 Find the remainder when 4x3 . then the remainder is p` b j .x + 2 = 0. If p^ xh is divided by ^ax + bh . a b and .1 .b and 4 Here . x = . 2.bh . then the remainder is p`. Find the zeros of the following polynomials (i) p (x) = 4x .3 = 0 (i) x2 . Solution Let p^ xh = 4x3 .14 = 36 ! 0 x = 2 is not a root of x3 + 8x2 + 5x .5x2 + 6x . 3.2x2 .1 (i) x . The zero of x .6 = 0 x = 2. . 3 (iii) p (x) = 2x (iii) 11x + 1 = 0 (iv) p (x) = x + 9 (iv) .1 .

2) . The zero of x + 2 is .24 + 10a . the remainder is p^. Solution Let p^ xh = x3 . p^. When p^ xh is divided by x + 2 . Now.2) .(.9 leaves the remainder 13 when it is divided by x .7x2 .ah .8 .10 Find the remainder when x3 + ax2 .7 (.9 .8 Find the remainder when x3 . Given that p^2h = 13 ( 2 (2) .6x2 + 5ax .9 = 13 10a .x + 6 is divided by ^ x + 2h . p^.ah = (. When p^ xh is divided by ^ x .7^4h + 2 + 6 = .2h the remainder is p^2h .a) .9 Find the value of a if 2x3 .3x + a is divided by x + a .17 = 13 10a = 30 ` Example 4.2 .6x2 + 5ax .9 = 13 16 .2) + 6 = .7x2 . Solution Let p^ xh = 2x3 .a) + a = .a) + a (.2 .3 (.28 ` The remainder is .8 .Algebra Example 4.3x + a . When p^ xh is divided by ^ x + ah the remainder is p^. 97 3 2 3 2 3 2 a =3 .6^4h + 10a .x + 6 .9 = 13 2^8 h .2h .a3 + a3 + 4a = 4a ` The remainder is 4a .2h = (. Solution Let p^ xh = x3 + ax2 .28 Example 4.6 (2) + 5a (2) .28 + 2 + 6 = .

2 j .3h = 54 .2 j = 12`. Now.3h . Solution Let p^ xh = 2x3 + ax2 + 4x .a = 30 .5x + 7 is divided by ^3x + 2h . Now.52 + 10 + 7 = 9 = 1 9 9 3 9 ` The remainder is 1.5x + 7 . When f^ xh is divided by ^3x + 2h the remainder is f`.12 = 2^27h + a^9h + 12 .13x2 .3h the remainder is q^3 h .12 If the polynomials 2x3 + ax2 + 4x .12 = 54 + 9a When q^ xh is divided by ^ x .Chapter 4 Example 4.2 (3) + a = 27 + 9 . Example 4. 98 3 2 3 2 (1) (2) . q^3 h = (3) + (3) .2 j .2x + a When p^ xh is divided by ^ x . find the value of a .3 8 Substituting a = .6 + a = 30 + a Given that p^3 h = q^3 h . That is.11 Find the remainder when f^ xh = 12x3 .13`.24 ` a = .5`.32 . 54 + 9a = 30 + a ( By (1) and (2) ) 9a .2x + a leave the same remainder when divided by ^ x . we get p^3 h = 54 + 9^. 3 3 2 f`. Also find the remainder.24 = .2 j . Now. q ^ x h = x 3 + x 2 .27 = 27 ` The remainder is 27.12 and x3 + x2 .13` 4 j + 10 + 7 27 9 3 = .13x2 .12 .54 8a = .3 in p^3 h . p^3 h = 2 (3) + a (3) + 4 (3) .3h the remainder is p^3 h .2 j + 7 3 3 3 3 = 12`. Solution f^ xh = 12x3 .8 j .

Find the value of a .ax2 + 9x . Now. Find the remainder using remainder theorem.Algebra Exercise 4.140 + 15 = 250 .m and 2x3 . If ^ x .5 Factor theorem Factor Theorem Let p^ xh be a polynomial and a be any real number. 4. p^5h = 2 (5) .3 1.mx + 9 leave the same remainder when they are divided by ^ x . Also find the remainder.5x + 2a is divided by x .28x + 15 . if p^5h = 0. If the polynomials x3 + 3x2 .140 + 15 = 0 ` ^ x .5h is a factor of p^ xh = 2x3 .3 the remainder is 28. 5.3x2 + 2x . then p^ah = 0 Example 4.26 without remainder find the value of m . Note If ( x–a) is a factor of p^ xh .5h is a factor of p^ xh .2h .125 . Find the value of m if x3 .4 is divided by x + 3 (v) 4x3 . then ( x–a) is a factor of p^ xh .1h divides mx3 .2 (iv) 4x3 . 3.6x2 + mx + 60 leaves the remainder 2 when divided by ^ x + 2h .8 is divided by x . then ^ x . If p^ah = 0. find the value of m .18x + 14 is divided by x + 1 (vii) x3 .28x + 15 .a 2.6x + 12 is divided by x + 2 (iii) 2x3 . When the polynomial 2x3 .1 5x3 + 2x2 .5h is a factor of the polynomial p^ xh = 2x3 .5x2 .ax2 . 99 3 2 .1 (vi) 8x4 + 12x3 .5 is divided by 2x . 4.28 (5) + 15 = 2^125h .12x2 + 11x . Solution By factor theorem.13 Determine whether ^ x .2x2 . when (i) (ii) 3x3 + 4x2 .2x2 + 25x .5 (5) .4x2 + 7x + 6 is divided by x .5x2 .5^25h .5x + 8 is divided by x .

5. Since ^ x .^ x . ^2x .1 ) is a factor of x3 + 5x2 + mx + 4 . Solution Let p^ xh = 2x3 . p^1 h = 0 ( (1) + 5 (1) + m (1) + 4 = 0 (1 + 5 + m + 4 = 0 m + 10 = 0 ` m = . Determine whether ^ x + 1h is a factor of the following polynomials (i) 6x4 + 7x3 .5x + 36 . 2 3 2 p` 3 j = 2` 3 j . 3.3h is a factor of 2x3 .Chapter 4 Example 4.6x2 + 5x + 5 .15 Determine whether ^2x .6x2 + 5x + 4 .16 Determine the value of m if ( x .14 Determine whether ^ x .9x2 + x + 12 .5 2.4 1. Determine whether ^2x + 1h is a factor of 4x3 + 4x2 . Using factor theorem show that ^ x . Determine the value of p if ^ x + 3h is a factor of x3 . (ii) 2x4 + 9x3 + 2x2 + 10x + 15 (iv) x3 .81 + 6 + 48 = 0 4 4 2 4 ` ^2x .6 (2) + 5 (2) + 4 = 2^8 h .9` 9 j + 3 + 12 2 2 2 2 8 4 2 = 27 .3h is a factor of 2x3 .6x . By factor theorem. the remainder p^1 h = 0.2h is a factor of p^ xh if p^2h = 0.9` 3 j + 3 + 12 = 2` 27 j . Now.7 . Solution Let p^ xh = 2x3 .3x2 . By factor theorem. Example 4.5x .14x2 + 3x + 12 Determine whether ^ x + 4h is a factor of x3 + 3x2 . Solution Let p^ xh = x3 + 5x2 + mx + 4 .81 + 3 + 12 = 27 .2h is not a factor of 2x3 .9x2 + x + 12 .24 + 10 + 4 = 6 ! 0 ` ^ x .6x2 + 9x .px + 24 . 4.x . Example 4.1h is a factor of 4x3 . Now. Now.1 .6^4h + 10 + 4 = 16 .2h is a factor of the polynomial 2x3 .9x2 + x + 12 .1h is a factor of p^ xh .4 (iii) 3x3 + 8x2 .3h is a factor of p^ xh if p` 3 j = 0.6x2 + 5x + 4 . 100 .10 3 2 3 2 Exercise 4. p^2h = 2 (2) .

5yh = (4x) .24xy + 16y 2 2 2 2 (iii) ^4x + 5yh^4x . We have learnt the following identities in class VIII.b 2 2 ^ x + ah^ x + bh / x2 + ^a + bh x + ab (ii) (3x .b) / a .17 Expand the following using identities (i) (2a + 3b) Solution (i) (2a + 3b) = (2a) + 2^2ah^3bh + (3b) = 4a + 12ab + 9b (ii) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a + b) (a . (a + b) / a + 2ab + b (a .4y) = (3x) .4y) 2 (iii) ^4x + 5yh^4x .6. Using these identities let us solve some problems and extend the identities to trinomials and third degree expansions.b) / a .2^3xh^4yh + (4y) = 9x .25y (iv) 2 2 2 ^ y + 7h^ y + 5h = y + ^7 + 5h y + ^7h^5h = y + 12y + 35 4.5yh (iv) ^ y + 7h^ y + 5h (3x .2ab + b Example 4.1 Expansion of the trinomial (x ! y ! z) 2 (x + y + z) = (x + y + z) (x + y + z) = x (x + y + z) + y (x + y + z) + z (x + y + z) = x2 + xy + xz + yx + y2 + yz + zx + zy + z2 = x2 + y2 + z2 + 2xy + 2yz + 2zx (x + y + z) / x + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2zx 101 2 2 2 2 2 2 .6 Algebraic Identities Key Concept Algebraic Identities An identity is an equality that remains true regardless of the values of any variables that appear within it.Algebra 4.(5y) = 16x .

y + z) 2 = 6 x + (.2 Identities Involving product of Binomials ^ x + ah^ x + bh^ x + ch ^ x + ah^ x + bh^ x + ch = 6^ x + ah^ x + bh@^ x + ch 2 2 = 6 x2 + ^a + bh x + ab @^ x + ch = x3 + (a + b) x2 + abx + cx2 + c (a + b) x + abc = x3 + (a + b + c) x2 + (ab + bc + ca) x + abc ^ x + ah^ x + bh^ x + ch / x3 + ^a + b + ch x2 + ^ab + bc + cah x + abc 102 .7b) + (4c) + 2^3ah^.y) + 2 (.y) + z + 2 (x) (.2r) 2 (iv) (7l .84nl 4.7b + 4c) 2 (iii) (3p + 5q .2yz + 2zx 2 (x .6n) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = (7l) + (.42ab .z) (x .20qr .12rp (iv) (7l .z) / x2 + y2 + z2 + 2xy .6.2yz .y + z) (iii) (iv) Example 4.6n) + 2^7lh^.6nh + 2^.9m) + (.y) (z) + 2 (z) (x) = x2 + y2 + z2 .9mh + 2^.6nh^7lh = 49l + 81m + 36n .2r h^3ph = 9p + 25q + 4r + 30pq .2xy .56bc + 24ca (iii) (3p + 5q .18 2 / x2 + y2 + z2 .2zx 2 2 2 Expand (i) (2x + 3y + 5z) Solution (i) (ii) 2 2 (ii) (3a .126lm + 108mn .Chapter 4 (ii) (x .2zx / x + y + z .9mh^.2xy + 2yz .7bh^4ch + 2^4ch^3ah = 9a + 49b + 16c .y .7b + 4c) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = (3a) + (.2yz + 2zx 2 2 In the same manner we get the expansion for the following (x + y .2r) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = (3p) + (5q) + (.2xy .7bh + 2^.9m .y) + z @2 2 2 = x + (.2r) + 2 (3p)^5qh + 2^5qh^.2r h + 2^.9m .6n) 2 (2x + 3y + 5z) = (2x) + (3y) + (5z) + 2^2xh^3yh + 2^3yh^5zh + 2^5zh^2xh = 4x + 9y + 25z + 12xy + 30yz + 20zx (3a .

5h^2a + 5h^2a .5h^2a + 5h^2a .3h@ a + ^.3h + ^.3 .5h^.3h^.15 + 15) 2a + 75 = 8a .5h^5h^.y in the above identity.4.7h + ^.y3 (x .Algebra 4.19 Find the product of (i) ^ x + 2h^ x + 5h^ x + 7h (ii) ^a .4.5h@62a + 5 @62a + ^.5h^.25 .y3 .7h@ 2 = a .105 (iii) = (2a) + (.7h = 6 a + ^.15a + 71a . we get (or) (x .105 = a .3x2 y + 3xy2 .7) a + 6^.y) 3 / x3 .5h^a .7h 3 3 2 ^a .3) (2a) + 6^.5 .3h@6 a + ^.y) 3 / x3 .3h^. we get ^ x + yh^ x + yh^ x + yh = x3 + ^ y + y + yh x2 + 6^ yh^ yh + ^ yh^ yh + ^ yh^ yh@ x + ^ yh^ yh^ yh (x + y) 3 = x3 + ^3yh x2 + ^3y2h x + y3 = x3 + 3x2 y + 3xy2 + y3 (x + y) 3 / x3 + 3x2 y + 3xy2 + y3 (x + y) 3 / x3 + y3 + 3xy (x + y) (or) Replacing y by .3h^.3h^a .5h + ^.5h^5h + ^5h^.5h@6 a + ^.3h = 62a + ^.3h^a .50a + 75 103 2 .15a + (15 + 35 + 21) a .3h 3 2 3 2 ^2a .5 + 5 .7h^.3h@ 3 3 2 = 8a + (.6.7h (iii) ^2a .12a .3) 4a + (.5h^a .3.y) Using these identities of 4.3 Expansion of (x ! y) 3 In the above identity by substituting a = b = c = y. let us solve the following problems.5h@^2ah + ^.3h Solution (i) = x + ^2 + 5 + 7h x + 6^2h^5h + ^5h^7h + ^7h^2h@ x + ^2h^5h^7h 3 3 3 2 ^ x + 2h^ x + 5h^ x + 7h 2 2 = x + 14x + (10 + 35 + 14) x + 70 = x + 14x + 59x + 70 (ii) = a + (. Example 4.2 and 4.3xy (x .

36x y + 54xy .3y) = (2x) .2997000 = 997002999 Some Useful Identities involving sum .1h3 3 3 =^1000h3 . 104 3 3 3 3 .1h 3 3 (a^ x .3^1000h^1 h^1000 .yh3 + 3xy^ x .1 . Solution We have (a + b + c) = a + b + c + 2^ab + bc + cah .yh) = 1000000000 . So.3xy^ x + yh x .21 Expand (i) (3a + 4b) Solution (i) (ii) (3a + 4b) = (3a) + 3 (3a) ^4bh + 3^3ah (4b) + (4b) = 27a + 108a b + 144ab + 64b 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 (ii) (2x . (i) ^105h3 Solution (i) ^105h3 = ^100 + 5h3 (ii) ^999h3 = ^100h3 + ^5h3 + 3^100h^5h^100 + 5h (a^ x + yh3 = x + y + 3xy^ x + yh) = 1000000 + 125 + 1500^105h = 1000000 + 125 + 157500 = 1157625 (ii) ^999h3 = ^1000 .1 .yh3 = x .22 Evaluate each of the following using suitable identities.3 (2x) ^3yh + 3 (2x) (3y) .50 = 175 Example 4.27y Example 4.3000 (999) = 1000000000 .^1 h3 . ab +bc +ca =25 find a + b + c . 15 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = a + b + c + 2^25h 2 2 2 2 2 2 225 = a + b + c + 50 ` a + b + c = 225 .20 If a + b + c = 15.3xy^ x .3y) 3 (2x .Chapter 4 Example 4.y / ^ x .y .(3y) = 8x .difference and product of x and y x + y / ^ x + yh3 .yh Let us solve some problems involving above identities.

3 (x) (2y) (3z) 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 = ^ x + 2y + 3zh 6 x + ^2yh2 + ^3zh2 .y if x .yh 3 3 ` y .xy .3xy^ x + yh 3 3 x + 13 = ` x + 1 j .3xyz / (x + y + z) (x2 + y2 + z2 .6yz .15 = 110 Example 4. find the value of x + 13 x x 3 3 Solution We know that x + y = ^ x + yh3 .yh ` x -y 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 x +y 3 3 = ^4h3 .3xy^ x + yh ` Example 4.24 Find x .^2yh^3zh .60 = 4 = ^5h3 + 3^16h^5h = 125 + 240 = 365 Example 4.y = 5 and xy = 16 Solution We know that x .25 3 If x + 1 = 5.yh3 + 3xy^ x .13 = c y .1 = 9 .13 y y 3 3 3 Solution We know that.27 Simplify ^ x + 2y + 3zh^ x + 4y + 9z .18xyz 105 .yz .2xy .y = ^ x .zx) = x + y + z .1 m + 3 c y .yz .23 Find x + y if x + y = 4 and xy = 5 Solution We know that x + y = ^ x + yh3 .3` x + 1 j ` x x x 3 = (5) .3^5h^4h = 64 . x .3zx) = (x) + (2y) + (3z) .Algebra Example 4.3xyz ` (x + 2y + 3z)(x + 4y + 9z .^3zh^ xh@ = x + 8y + 27z . find the value of y3 .3 (5) = 125 .^ xh^2yh . (x + y + z) (x + y + z .zx) Note If x + y + z = 0 then x3 + y3 + z3 = 3xyz Example 4.26 If y .y = ^ x .2xy .xy .yh + 3xy^ x .3zxh Solution We know that.6yz .1 m y y y 3 (9) + 3 (9) = 729 + 27 = 756 = The following identity is frequently used in higher studies x3 + y3 + z3 .

find the value of x .10 3 3 3 . If x .y .10x + 45x .13 .11700 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Exercise 4. x term and constant term.25 = 0 If x + y + z = 0 . find the value of x . (ii) ^ p + 2h^ p .15yz + 5zxh 3 3 12. z =. 10. 6.4ah (vi) ^2x + 3h^2x .8zxh Simplify : (i) ^2x + y + 4zh 2 2 2 (ii) ^ x . 3 If x + 1 = 4.1 = 3. Expand : (i) ^3a + 5bh3 Evaluate : (i) 99 3 3 3 (ii) ^4x .3yh3 3 (ii) 101 (iii) 98 3 (iv) 102 3 3 (iii) c2y .ah^ x . find the value of x + 13 .5h^2x . Expand the following (i) ^5x + 2y + 3zh2 2. 8.6 and xy = 4 .7h (ii) ^2a + 3b . 5.4zh2 (iv) ^ p .25h = .2ah^ x .15 find a + b + c .5zh^ x + 9y + 25z + 3xy . y = 13 . (i) ^ x + 7h^ x + 3h^ x + 9h (ii) ^ x . 1 + 1 + 1 and a b c 2 2 2 a +b +c .25 = 12 + 13 + ^. x x 3 If x .3h^ x .2y . Then x + y + z = 12 + 13 .2xy .4h^ x + 2h (iii) ^2x + 3h^2x + 5h^2x + 7h (iv) ^5x + 2h^1 . Find the expansion of (i) ^ x + 1h^ x + 4h^ x + 7h (iii) ^ x + 5h^ x .Chapter 4 Example 4. 4.ch2 (iii) ^ x .25 Solution Let x = 12 .25 . x x ^4x2 + y2 + 16z2 . ` 12 + 13 . Evaluate using identities : (i) 6 .2q + r h2 Using algebraic identities find the coefficients of x2 term.1h (v) ^3x + 1h^3x + 2h^3x + 5h 3.4h^ p + 6h (iv) ^ x .4yz .6 .9 + 3 106 3 3 3 (ii) 16 . then x + y + z = 3xyz . 7.3y . 9.5h^ x .3 m y 3 (v) 1002 Find 8x + 27y if 2x + 3y = 13 and xy = 6 .5 1.25h3 = 3^12h (13)^.5xh^5x + 3h 3 2 If ^ x + ah^ x + bh^ x + ch / x .28 3 3 3 Evaluate 12 + 13 .y =. 11.

2ab + b / (. consider ab + ac.3s) 4a .1 Factorization using Identities (i) a + 2ab + b / (a + b) (ii) a . In b ( b – 5) + g (b – 5) clearly ( b – 5) is a common factor. ab and ac ‘a’ is the common factor.2ab + b / (a .xz 2 3 2 2 (iii) a (a .7. by writing in the reverse direction ab + ac is a (b + c) .8b + 5ax .b) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 3 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 (iv) 6a .18a + 42a = 6a (a .8bh + (5ax . (i) (ii) x^ x + yh = x + xy x^ y .8b + 5ax . Using the distributive law.18a + 42a 2 Highest common factor is 6a 5 3 2 2 3 ` 6a .10bx = ^4a . a (b + c) = ab + ac .b / ^a + bh^a . we will learn how to convert a sum or difference of expressions into a product of expressions.3a + 7) 4.This process of expressing ab + ac into a (b + c) is known as factorization. For example. In both the terms.a + b) 2 2 2 (iii) a .Algebra 4.2a + 1) = a .10bx) = 4 (a .2b) (4 + 5x) 3 2 (iii) 2a + 4a Highest common factor is 2a ` 2a + 4a = 2a ^a + 2h . b^b .3ps (ii) 4a .10bx (iii) 2a + 4a Solution (i) (ii) pq + pr .2b) + 5x (a .bh (iv) a + b + c + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca / (a + b + c) 107 2 2 2 2 . Similarly. 5m +15 = 5^mh + 5^3 h = 5(m +3).2b) = (a .5h + g^b .7 Factorization of polynomials We have seen how the distributive property may be used to expand a product of algebraic expressions into sum or difference of expressions. (iv) 6a .3ps = p (q + r . Now.5h^b + gh Example 4.zh = xy .18a + 42a 5 3 2 (or) a .2a + a Now.5h = ^b .29 Factorize the following (i) pq + pr .

b .1h = x 6(x ) .2b)^6h + 2^6h^ah = (a .4ab .12ch 5 4 2 2 2 ( v i ) x .3z) + 2^2xh^.18ch^.a) (2b) + 2 (2b)^.24b + 12a 2 2 2 Solution a + 4b + 36 .8a + 1 = (4a) .12zx Solution 4x + y + 9z .6) or (.bh@ 2 25 (a + 2b .1h2 (.12zx = (2x) + (.yh^.15c .6) 2 = (.2b + 6) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 or 2 That is (a .ah = (.^a .1h = x^ x + 1h6(x) .2 (4a)^1 h + (1) = (4a .9 (2a .a + 2b .24b + 12a can be written as (a) + (.16b 2 5 2 2 (v) 25 (a + 2b .3ch@2 .Chapter 4 Example 4.yh + 2^.4ah 2 = (a + b + a .2b) + 2 (.a + b) = ^2ah^2bh = ^4h^ah^ bh = 65^a + 2b .3zh^2xh = (2x .(1) @ 2 2 2 2 2 = x^ x + 1h^ x .63^2a .6) 2 @ = ^.b) (v) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 o r ^1 .a + 2b .3ch + 3^2a .3z) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (.2 Factorization using the Identity 2 2 2 2 a + b + c + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca / (a + b + c) Example 4.y .2b + 6) 2 = 6^.(a .7.(a .1h 4.b) Solution (i) 2 2 2 2 2 (ii) 16a .6h + 2^.4ab .b .3c) .32 Factorize 4x + y + 9z .x = x^ x .9 (2a .a + 13b .b .c) 2 2 (vi) x .(1) @ = 6^a + bh + ^a .4bh ( i v ) (a + b) .31 Factorize a + 4b + 36 .b .3ch .ch@ 65^a + 2b .30 Factorize (i) 4x + 12xy + 9y (iv) (a + b) .a + 2b .ch@ = ^5a + 10b .a) + (2b) + (.6) + 2 (.ch@2 = x^ x + 1h^ x + 1h^ x .c) = 65^a + 2b .4xy + 6yz .6h^.4xy + 6yz .3ch^5a + 10b .3c) .(4b) = ^3a + 4bh^3a .3zh + 2^.1) ( i i i ) 9a .b .1h (.2x + y + 3z) 2 108 .bh@6^a + bh .8a + 1 2 2 (iii) 9a .3^2a .15c + 6a .2b) + (6) + 2 (a) (.b) (a + b .3b .x 2 4x + 12xy + 9y = (2x) + 2 (2x) (3y) + (3y) = (2x + 3y) 2 2 2 2 2 ( i i ) 16a .a + 2b .16b = (3a) .y) + (.6a + 3b + 3ch = ^11a + 7b .6) 2 Example 4.

y3 .Algebra 3 3 4.4yh^9x + 12xy + 16y h 109 .xy + y2) x3 + y3 / (x + y) (x2 . Example 4. x3 .2xy + y2 + 3xy) = (x .33 Factorize (i) 8x + 125y Solution (i) 8x + 125y 3 3 3 3 (ii) 27x . x3 + y3 + 3xy (x + y) = (x + y) 3 ( x3 + y3 = (x + y) 3 . So.y) + 3xy (x .7.y) 3 3 ( x3 .y) (x2 + xy + y2) Using the above identities let us factorize the following expressions.y) = (x .3xy (x .(4y) 3 3 2 2 = (3x .4y)6(3x) + ^3xh^4yh + (4y) @ 2 2 = ^3x .64y 3 3 2 2 = (3x) .y3 = (x .3xy @ 2 = (x + y) (x2 + 2xy + y2 .xy + y2) We have x3 .64y 3 3 = (2x) + (5y) 3 3 2 2 = (2x + 5y)6(2x) .10xy + 25y ) (ii) 27x .3xy (x + y) = (x + y) 6(x + y) .y) 3 .y) (x2 .y3 = (x .y) + 3xy @ 2 = (x .3xy) = (x + y) (x2 .y We have x3 + 3x2 y + 3xy2 + y3 = (x + y) 3 .y) (x2 + xy + y2) x3 .3x2 y + 3xy2 .y3 / (x .3 Factorization of x3 + y3 and x .(2x) (5y) + (5y) @ = (2x + 5y)(4x .y) 6(x . So.y) = (x .

30zx 4.xz + ay .12a (iii) 9x + y + 1 . without identities how to resolve quadratic polynomials into two linear polynomials when (i) a = 1 and (ii) a ! 1 (i) Factorizing the quadratic polynomials of the type x2 + bx + c . suppose ^ x + ph and ^ x + qh are the two factors of x2 + bx + c . Factorize the following expressions: (i) 2a .20xy + 12yz . Factorize the following expressions: (i) p + q + r + 2pq + 2qr + 2rp (ii) a + 4b + 36 .Then we have x2 + bx + c = ^ x + ph^ x + qh = x^ x + ph + q^ x + ph = x2 + px + qx + pq = x2 + (p + q) x + pq This implies that the two numbers p and q are chosen in such way that c = pq and b = p + q.25x y 3 4 Factorize the following expressions: (i) x + 2x + 1 (iii) b .4ab + 24b . Factorize the following expressions: (i) 27x + 64y (iv) 8x .24xy + 16y (iv) 1 .2y 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (iv) 4a + b + 9c .6 1.7.4 Factorization of the Quadratic polynomials of the type ax2 + bx + c .az 2.3a b + 2a c (iv) xy .27y 3 3 3 (ii) m + 8 (v) x . to get x2 + bx + c = ^ x + ph^ x + qh We use this basic idea to factorize the following problems 110 .8y 3 3 3 (iii) a + 125 3 3 4.Chapter 4 Exercise 4.4ab .4 2 2 (ii) 9x . 3 2 2 (ii) 16x + 64x y (v) p + pq + pr + qr 2 2 (iii) 10x .6bc + 12ca 2 2 2 (v) 25x + 4y + 9z . a ! 0 So far we have used the identities to factorize certain types of polynomials.6xy + 6x .36x 2 2 2 3. In this section we will learn.

9 x2 .2h^ x . x2 + 9x + 14 = x2 + 2x + 7x + 14 = x^ x + 2h + 7^ x + 2h = ^ x + 2h^ x + 7h ` x2 + 9x + 14 = ^ x + 7h^ x + 2h (ii) x2 .6h + ^+ 2h = .12 = ^.3h = . such that pq = 14 and p + q = 9. 7 Factors of 14 Sum of factors –1.5x + 6 = ^ x .7h ` x2 .7x + 14 = x^ x .2h .2x .1h = 1 = b (4) x2 .6h # ^+ 2h and ^.15 (iv) x2 .4x .15 Factors of 14 Sum of factors 1.2h = ^ x .1h here c = . (i) x2 + 9x + 14 Solution (i) x2 + 9x + 14 To factorize we have to find p and q .5 = b (3) x2 + x .9x + 14 To factorize we have to find p and q such that pq = 14 and p + q = .2h^ x .9x + 14 (iii) x2 + 2x . (1) x2 + 8x + 15 = ^ x + 3h^ x + 5h here c = 15 = 3 # 5 and 3 + 5 = 8 = b (2) x2 . 7 9 The required factors are 2.3h and ^. –14 –15 –2.Algebra For example. Example 4.34 Factorize the following.1h and ^+ 2h + ^.3h here c = 6 = ^.9x + 14 = x2 . –7 .2h^ x .4 = b In the above examples the constant term is split into two factors such that their sum is equal to the coefficients of x .12 = ^ x .2h # ^.7^ x . –7 –9 The required factors are –2.7h 111 (ii) x2 . 14 15 2.2 = ^+ 2h # ^.2h + ^.9x + 14 = ^ x .2x .2 = ^ x + 2h^ x .6h^ x + 2h here c = .

we get c = pq . ax2 + bx + c = ^rx + ph ^ sx + qh = rsx2 + (ps + qr) x + pq Comparing the coefficients of x2 .15 and p + q = 2 x2 + 2x . 15 14 –3.2x . we have to write b as the sum of two numbers whose product is ac (= b) The following steps to be followed to factorize ax2 + bx + c Step1 : Multiply the coefficient of x2 and constant term ( = ac) . This shows us that b is the sum of two numbers ps and qr .3h^ x + 5h ` x2 + 2x .15 = ^ x + 3h^ x .3h + 5^ x . Step3 : The terms are grouped into two pairs and factorize.15 = ^ x . And.15 = x^ x . on comparing the constant terms.15 = x^ x + 3h .5x .15 = x2 .2 x2 .2x . whose product is ^ psh # ^qr h = ^ pr h # ^ sqh = ac Therefore. the linear factors of ax2 + bx + c will be of the form ^rx + ph and ^ sx + qh . comparing the coefficients of x .Chapter 4 (iii) x2 + 2x . such that pq = . 5 (iv) x2 . Similarly.5h ` x . –15 –14 3. Step2 : Split this product into two factors such that their sum is equal to the coefficient of x .15 and p + q = . –5 (ii) Factorizing the quadratic polynomials of the type ax2 + bx + c .3h = ^ x . –5 –2 The required factors are 3.3h^ x + 5h Factors of –15 Sum of factors –1. 112 . we get b = ps + qr .15 = x2 + 3x . we get a = rs . 5 2 The required factors are –3. Then.5^ x + 3h = ^ x + 3h^ x .3x + 5x .15 To factorize we have to find p and q .5h 2 Factors of –15 Sum of factors 1. to factorize ax2 + bx + c .2x . such that pq = .15 To factorize we have to find p and q . Since a is different from 1.

27 25 –3.6x . –9 –15 2 2 The required factors are –6. sum = .9h ` 2x .3h^2x .27 = . sum = 15 2 2 (ii) 2x2 .Algebra Example 4. 27 29 3.27 Solution (i) 2x2 + 15x + 27 2 Coefficient of x = 2 .27 2 Coefficient of x = 2 . constant term = .35 Factorize the following (i) 2x2 + 15x + 27 (iii) 2x2 + 15x .27 Factors of –54 Sum of factors –1. constant term = 27 Factors of 54 Sum of factors Their product= 2 # 27 = 54 –1.3h .15x + 27 Coefficient of x2 = 2 . –9 2x . 18 15 The required factors are –3.9h (iii) 2x2 + 15x . sum = 15 2.15 –2. 54 53 –2.9x + 27 = 2x^ x .15x + 27 (iv) 2x2 .15x + 27 = ^ x . 9 15 2x + 15x + 27 = 2x + 6x + 9x + 27 The required factors are 6.9^ x . –18 –21 –6. 9 = 2x ^ x + 3 h + 9 ^ x + 3 h = ^ x + 3h^2x + 9h ` 2x + 15x + 27 = ^ x + 3h^2x + 9h (ii) 2x2 .3h^2x .15x + 27 = 2x .3h = ^ x .15x . 18 113 . –27 –29 ` product= 54 . 54 55 ` product = 54. 18 21 2 2 6.27 Their product = 2 #. constant term = 27 Their product = 2 # 27 = 54 Factors of 54 Sum of factors Coefficient of x = 15 1. –54 –55 Coefficient of x = .54 Coefficient of x = 15 ` product = –54.15 –3.

27 = 2x . sum = –15 2x .3h^ x + 9h ` 2x + 15x .3h + 9^2x .27 = .15x . –27 –25 3.3h^ x + 9h (iv) 2x2 .9^2x + 3h = ^2x + 3h^ x .18x . p = x + y ` ^ x + yh2 + 9^ x + yh + 8 = ^ x + y + 1h^ x + y + 8h 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Factors of –54 Sum of factors 1.54 Coefficient of x = –15 ` product = –54.27 Coefficient of x = 2 .27 = 2x + 3x .27 = ^2x + 3h^ x .36 Factorize ^ x + yh2 + 9^ x + yh + 8 Solution Let x + y = p Then the equation is p + 9p + 8 Coefficient of p = 1 .15x .Chapter 4 2x + 15x .3x + 18x .15x . –54 –53 2. 8 114 .3h = ^2x .27 Their product = 2 #.9h ` 2x . –18 –15 The required factors are 3.27 = ^2x .9h Example 4. 8 Sum of factors 9 The required factors are 1. constant term = 8 Their product= 1 # 8 = 8 Coefficient of p= 9 ` product = 8.27 = x^2x + 3h . –18 Factors of 8 1. constant term = .27 = x^2x . sum = 9 p + 9p + 8 = p + p + 8p + 8 = p^ p + 1h + 8^ p + 1h = ^ p + 1h^ p + 8h substituting.

–3 and 3. The constant term is –3.2)(x + 1) (x .12 ! 0 ` (x + 2) is not a factor of p (x) .1) = (x . The three factors of p (x) are (x + 1).2 + 2 = 0 ` (x .1) is a factor of p (x) .2)(x .3 3 2 p (x) is a cubic polynomial. p^.2 + 1 + 2 = 0 ` (x + 1) is a factor of p (x) .x + 2 =(x + 1) (x .3 = 0 ` (x .2) = (x .2 + 2 = 8 . so it may have three linear factors.27 + 27 + 3 .2 (1) . (x .2) .1) (x + 3) .x .b) ] 2 2 .1 (x .1) + 3 (. p (.3 =. (x .(.(.2) . 1.3 =.1) .3 = 0 ` (x + 3) is a factor of p (x) .1) (x .2) . p (1) = (1) + 3 (1) .1) = (.1) .Algebra Example 4.2) is a factor of p (x) .1) .2x .2 (.3 =(x + 1) (x .37 3 2 Factorize : (i) x .x + 2 = x (x .8 . The factors of 2 are –1. Another method x . 1.b = (a + b) (a .x .3) .x + 2 3 2 (ii) x + 3x . p (2) = (2) .1) + 2 =.3 p (x) is a cubic polynomial.3 = 0 ` (x + 1) is a factor of p (x) . The factors of –3 are –1.x .2 .2) ` x .1) (ii) Let p (x) = x + 3x . –2 and 2. p^1 h = (1) . 115 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 [(a a . The constant term is 2.2h = (.(.3) = (.1 .(. so it may have three linear factors.1 + 2 = 0 ` (x .1) and (x . p (.x + 2 Solution (i) Let p (x) = x .2x .1 + 2 = 1 .8 .2) + 2 =.2) .3) .8 + 2 + 2 =. The three factors of p (x) are (x + 1).2x .1) is a factor of p (x) .1 .1) = (.2 (.2x .1) .1 + 3 + 1 .1) and (x + 3) 3 2 ` x + 3x .3) + 3 (. p (.1 .2 (2) .3 = 1 + 3 .

x .3x .8 Linear Equations Recall the linear equations in one variable is of the form ax + b = 0 .12 (xv) 10 .3x 2 2 2 2 2 (xiv) 18x .15 (x) x .qh .qh2 .29y + 20 (viii) 3x . a2.x + 3 (iv) x + 5x .144 2 2 2 2 (iii) y + 7y + 12 (vi) t .18 4. b2.3x . b1 ! 0 .7 1.7^ p . where a. b ! 0 . (i) x + 15x + 14 (iv) x .x . Factorize each of the following.30 (xiii) 2x . 116 .y .5 3 2 3 2 4.14x + 24 (vii) x + 14x . a1 x + b1 y a2 x + b2 y = = c1 c2 (1) (2) Where a1.4 3.4 3 2 3 2 (ii) x .10m .16y + 7 (ix) 3x + 5x .4x . Factorize the following (i) ^a + bh2 + 9^a + bh + 14 (ii) ^ p .99 2. b1. 2 2 2 2 (ii) x + 13x + 30 (v) y .10x + 8 (xi) 11 + 5x . solving 3x + 2 = 8 ( 3x = 8 . b and c are constants and a ! 0 .6x 2 2 2 2 2 (iii) 2x + 9x + 10 (vi) 9y .Chapter 4 Exercise 4. For example. 4.16y + 60 (viii) x + 9x . (i) 3x + 19x + 6 (iv) 14x + 31x + 6 (vii) 6x .20 2 2 2 2 Factorize each of the following.2 ( 3x = 6 ( x = 6 ( x = 2 3 In fact a linear equation in one variable has a unique solution.x . Let us consider a pair of linear equations in two variables x and y. a2 ! 0 and b2 ! 0 .1 pair of Linear Equations in two Variables In general linear equation in two variables x and y is of the form ax + by = c where a.22 (xi) m .2x .17t + 72 (ix) y + 5y . Factorize the following (i) x + 2x .36 (xii) y .2 (iii) x + x .8.5x + 1 (x) 2a + 17a . c1 and c2 are constants and a1 ! 0 .7x .14 2 2 2 2 2 (ii) 5x + 22x + 8 (v) 5y . b are constants and a ! 0 .2 (xii) 8x + 29x .

Algebra If an ordered pair ^ x0. Solution We have x + 3y = 16 2x .2y (3) Substituting x in (1) we get. the elimination method and the cross-multiplication method are some of the methods commonly used to solve the system of equations.2^.6y .6 ` y = -4 Substituting y =. using either of the equations. substitution method In this method. It is then substituted in the other equation and solved. we get.6y .39 Solve x + 3y = 16. one of the two variables is expressed interms of the other.y = 4 .2yh + 5y = 2 ( 6 . x = 3 .4 Example 4. y0h that satisfies both the equations.3y (3) Substituting x in (2) we get. x = 3 .38 Solve the following pair of equations by substitution method. Hence.7y = .y = 4 by using substitution method. x = 16 .3yh . The substitution method. 2^3 . Example 4. then (x0.4 in (3).4y + 5y = 2 . y0) is called a solution of these equations. 2^16 .y = 4 .y = 4 ( 32 . In this chapter we consider only the substitution method to solve the linear equations in two variables. solving these equations involves the method of finding the ordered pair ^ x0.4h = 3 + 8 = 11 ` The solution is x = 11 and y =. 2x . y0h satisfies both the equations.4y + 5y = 2 . 2x + 5y = 2 and x + 2y = 3 Solution We have 2x + 5y = 2 x + 2y = 3 (1) (2) Equation (2) becomes.32 .28 y = .y = 4 (1) (2) Equation (1) becomes.28 = 4 -7 117 .

x = 16 .1 But 1 = a & x = 1 = 1 x a 5 1 = b & y = 1 = 1 =. y =.1 5 Example 4.3a = 7 2a . The cost of a pen is ` 10 less than that of a notebook. Solution Let the cost of a pen = ` x Let the cost of a note book = ` y From given data we have x + y = 60 x = y .12 -a = -5 ( a = 5 Substituting a = 5 in (3) we get.41 The cost of a pen and a note book is ` 60.3a = 7 . 2a + 3^4 . x ! 0.3^4h = 16 . Example 4.a (1) (2) (3) Substituting b in (2) we get. y ! 0 x y x y Solution Let 1 = a and 1 = b x y The given equations become a+b = 4 2a + 3b = 7 Equation (1) becomes b = 4 .ah = 7 ( 2a + 12 .40 Solve by substitution method 1 + 1 = 4 and 2 + 3 = 7. Find the cost of each.1 y b -1 ` The solution is x = 1 .Chapter 4 Substituting y = 4 in (3) we get.12 = 4 ` The solution is x = 4 and y = 4 . b = 4 .10 (1) (2) 118 .5 = .

3x + 4y = 216 3x = 4y 4y 3 (1) (2) (3) = 216 The equation (2) becomes. but if we buy 3 tickets to Palacode and one ticket to Karimangalam the total cost is Rs 27. By given data. The cost of three mathematics books is the same as that of four science books. Find the cost of each book. x = The cost of one science book = ` 27.10 = 25 ` The cost of a pen is ` 25.43 4^27h = 36 3 ` The cost of one mathematics book = ` 36. y . 119 . x = 35 . x = Substituting x in (1) we get. From Dharmapuri bus stand if we buy 2 tickets to Palacode and 3 tickets to Karimangalam the total cost is Rs 32.42 The cost of three mathematics books and four science books is ` 216. 3 c ( 4y + 4y = 216 ( 8y ` y = 4y m + 4y 3 = 216 216 = 27 8 substituting y =27 in (3) we get. Example 4.Algebra Substituting x in (1) we get. Solution Let the cost of a mathematics book be ` x and cost of a science book be ` y . The cost of a note book is ` 35. Example 4.10 + y = 60 ( y + y = 60 + 10 ( 2y = 70 ` y = 70 = 35 2 Substituting y = 35 in (2) we get. Find the fares from Dharmapuri to Palacode and to Karimangalam. Solution Let the fare from Dharmapuri to Palacode be ` x and to Karimangalam be ` y .

3x (3) Substituting y in (1) we get.21 = 6 ` The fare from Dharmapuri to Palacode is ` 7 and to Karimangalam is ` 6. 7 + y + y = 55 (1) . Find the number.7 = 48 ` y = 48 = 24 2 Substituting y = 24 in (3) we get. where x > y By the given data. Then the number is 10x + y . Solution Let the two numbers be x and y. Find the numbers . Solution Let the tens digit be x and the units digit be y. x + y = 55 x-y = 7 x = 7+y ( 2y = 55 . 2x + 3^27 . Equation (2) becomes. Example 4.9x = 32 2x .Chapter 4 From the given data. y = 27 . x = 7 + 24 = 31 .9x = 32 .45 A number consist of two digits whose sum is 11. we have 2x + 3y = 32 3x + y = 27 (1) (2) Equation (2) becomes. 120 (1) (2) (3) Substituting x in (1) we get. ` The required two numbers are 31 and 24.44 The sum of two numbers is 55 and their difference is 7.3xh = 32 ( 2x + 81 . The number formed by reversing the digits is 9 less than the original number. Example 4.81 . Sum of the digits is x + y = 11 The number formed by reversing the digits is 10y + x .7x = . y = 27 .49 = 7 -7 Substituting x = 7 in (3) we get.3^7h = 27 .49 ` x = .

Unshaded circle indicates that point is not included in the solution set.9 = 10y + x ( 10x + y . x . Example 4. Solving we get x = 2 .1 #2 ( x # 2+1 ( x # 3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 The real numbers less than or equal to 3 are solutions of given inequation.1h # 8 Dividing by 4 on both sides. 121 .x = 9 9x . x+4 > 6 ie x > 6 .10y . 1 + y + y = 11 ( 2y + 1 = 11 2y = 11 .9 Linear Inequations in one Variable We know that x + 4 = 6 is a linear equation in one variable. We represent those real numbers in the number line. x = 1 + 5 = 6 ` The number is 10x + y = 10 (6) + 5 = 65 (2) (3) 4. Let us consider.9y = 9 Dividing by 9 on both sides.y = 1 Equation (2) becomes x = 1 + y Substituting x in (1) we get. Shaded circle indicates that point is included in the solution set.1h # 8 Solution 4 ^ x .Algebra Given data. x . (10x + y) . There is only one such value for x in a linear equation in one variable.1 = 10 ` y = 10 = 5 2 Substituting y = 5 in (3) we get.4 x >2 So any real number greater than 2 will satisfy this inequation.46 Solve 4^ x .

2 5 The real numbers greater than or equal to .1. 2x .a > .3 ` x<3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 (See remark given below) The real numbers less than 3 are solutions of given inequation. (iv) 3x + 14 $ 8 .5x # 9 ( . 3x . Kavi said to Kural “If you give me 4 of your apples. How many did each have with them?. y ! 0) (v) x y x y Find two numbers whose sum is 24 and difference is 8.6 ( x $ . A number consists of two digits whose sum is 9.2h 1 3 (iii) 2^ x + 7h # 9 122 2. -2 -1. b ! 0 a b (iv) a < b ( ka > kb for k < 0 Example 4. Solve the following equations by substitution method. Kural replied “If you give me 26.5x # 9 Solution We have. (i) 2x + 7 > 15 (ii) 2^ x .x > 2 (-x > 2 .4 = 6 (x ! 0.5 (-x > . Find the original number.y = 4 (ii) 2x + y = 1 . 2x + y = 5 (iii) 5x + 3y = 21 . Solve the following inequations.Chapter 4 Example 4. my number will be twice yours”. (i) x + 3y = 10 .b ( a < b (iii) a < b ( ka < kb for k > 0 (ii) a < b ( 1 > 1 where a ! 0 .1.8 1.xh > 6 Dividing by 3 on both sides. 2 + 1 = 12 (x ! 0.48 Solve 3 . Remark (i) .47 Solve 3^5 .2 are solutions of given inequation. 5 . 3 .3 ( .6 ( x $ . The number formed by reversing the digits exceeds twice the original number by 18. 5 .5x # 9 . 3. y ! 0) x y x y 3 + 1 = 7 . my number will be thrice yours”.5x # 6 ( 5x $ . 4 5. 3^5 .xh > 6 Solution We have.2 -1 0 1 2 Exercise 4. Kavi and Kural each had a number of apples .4y = 18 (iv) 1 + 2 = 9 .

then the remainder is p^ah .+ g + a2 x + a1 x + a0 .y) x3 + y3 / (x + y) (x2 .y) 3 / x3 . Factor Theorem : Let p^ xh be a polynomial and a be any real number.yz . If p (a) = 0.xy .1. g. › n n 1 2 where Let p^ xh be a polynomial.Algebra points to Remember › A polynomial in one variable x is an algebraic expression of the form p(x) = an x + an .y) (x2 + xy + y2) 2 2 2 2 › › › x3 + y3 + z3 . If p^ah = 0 then we say that a is a zero of the polynomial p^ x h If x = a satisfies the polynomial equation p^ xh = 0 then x = a is called a root of the polynomial equation p^ xh = 0 . › › › › › (x + y + z) / x + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2zx (x + y) 3 / x3 + y3 + 3xy (x + y) (x .1 x .3xyz / (x + y + z) (x2 + y2 + z2 . an ! 0 a0. Remainder Theorem : Let p^ xh be any polynomial and a be any real number.y3 .3xy (x . then ( x–a) is a factor of p^ xh . an are constants and n is a non negative integer . If p^ xh is divided by the linear polynomial x . an .a .y3 / (x .zx) t ^ x + ah^ x + bh^ x + ch / x3 + ^a + b + ch x2 + ^ab + bc + cah x + abc 123 . a1. a2.xy + y2) x3 .

ordinate and coordinates of a point To plot the points on the plane To find the distance between two points Descartes (1596-1650) D e s c a r t e s (1596-1650) has been called the father of modern philosophy. and the coordinate plane as the Cartesian Coordinate Plane. He proposed further that curves and lines could be described by equations using this technique. perhaps because he attempted to build a new system of thought from the ground up.coordinates giving its distance from two lines perpendicular to each other. but also as to those which I have intentionally omitted so as to leave to others the pleasure of discovery . was entirely Descartes’ invention.Rene DesCARTes Main Targets ● ● ● ● To understand Cartesian coordinate system To identify abscissa. the coordinates of a point are often referred to as its Cartesian coordinates. not only as to the things which I have explained. in ‘Arithmetizing’ analytic geometry. In this chapter we learn how to represent points using cartesian coordinate system and derive formula to find distance between two points in terms of their coordinates.Chapter 5 COORDINATE GEOMETRY I hope that posterity will judge me kindly. In honour of his work. and was “profoundly affected in his outlook by the new physics and astronomy. This method of describing the location of points was introduced by the French mathematician René Descartes (Pronounced “day CART”). in extending it to equations of higher degree. 124 .” Descartes went far past Fermat in the use of symbols. The invention of analytical geometry was the beginning of modern mathematics. 5.1 Introduction Coordinate Geometry or Analytical Geometry is a system of geometry where the position of points on the plane is described using an ordered pair of numbers called coordinates. thus being the first to link algebra and geometry. emphasized the use of logic and scientific method. The fixing of a point position in the plane by assigning two numbers .

y) 5. any point P in the plane is associated with an ordered pair of real numbers. the y coordinate of a point above the x-axis is positive and below the x-axis is negative. X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 O 1 2 3 4 5 6X -2 A Cartesian coordinate system or -3 rectangle coordinate system consists of two -4 perpendicular number lines. whether rational. y). by using a Cartesian coordinate system we can specify a point P in the plane with two real numbers. We use the same scale (that is. has a unique location on the number line. They are usually written as (x.2 abscissa coming first. Generally the Y horizontal number line is called the x-axis and Fig.1 Coordinates of a Point In Cartesian system. We are interested in the coordinates of the X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 O 1 2 3 4 x 5 6X points of intersection of the two lines with the axes. similarly.Coordinate Geometry 5. or irrational. 5. The x coordinate of a point to the right of the y-axis is positive and to the left of y-axis is negative.2 Cartesian Coordinate System Y 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 In the chapter on Real Number System. The two number lines intersect at the -6 zero point of each as shown in the Fig. the Y Fig. There are two coordinates: x-coordinate on the x-axis and y-coordinate on the y-axis. 5.1 the vertical number line is called the y-axis. you have learnt` how to represent real numbers on the number line. To obtain these number. a point P on a number line can be specified by a real number x called its coordinate. called coordinate -5 axes. 125 . we draw two lines through the point P parallel (and hence perpendicular) to the axes. the same unit Y 8 distance) on both the axes. every real number. The x-coordinate is called the abscissa and the y-coordinate is called the ordinate of the point at hand. the ordinate second. Conversely. called its coordinates.2.1 and -7 this point is called origin ‘O’. 5. These two numbers associated with the point P are called coordinates of P. 7 y 6 5 4 3 2 1 (x. similarly.

4 .3. So the ordered pairs (a. 5. b) ! (b.2 Identifying the x-coordinate The x-coordinate or abscissa. (ii) The number where the line meets the x-axis is the value of the x-coordinate. In an ordered pair (a. b).3 Identifying the y-coordinate The y-coordinate. b2) is equivalent to a1 = a2 and b1 = b2 3. In Fig. X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 Y 8 7 6 5 4 P Q 3 2 1 O 1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 2 3 4 5 6X In Fig.. Also (a1.Chapter 5 Remarks 1. a) are not equal. the x-coordinate of P is 1 and the x-coordinate of Q is 5.4 .. i. 5.3 5. (a. b) and (b. b1) = (a2.. To find the x-coordinate of a point P: (i) Drop a perpendicular from the point P to the x-axis. 2. the y-coordinate of P is 6 and the y-coordinate of Q is 2. of a point is the value which indicates the distance and direction of the point to the right or left of the y-axis. of a Q point is the value which indicates the distance and direction of the point above or below the x-axis.2. To find the y-coordinate of a point P: (i) Drop a perpendicular from the point P to the y-axis. 5. 5. (ii) The number where the line meets the y-axis is the value of the y-coordinate. Y 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 -6 -7 Y P Fig. 126 X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 O 1 2 3 4 5 6X Y Fig.2. or ordinate. the two elements a and b are listed in a specific order. The terms point and coordinates of a point are used interchangeably. a) .e. 5.

y > 0 x < 0. The y coordinate is positive in I and II quadrants and negative in III and IV quadrants. 5. Thus the position of (5. 127 Y Fig. 6) in cartesian coordinate system we follow the x-axis until we reach 5 and draw a vertical line at x = 5. y < 0 signs of the coordinates +. the value of x-coordinate (abscissa) is zero. y > 0 x < 0. region XOY Xl OY Xl OYl XOYl Quadrant I II III IV Y 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Y II Quadrant (−.5 Plotting Points in Cartesian Coordinate System P(5.Coordinate Geometry Note (i) For any point on the x-axis. (ii) For any point on the y-axis. 5. 6) X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 O 1 2 3 4 5 6X Let us now illustrate through an example how to plot a point in Cartesian coordinate system. 5. y x > 0. To plot the point (5.4 Quadrants A plane with the rectangular coordinate system is called the cartesian plane. the value of y-coordinate (ordinate) is zero. similarly. 6) in the cartesian plane.6 . −) X Nature of x. numbered counter-clockwise for reference as shown in Fig. +) Xl III Quadrant (−. The intersection of these two lines is the position of (5. 6) is located in the cartesian plane. y < 0 x > 0. +) I Quadrant (+. - Yl Fig. The x coordinate is positive in the I and IV quadrants and negative in II and III quadrants. 5.5 5. The signs of the coordinates are shown in parentheses in Fig. −) O IV Quadrant (+.5.2. + -.5. + -. The coordinate axes divide the plane into four parts called quadrants. +. This point is at a distance of 5 units from the y-axis and 6 units from the x-axis. 5.2. That is we count from the origin 5 units along the positive direction of x-axis and move along the positive direction of y-axis through 6 units and mark the corresponding point. we follow the y-axis until we reach 6 and draw a horizontal line at y =6.

3 ) in the Cartesian plane. (iii) To plot (. Thus. Thus. 3 ) is located in the Cartesian plane. . 3 ) in the Cartesian plane. The intersection of these two lines is the position of (. .Chapter 5 Example 5. 3 ).2 and draw a horizontal line at y = . .2.4.2). draw a vertical line at x = .2. the point D (3.4. the point B(.3) (iv) D (3.4 and draw a horizontal line at y = 3. Thus.2. 3) 3 2 1 X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 O 1 2 3 4 5 6X D(3. 4) in the Cartesian plane. -2) C(-2. . The intersection of these two lines is the position of (5.2) Solution (i) To plot (5.1 Plot the following points in the rectangular coordinate system.3. -3) -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 Y Fig.2) is located in the Cartesian plane. 4) 4 B(-4. Y 8 7 6 5 A(5. 4) (ii) B (. 128 . draw a vertical line at x = 3 and draw a horizontal line at y = . (i) A (5.2) in the Cartesian plane Thus. . 5. . (iv) To plot (3.4.2. 4) is located in the Cartesian plane. 3) (iii) C (. draw a vertical line at x = . the point A (5. draw a vertical line at x = 5 and draw a horizontal line at y = 4. the point C(. .3 ).4).4.7 (ii) To plot (. The intersection of these two lines is the position of (3. . The intersection of these two lines is the position of (.2.3 ) is located in the Cartesian plane.

Y 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 (–5.2) in the rectangular coordinate system. then it may represent a different point in the Cartesian plane.5. 5.5. Example 5.3 Plot the points (. (2. 5) 5 4 3 2 1 A(5. 0) 4 5 6X Y Fig. 0) 1 O 1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 2 3 (4. 0) in the cartesian plane.Coordinate Geometry Example 5. 3) X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 O 1 2 3 4 5 6X C(–5.8 Remark Observe that if we interchange the abscissa and ordinate of a point. (. 0) and (4.2. 5) and (5. . 3) (ii) (.1.5) and (.–5) -6 -7 Y Fig. Y 8 7 6 B(3.–2) -3 -4 -5 D(–2. 5. 0) (–1. . 0) (2.2 Locate the points (i) (3. 0).9 129 . 0).

4).11 When you join these points. 2) and (iv) (0. 2) 2 1 (0.2). you see that they lie on a line which is parallel to x-axis. 2) (–1. Y 8 7 6 (0. 5) 5 (0. 2) (4.10 Plot the points (i) (. 2). (0. (0. 130 .4) in the cartesian plane.Chapter 5 Example 5. –2) -2 -3 (0. What can you say about the position of these points? Y 8 7 6 5 4 3 (–4. –4) -4 -5 -6 -7 Y Example 5. 5. 4) 4 3 2 1 X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 O 1 2 3 4 5 6X (0. 5. 2).1. 2) X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 O 1 2 3 4 5 6X Y Fig. (iii) (4.4 Plot the points (0.. 2).4.5 Fig. 5) and (0. (ii) (..

Coordinate Geometry Remark For points on a line parallel to x-axis. –3) (2. C (. .2. . the y coordinates are equal.. 3). 3) 3 2 1 Y 8 7 6 5 4 (2. Example 5. 3) ABCD is a rectangle X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 O 1 -1 -2 -3 2 3 4 5 6X Can you find the length. .3.3). breath and area of the rectangle? (–2.13.3) and D (2.6 Identify the quadrants of the points A (2.2. 3). Solution Consider the point A.7 F Find the coordinates of the points shown in the Fig. 1) 131 D C -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 E Y Fig. F is (3. 5. Solution Point Quadrant A I B II C III D IV (–2.2). 4) and G is (. –3) -4 -5 -6 -7 Y 8 7 6 5 Y Fig. 2). where each square is a unit square. Hence the coordinates of A are (3.12 Example 5. C is (. A is at a 4 3 B 2 A G X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 O 1 -1 2 3 4 5 6X distance of 3 units from the origin along the positive direction of x-axis and 2 units distance from the origin along the positive direction of y-axis. D is (2.3. Discuss the type of the diagram by joining all the points.2. E is (5. 5. 2). similarly. B (. –3). B is (. .13 .1). 5.

. (v) (. (ix) (. .7. 0) is a point on x-axis. How is the line joining them situated? The ordinates of two points are each . 0) (iii) (8. 0). 4) (iv) (. (iii) (8. 2) are points on the line parallel to y-axis. A (5.1) in the cartesian plane.4) (iv) (4. (vii) (. With rectangular axes plot the points O (0. 7) Plot the following points in the coordinate system and specify their quadrant. . . 2) lies to the left of y-axis.2) (v) (0. 9) (ii) (4. B and D are (0. 10. Write down the abscissa for the following points.2. . 9. How is the line joining them related with reference to x-axis? The abscissa of two points is 0. . . 3) is a point on x-axis. B (5. 4). .5. . 5. . 7. (i) (ii) (5.5.7) lies below the x-axis. 5) (i) (4.7. state whether the following statements are true / false .5) (x) (. 2) 6. Write down the ordinate of the following points.8. .5) (iii) (7. B and C. 7) is a point in the IV quadrant. .4) lies above x-axis.5. 2) (vi) (0.5.1) (ix) (1. (i) (5. 2) (i) (7.2. . 0) (0. 4). 0) (viii) (0. For any point on the x-axis its y coordinate is zero.5) (ii) (3. (x) 2.1) and D (2.Chapter 5 exercise 5. 8. What are the coordinates of C? 132 . B (2. (viii) (. 5) (ii) (2. C (. How is the line joining situated? Mark the points A (.1. (ii) (. C and D .3) (iv) (7. State the figure obtained by joining A and B.3. . 3). Find the coordinate of point C such that OABC forms a rectangle. 0) (iv) (. 3) 3.6 .7) is a point in the III quadrant. 0). 8) (iii) (4.7) (iii) (. (i) (. (vi) (0. Plot the following points in the coordinate plane. the coordinates of A. 3) lies in the II quadrant.1) (vii) (4.2. 2) and (.10.and D and A. (iv) (5. 4).1 1. 4. (. 0) (4.3. In a rectangle ABCD.

The distance of B from A = AB = OB . The distance of B from A = AB = OB . These two points lie on the y axis.OA = y2 . since the y ordinates are equal. 5. 5. 0) on the x-axis. y1) x-axis. Draw AP and BQ perpendicular to x-axis. y2) .y1 = y1 .14 y xl O A x1 x2 − x1 B x2 x { = x1 .x1 if x2 2 x1 yl Fig.y2 ` AB = y2 .1 Distance between two points on coordinate axes If two points lie on the x-axis. y1) x 5.y1 if y2 2 y1 if y1 2 y2 xl y B y2 y1 O A { y2−y1 x yl Fig. Consider two points A (0.16 . the two points lie on a line parallel to B(x2. Consider the two points A (x1. 5.OA = x2 . 0) and B (x2. then the distance between them is equal to the difference between the y coordinates.3 Distance between any Two Points One of the simplest things that can be done with analytical geometry is to calculate the distance between two points.Coordinate Geometry 5. then it is easy to find the distance between them because the distance is equal to the difference between x coordinates.3. y1) .2 Distance between two points on a line parallel to coordinate axes Consider the points A (x1.x2 if x1 2 x2 ` AB = x2 . Distance xl Q between A and B is equal to distance between P and Q. y1) and B (x2.x2 133 O P yl Fig. The distance between two points A and B is usually denoted by AB. y1) and B (0. if two points lie on y axis. 5.15 y A(x1.3. Hence Distance AB = Distance PQ = x1 .x1 similarly.

x1) + (y2 . AR = PQ = OQ .18 Hence the distance between the points A and B is AB = (x2 . e.Chapter 5 now consider the points A (x1. y2) .y1) yl Fig. the distance between these points is given by the formula: d= (x2 .3 Distance between two points: Let A^ x1.RQ = y2 ..y1 From right triangle ARB AB 2 B(x2. The distance between A and B is equal to the distance between P and Q.17 Remark The distance between two points on a line parallel to the coordinate axes is the absolute value of the difference between respective coordinates. y1) O x B(x1. AR is drawn perpendicular to BQ.x1) + (y2 . 5. Hence Distance AB = Distance PQ = y1 .x1) + (y2 . y1) R xl 2 O P x2 − x1 Q x { = AR + RB AB = 2 = (x2 .x1 and BR = BQ .y1) 2 2 2 2 (By Pythagoras theorem) i.y1) 2 2 Key Concept Distance Between two Points Given the two points (x1. (x2 . y Let P and Q be the foot of the perpendiculars from A and B to the x-axis respectively.x1) + (y2 . y1h and B^ x2 y2h be any two points in the plane.OP = x2 . y2) that lie on a line parallel to y-axis.y1) 134 2 2 . Draw AP and BQ perpendicular to y-axis.3. 5. y1) and B (x1. y2) y2−y1 A(x1. y2) Q yl Fig.y2 xl y P A(x1. y1) and (x2. 5. From the diagram. We shall now find the distance between these two points.

x1) + (y2 .8) = 36 + 64 = 100 = 10 y B(0.8 Find the distance between the points (. .4) = 3 + 4 = 7 d= (x2 . the distance d = x1 . 0) and (0. 0) lie on the x-axis.4 + 5) + (2 + 6) = 2 2 2 (x2 . 8) and let O be the origin.y1) 2 2 = (3 + 4) + 0 = 2 2 49 = 7 Example 5.7.19 . Hence Aliter : d = x1 .(. since the angle between coordinate axes is right angle. O and B form a right triangle.7. 0) lies on the x-axis and the point (0. (ii) The distance of the point P (x1. 0) Solution The distance between the points (0. 2) Solution Using the distance formula d = d= (. 0) Solution The points (. y1) from the origin O is OP = x1 + y1 2 2 Example 5.x1) + (y2 .x1) + (y2 . the points A.y1) 2 2 2 2 (6 . ` AB = 100 = 10 135 2 2 2 A(6.7 . 0) xl O 6 units x yl Fig.5 = .4. 5. Hence. now OA = 6 and OB = 8. 2) Solution The line joining (5. 0) is d= = (x2 .Coordinate Geometry Remark (i) This formula holds good for all the above cases. we find 2 2 2 1 + 8 = 1 + 64 = 65 Example 5.4.x2 = 3 .6) and (. 8) and (6. 2) is parallel to x axis.x1) + (y2 .4.2) = 122 = 144 = 12 2 2 Example 5. The point (6. using Pythagorean Theorem AB = OA + OB = 36 + 64 = 100. 2) and (5.0) + (0 . 0) and (3.5. 0) and (3.x2 = . 8) 8 units Aliter : Let A and B denote the points (6.y1) = 2 2 (5 + 7) + (2 .11 Find the distance between the points (0. 8) and (6. Hence.10 Find the distance between the points (.y1) . 8) lies on the y-axis. 2) and (.12 = 12 Aliter : d= (x2 .9 Find the distance between the points (.

(5. a) . .2) = 5 + 5 = 25 + 25 = 50 so. This gives AB + BC = 3 2 + 2 2 = 5 2 = AC.Chapter 5 Example 5. . e. .6) = (.4) + (7 . (.x1) + (y2 . B (7. a).y1) 2 2 2 (5 + 3) + (. Example 5.a 3 . 7). 5) and C (9.5) = 2 + 2 = 4 + 4 = 8 CA = (9 .4) B (2.15 show that the points (a.3.7) Solution The distance between the points (–3.a 3 .y1) .a. . B (.3) = 9 + 9 = 18 BC = (9 . 2).y1) . Solution Let the points be A (4. .a) and C (. . we get 2 2 2 2 2 AB = (2 + 3) + (6 + 4) = 5 + 10 = 25 + 100 = 125 BC =(. Hence the points A.7 + 4) = 2 8 + 3 = 64 + 9 = 2 2 73 25 # 2 = 5 2 . .6 + 3) + (10 + 4) = (. 6) and C (. we have 136 2 2 . (5.a) and (. (7. By the distance formula AB = (4 .a.13 Show that the three points (4..5) = (. BC = 8 = 4#2 = 2 2.12 Find the distance between the points (–3. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (x2 .14 Determine whether the points are vertices of a right triangle A (. AB = 18 = CA = 50 = 9#2 = 3 2.7) + (2 . AB + BC = 125 + 80 = 205 = CA 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Hence ABC is a right angled triangle since the square of one side is equal to sum of the squares of the other two sides.7) + (7 .6. a 3 ) . Example 5. Solution Let the points be represented by A (a. B.6 . a 3 ) form an equilateral triangle. 10) Solution Using the distance formula d = 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (x2 .x1) + (y2 . Using the distance formula d = (x2 .3) + (14) = 9 + 196 = 205 i.7) is d= = Example 5.4).4).8) + 4 = 64 + 16 = 80 CA = (.2) + (10 . 7) lie on a straight line. 5) and (9. 2).x1) + (y2 .3) + (. and C are collinear.

C and D represent the points (. we find 2 2 2 2 2 2 = 12 + 13 = 144 + 169 = 313 = 10 + (. 2) and D (. .2) AB = (3 . –3). Example 5. .3).e. The opposite sides are equal. .2a 2 2 2 3 + 3a 2 ` AB = BC = CA = 2 2 a . .y1) . . Example 5. (.5) taken in order are the corners of a parallelogram. 2).17 show that the following points (3. 10).3) + (.2) taken in order are vertices of a square. Solution Let A.7. 2) and (.Coordinate Geometry AB = = (a + a) + (a + a) (2a) + (2a) = 2 2 2 2 2 4a + 4a = 2 2 2 8a = 2 2 a 3a + a . Solution Let the vertices be taken as A (3.a 3 ) = 8a = 2 2 a 2 a + 2a 2 2 3 + 3a + a .1 . (15. (3.1.2) = 100 + 4 = 104 = DA = 104 313 and BC i.1.2). 8) and (3.2 + 2) = (.5) respectively. Using the distance formula d = AB = (5 + 7) + (10 + 3) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (x2 .15) + (.13) DA = (3 + 7) + (. 2). C (.1.x1) + (y2 .7. B.1. .1 + 1) + (2 + 2) = 4 =16 DA = (.2) = 4 = 16 CD = (.5 + 3) so.a 3 + ah + ^a 3 + ah = 3 + 3a + a + 2 a 2 2 2 3 8a = 2 4 # 2a = 2 2 a 2 2 2 CA = = (a + a 3 ) + (a . (15.3) + (2 + 2) = 4 = 16 BC = (3 + 1) + (2 .2a 2 2 2 2 BC = = ^. Hence ABCD is a parallelogram.2) = 100 + 4 = 104 2 2 BC = (15 . 8) and (3. 10). .4) = 16 137 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 .. B (3.5 . (5.16 Prove that the points (.10) 2 2 CD = (3 .12) + (. since all the sides are equal the points form an equilateral triangle. (5.2). AB = CD = 2 2 2 2 2 = 144 + 169 = 313 = 10 + (.8) = (.5) + (8 .

If the abscissa and the ordinate of P are equal. 3). B. the coordinates of P are (x. Let A and B denote the points (2. 5). x).4) = 16 + 16 = 32 BD = (3 + 1) + (2 + 2) = 4 + 4 = 16 + 16 = 32 AB = BC = CD = DA = 16 = 4.1).x1) + (y2 .4) + (.Chapter 5 AC = (3 + 1) + (.3) 2 2 2 2 = (x . 3) and (6.10x + 25 2x . since the abscissa of P is equal to its ordinate.2) = 4 + (. Solution suppose C represents the point (4.13 12x = 48 x = 48 = 4 12 Therefore.19 Show that (4. .e. Q and R denote the points (9.4) + (3 . Using the distance formula d = we get CP = (9 . the coordinates of P are (4. Find also its radius.22x + 61 22x . 3) and (6. squaring on both sides.18 Let P be a point on the perpendicular bisector of the segment joining (2.1) and (1.2) + (x . (That is. . 3).1) respectively.2 .3) = 3 + (. i.4x + 4 + x . 4) Example 5.5) 2 2 2 2 2 x . Let P. Solution Let the point be P (x. Therefore.4) = 9 + 16 = 25 CR = (4 . .6) + (x . . we get PA = PB . Example 5..y1) . all the sides are equal. .6x + 9 = x .3) = 5 = 25 CQ = (7 . C and D form a square. (That is. we get 2 2 PA = PB .) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Hence the points A. (7.10x + 13 = 2x . (7. 3). the diagonals are equal. since P is equidistant from A and B. 5).12x + 36 + x .1) and (1. 3) is the centre of the circle which passes through the points (9.) AC = BD = 32 = 4 2 .1 . we have y = x .10x = 61. find the coordinates of P. 2 (x . y) .1) + (3 + 1) = 3 + 4 = 9 + 16 = 25 138 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (x2 .

Example 5.2. 3) is the circum-centre of the triangle joining the points A (9. .16a + 64 + b2 + 10b + 25 . CP = CQ = CR = 25 or CP = CQ = CR = 5. 3) and its radius is 5 units.20 If the point (a. Let A and B represent the points (3. 2) and (2.10b .64 = 0 Dividing throughout by 2. R are on the circle with centre at (4.8) and (. B (7.3) 2 = 25 = 5 25 = 5 25 = 5 (7 .5).3) and (3. we have 2 2 2 = (a .b .6a + 9 + b2 + 8b + 16 = a2 . .3) 2 = ` SA = SB = SC . Using the distance formula d = (a .3) + (b + 4) 2 2 2 2 2 2 (x2 . Hence the points P.8) 2 + (b + 5) 2 a2 . 8) and (.3) (iii) (. (i) (7.3) 2 = (1 .1 .1) and C (1. we get 5a . .b . exercise 5.4) 2 + (. 2) .3. 0) (v) (. .4) 2 + (. since P is equidistant from A and B.1) Solution SA = SB = SC = (9 . .4) and (8.89 = 0 10a .4.2. 0) and (.2b . . it is the circum-centre of the triangle ABC. show that 5a . 4) (iv) (.5) respectively. .Coordinate Geometry so.6a + 8b + 25 + 16a . b) . 2) 139 (ii) (6. we have PA = PB and hence PA = PB . Find the distance between the following pairs of points.6) (vi) (2. since S is equidistant from all the three vertices. b) is equidistant from (3.2 1.4) 2 + (3 .32 = 0 Example 5. 3). Q. . .1 . It is known that the circum-center is equidistant from all the vertices of a triangle.32 = 0 . 2) and (3.x1) + (y2 .4) and (8. Solution Let P deonte the point (a.2.21 show that S (4. .2.y1) .

3) 6. 7) and the origin.3). (. 1) and (. (6. (.2) and (6. 5) and (15.3). 5).6) and (7. 9) (ii) (. Show that the following points form a right angled triangle. . 0) 7.3. 10) and (15. . (5.8. 13).11. (. . (i) (2. (. (a. 2) 140 .5.2 3 . 5 3 ) (iii) (2. (i) (0. .1. . (i) (0. (i) (3. 2). 5). 4) (iv) (1.8. 0) and (5.7) and (. 17) and (0. (5. (. 3) (iv) (10. (.2). (i) (. (5.4. 6) and (2.3. .2. 0) and (10. show that the following points form an equilateral triangle. 4) (ii) (. 10) (v) (4. 2). . 7) and (.3. (. . (2. –2) (iii) (0. . 0). 20). .2).1) and (0. (. (0. . show that the following points are collinear. (.3.3) and (. 4) (ii) (a. 3). . 2 3 ) (v) (. .1. 1) and (1. 8) and (. 4). . 0).7.2) and (. 0).4). 2). (7. a 3 ) (iv) ( 3 .5) and (. (3. . 1) (v) (2.2. . . (.1) 2. b) (v) (5. (10. (18. 0).5.5) (ii) (3.3. (2 3 .8) 3.Chapter 5 (vii) (. 0). (. (6. (. 5) and (5. 2) (iv) (. 7). 8) and (0. 0). (. (i) (.2.1) and (.2) and (2 3 .4. (10. (5.3 .2.4) and (7.7). . (7. 5). (5.2. 9) (ii) (9.2.2. . 15) 5. . 3) (v) (3.1) (iii) (1.6. 3). (2. 4).6. 4) (ii) (1. (0. Show that the following points taken in order form the vertices of a parallelogram.2.7) (v) (15.1. 1). 2) (ix) (0. 0).a. 3) (iii) (. .1.11. . 3). 12). 16) and (29. 7) and (1. . 9).3) (iii) (0. (. (7. 3). 0) and (0. 6) and (3. 0) (x) (5.3) and (1. (2. 0).2.3).4) (iv) (2. (4.1). . 1). . 0) and (1. . show that the following points form an isosceles triangle. (6.2) and (. 0) 4. 2). (. 0). 3). 2) and (3.5). Show that the following points taken in order form the vertices of a rhombus. 4) (iii) (1. (viii) (7. .1) and (4. 0) and (. (8. (3. 4) (iv) (6. .5).2. 0) and (0.

(i) (0. y) .2. Find the radius of the circle whose centre is (3.13). 0) and D (5. Find the perimeter of the triangle with vertices (i) (0.4. 0). 15. If PA = PB then find the coordinates of B. (2. 5). 3) and (. Examine whether the following points taken in order form a rectangle. 0). If two points (2. 8) and (13.1).1). . . (.3. 5. . Show that (4.2.10. . (1. find y. 6). 1) is equidistant from the points (. C (8. Find the area of the rhombus ABCD with vertices A (2. xl O P B x yl Fig.20.6) and (2.1.Coordinate Geometry 8. 21. 3) and (6.5. y) is 4. (5. (5. 7) and (1. (0.2) (Hint: A point on the y-axis will have its x coordinate as zero). 2) and (1. 3) and (. (1. find the coordinates of any four points on the circle which are not on the axes.6. 2) and (0.1. 7) (iii) (.3) and origin Find the point on the y-axis equidistant from (.3. 6) and (1. 8). 5). . . 4) 10. (3.5) are equidistant from the point (x. . . 1). 3) and (. 1) 9. 2). find x. 3).6). 3) and (2. . 14)? Give reason. 4) (ii) (5. PB is perpendicular segment from the point A (4. 5) [Hint: Area of the rhombus ABCD = 1 d1 d2 ] 2 Can you draw a triangle with vertices (1. .1) (v) (. 8) (ii) (. 0). 13. A(4.3. 2).3) lie on the circle centred at the origin y with radius 5. 5) (5. If the distance between two points (x. 5.5. .14) and (. 1) and (2. 6) and (9. (3. 12. 0). 2) and (9.2) (iv) (12. 16.20 19. 14. 2) and passes through ( . If origin is the centre of a circle with radius 17 units. (. 11.3).5) (4. (6. B (5. (ii) (9. If the length of the line segment with end points (2. . Prove that the points (0. (20. 9). (i) (8. (1. .2. show that x + y + 3 = 0. Examine whether the following points taken in order form a square. . 1). . In the Fig. 17. (. (0. (1. 0) and origin . 1) (iii) (3. 15) is 10. . 3).2).5). 3) 18. (0. (Use the Pythagorean triplets) 141 20. 2). (0.

x1) 2 + (y2 . (0. Write the coordinates of the point where the circle intersects the axes. show that (2. � These two horizontal and vertical lines are called the coordinate axes (x-axis and y-axis) � The point of intersection of x-axis and y-axis is called the origin with coordinates (0. B(8. 3 m 2 2 If the points A(6. The radius of the circle with centre at the origin is 10 units. y1) and the origin is x12 + y12 (x2 .1 . Points to Remember � Two perpendicular lines are needed to locate the position of a point in a plane.y2 � Distance between (x1. 1) is the circum-centre of the triangle formed by the vertices (3. � x coordinate of the points on the vertical lines are equal. find the value of p using distance formula. C(9. . 1) show that the origin is the circum-centre of the triangle formed by the vertices (1. y1) and (x2. 1). Find the distance between any two of such points. � If x1 and x2 are the x coordinates of two points on the x-axis. � In rectangular coordinate systems one of them is horizontal and the other is vertical. then the distance between the point is y1 . � y coordinate of the points on the horizontal lines are equal. 3) taken in order are the vertices of a parallelogram. 2). � x coordinate of the points on y-axis is zero. (2. 1). 0) � The distance of a point from y-axis is x coordinate or abscissa and the distance of the point from x-axis is called y coordinate or ordinate.1) and c . 25.y1) 2 � Distance between the two points (x1. 2) and (1. 23.x2 � If y1 and y2 are the y coordinates of two points on the y-axis. � y coordinate of the points on x-axis is zero. 0). then the distance between them is x1 . y2) is 142 . 24. 4) and D(p.Chapter 5 22.

1 Introduction idea of ‘sine’ in the way we use it today was in the work Aryabhatiyam by Aryabhatta. 476 – 550) The first use of the 6. even in our modern world. which will involve several terms and their definitions.D. guitar strings). – J. The word trigonometry is a derivation from the Greek language and means measurement of triangles. Ancient civilizations used right triangle trigonometry for the purpose of measuring angles and distances in surveying land and astronomy.D 476. in A. a Greek astronomer and mathematician developed the subject trigonometry and the first trigonometric table was compiled by him. to name a few.D. planetary motion. This is because trigonometry was initially used to study relationships between different sides of a given triangle. A. 6. He is now known as “the Father of Trigonometry”. The Aryabhatta deals with both mathematics and astronomy. and vibrations (sound waves.2 Trigonometric Ratios 6. 500. HERBART Main Targets ● ● ● To understand Trigonometric Ratios To understand Trigonometric Ratios of Complementary Angles Method of Using Trigonometric Table AryAbhAttA (A.Trigonometry TRIGONOMETRY There is perhaps nothing which so occupies the middle position of mathematics as trigonometry. Trigonometry is an ancient mathematical tool with many applications.1 Angle We begin this section with the definition of an angle. He lived at Kusumapura or Pataliputra in ancient Magadha or modern Patna in Bihar State. Trigonometry can be applied in the fields of navigation. Aryabhatta was the first of great Indian Mathematicians.2. The time of birth of Aryabhatta may be fixed at Mesa-Sankranti on March 21. Hipparchus. At the age of 23 years Aryabhatta wrote at least two books on astronomy (1) Aryabhatta (2) Aryabhatta-Siddhanta. 143 .F.

Hypotenuse. 6.C. 6. ¾ The side that runs alongside the angle i and which is not the Hypotenuse is called the Adjacent side.1 below for a visual example of an angle. This relationship is useful in solving many problems and in developing trigonometric concepts. such as i .2 Opposite side B ¾ The side that is opposite to the right angle is called the C .1 A more common unit of measurement for an angle is the degree. This is the longest side in a right triangle. Vertex O i B m Ter lS ina ide Initial Side A Fig. 144 A Hy p us e en ot i Adjacent side Fig. The starting position of the angle is known as the initial side and the ending position of the angle is known as the terminal side.. ¾ The side that is opposite to the angle i is called the Opposite side. a . OB is the terminal side and O is the vertex of the angle. 6. We will often use Greek letters to denote angles.2. This unit was used by the Babylonians as early as 1000 B. One degree (written 1c) is the measure of an angle generated by 1 of one revolution. See the Fig.2. The point from which both of the directed line segments originate is known as the vertex of the angle. etc.2. Here the ray OA is rotated about the point O to the position OB to generate the angle AOB denoted by +AOB . 6. 6. Pythagoras Theorem: The square of the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.2 Pythagoras Theorem The Pythagoras theorem is a tool to solve for unknown values on right triangle. In the right triangle. we refer to the lengths of the three sides according to how they are placed in relation to the angle i. 360 6. b .Chapter 6 Key Concept Angle An angle is a portion of the 2-dimensional plane which resides between two different directed line segments.3 Trigonometric Ratios Consider the right triangle in the Fig. OA is the initial side.

Long ago these ratios were given names. A i O D O i B C E O i F For each triangle above. we have many right triangles. the ratios of the corresponding sides are equal. the ratios depend only on the size of i and not on the particular right triangle used to compute the ratios. AD = BE = CF . Then the six trigonometric ratios of i are as follows Opposite side Hypotenuse Adjacent side cos i = Hypotenuse Opposite side tan i = Adjacent side sin i = cosec i = sec i cot i 145 Hypotenuse Opposite side Hypotenuse = Adjacent side Adjacent side = Opposite side . OA OB OC OD = OE = OF OA OB OC That is.Trigonometry When trigonometry was first developed it was based on similar right triangles. All right triangles that have a common acute angle are similar. For example. We can form six ratios with the sides of a right triangle. The ratio The ratio The ratio The ratio The ratio The ratio Opposite side is called sine of angle i and is denoted by sin i Hypotenuse Adjacent side is called cosine of angle i and is denoted by cos i Hypotenuse Opposite side is called tangent of angle i and is denoted by tan i Adjacent side Hypotenuse is called cosecant of angle i and is denoted by cosec i Opposite side Hypotenuse is called secant of angle i and is denoted by sec i Adjacent side Adjacent side is called cotangent of angle i and is denoted by cot i Opposite side trigonometric ratios Key Concept Let i be an acute angle of a right triangle. So. for a given acute angle i .

6. Solution From the Fig. cos i and tan i are connected by the relation tan i = sin i cos i 2. sin i = 1 cosec i 1 sin i cos i = sec i = 1 sec i 1 cos i tan i = cot i = 1 cot i 1 tan i cosec i = Remark 1.3. find the six trigonometric ratios of the angle i . you may use any right triangle which has i as one of the angles. 6. sin i = BC = 3 cosec i = AC = 5 AC BC 5 3 cos i = AB = 4 sec i = AC = 5 AC AB 5 4 tan i = BC = 3 AB 4 Example 6.4 i R RQ 13 = PQ 5 RQ 13 = = PR 12 = PR = 12 PQ 5 . C 5 i 3 B Example 6. Since we defined the trigonometric ratios in terms of ratios of sides.2 In the right triangle PQR as shown at right.1 Find the six trigonometric ratios of the angle i in the right triangle ABC. the adjacent side = 4 A and the hypotenuse = 5. as shown at right. Solution From the Fig. This means that the values of the trigonometric functions are unitless numbers. 3.4 the opposite side = 5. 6. When calculating the trigonometric ratios of an acute angle i . cos i and tan i respectively. The basic trigonometric ratios sin i . the opposite side = 3. you can think of the units of measurement for those sides as cancelling out in those ratios. the adjacent side = 12 and the hypotenuse = 13. PQ = 5 sin i = RQ 13 cos i = PR = RQ PQ = tan i = PR 12 13 5 12 cosec i = sec i cot i 146 Q 4 Fig. sec i and cot i are receprocals of sin i . 6.Chapter 6 Reciprocal Relations The trigonometric ratios cosec i .3 cot i = AB = 4 BC 3 P 5 12 13 Fig.

Let us consider D ABC (see Fig. right angled at B.5 B sin i = BC = AB cos i = AC = AB tan i = BC = AC Example 6. 15 sin A = 12.5. Also find the six ratios of the angle C Solution Given that 15 sin A = 12.6 2 12 B We now use the three sides to find the six trigonometric ratios of cos A tan A = AB = 9 AC 15 = BC = 12 AB 9 sin C cos C tan C = AB = 9 AC 15 = BC = 12 AC 15 = AB = 9 BC 12 angle A and angle C.5.Trigonometry Example 6.12 = 225 . By Pythagoras theorem AC = AB + BC 15 2 2 2 2 2 2 C = AB + 12 2 2 15 AB = 15 . find the six trigonometric ratios of the angle i 24 i A Solution From the Fig. 15 right angled at B. 6. 6.6). By Pythagoras theorem AB = BC + CA = 7 + 24 = 49 + 576 = 625 ` AB = 625 = 25 7 25 24 25 7 24 cosec i = AB = BC sec i = AB = AC cot i = AC = BC 25 7 25 24 24 7 C 2 2 2 2 2 We now use the three sides find the six trigonometric ratios of angle i 7 Fig. with BC = 12 and AC = 15.144 = 81 ` AB = 81 = 9 A Fig.3 From the Fig. so sin A = 12 .4 In T ABC. AC = 24 and BC = 7. Find the other five trigonometric ratios of the angle A. cosec A = AC = 15 BC 12 sec A cot A = AC = 15 AB 9 = AB = 9 BC 12 cosec C = AC = 15 AB 9 sec C cot C 147 = AC = 15 BC 12 = BC = 12 AB 9 . 6. 6. 6.

64 = 225 ` QR = 225 = 15 P Fig.8).7 8 Q We now use the lengths of the three sides to find the six trigonometric RQ 15 = PR 17 PQ = 8 cos P = PR 17 RQ 15 = tan P = PQ 8 sin P = cosec P = PR = 17 RQ 15 sec P = PR = PQ PQ = cot P = RQ 17 8 8 15 ratios of angle P Example 6.8 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 17 = 289 . sec A . 6. we have C AC = AB + BC 372 = 352 + BC2 BC2 = 372 .tan A 37 Solution Given that cos A = 35 . AB AB 35 35 Now. sec A . +B = 90c. Let us consider 3 ABC (see Fig. By Pythagoras theorem.7).352 = 1369 . (see Fig.5 In 3 PQR . PQ=8 and R PR=17.6 If cos A = 35 . PR = PQ + QR 17 = 8 + QR QR = 17 . find sec A + tan A .1225 = 144 ` BC = 144 = 12 2 2 2 37 A 35 Fig. sec A + tan A = 37 + 12 = 49 .12 = 25 35 35 35 35 35 35 49 sec A + tan A = 35 = 49 # 35 = 49 ` sec A . PQ=8 and PR=17.8 B tan A = BC = 12 sec A = AC = 37 .tan A 25 35 25 25 35 148 . right angled at Q. By Pythagoras theorem. 6.tan A = 37 . right angled at Q. Find the six trigonometric ratios of the angle P Solution Given that PQR is a right triangle. with 37 AB = 35 and AC = 37. 6. 6.Chapter 6 Example 6.

Trigonometry

Example 6.7 If tan i = 20 , show that 1 - sin i + cos i = 3 . 21 1 + sin i + cos i 7 Solution Given that tan i = 20 . Let us consider the right triangle ABC (see Fig. 6.9), with 21 AB = 21 and BC = 20. By Pythagoras theorem, we have
C

AC2 = AB2 + BC2 = 202 + 212 = 400 + 441 = 841. ` AC = 841 = 29. cos i = AB = 21 AC 29
A i 21
Fig. 6.9

20 B

sin i = BC = 20 , AC 29

1 - sin i + cos i = 1 - 20 + 21 = 29 - 20 + 21 = 30 29 29 29 29 1 + sin i + cos i = 1 + 20 + 21 = 29 + 20 + 21 = 70 29 29 29 29 1 - sin i + cos i = 1 + sin i + cos i 30 29 70 29 = 30 # 29 = 30 = 3 29 70 70 7

6.3

Trigonometric Ratios of Some Special Angles
For certain special angles such as 30c, 45c and 60c, which are frequently seen in

applications, we can use geometry to determine the trigonometric ratios. 6.3.1 Trigonometric Ratios of 30c and 60c Let 3 ABC be an equilateral triangle whose sides have length a (see Fig. 6.10). Draw AD = BC , then D bisects the side BC. So, BD = DC = a and +BAD = +DAC = 30c. Now, 2 a . So, A in right triangle ADB, +BAD = 30c and BD = 2 AB = AD + BD
2 2 2 2 2

30c a a

2 a = AD + 8 a B 2 2 2 AD = a - a 4 2

= 3a 4

2

B

60c a 2 D a 2
Fig. 6.10

60c

C

` AD =

3a 2
149

Chapter 6

Hence, we can find the trigonometric ratios of angle 30c from the right triangle BAD a BD = 2 = 1 sin 30c = AB a 2 3a AD = 2 cos 30c = = 3 AB a 2 tan 30c = BD = AD a 2 = 1 3a 3 2 1 =2 sin 30c 1 = 2 cos 30c 3 1 = 3 tan 30c

cosec 30c =

sec 30c

=

cot 30c

=

In 3 ABD , +ABD = 60c. So, we can determine the trigonometric ratios of angle 60c 3a AD = 2 sin 60c = = 3 AB a 2 a BD = 2 = 1 cos 60c = AB a 2 3a AD = 2 tan 60c = = 3 BD a 2

cosec 60c =

1 = 2 sin 60c 3 1 =2 cos 60c 1 = 1 tan 60c 3

sec 60c

=

cot 60c

=

6.3.2 Trigonometric Ratio of 45c If an acute angle of a right triangle is 45c, then the other acute angle is also 45c. Thus the triangle is isosceles. Let us consider the triangle ABC with +B = 90c, +A = +C = 45c. Then AB = BC. Let AB = BC = a . By Pythagoras theorem, AC = AB + BC
2 2 2 2 2 2

C 45c

a = a + a = 2a
45c A

` AC = a 2 From Fig. 6.11, we can easily determine the trigonometric ratios of 45c
150

Fig. 6.11

a

B

Trigonometry

sin 45c = BC = a = 1 AC a 2 2 cos 45c = AB = a = 1 AC a 2 2 tan 45c = BC = a = 1 AB a 6.3.3 Trigonometric Ratios of 0cand 90c

cosec 45c = sec 45c = cot 45c =

1 = 2 sin 45c

1 = 2 cos 45c 1 =1 tan 45c

Consider Fig. 6.12 which shows a circle of radius 1 unit centered at the orgin. Let P be a point on the circle in the first quadrant with coordinates (x, y). We drop a perpendicular PQ from P to the x-axis in order to form the right triangle OPQ. Let +POQ = i , then sin i = cos i = tan i = y PQ = = y (y coordinate of P) 1 OP OQ x = = x (x coordinate of P) OP 1 PQ y = OQ x
Fig. 6.12
1 O
i x

Y B(0, 1) P(x, y) y Q A(1, 0)

X

If OP coincides with OA, then angle i = 0c. Since the coordinates of A are (1, 0), we have sin 0c = 0 ( y coordinate of A) cos 0c= 1 (x coordinate of A) tan 0c = sin 0c = 0 = 0. cos 0c 1
o

cosec 0c is not defined sec 0c = 1 cot 0c is not defined

If OP coincides with OB, then angle i =90 . Since the coordinates of B are (0, 1), we have sin 90c = 1 ( y coordinate of B) cos 90c = 0 (x coordinate of B) tan 90c = sin 90c = 1 is not defined. cos 90c 0 cosec 90c = 1 sec 90c is not defined cot 90c = 0

151

Chapter 6

The six trigonometric ratios of angles 0c, 30c, 45c, 60c and 90c are provided in the following table. angle i ratio sin i cos i tan i cosec i sec i cot i Example 6.8 Evaluate sin2 45c + tan2 45c + cos2 45c. Solution We know, sin 45c = 1 , tan 45c = 1 and cos 45c = 1 2 2
2 2 ` sin2 45c + tan2 45c + cos2 45c= c 1 m + (1) 2 + c 1 m 2 2

0c 0 1 0 not defined 1 not defined

30c 1 2 3 2 1 3 2 2 3 3

45c 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1

60c 3 2 1 2 3 2 3 2 1 3

90c 1 0 not defined 1 not defined 0

= 1 +1+ 1 = 2 2 2
Note

We write (sin i) as sin i

2

2

Example 6.9 2 2 Evaluate 12 cos 30c - 2 tan 60c . 2 4 sec 45c Solution We know, cos 30c = 3 , tan 60c = 3 and sec 45c = 2 2
2 2 ` 12 cos 30c - 2 tan 60c 4 sec2 45c 2 c12 # c 3 m m - ^2 # ^ 3 h h 2 = 4 # ( 2 )2 2

3 `12 # 4 j - ^2 # 3h = 4#2 = 9- 6 = 3 8 8
152

Trigonometry

Exercise 6.1
1. From the following diagrams, find the trigonometric ratios of the angle i
A 10 i 8 6 B A 7 C 24 25
i

B

C

(i)
37

(ii)
A 40 C
i

B 12
i

A 35

9 41 B

C

(iii)

(iv)

2.

Find the other trigonometric ratios of the following (i) sin A = 9 15 (iv) sec i = 17 8 (ii) cos A = 15 17 (v) cosec i = 61 60 (iii) tan P = 5 12 (vi) sin i = x . y

3.

Find the value of i , if (iii) tan i = 3 (i) sin i = 1 (ii) sin i = 0 (iv) cos i = 3 . 2 2 In 3 ABC , right angled at B, AB = 10 and AC = 26. Find the six trigonometric ratios of the angles A and C. If 5 cos i - 12 sin i = 0 , find sin i + cos i . 2 cos i - sin i If 29 cos i = 20 , find sec2 i - tan2 i . If sec i = 26 , find 3 cos i + 4 sin i . 10 4 cos i - 2 sin i If tan i = a , find sin2 i + cos2 i . b (1 + sin i)(1 - sin i) If cot i = 15 , evaluate . 8 (1 + cos i)(1 - cos i) In triangle PQR, right angled at Q, if tan P = 1 find the value of 3 (i) sin P cos R + cos P sin R (ii) cos P cos R - sin P sin R.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

11.

If sec i = 13 , show that 2 sin i - 3 cos i = 3 . 5 4 sin i - 9 cos i
153

Chapter 6

12. 13.

If sec A = 17 , prove that 8 Evaluate. (i) (iii) (v) sin 45c + cos 45c tan 45c tan 30c + tan 60c

1 - 2 sin2 A = 2 cos2 A - 1 .

(ii)

sin 60c tan 30c

(iv) cos2 60c sin2 30c + tan2 30c cot2 60c (vi) 4 cot2 60c + sec2 30c - 2 sin2 45c sin2 60c + cos2 45c

6 cos2 90c + 3 sin2 90c + 4 tan2 45c

2 2 2 2 + (vii) tan 60c + 4 cos 45c + 3 sec 30c 2 5 cos 90c cosec 30c + sec 60c - cot 30c

(viii) 4 (sin4 30c + cos4 60c) - 3 (cos2 45c - sin2 90c) . 14. Verify the following equalities. (i) (ii) sin2 30c + cos2 30c = 1 1 + tan2 45c = sec2 45c

(iii) cos 60c = 1 - 2 sin2 30c = 2 cos2 30c - 1 (iv) cos 90c = 1 - 2 sin2 45c = 2 cos2 45c - 1 (v) (vi) cos 60c = 1 1 + sin 60c sec 60c + tan 60c 1 - tan2 60c = 2 cos2 60c - 1 1 + tan2 60c

(vii) sec 30c + tan 30c = 1 + sin 30c sec 30c - tan 30c 1 - sin 30c (viii) tan2 60c - 2 tan2 45c - cot2 30c + 2 sin2 30c + 3 cosec2 45c = 0 4 (ix) 4 cot2 45c - sec2 60c + sin2 60c + cos2 60c = 1 (x) sin 30c cos 60c + cos 30c sin 60c = sin 90c.

6.4

Trigonometric Ratios for Complementary Angles
Two acute angles are complementary to each other if their sums are equal to 90c. In

a right triangle the sum of the two acute angles is equal to 90c. So, the two acute angles of a right triangle are always complementary to each other. Let ABC be a right triangle, right angled at B (see Fig. 6.13). If +ACB = i, then +BAC = 90c - i and hence the angles +BAC and +ACB are complementary.
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i) tan i = cot (90c .i) sec i = BC cot i = BC = tan (90c .i) . we have AC AB AC BC BC AB i C (1) 90c .i) cos i = sin (90c .i) cos i = AC tan i = AB = cot (90c .34c) = sin 34c.Trigonometry We have sin i = AB cosec i = AC = cos i = BC sec i AC = tan i = AB cot i BC Similarly.i) = AC tan (90c . for the angle (90c . 6.i) AB trigonometric ratios of Complementary Angles Let i be an acute angle of a right triangle. Then we have the following identities for trigonometric ratios of complementary angles. tan 25c = cot 65c = 1 cot 65c cot 65c 155 cosec i = sec (90c .i) = BC cot (90c .i) = tan (90c .i) = BC cosec (90c .i) = AB Comparing the equations in (1) and (2) we get.i) AC BC = sin (90c .65c) = cot 65c.13 A B sin (90c .i) BC Key Concept AC BC AC AB AB BC (2) cosec i = AC = sec (90c .i) Solution .i) AB AC = cosec (90c . using trigonometric ratios of complementary angles cos 56c = cos (90c . So. Hence cos 56c = sin 34c = 1 sin 34c sin 34c Example 6. sin i = AB = cos (90c .i) = AC cos (90c .i Fig. Hence.i) = AB sec (90c .10 Evaluate cos 56c . sin i = cos (90c .11 Evaluate tan 25c cot 65c Solution We write tan 25c = tan (90c . sin 34c The angles 56c and 34care complementary.i) sec i cot i = cosec (90c .i) Example 6.

30c) = cot 30c ` tan 35c tan 60c tan 55c tan 30c = cot 55c cot 30c tan 55c tan 30c = Example 6. sec (90c .72c) = cos 72c cos 58c = cos (90c .33c = 57c 156 . That is. sin 18c = sin (90c .14.55c) = cot 55c tan 60c = tan (90c .Chapter 6 Example 6. Example 6. we get cos 65c = cos (90c . sin a = sin b ( a = b cos a = cos b ( a = b . So.A) . So.13 Show that tan 35c tan 60c tan 55c tan 30c = 1 .A = 33c ` A = 90c . cos (90c .A = 25c ` A = 90c . if aand b are acute angles.25c = 65c Note 1 # 1 # tan 55c # tan 30c = 1 tan 55c tan 30c In Example 6. the value of A is obtained not by cancelling sec on both sides but using uniqueness of trigonometric ratios for acute angles.A) = sec 25c ( 90c .A) . ` cos 65c sin 18c cos 58c = sin 25c cos 72c sin 32c = 1 cos 72c sinc 25c sin 32c cos 72c sin 25c sin 32c Example 6.32c) = sin 32c.15 If sin A = cos 33c find A Solution We have sin A = cos (90 . find A. cos 72c sin 25c sin 32c Solution Using trigonometric ratios of complementary angles.A) = cos 33c ( 90c . etc. Solution We have cosec A = sec (90c .12 Evaluate cos 65c sin 18c cos 58c . Solution We have tan 35c = tan (90c .25c) = sin 25c.14 If cosec A = sec 25c.

To apply the results of trigonometric ratios to these situations.tan 54c cos 54c cot 36c (v) cos 37c # sin 18c sin 53c cos 72c (vii) (ii) cos 80c + cos 59c cosec 31c sin 10c (iv) 3 tan 67c + 1 sin 42c + 5 cosec 61c cot 23c 2 cos 48c 2 sec 29c (vi) 2 sec (90c . One minute is denoted by 1l and One second is denoted by 1m . A trigonometric table consists of three parts. 45c.5 Method of Using Trigonometric Table We have computed the trigonometric ratios for angles 0c.sin 38c sin 52c (iii) sin 36c .sin 42c = 0 (iii) sin (90c .Trigonometry Exercise 6. Find A if (i) sin A = cos 30c (iv) sec 35c = cosec A 4.i) (vi) tan 46c . 30c. In our daily life. correct to four places of decimals of all the three tirgonometric ratios for angles from 0c to 90c spaced at intervals of 6l .i) tan i = sin i (ii) cos 20c cos 70c .i) tan (90c .2 cos2 60c c .i) cos (90c .i) = 1. 60c and 90c. Evaluate (i) sin 36c cos 54c (iv) sec 20c cosec 70c 2.sin 70c sin 20c = 0 (iv) cos (90c . we need to know the values of trigonometric ratios of all the acute angles. 30c. 6. 1c = 60l and 1l = 60m The trigonometrical tables give the values. Therefore. 3.i) tan (90c .sec i (viii) sin 35c + cos 55c .2 1. One degree is divided into 60 minutes and One minute is divided into 60 seconds. cot 44c sec (90c . Show that (i) cos 48c .i) +7 cosec i sin i (ii) cosec 10c sec 80c (v) sin 17c cos 73c (iii) sin i sec (90c . Trigonometrical tables indicating approximate values of sines. cosines and tangents of all the acute angles have been provided at the end of the book. To express fractions of degrees. 60c and 90c. 157 .i) cos i # . 45c. cos i (ii) tan 49c = cot A (v) cosec A cos 43c = 1 (iii) tan A tan 35c = 1 (vi) sin 20c tan A sec 70c = 3 . we come across situations. wherein we need to solve right triangles which have angles different from 0c.i) cos 55c sin 35c sin (90 (ix) cot 12c cot 38c cot 52c cot 60c cot 78c. Simplify (i) cos 38c cos 52c .

9c Mean Diff. From the table cos 37c12l = 0.2c 18l 0.8c 0.7c 48l 0.1c 12l 0. 1 2 3 4 5 7 . Example 6. 6l .7290 Mean Difference for 3l = 0.3c 24l 0.7290 + 0.12l .8c 54l 0. 42l .7c 48l 0.4c 30l 0.5c 36l 0.5c 36l 0.7688 158 6l 0. 3l . ` cos 37c16l = 0.0. For angles containing other numbers of minutes. the appropriate adjustment is obtained from the mean difference columns. we must subtract the Mean Difference. 48l and 54l respectively (iii) Five columns under the head Mean difference and these five columns are headed by 1l .6c 42l 0. 2l . From the table we have sin 46c48l = 0.0007 = 0.4c 30l 0.18l .0006 ` sin 46c51l = 0.Chapter 6 (i) (ii) A column on the extreme left which contains degrees from 0c to 90c Ten columns headed by 0l .7290 54l 0.6c 42l 0.0007 Since cos i decreases from 1 to 0 as i increases from 0c to 90c.0006 = 0.7296 Example 6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 18l 0.1c 12l 0. cosine and tangent of angles in multiple of 6l .2c 0.9c Mean Diff. 4l and 5l The ten columns mentioned in (ii) provide the values for sine.7695 . 0l 0.17 Find the value of cos 37c16l Solution 0l 0.7695 Mean Difference for 4l = 0.7695 Write 37c16l = 37c12l + 4l . 24l . 30l .0c 46c Write 46c51l = 46c48l + 3l . 36l .16 Find the value of sin 46c51l Solution The relevant part of the sine table is given below.0c 37c 6l 0. while it is to be subtracted in the case of cosine.3c 24l 0. The mean difference is to be added in the case of sine and tangent.

0987 .7c 48l 0.0987 ` i = 5c40l Example 6.20 If sin i = 0.0006 is corresponding to 2l .19 If sin i = 0.4040 is corresponding to tan 22c0l .0993 is corresponding to sin 5c42l and 0.0.21 Find the angle i if tan i = 0.4706 Mean Difference for 3l = 0.4717 Example 6. we find the value 0. Solution From the sine table.2c 0.0011 ` tan 25c15l = 0. we find the value 0.0958 is corresponding to sin 5c30l .0c 25c 6l 0.0993 .18 Find the value of tan 25c15l Solution 0l 0. Solution From the sine table. sin 5c40l = sin 5c42l .8c 54l 0.9c Mean Diff. we find 0. find the angle i . From the table tan 25c12l = 0. So.4706 Write 25c15l = 25c12l + 3l .0006 = 0.4706 + 0. 1 2 3 4 5 11 .5c 36l 0. find the angle i .0958 ` i = 5c30l Example 6.4040 Solution From the tangent table.Trigonometry Example 6.4c 30l 0.4040 ` i = 22c 159 18l 0.3c 24l 0.6c 42l 0.0958.Mean Difference for 2l = 0. ( tan 22c = 0.011 = 0.1c 12l 0. ( sin 5c30l = 0.

6.1771 and Mean Difference for 2l = 0.9954 .0006 B ` sin 10c14l = 0.9953 = 1.9523 cm Area of the right rriangle = 1 bh = 1 # 2.0001 = 0.9953 ` sin 30c30l + cos 5c33l = 0..5075 + 0.0.14.1777 # 3 = 0.4850 Example 6.14.9523 # 0.1463 = 1.9841 # 3 = 2. sin i = AB & sin 10c14l = AB 3 AC From the sine table.786935565 ` Area of the triangle is 0. cos 5c33l = 0. Solution From the cosine and tangent tables.7869 cm2 (approximately) 160 .24 Find the area of the right triangle given in Fig. cos 10c12l = 0.5075. 6. C 3c 10c 14l m A Fig.9841 = BC 3 ` BC = 0.23 Simplify cos 70c12l + tan 48c54l .9842 and Mean Difference for 2l = 0.0001.1463 ` cos 70c12l + tan 48c54l = 0.3387 + 1.5331 cm cos i = BC ( cos 10c14l = BC 3 AC From the cosine table.0001 ` cos 10c14l = 0.1777 ( 0.14 Solution From the Fig.5028 Example 6.22 Simplify sin 30c30l + cos 5c33l .9954 and Mean Difference for 3l = 0. we find cos 70c12l = 0.9841 0. tan 48c54l = 1. So.9842 . 6.Chapter 6 Example 6.5331 2 2 = 0.0001 = 0.3387. sin 10c12l = 0.0.1777 = AB 3 ` AB = 0. And from the cosine table cos 5c30l = 0. Solution From the sine table sin 30c30l = 0.

If r is the radius of the circle..8968 cm Example 6.736 = 5.26 A 6 O 82c3 0l C B Fig. So.25 Find the length of the chord of a circle of radius 6 cm subtending an angle of 165c at the centre.Trigonometry Example 6. then +AOB = 360c = 40c. Solution Let AB be the side of the regular hexagon and let O be the centre of the incircle.9484 cm ` Length of the chord is 5. 161 A 8 O c 20 C Fig. 0. 6. Draw OC = AB . Then +AOC = 165c = 82c30l 2 In the right triangle OCA. sin 82c30l = AC ( AC = sin 82c30l # OA OA AC = 0.3420 # 8 = 2. Draw OC = AB .9484 # 2 = 11.e. then OC = r. If O is a centre of the circle. Solution Let AB be a side of the regular polygon with 9 sides in the circle of radius 8 units.3420 = AC 8 AC = 0.9914 # 6 = 5.472 units Example 6. Solution Let AB be the chord of a circle of radius 6 cm with O as centre. Draw OC = AB then 9 40c = 20c +AOC = 2 sin 20c = AC = AC OA 8 i.15 Find the length of the side of a regular polygon of 9 sides inscribed in a circle of radius 8 units. 6.27 Find the radius of the incircle of a regular hexagon of side 6 cm.736 ` Length of the side AB = 2 # AC = 2 # 2. Therefore C is the mid point of AB and +AOB = 165c.16 B .

6. 9.e.Chapter 6 +AOB = 360c = 60c 6 ` +AOC = 60c = 30c 2 ` tan 30c = AC r i.196 cm Hence. 1 = 3 r 3 ` r = 3 # 1. 7. 8.3 1.6567 (ii) tan 45c27l + sin 20c (iv) sin 50c26l + cos 18c + tan 70c12l (iii) tan i = 0.. Find the length of the ladder.732 = 5. 162 . radius of incircle is 5. Find the angle made by a ladder of length 4 m with the ground if its one end is 2 m away from the wall and the other end is on the wall.17 Exercise 6.9664 (v) tan i = 63.196 cm A O 30o r B 3 C 3 Fig. 5. Find the value of i . 6.7009 (iv) cot i = 0.cos 12c42l (v) tan 72c + cot 30c 4. (i) sin 26c (v) sin 12c12l (ix) cot 20c 2. (ii) cos i = 0. using trigonometric tables (i) sin 30c30l + cos 40c20l (iii) tan 63c12l . if (i) sin i = 0.2334 3. Find the area of the right triangle with hypotenuse 20 cm and one of the acute angle is 48c Find the area of the right triangle with hypotenuse 8 cm and one of the acute angle is 57c Find the area of the isosceles triangle with base 16 cm and vertical angle 60c40l Find the area of the isosceles triangle with base 15 cm and vertical angle 80c A ladder makes an angle 30cwith the floor and its lower end is 12 m away from the wall.3679 (ii) cos 72c (vi) cos 12c35l (x) cot 40c20l (iii) tan 35c (vii) cos 40c20l (iv) sin 75c15l (viii) tan 10c26l Simplify. Find the value of the following.

Then we have the following identities for trigonometric ratios of complementary angles.i) cos i = sin (90c . sin i = cos (90c .Trigonometry 10. � Trigonometric Ratios: Let i be an acute angle of a right triangle.i) tan i = cot (90c . Then the six trigonometric ratios of i are as follows.i) cot i = tan (90c .i) sec i = cosec (90c . 12. Opposite side Hypotenuse sin i = cosec i = Hypotenuse Opposite side Hypotenuse Adjacent side cos i = sec i = Hypotenuse Adjacent side Opposite side Adjacent side tan i = cot i = Adjacent side Opposite side � Reciprocal Relations: sin i = 1 cosec i 1 sin i cos i = sec i = 1 sec i 1 cos i tan i = cot i = 1 cot i 1 tan i cosec i = � Trigonometric Ratios of Complementary Angles: Let i be an acute angle of a right triangle.i) 163 . Find the length of the chord of a circle of radius 5 cm subtending an angle of 108c at the centre.i) cosec i = sec (90c . Points to Remember � Pythagoras Theorem: The square of the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. Find the length of the side of regular polygon of 12 sides inscribed in a circle of radius 6 cm Find the radius of the incircle of a regular hexagon of side 24 cm. 11.

Geometry has long been important for its role in the surveying of land and more recently. He was one of the so-called Seven Sages or Seven Wise Men of Greece. As a result. The geometrical theorem of which a particular case involved in the method just described in the first book of Euclid’s Elements. Geometry begins with undefined terms. Thales used geometry to solve problems such as calculating the height of pyramids and the distance of ships from the shore. by deriving four corollaries to Thales’ Theorem. these lead to theorems and constructions. experimental space stations. definitions.1 Introduction The very name Geometry is derived from two greek words meaning measurement of earth. but easy to visualize. and not to be believed . To understand theorems on parallelograms.C.546 BC) Thales (pronounced THAYlees) was born in the Greek city of Miletus. planes and figures. just to mention a few examples. To understand theorems on circles. He was known for his theoretical and practical understanding of geometry. Over time geometry has evolved into a beautifully arranged and logically organized body of knowledge. It is concerned with the properties of and relationships between points. thales (640 . especially triangles. lines. He is credited with the first use of deductive reasoning applied to geometry. It is an abstract subject. and it has many concrete practical applications. our knowledge of geometry has been applied to help build structurally sound bridges. and many regard him as the first philosopher in the Western tradition. 164 . whereby if a triangle is drawn within a circle with the long side as a diameter of the circle then the opposite angle will always be a right angle. he has been hailed as the first true mathematician and is the first known individual to whom a mathematical discovery has been attributed. and large athletic and entertainment arenas. The earliest records of geometry can be traced to ancient Egypt and the Indus Valley from around 3000 B.William Blake Main Targets ● ● ● To recall the basic concepts of geometry. He established what has become known as Thales’ Theorem.Chapter 7 7 GEOMETRY Truth can never be told so as to be understood. and assumptions. 7.

lines l1. The point common to the two given lines is called their point of intersection.Geometry 7. Name Acute Angle Right Angle Obtuse Angle Reflex Angle B B B B A Diagram O A O A O A Measure +AOB 1 90c +AOB = 90c 90c 1 +AOB 1 180c180c 1 +AOB 1 360c Complementary Angles Two angles are said to be complementary to each other if sum of their measures is 90c For example. In the figure. Two lines having a common point are called intersecting lines. B Intersecting lines C O A l1 Concurrent lines l2 l3 O Three or more lines passing through the same point are said to be concurrent. The distance between two parallel lines always remains the same. l2.2 Geometry Basics The purpose of this section is to recall some of the ideas that you have learnt in the earlier classes. In the figure. then the points are called collinear points. If three or more points lie on the same straight line. then angles +A and +B are complementary to each other.2. Term Diagram Description Parallel lines l1 l2 Lines in the same plane that do not intersect are called parallel lines. 165 O . the lines AB and CD intersect at a point D O. Collinear points A B C 7. Otherwise they are called non-collinear points. l3 pass through the same point O and therefore they are concurrent. if +A = 52c and +B = 38c.1 Kinds of Angle Angles are classified and named with reference to their degree of measure.

For congruence. Then: Name Angle Vertically opposite angles are +1 = +3. +4 = +6 equal. +2 = +8 equal.1 C Diagram l1 4 1 3 m 2 l2 8 5 6 7 A Remarks A (i) If a side of a triangle is produced . For example.3 Triangles The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180c. (iii) In any triangle.2. the angles whose measures are 112c and 68c are supplementary to each other. +4 + +5 = 180c 7. +ACD = +BAC + +ABC (ii) An exterior angle of a triangle is greater than either of the interior opposite angles. In the Fig. are supplementary. +2 = +4.1.2 C Congruent Triangles Two triangles are congruent if and only if one of them can be made to superpose on the other. 7. Consecutive interior angles +3 + +6 = 180c. 7. equal.2. +2 = +6. 7. +A + +B ++C = 180c B Fig. the angle opposite to the largest side has the D greatest angle. Suppose a transversal intersects two parallel lines..2 Transversal A line that intersects two or more lines at distinct points is called a transversal. then the exterior angle so formed is equal to the sum of its interior opposite angles. +4 = +8 Alternate interior angles are +3 = +5. Alternate exterior angles are +1 = +7. +6 = +8 Corresponding angles are +1 = +5. B Fig. +3 = +7.Chapter 7 Supplementary Angles Two angles are said to be supplementary to each other if sum of their measures is 180c. so as to cover it exactly. 7. we use the symbol ‘/’ 166 . equal +5 = +7.

If two angles and the included side of a triangle are equal to two angles and the included side of another triangle. then the two triangles are congruent. then the two triangles are congruent B A C Q P R TABC / TPQR SAS B A C R P TABC / TPQR ASA B A C Q R TABC / TPQR P AAS B C A Q R P TABC / TPQR RHS B TABC / TPQR C Q R exercise 7. If one side and the hypotenuse of a right triangle are equal to a side and the hypotenuse of another right triangle. then the two triangles are congruent.Geometry Description A Diagram P SSS If the three sides of a triangle are equal to three sides of another triangle. (i) 63c (ii) 24c (iii) 48c 2.1 1. Find the complement of each of the following angles. If two sides and the included angle of a triangle are equal to two sides and the included angle of another triangle. then the two triangles are congruent. (i) 58c (ii) 148c (iii) 120c (iv) 40c 167 (v) 100c . then the two triangles are congruent. If two angles and any side of a triangle are equal to two angles and a side of another triangle. (iv) 35c (v) 20c Find the supplement of each of the following angles.

side BC of Find +A and +C. The angles whose supplement is four times its complement. Find the measure of each angle of the triangle. Find the values of x. The angles of a triangle are in the ratio of 1:2:3. find the measure of each of the remaining angles. 10. Supplementary angles are in the ratio 4:5 Two complementary angles are in the ratio3:2 C 3x 2x D 5. In the given figure at right. y in the following figures. A 120c C D 168 . For what value of x will l1 and l2 be parallel lines.Chapter 7 3. The angle which is four times its supplement. (i) A (ii) B A D C (iii) B (3x+5)c (2x–25)c C y c 90cxc O A 3xc 60c B E m1 B A C D F E G H t (3x+20) c D 6. Find the angles in each of the following. Find the value of x in the following figures. 9. The angle whose complement is one sixth of its supplement.x)c xc D 40c B A B 4. (i) l1 l2 (2x+20) c (3x–10) c l1 l2 7. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) The angle which is two times its complement. Find the measure of each angle of the triangle. (i) C (x .20)c A xc D (ii) C (x + 30)c (115 . t (ii) l1 l2 2x c 8. If +F = 65c . +A+ +B = 70c and +B + +C = 135c. Let l1 || l2 and m1 is a transversal . In 3 ABC. B 40c 3ABC is produced to D.

Opposite angles are equal and sum of any two adjacent angles is 180c. Isosceles trapezium Diagonals Diagonals are equal in length.Geometry 7. The angles at the ends of each parallel side are equal. All sides are equal and opposite sides are parallel. The sum of all the four angles of a quadrilateral is 360c.1 Properties of Parallelogram. Sides trapezium Angles The angles at the ends of each non-parallel side are supplementary Diagonals Diagonals need not be equal. Quadrilateral Parallelogram Trapezium Rectangle Rhombus Isosceles Trapezium Square 7. Opposite angles are equal and sum of any two adjacent angles is 180c.3 Quadrilateral A closed geometric figure with four sides and four vertices is called a quadrilateral. Rhombus and Trapezium Sides Parallelogram Angles Opposite sides are parallel and equal. the other pair of sides is equal in length.3. One pair of opposite sides is parallel Diagonals Diagonals bisect each other. Sides Angles One pair of opposite sides is parallel. Sides Rhombus Angles Diagonals Diagonals bisect each other at right angles. 169 .

AB = DC and AD = BC (Corresponding sides are equal) Converse of Property 1: If the opposite sides of a quadrilateral are equal. Given : ABCD is a parallelogram. So.) (AD || BC and BD is a transversal. a rhombus and a parallelogram.4. (i) (ii) +ABD = +BDC +BDA =+DBC A Fig. alternate interior angles are equal. where AB || DC.3 B (AB || DC and BD is a transversal. Thus a square is a rectangle. 7. AB || DC and AD || BC : AB = CD and AD = BC D C Construction : Join BD Proof : Consider the T ABD and the T BCD. the opposite sides are equal. Property 2 : In a parallelogram. 7. : ABCD is a parallelogram. 7. the opposite angles are equal.Chapter 7 Note (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) A rectangle is an equiangular parallelogram A rhombus is an equilateral parallelogram A square is an equilateral and equiangular parallelogram.4 Parallelogram A quadrilateral in which the opposites sides are parallel is called a parallelogram. So. AD || BC To prove : +ABC = +ADC and +DAB = +BCD A Fig.) (By ASA property) (iii) BD is common side ` T ABD / T BCD Thus. alternate interior angles are equal. 7.1 Properties of Parallelogram Property 1 Given To prove : In a parallelogram. then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram. So.4 B D C Construction : Join BD 170 .

) (iii) + ABD + + DBC = + BDC + + BDA ` +ABC = +ADC Similarly.Geometry Proof : (i) (ii) +ABD = +BDC +DBC = +BDA (AB || DC and BD is a transversal. Note (i) A diagonal of a parallelogram divides it into two triangles of equal area. M is the mid point of AC and BD ` The diagonals bisect each other Converse of Property 3: If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other. 7. So. (ii) A parallelogram is a rhombus if its diagonals are perpendicular. alternate interior angles are equal. So.5 B : ABCD is a parallelogram. (iii) Parallelograms on the same base and between the same parallels are equal in area. in which AB || DC and AD || BC : M is the midpoint of diagonals AC and BD .. 171 . +BAD = +BCD Converse of Property 2: If the opposite angles in a quadrilateral are equal. Property 3 : The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram. alternate interior angles are equal.e. D C (i) (ii) AB = DC +MAB = +MCD +ABM = +CDM ` AM = CM and BM = DM Opposite sides of the parallelogram are equal Alternate interior angles (a AB || DC) Alternate interior angles (a AB || DC) (By ASA property) (iii) T AMB / T CMD i. Given To prove Proof : Consider the T AMB and T CMD A M Fig. then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.) (AD || BC and BD is a transversal.

+C and +D. 100c+84c+76c+ x c = 360c 260c+ x c = 360c i. If +OAB = 62c .3 Suppose ABCD is a rectangle whose diagonals AC and BD intersect at O. So.find the meausre of fourth angle. x c = 100c Hence.2 In the parallelogram ABCD if +A = 65c. Solution Let the measure of the fourth angle be x c ..Chapter 7 Example 7. we have +C =+A = 65c and +D = +B = 115c Hence. The sum of the angles of a quadrilateral is 360c. +C = 65c and +D = 115c Example 7. 7. 84c.1 If the measures of three angles of a quadrilateral are 100c. Solution Let ABCD be a parallelogram in which +A = 65c.65c +B = 115c Since the opposite angles of a parallelogram are equal.7 . 76c.6 > B >> C B +A+ +B = 180c 62c Fig. find +B. So. 65c+ B = 180c +B = 180c .62c = 28c 172 A O D C > >> 65o A Fig. Solution The diagonals of a rectangle are equal and bisect each other. OA = OB and +OBA = +OAB = 62c Since the measure of each angle of rectangle is 90c D +ABC = 90c +ABO + +OBC = 90c 62c + +OBC = 90c +OBC = 90c . +B = 115c. Since AD || BC we can treat AB as a transversal. So. the measure of the fourth angle is 100c. Example 7.e. find +OBC. 7.

ABCD is a rhombus. The length of the diagonals of a rhombus are 24 cm and 18 cm. Solution +A = +C = 76c ( Opposite angles of a rhombus ) 76c A Fig. 6. 7.2 1. Find the measure of each angle of a parallelogram. find +CDB. +C and +D. Find the measure of each angle of the quadrilateral. CD = CB +CDB = +CBD = xc +CDB+ +CBD + +DCB = 180c (Angles of a triangle) 2xc + 76c =180c ( 2x = 104c xc = 52c ` +CDB = 52c exercise 7. 2. Calculate +B. Find the length of each side of the rhombus. +C and +D are in the ratio 2:3:4:6. 5. Suppose ABCD is a parallelogram in which +A = 108c. Find the length of each side of the parallelogram. (i) D yc C (ii) D xc C (iii) D xc yc C A 40c xc B A 62c yc B A 120c B 173 . if larger angle is 30c less than twice the smaller angle. the angles +A. In the following figures. +B.8 B D C Let +CDB = xc . 3. +DAO = 45c and +COD= 105c. In the figure at right. Suppose ABCD is a parallelogram in which AB = 9 cm and its perimeter is 30 cm. In 3 CDB. Find the values of x and y . ABCD is a parallelogram +BAO = 30c. Calculate (i) +ABO (ii) +ODC (iii) +ACB (iv) +CBD A D 105o O 45o 30o B C 4. 7.4 If ABCD is a rhombus and if +A = 76c.Geometry Example 7. In a quadrilateral ABCD.

A continuous piece of a circle is called an arc of the circle. major arc. Tangent A line that touches the circle at only one point is called a tangent to the circle. 174 . Chord A chord of a circle is a line segment joining any two points on its circumference. Secant A line which intersects a circle in two distinct points is called a secant of the circle. 9. The fixed point is called its centre and the constant distance is called its radius. 7. ABCD is a parallelogram in which the bisectors of +A and +B intersect at the point P. Arc of a Circle rc Fig. In the figure at the right. Circles The locus of a point which moves in such that the distance Tangent from a fixed point is always a constant is a circle.5 Locus Circles Locus is a path traced out by a moving point which satisfies certain geometrical conditions. minor arc.Chapter 7 8. 7. Find C D the length of the other diagonal. The whole circle has been divided into two pieces.9 Ch ord O Diameter Secan t M ra ino Segment O Sector Diameter is the longest chord of the circle. A P B E 7. Majo r arc Ra diu s Q Fig. the locus of a point equidistant from two P fixed points is the perpendicular bisector of the line segment joining the two points. Diameter A diameter is a chord of the circle passing through the centre of the circle. The side of a rhombus is 10 cm and the length of one of the diagonals is 12 cm. Prove that +APB = 90c. For example. The boundary of a circle is called its circumference.10 The point at which the tangent meets the circle is its point of contact. namely.

7. the two circles are concentric circles having the same centre O but different radii r and R respectively. 7.) (Radii of the same circle.5. 7. 7. ! ! ! ! AB / CD . A +AOB = +COD (chord AB = chord CD Theorem 1 Perpendicular from the centre of a circle to a chord bisects the chord.Geometry Concentric Circles Circles which have the same centre but different radii are called concentric circles.1 Properties of Chords of a Circle Result Equal chords of a circle subtend equal angles at the centre.) (RHS congruency. So.13. In the Fig.since OC = AB. then the chords are equal..13 Given : A circle with centre O and AB is a chord of the circle other than the diameter and OC= AB To prove: AC = BC Construction: Join OA and OB Proof: In T s OAC and OBC (i) (ii) OA = OB OC is common (Each 90c .) A O C Fig.14 B (iii) + OCA = + OCB (iv) T OAC / T OBC ` AC = BC 175 .12 D D C B Fig.11 A B R O r B O Fig. O C Fig. In the given figure. Congruent Arcs ! ! Two arcs AB and CD of a circle are said to be congruent if they substend same angle at the centre and we write ! ! AB / CD . 7. chord AB = chord CD ( +AOB = +COD Converse of the result If the angles subtended by two chords at the centre of a circle are equal. mAB = mCD . +AOB= +COD 7.

To prove: OL = OM Construction: Draw OL = AB and OM = CD.Chapter 7 Converse of Theorem 1 : The line joining the centre of the circle and the midpoint of a chord is perpendicular to the chord.) ` OL = OM Hence AB and CD are equidistant from O . Converse of Theorem 2 : Example 7. 7. Find the distance of the chord from the centre of the circle. the distance of the chord from the centre is 6 cm. AB O 10 c A m C 16cm Fig.5 A chord of length 16 cm is drawn in a circle of radius 10 cm. C Given: A cirle with centre O and radius r such that A chord AB = chord CD.) 1 AB = 1 CD ( AL = CM AB = CD ( 2 2 OA = OC (radii) + OMC= + OLA T OLA / T OMC (Each 90c ) (RHS congruence. Theorem 2 Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the centre.64 = 36 cm . OC = OA . Join OA and OC Proof: (i) AL = 1 AB and CM = 1 CD 2 2 D M O L B Fig.15 (ii) (iii) (iii) (Perpendicular from the centre of a circle to the chord bisects the chord. 7. Solution AB is a chord of length 16 cm C is the midpoint of AB.16 B = 102 .82 = 100 .AC ` OC = 6 cm Hence. OA is the radius of length 10 cm = 16 cm AC = 1 # 16 = 8 cm 2 OC = 10 cm In a right triangle OAC. 176 2 2 2 The chords of a circle which are equidistant from the centre are equal.

DM AC = BD 7.19 D X D Fig. + AOB is the angle subtended by ! ! the arc AXB at the centre. AXB is the arc. C C C A B O B A X Fig. 7. 7. chord AB of the outer circle cuts the inner circle at C and D.20 Given : O is the centre of the circle.18 D A O B O X Fig. To prove: AC = BD A C O M D B Construction: Draw OM = AB Proof : Since OM = AB (by construction) OM also = CD (ACDB is a line) In the outer circle AM = BM (1) (a OM bisects the chord AB) In the inner circle CM = DM (2) (a OM bisects the chord CD) From (1) and (2). 7.6 In two concentric circles.5. we get AM .CM = BM .2 Angles Subtended by Arcs Theorem 3 Fig.Geometry Example 7. 177 . Prove that AC = BD. 7.17 The angle subtended by an arc of a circle at the centre is double the angle subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle. Solution Given: Chord AB of the outer circle cuts the inner circle at C and D. + ACB is the angle subtended by the arc AXB at a point on the remaining part of the circle.

5. 7.) (substituting + OAC by + OCA) (by addition) (iii) In TAOC +AOD = +OCA + +OAC (iv) + AOD = + OCA + + OCA (v) + AOD = 2 + OCA + BOD = 2 + OCB (vi) similarly in T BOC (vii) + AOD + + BOD = 2 + OCA + 2+ OCB = 2(+ OCA + + OCB) (viii) + AOB = 2 + ACB Note (a +AOD + + BOD = +AOB + OCA + + OCB = +ACB) (i) An angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle. : + BAD + + BCD = 180c.Chapter 7 To prove Proof : (i) (ii) : +AOB = 2 +ACB Construction : Join CO and produce it to D OA= OC + OCA = + OAC (radii) (angles opposite to equal sides are equal.) B O D C Fig. 7.21 + BCD = 1 reflex + BOD 2 (iii) ` + BAD + + BCD = 1 + BOD + 1 reflex + BOD 2 2 (add (i) and (ii)) 178 . (ii) Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal. ABCD is the cyclic quadrilateral.) (exterior angles of a triangle = sum of interior opposite angles. +ABC + +ADC = 180c A Construction : Join OB and OD + BAD = 1 + BOD (The angle substended by an arc at 2 the centre is double the angle on the circle.3 Cyclic Quadrilaterals Theorem 4 Opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are supplementary (or) The sum of opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180c Given To prove Proof: (i) (ii) : O is the centre of circle.

7. + BAD + + BCD = 180c (iv) Similarly +ABC + +ADC = 180c Converse of Theorem 4 : If a pair of opposite angles of a quadrilateral is supplementary. xc (i) +AOB = 1 +ACB 2 O +ACB = 1 +AOB 2 80c = 1 # 80c = 40c B A 2 179 .23 B (ii) xc O 100c C Fig. 7. whose side AB is produced to E. 7. Theorem 5 ( Exterior . C D C B Fig..e.7 C C (i) xc O 80c A Fig.Geometry i. Given : A cyclic quadrilateral ABCD.angle property of a cyclic quadrilateral ) If one side of a cyclic quadrilateral is produced then the exterior angle is equal to the interior opposite angle.25 Fig.e.24 B (iii) A xc O 56c B (iv) O 20c c A xc 25 A Fig.e.22 E Example: 7. + BAD + + BCD = 2 i. then the quadrilateral is cyclic.26 B Solution Using the theorem the angle subtended by an arc of a circle at the centre is double C the angle subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle.. + BAD + + BCD = 1 (+ BOD + reflex + BOD) 2 1 ( 360c) (Complete angle at the centre is 360c) i. To prove : + CBE = +ADC Proof : A (i) + ABC + + CBE = 180c (linear pair) (ii) + ABC + +ADC = 180c (Opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral) from (i)and (ii) (iii) + ABC + + CBE = +ABC + +ADC (iv) ` + CBE = +ADC Find the value of x in the following figure. 7.. 7.

8 In the Fig. we have +ABC + +ADC = 180c +ABC = 180c .Chapter 7 (ii) reflex+AOB = 2 +ACB x = 2 # 100c = 200c A xc O 100c C C xc O B (iii) +ABC + +BCA + +CAB = 180c 56c + 90c + +CAB = 180c ( a +BCA = angle on a semicircle = 90c) +CAB =180c .27 . Find the value of x .146c x = 34c (iv) OA = OB = OC ( radius ) +OCA = +OAC = 25c +OBC = +OCB = 20c +ACB = +OCA + +OCB = 25c + 20c = 45c AOB = 2 +ACB x = 2 # 45c= 90c Example 7.27. O is the centre of a circle and + ADC = 120c .120c = 60c Also +ACB = 90c ( angle on a semi circle ) In 3ABC we have +BAC + +ACB + +ABC= 180c +BAC + 90c + 60c = 180c +BAC = 180c .150c = 30c 180 A xc D A A 56c B C O 20c B C B c xc 25 120c O Fig.7. 7. Solution ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral.

If OP = AB and OQ = CD determine the length PQ. Find the distance of the chord from the centre. Find the distance of the chord from the centre.Geometry exercise 7. 9. AB and CD are two parallel chords of a circle with centre O and radius 5 cm. The radius of a circle is 15 cm and the length of one of its chord is 18 cm. A P O C Q D B 8. 7. OP = AB and CD = OQ determine the length C A O Q P D B AB and CD are two parallel chords of a circle which are on either sides of the centre. If of PQ. AB and CD are two parallel chords of a circle with centre O and radius 5 cm such that AB = 6 cm and CD = 8 cm. In the figure at right. Find the radius of the circle.3 1. 6. Find the length of the chord. Find the radius if the distance between AB and CD is 17 cm. 3. (i) A xc (ii) C (iii) A c 0 90c 12 O B c A C x O 35c B O B 25 xc 30c C 181 . Such that AB = 10 cm and CD = 24 cm. 4. A chord is 8 cm away from the centre of a circle of radius 17 cm. Such that AB = 8 cm and CD = 6 cm. Find the length of a chord which is at a distance of 15 cm from the centre of a circle of radius 25 cm. 2. Find the value of x in the following figures. 5. A chord of length 20 cm is drawn at a distance of 24 cm from the centre of a circle. The radius of a circles 17 cm and the length of one of its chord is 16 cm. In the figure at right.

AB and CD are straight lines through the centre O of a circle. PQ is a diameter of a circle with centre O. In the figure at right. P 25c O 55c 50c Q In the figure at left. In the figure at right. C M 12.Chapter 7 (iv) (v) C xc (vi) C 48c O 130c A xc B C A O D 50c B O A xc B C 10. If + BAD =100c find (i) + BCD 100 c A B (ii) + ADC (iii) + ABC. 182 . D In the figure at left . Find (i) + QPR. ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral in which C AB || DC. ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral D whose diagonals intersect at P such that + DBC = 30c and + BAC = 50c . If + PQR = 55c. If +AOC = 98c and + CDE = 35c find (i) + DCE S R A 98c O 35c D E B (ii) + ABC 11. + SPR = 25c and + PQM = 50c. Find (i) + BCD (ii) + CAD A P 50c 30c B 13. (ii) + QPM and (iii) + PRS.

� Parallelograms on the same base and between the same parallels are equal in area. � Angle in the same segment of a circle are equal. ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral in which + BCD = 100c and + ABD = 50c find + ADB D 100c A C 50c 15. � Perpendicular from the centre of a circle to a chord bisects the chord. 183 . Thus a square is a rectangle. � The angle in a semi circle is a right angle. � Equal chords of a circle subtend equal angles at the centre. � Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the centre. � The sum of either pair of opposite angle of quadrilateral is 180c opposite angles of a cyclic � If one side of a cyclic quadrilateral is produced then the exterior angle is equal to the interior opposite angle. � In a parallelogram.Geometry 14. � A diagonal of a parallelogram divides it into two triangles of equal area. a rhombus and a parallelogram. � Each diagonal divides the parallelogram into two congruent triangles. Find (i) + CBD (ii) + ABC B Points to remember � In a parallelogram the opposite sides are equal. � The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. � A rectangle is an equiangular parallelogram � A rhombus is an equilateral parallelogram � A square is an equilateral and equiangular parallelogram. � The angle substended by an are of a circle at the centre is double the angel subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle. � If two arcs of a circle are congruent then the corresponding chords are equal. O is the centre of the circle. In the figure at right. the opposite angles are equal. � A parallelogram is rhombus if its diagonals are perpendicular. O 100c A B D C In the figure at left. + AOC = 100c and side AB is produced to D.

areas of two-dimensional figures and the surface areas and volumes of three dimensional figures for day. rectangles.212 B. It is necessary for everyone to learn formulas used to find the perimeter .PYTHAGORAS Main Targets ● To find the length of arc. He is responsible for the correct formulas for the area and volume of a sphere. In this chapter we deal with arc length and area of sectors of circles and area and volume of cubes and cuboids. It is considered very important because there are various fields of life where geometry is considered as an important field of study. ● ● To find the surface area and volume of cubes.to-day life. One of the very great mathematicians of all time was Archimedes. Perimeter. In a number of his works he laid foundations of mathematical physics. Archimedes 287 .Chapter 8 MENSURATION The most beautiful plane figure is – the circle and the most beautiful solid figure – the sphere . spheres and so on all around us.C. The part of Mathematics that deals with measurements of geometrical shapes is known as Mensuration. we see various shapes like triangles. He calculated a number of interesting curvilinear areas. and we are already familiar with some of their properties: like area and perimeter. It was Archimedes who inaugurated the classical method of computing 8. To find the surface area and volume of cuboids. a native of the Greek city of Syracus on the island of Sicily.C. circles. He was born about 287 B. Perimeter. Area and volume can be used to analyze real-world situations. squares.1 Introduction Every day. area and perimeter of sectors of circles. . Area and Volume plays a vital role in architecture and carpentry. such as that of a parabolic segment and of a sector of the now so called Archimedean spiral. 184 r by the use of regular polygons inscribed in and circumscribed about a circle.

1 Central Angle or Sector Angle of a Sector Key Concept Central Angle Sector ! Arc PQ Sector POQ Arc QP Sector QOP ! Fig. an angle + POQ and a sector POQ. 1.2 Sectors Two points P and Q on a circle with centre O determine an arc PQ ! denoted by PQ . The sector POQ is the region bounded by ! the arc PQ and the radii OP and OQ. The arc starts at P and goes counterclockwise to Q along the circle. So the central angle of the sector POQ is i . A semi.2 8.8. As ! ! Fig. arc length of a sector POQ is the length of the portion on the circumference of the circle intercepted between the bounding radii (OP and OQ) and is denoted by l. 2.2 Length of Arc (Arc Length) of a Sector In fig. the arcs PQ and QP are different.2.8. 8. Key Concept their intercepted arc.8.3 l . 8.3. P q r Q Fig. A quadrant of a circle is a sector whose central angle is 90c .2.2. 8. 8. O For example.1 shows.Mensuration 8. the angle subtended by the arc PQ at the centre is i . 185 P O q Q Fig.circle is a sector whose central angle is 180c. ! In fig.1 A sector is the part of a circle enclosed by any two radii of the circle and Central Angle is the angle subtended by the arc of the sector at the centre of the circle in which the sector forms a part.

2 2 3.2. l=2r r units. where r is 2 360 the radius and the central angle is 90c.3 Area of a Sector Area of a sector is the region bounded by the bounding radii and the arc of the sector. Length of arc of a quadrant of a circle is l = 2rr # 90 = rr units. Area of a quadrant of a circle is rr square units. 3. 4 O q P Q Key Concept Area of a Sector If i is the central angle and r is the radius of a sector. 1.e. 2 2. then the area of the sector is i # rr2 square units. Key Concept Length of Arc If i is the central angle and r is the radius of a sector. where r is the radius 360 and the central angle is 180c..Chapter 8 For example. 360 Let us find the relationship between area of a sector. then its arc length is given by l = i # 2rr units 360 8. Length of arc of a semicircle is l = 2rr # 180 = rr units. Area of a semicircle is rr square units. where r is the radius. Area = i # rr2 360 = i # 2r r # r 360 2 = 1 # c i # 2rr m # r 2 360 = 1 # lr 2 Area of sector = lr square units. 2 186 . i. its arc length l and radius r. Area of a circle is rr2 square units. Length of arc of a circle is its circumference. 2. 1. For Example.

2. area and perimeter. O Solution Given that radius r = 42 cm and i = 60c. 2 Note 1. length of arc l = i # 2rr 360 = 60 # 2 # 22 # 42 = 44 cm. Therefore. then its perimeter P is given by the formula P = l + 2r units.14 in 7 our calculations. 2 2 Perimeter = l + 2r = 44 + 2(42) = 128 cm. Length of an arc and area of a sector are proportional to the central angle. 1. 2. Find its arc length. So. e. Example 8. 360 7 Area of the sector = lr = 44 # 42 = 924 cm2. perimeter of a sector is l + 2r units. Find its radius.Mensuration 8. 30 # 2 # 22 # r = 66 360 7 ` r = 66 # 360 # 1 # 7 = 126 cm 30 2 22 187 O 30o r A 60o 42cm B A 66cm B . For example.1 The radius of a sector is 42 cm and its sector angle is 60c .2 The arc length of a sector is 66 cm and the central angle is 30c . As r is an irrational number. i # 2rr = l 360 i. Perimeter of a quadrant of a circle is ` r + 2j r units. Thus.4 Perimeter of a Sector The perimeter of a sector is the sum of the lengths of all its boundaries. Solution Given that i = 30c and l = 66 cm. Key Concept Perimeter of a Sector If l is the arc length and r is the radius of a sector. Example 8. we use its approximate value 22 or 3. Perimeter of a semicircle is ^r + 2h r units.. 2.

5 cm. l = 11 cm Using the formula i # 2rr 360 30 # 2 # 22 # r 360 7 = l. l = 15 cm Perimeter = l + 2r = 15 + 2 (10) = 15 + 20 = 35 cm Example 8. Find the length of the pendulum.3 The length of arc of a sector is 22 cm and its radius is 10. So. then it forms a sector and the radius of the sector i = 30c . Solution Given that r = 10. i = 210c . ` r = 11 # 360 # 1 # 7 = 21 cm 30 2 22 Example 8.5 = 22 360 7 ` i = 22 # 360 # 1 # 7 # 1 =120c 2 22 10.Chapter 8 Example 8. e.5 The radius and length of arc of a sector are 10 cm and 15 cm respectively. Solution If the pendulum swings once.6 P 15cm O q 10cm Q Find the perimeter of a sector whose radius and central angle are 18 cm and 210c respectively. l = i # 2rr 360 = 210 # 2 # 22 # 18 = 66 cm 360 7 ` Perimeter = l + 2r = 66 + 2(18) = 66 + 36 = 102 cm 188 A O 210o 18cm B .5 cm and l = 22 cm. Solution Given that r = 10 cm.. i # 2rr = l 360 i. Find its central angle.Find its perimeter.4 A pendulum swings through an angle of 30c and describes an arc length of 11 cm. Hence. i # 2 # 22 # 10.5cm Q 22cm Example 8. Solution Given that r = 18 cm. we have = 11 A 11cm B O r is the length of the pendulum.5 O q P 10.

Solution Given.9 If the perimeter and radius of a sector are 38 cm and 9 cm respectively. l = 20 cm Area = lr square units 2 = 20 # 6 = 60 cm2 2 Example 8.e. find its area. Find its central angle. Solution Given that r = 14 cm. perimeter = 38 cm Perimeter = l + 2r = 38 i. Solution Given that r = 6 cm.7 The area of a sector of a circle of radius 14 cm is 77 cm2. area = 77 cm2 i # rr2 = Area of the sector 360 i # 22 # 14 # 14 = 77 360 7 ` i = 77 # 360 # 7 22 # 14 # 14 Example 8. r = 9 cm.8 Calculate the area of a sector whose radius and arc length are 6 cm and 20 cm respectively. l + 18 = 38 l = 38 –18 = 20 cm ` Area = lr = 20 # 9 = 90 cm2 2 2 Example 8.Mensuration Example 8..10 Find the perimeter and area of a semicircle of radius 28 cm. Solution Perimeter = ( r + 2 ) r = ( 22 + 2 ) 28 = 144 cm 7 2 Area = rr = 22 # 28 # 28 = 1232 cm2 2 7 2 O 14cm 77cm 2 = 45c B O q P 12cm Q 25cm 34cm P θ O 7cm Q 28cm 189 .

250. Area of sector BOC = i # rr2 360 = 30 # 9.250 360 Amount spent for food is ` 5. e.e.000 is shown in the B adjoining figure. central angle and perimeter of a sector whose arc length and area are 27.000 be represented by the area of the circle.13 21cm Monthly expenditure of a person whose monthly salary is ` 9.5 cm and Area = 618. = 618.5 cm2 4 7#4 Example 8. perimeter is l + 2r = 27.75 cm2 respectively.5cm Now. 360 7 ` i = 35c Example 8. Solution Given that r = 21 cm. 27. So.75 cm2.12 Calculate the area and perimeter of a quadrant of a circle of radius 21 cm.5 # r 2 `r Hence.Chapter 8 Example 8.5 + 2(45) = 117.5 cm and 618.5 i. 000 = 750 360 Amount saved in savings is ` 750. Solution Given that l = 27. Find the amount he has (i) spent for food (ii) in Food Sa his savings vi Solution (i) Let ` 9.75 = 45 cm Area = lr 2 i.75 cm2 = 618. i = 90c Perimeter = ` r + 2j r = ( 22 + 2 ) # 21= 75 cm 2 7#2 2 Area = rr = 22 # 21 # 21 = 346.11 Find the radius.e. i. 190 C ng s 21cm 120o O A Other Expenses (ii) . rr2 = 9000 2 i Area of sector AOB = 360 # rr = 210 # 9000 = 5.. arc length is given by i # 2rr = l 360 i # 2 # 22 # 45 = 27.

Hence.14 Three equal circles of radius 3 cm touch one another.45 cm2 7 ` Area = 1.3 times area of the sector = 3 a2 .15 F E B 3cm 3cm C 3cm Find the area of the shaded portion in the following figure [ r = 3.i # rr2 360 360 15c Area of the shaded portion = Area of sector COD .59 .45 cm2 Example 8. Solution Since the radius of the circles are equal and the circles touch one another.1 1. Area enclosed = area of the equilateral triangle ABC . ABC is an equilateral triangle and the area of the sectors DAF. Find its central angle. (iii) Find the radius of a sector of a circle having a central angle 70c and an arc length of 44 cm.14 # 15 # 15 . Find the area and perimeter of the sector with 191 . Find the area enclosed by them.747 = 42. The arc length of a sector of a circle of radius 14 cm is 22 cm. 3.3 # 60 # 22 # 3 # 3 4 360 7 3cm A 3cm D 3cm = 9 3 .99 = 15. in the figure.14.3 # i # rr2 4 360 = 3 # 6 # 6 .Area of sector AOB O 8cm = 30 # 3.30 # 3.875 – 16.14 = 1.128 cm 2 m A B Exercise: 8.9 cm and central angle 30c (iv) radius 15 cm and sector angle 63c (iii) radius 14 cm and sector angle 45c Find the angle subtended by an arc 88 cm long at the centre of a circle of radius 42 cm. = i # rR2 . Find the arc length. area and perimeter of the sector with (i) (v) 2.14 ] Solution Let R and r denote the radius of sector COD and sector AOB respectively. DBE and ECF are equal.Mensuration Example 8.14 # 8 # 8 360 360 = 58. (i) (ii) radius 21 cm and central angle 60c radius 21 dm and sector angle 240c C D (ii) radius 4.

12. Find (i) (ii) the maximum area that can be grazed by the horses and the area that remains ungrazed. (iii) radius 12 cm and arc length 15.Chapter 8 (i) (ii) radius 10 cm and arc length 33 cm. (i) (ii) 5. Find the central angle of a sector of a circle having (i) (ii) 7. Find the radius of a sector whose perimeter and arc length are 24 cm and 7 cm respectively. Find the area if its diameter is 9 cm. Find the area enclosed by them. 192 . Calculate the perimeter and area of a quadrant circle of radius 7 cm. (iv) radius 20 cm and arc length 25 cm. Find the area of card board wasted if a sector of maximum possible size is cut out from a square card board of size 24 cm. (i) (ii) 6. ay Pl und o Gr 225o School 105o A O 10. B C (iii) Find the radius of the sector whose central angle is 140c and area 44 cm2. Other Activities Four horses are tethered with ropes measuring 7 m each to the four corners of a rectangular grass land 21 m # 24 m in dimension. radius 55 cm and arc length 80 cm. Find the area of a sector whose radius and perimeter are 20 cm and 110 cm respectively.25 cm. Find the arc length of the sector of radius 14 cm and area 70 cm2 Find the radius of the sector of area 225 cm2 and having an arc length of 15 cm The perimeter of a sector of a circle is 58 cm. (i) (ii) (i) (ii) 9. Calculate the arc length of a sector whose perimeter and radius are 35 cm and 8 cm respectively. Find how much time is spent in (i) school (ii) play ground (iii) other activities Three coins each 2 cm in diameter are placed touching one another. 8. Time spent by a student in a day is shown in the figure. area 352 cm2 and radius 12 cm area 462 cm2 and radius 21 cm Calculate the perimeter and area of the semicircle whose radius is 14 cm. 11. 4.

3.A). 8. Example: Die. In this section you will learn about surface area and volume of a cube. the remaining area is called the Lateral Surface Area (L.S. Find the area of the shaded portion in the adjoining figure 42c m A B C D 14. 2 a a a Key Concept Surface Area of Cube Let the side of a cube be a units. Hence. 193 .A) of the cube. Then: (i) The Total Surface Area (T.S. the total surface area is 6a2 square units. (ii) The Lateral Surface Area (L. let the side of the cube measure a units. then its volume V is given by the formula Volume can also be defined as the number of unit cubes required to fill the entire cube.2 Volume of a Cube Key Concept V = a3 cubic units Note Volume of Cube If the side of a cube is a units.4 m and 9.A) = 4a2 square units. Hence. 8.1 Surface Area of a Cube The sum of the areas of all the six equal faces is called the Total Surface Area (T.S. In the adjoining figure.24 m2 respectively.3. In a cube. the lateral surface area of the cube is 4a square units.3 Cubes You have learnt that a cube is a solid having six square faces. Find the radius.Mensuration O 21c m 13. 8.A) = 6a2 square units. central angle and perimeter of a sector whose length of arc and area are 4. Then the area of each face of the cube is a2 square units.S. if we don’t consider the top and bottom faces.

Volume of the tank is 27. 000 3 V = a3 = ` a = 3 27 = 3 m m = 27 m3 1.Chapter 8 Example 8. 194 m Volume = a3 = 53 = 125 cm3 a . 6a2 = 216 ( a2 = 216 = 36 6 ` a = 36 = 6 cm Example 8. (ii) If the Total Surface Area of a cube is 1014 cm2. Solution Let a be the side of the cube.000 litres.2 1.000 litres of water. find the length of its side.S. T. find the length of its side.. (ii) 6 dm (iii) 2. 000 Exercise 8. Find the dimension of its side. Given that T.A = 216 sq.18 A cube has a total surface area of 384 sq.17 Find the length of the side of a cube whose total surface area is 216 square cm. 27. e.S. Volume = a Example 8. Solution Let a be the side of the cube.A and volume of a cube of side 5 cm. cm 5cm 5cm a a a a 3 = 6a2 = 6 (52 ) = 150 sq.6 cm 2.A.16 Find the L. So. (iii) The volume of the cube is 125 dm3.A T. Solution L. Find its side.S. Total Surface Area (TSA) and volume of the cubes having their sides as (i) 5. cm. Find the Lateral Surface Area (LSA). Solution Let a be the side of the cubical tank.S. Given that T. Find its volume.A = 384 sq.19 3 = 8 = 512 cm 3 5c a A cubical tank can hold 27.A = 4a2 = 4 (52 ) = 100 sq. cm i.5 m (iv) 24 cm (v) 31 cm (i) If the Lateral Surface Area of a cube is 900 cm2. cm 6a2 = 384 ( a2 = 384 = 64 6 ` a = 64 = 8 cm Hence.S. cm Example: 8.S.

195 .A) = 2( l + b)h square units (ii) The Total Surface Area (T.S. The Total Surface Area (T.A) = 2( lb + bh + lh ) square units.S.S. 8.A. 8. Three metallic cubes of side 3 cm. 5. is also equal to the product of the perimeter of the base and the height. Find the total surface area of the new cube. (iii ) The total area of the top and bottom faces is lb + lb =2lb square units. units Note l h b (ii ) The total area of the side faces is L. 7.A) = 2( l + b)h square units. (i ) The total area of the front and back faces is lh + lh = 2lh square units. A container is in the shape of a cube of side 20 cm. b and h be the length. What is the total cost of oil in a cubical container of side 2 m if it is measured and sold using a cubical vessel of height 10 cm and the cost is ` 50 per measure. Books etc. bh + bh =2bh square units.S. 6. A container of side 3.5m is to be painted both inside and outside.A) = 2( lb + bh + lh ) sq. How many cubes of side 3 cm are required to build a cube of side 15 cm? Find the area of card board required to make an open cubical box of side 40 cm.S. Key Concept Surface Area of a Cuboid Let l. we split the faces into three pairs.1 Surface Area of a Cuboid Let l.. b and h be the length. To find the total surface area.4. 4 cm and 5 cm respectively are melted and are recast into a single cube. Then (i) The Lateral Surface Area (L.Mensuration 3. Example: Bricks. breadth and height of a cuboid respectively. Also find the volume of the box. Find the length of the side of the tank. The Lateral Surface Area (L.000 litres of water. 9. How much sugar can it hold? A cubical tank can hold 64. 4. Find the area to be painted and the total cost of painting it at the rate of ` 75 per square meter. 8. breadth and height of a cuboid respectively.4 Cuboids A cuboid is a three dimensional solid having six rectangular faces.

b and h respectively. ` T.4. Solution Given that l = 20 cm. units Example: 8. then the volume V of the cuboid is given by the formula V = l # b # h cu.S. 10 cm and 7 cm. b = 10 m. b = 12 cm. Solution Given that l = 11 m. m Example: 8.cm 196 11m 5m 10 m .21 Find the L.22 3m Find the volume of a cuboid whose dimensions are given by 11 cm. h = 4 m L.A = 2(l +b)h 4m 9cm h = 9 cm 20cm 12 cm = 2 # (3+5) # 4 = 2#8#4 = 64 sq. Solution Given that l = 3 m.2 Volume of a Cuboid Key Concept Volume of a Cuboid If the length. breadth and height of a cuboid are l. breadth and height are 20 cm.S. 12 cm and 9 cm respectively.A of a cuboid whose dimensions are given by 3m # 5m # 4m . h = 7 m volume = lbh 7m =11 # 10 # 7 =770 cu.20 Find the total surface area of a cuboid whose length.S.Chapter 8 8. b = 5 m.A = 2 (lb + bh + lh) = 2[(20 # 12 ) + (12 # 9 ) + (20 # 9 )] = 2(240 + 108 + 180) = 2 # 528 = 1056 cm2 Example: 8.

m of cloth is 50 # 0. Find the T.65 # 0. Find the amount he has to pay if it costs ` 50/sq.24 Johny wants to stitch a cover for his C.74 = ` 37.m Given that cost of 1 sq. m of cloth is ` 50 ` cost of 0. breadth and height are 20 cm.45) 0.45) = 2 # 0.2 # 0. 197 20cm 50cm 45c m .5 m ` Area of cloth required = L. Solution Let the side of each cube be a. So. 45 cm and 50 cm respectively. l = 20 cm = 0.S.2 m.2 +0. b = 45 cm =0.74 sq.45 m.5 + (0.U whose length.A = 2 (lb + bh + lh) = 2 [(12 # 6 ) + (6 # 6 ) + (12 # 6 )] = 2 [72 + 36 + 72] = 2 # 180 = 360 cm2 Example 8. h = 6 cm ` T.09 = 0.A of the resulting cuboid.A + area of the top = 2 (l + b) h + lb = 2 (0. b = 6 cm.S.23 Two cubes each of volume 216 cm3 are joined to form a cuboid as shown in the figure.P.74 sq.S.65 + 0.5 + 0. m Solution The cover is in the shape of a one face open cuboidal box. h = 50 cm = 0.Mensuration Example: 8.09 = 0. ` l = 6 + 6 = 12 cm. Then a3 = 216 3 ` a= 216 = 6 cm Now the two cubes of side 6 cm are joined to form a cuboid.

8 dm (iv) 20 m. Mohan wanted to paint the walls and ceiling of a hall. 7 m 2. 30 cm and 55 cm respectively.m. Find the cost of the cloth he has to buy if it costs ` 75 per sq. 198 . 12 m. 7.A of the resulting solid. breadth and height respectively as (i) 5 cm.3 1. 5. 10 dm.25 Find the cost for filling a pit of dimensions 5 m # 2 m # 1 m with soil if the rate of filling is ` 270 per cu. 6. 2 cm . 3 m.Chapter 8 Example: 8.S. 15 cm and 14175 cm3 respectively. 8 m Find the height of the cuboid whose length. Raju planned to stitch a cover for his two speaker boxes whose length.S. The dimensions of the hall is 20m # 15m # 6m . m is ` 270 ` cost for filling 10 cu. m is 270 # 10 = ` 2700 Exercise 8.m Given that cost for filling 1 cu. Find the L.A and volume of the cuboids having the length. 4. m. b = 2m and h = 1m.A and T. m Solution The pit is in the shape of a cuboid having l = 5m. 0. How many hollow blocks of size 30cm # 15cm # 20cm are needed to construct a wall 60m in length. Find the area of surface to be painted and the cost of painting it at ` 78 per sq. breadth and height are 35 cm. 11cm (iii) 2 m. T.A.S. (ii) 15 dm. Two cubes each of volume 64 cm3 are joined to form a cuboid. Find the cost of renovating the walls and the floor of a hall that measures 10m # 45m # 6m if the cost is ` 48 per square meter.3m in breadth and 2m in height.S. breadth and volume are 35 cm. 3. Find the L. ` volume of the pit = volume of the cuboid = lbh =5# 2# 1 = 10 cu.

A) = 4a2 square units. V = a3 cubic units Let l. units � � � 199 . If i is the central angle and r is the radius of a sector. then its volume V is given by the formula. (ii) The Lateral Surface Area (L.Mensuration Points to Remember � � � A sector is the part of a circle enclosed by any two radii of the circle and their intercepted arc.S. then its arc length is given by l= i # 2rr units 360 If i is the central angle and r is the radius of a sector.A) = 6a2 square units. 360 If l is the arc length and r is the radius of a sector. breadth and height of a cuboid are l. then the area of the sector is i # rr2 square units. then its perimeter P is given by the formula P = l + 2r units.A) = 2( l + b)h squre units (ii) The Total Surface Area (T. � Let the side of a cube be a units. Then: (i) The Total Surface Area (T.A) = 2( lb + bh + lh ) sq. Central Angle is the angle subtended by the arc of the sector at the centre of the circle in which the sector forms a part. breadth and height of a cuboid respectively. Then: (i) The Lateral Surface Area (L. � If the side of a cube is a units. units � If the length.S. then the volume V of the cuboid is given by the formula V = l # b # h cu.S.S. b and h be the length. b and h respectively.

a field which had been looked at as completed. and the three perpendicular bisectors in point M. A Hc Mc M Mb H Hb Ha 9. Hence these constructions are also known as Euclidean constructions. “Construction” in Geometry means to draw shapes. Ramanujan gave a geometrical construction for 355 113 = r . angles or lines accurately. he felt a step nearer to understanding nature and by this understanding God. Point E in the middle of the line between H and M is the center of a circle on which are all the intersections of the altitudes and the perpendicular bisectors with the triangle. Practical Geometry is the method of applying the rules of geometry to construct geometric figures. and more. All geometric constructions are based on those two concepts. mathematics was a tool to decipher God’s design of our world. In 1913 the Indian Mathematical Genius. This circle known as 9 points circle. How much more wonderful is it that lines. it is a noteworthy feature when lines driven through a mountain meet and make a tunnel. ruler).1 Introduction The fundamental principles of geometry deal with the properties of points. Euler wrote more scientific papers than any mathematician before or after him.e. lines. The geometric constructions have been discussed in detail in Euclid’s book ‘Elements’.Chapter 9 PRACTICAL GEOMETRY Main Targets ● ● ● ● To construct the Circumcentre To construct the Orthocentre To construct the Incentre To construct the Centroid Leonhard euLer 1707 . Today with all our accumulated skill in exact measurements. hundreds of feet aloft! For this. It is possible to construct rational and irrational numbers using a straightedge and a compass as seen in chapter II. These constructions use only a compass and a straightedge (i. Euler even found a new theorem in Euclidean geometry. and other figures. The compass establishes equidistance and the straightedge establishes collinearity.1783 The Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler lived during the 18th century. is what is meant by the building of a pyramid: 200 E B Ma C . Here’s a short explanation of this theorem: The three altitudes of a triangle meet in point H. should be raised at a certain angle and successfully brought to a point. starting at the corner of a perfect square. For Euler. With every new discovery.

ortho-centre. 9.2. 201 .1 Construction of the Perpendicular Bisector of a given line segment Step1 : Draw the given line segment AB. In this chapter we learn to construct centroid.2 Special line segments within Triangles (i) (ii) Perpendicular bisector to a given line segment Perpendicular from an external point to a given line First let us learn to identify and to construct (iii) Bisector of a given angle and (iv) Line joining a given external point and the midpoint of a given line segment. A M D B Key Concept Perpendicular Bisector The line drawn perpendicular through the midpoint of a given line segment is called the perpendicular bisector of the line segment. A B Step 2 : With the two end points A and B of the line segment as centres and more than half the length of the line segment as radius draw arcs to intersect on both sides of the line segment at C and D A C B D C Step 3 : Join C and D to get the perpendicular bisector of the given line segment AB. in-centre and circum-centre of a triangle.Practical Geometry In class VIII we have learnt the construction of triangles with the given measurements. 9.

A P C Q B Step 3 : With P and Q as centres and more than half the distance between these points as radius draw two arcs to intersect each other at E. A Altitude altitude C P D Q B E 202 . A P Q B E C Step 4 : Join C and E to get the required perpendicular line.Chapter 9 9. A P D Q B E Key Concept In a triangle. A B C Step 2 : With C as centre and any convenient radius draw arcs to cut the given line at two points P and Q.2. an altitude is the line segment drawn from a vertex of the triangle perpendicular to its opposite side.2 Construction of Perpendicular from an External Point to a given line C Step 1 : Draw the given line AB and mark the given external point C.

A E C D F Step 4 : Join A and F to get the angle bisector AF of + CAB. A B C Step 2 : With A as centre and a convenient radius draw arcs to cut the two arms of the angle at D and E. A D E B C D F B Step 3 : With D and E as centres and a suitable radius draw arcs to intersect each other at F. A angle Bisector Angle Bisector C F D E B 203 .Practical Geometry 9. A E B Key Concept The line which divides a given angle into two equal angles is called the angle bisector of the given angle.3 Construction of Angle Bisector C Step 1 : Draw the given angle + CAB with the given measurement.2.

Chapter 9 9. A B C Step 2 : Draw the perpendicular bisector of AB and mark the point of intersection M which is the mid point of line segment. A M B Median 204 . A M B C Step 3 : Join C and M to get the required line.4 Construction of Line Joining a External Point and the Midpoint of a Line Segment C Step 1 : Draw a line segment AB with the given measurement and mark the given point C (external point). a median is the line segment that joins a vertex of the triangle and the midpoint of its opposite side.2. A M B Key Concept Median C In a triangle.

the distance between the circumcentre S and any vertex of the triangle is the circumradius. now let us learn to locate the Circumcentre. Incentre and Centroid of a given triangle.3 The Points of Concurrency of a Triangle As we have already learnt how to draw the Perpendicular Bisector.3. 205 . Angle Bisector and Median. Altitude.1 Construction of the Circumcentre of a Triangle Key Concept Circumcentre C The point of concurrency of the perpendicular bisectors of the sides of a triangle is called the circumcentre and is usually denoted by S. 9. In other words.Practical Geometry 9. Othocentre. cle cir Circ um circumcentre S Circumradius Circumradius The radius of a circumcircle is called circumradius of the triangle. A B S Circumcircle The circle drawn with S (circumcentre) as centre and passing through all the three vertices of the triangle is called the circumcircle.

2cm S Step 3 : With S as centre and 60 o 5cm B Circumradius = 3.1 Construct the circumcentre of the DABC with AB = 5cm. 2cm 206 . C Solution C 70c A 5cm 60c B Rough Diagram Step 1 : Draw the DABC with the given measurements.Chapter 9 Example 9. 70 A o 60o 5cm C B \ Step2 : Construct the perpendicular bisectors of any two sides (AC and BC) and let them meet at S which is the circumcentre. +A = 70c and +B = 60c. B and C. A C 70 o S 60o 5cm B SA = SB = SC as radius draw the circumcircle to pass through A. 70o A 3. Also draw the circumcircle and find the circumradius of the DABC .

3. BC = 4cm and AC = 5. exercise 9. Draw DABC .5cm and locate its orthocentre.2 Construction of the Orthocentre of a Triangle Key Concept The point of concurrency of the altitudes of a triangle is called the orthocentre of the triangle and is usually denoted by H. The circumcentre of a right triangle is at the midpoint of its hypotenuse. 9. Construct DPQR with PQ = 5cm. 5.Practical Geometry Remark 1. 3. +P = 100c and PR = 5cm and draw its circumcircle.5cm. 2. 5. where AB = 7cm. Construct the right triangle whose sides are 4.2 Construct DABC whose sides are AB = 6cm.5cm. BC = 8cm and +B = 60c and locate its circumcentre. The circumcentre of an acute angled triangle lies inside the triangle.5 cm 4c m B A 6cm 207 .3. 4. The circumcentre of an obtuse angled triangle lies outside the triangle.1 1. 2. Draw the circumcircle for (i) an equilateral triangle of side 6cm (ii) an isosceles right triangle having 5cm as the length of the equal sides. 5 C Solution A m 4cm 6cm B Rough Diagram C Step 1 : Draw the DABC with the given measurements. 6cm and 7. Also locate its circumcentre. B C A orthocentre H Example 9.

+M = 130c and MN = 6cm Construct an equilateral triangle of sides 6cm and locate its orthocentre.Chapter 9 Step 2 : Construct altitudes from any two vertices (A and C) to their opposite sides (BC and AB respectively) c 5. BC = 7cm and AC = 5cm and construct its orthocentre. A I Incentre C B 208 .5 m H C 4c m The point of intersection of the altitudes H is the orthocentre of the given DABC A 6cm B Remark 1.3 Construction of the Incentre of a Triangle Key Concept The point of concurrency of the internal angle bisectors of a triangle is called the incentre of the triangle and is denoted by I. 2. Three altitudes can be drawn in a triangle. 3. 2. Draw and locate the orthocentre of a right triangle PQR right angle at Q. with PQ = 4. 3. The orthocentre of a right triangle is the vertex of the right angle. The orthocentre of an acute angled triangle lies inside the triangle. RS = 6cm Construct an isosceles triangle ABC with AB = BC and +B = 80c of sides 6cm and locate its orthocentre. Construct the orthocentre of DLMN.5cm. Draw DABC with sides AB = 8cm.2 1. exercise 9. 9. The orthocentre of an obtuse angled triangle lies outside the triangle. where LM = 7cm.3. 4. 4. 5.

+B = 50 o and BC = 6cm. Then I is the incentre of DABC C 6c I m 50 A 209 7cm o B .3 B C IR C LE I INRADIUS C Construct the incentre of DABC with AB = 7cm. Solution 6cm 50c A C 7cm B Rough Diagram Step 1 : Draw the DABC with the given measurments.Practical Geometry Incircle The circle drawn with the incentre (I) as centre and touching all the three IN A sides of a triangle is the incircle of the given triangle. 6c m 50o A 7cm B Step 2 : Construct the angle bisectors of any two angles (A and B) and let them meet at I. Example 9. Also draw C the incircle and measure its inradius. (or) It is the shortest distance of any side of the triangle from the incentre I. Inradius The radius of the incircle is called the inradius of the triangle.

8 cm 50o D 7cm B A Remark The incentre of any triangle always lies inside the triangle. 1. This circle touches all the sides of the triangle. and AC = 6cm. exercise 9. Draw the incircle of DABC . AC = 5 cm and +A = 110c. Also find its inradius. 3. 4.8cm I 6c m Inradius = 1. Draw the incircle of DABC in which AB = 6 cm. BC = 7cm. Locate its incentre and draw the incircle. where AB = 9 cm. Construct DABC in which AB = 6 cm.8cm I 6c m 50o D 7cm B A C Step 4 : With I as centre and ID as radius draw the circle.3 1. 2.Chapter 9 C Step 3 : With I as an external point drop a perpendicular to any one of the sides to meet at D. 1. Construct an equilateral triangle of side 6cm and draw its incircle. AC = 7 cm and +A = 40c. 210 .

Solution 5cm Centroid C Mb A G Mc Ma B C 7cm 6cm A B Rough Diagram C measurements.Practical Geometry 9. Key Concept The point of concurrency of the medians of a triangle is called the Centroid of the triangle and is usually denoted by G.4 Construct the centroid of DABC whose sides are AB = 6cm. 7c D m E 5cm A 211 6cm B . BC = 7cm. A 5cm Step 1 : Draw DABC using the given 7c m 6cm B C Step 2 : Construct the perpendicular bisectors of any two sides (AC and BC) to find the mid points D and E of AC and BC respectively . Example 9.4 Construction of the Centroid of a Triangle. and AC = 5cm.3.

where PQ = 6cm .Chapter 9 C 5cm Step 3 : Draw the medians AE and BD and let them meet at G. 4.5cm and locate the centriod. Construct the DABC such that AB = 6cm. 5. Draw the DPQR . 3. Draw the right triangle whose sides are 3cm.4 1. 7c D m E G The point G is the centroid of the given DABC Remark A 6cm B (i) Three medians can be drawn in a triangle. +M = 100c MN = 6. +P = 110 o and QR = 8cm and construct its centroid. BC = 5cm and AC = 4cm and locate its centroid. 212 .5cm. Draw a equilateral triangle of side 7. 4cm and 5cm and construct its centroid.5cm. exercise 9. Draw and locate the centroid of of triangle LMN with LM = 5. (iii) The centroid of any triangle always lie inside the triangle. 2. (ii) The centroid divides a median in the ratio 2:1 from the vertex.

1). A solution of this equation is an ordered pair of numbers (x0. in the sense that y x0 − 2 y0 = −2. the adjacent picture contains the –4 following points (given by the dots) on the –5 graph. 10. the collection of all the points (x0. 3). (4. it x axis 1 cm = 1 unit 7 is easy to find all the solutions with a prescribed y axis 1 cm = 1 unit 6 first number x0 or a prescribed second number 5 y0 . In this chapter you will learn how to use graphs to give a visual representation of the relationship between two variables and find solutions of equations in two variables.5). –1. (−2.HIlberT Main Targets ● ● ● To understand the concept of graph. Using the above method of getting all x the solutions of the equation x − 2y = −2. For –3 example. y0) so that x0 and y0 satisfy the equation x − 2y = −2. 4) 3 the coordinate plane so that each pair (x0.−1). 0). 0) plane. we xl –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1–1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 (–4. magazines. 1) is called the graph of x − 2y = −2 in the (–2. To graph linear equations. Almost everyday you see diagrams and graphs in newspapers. The purpose of the graph is to show numerical facts in visual form so that they can be understood quickly. (6. books etc.1 Introduction This chapter covers the basic ideas of graphs.2 Linear Graph An equation such as x − 2y = −2 is an example of a linear equation in the two variables x and y. –6 yl (−4. 213 . –1) can plot as many points of the graph as we –2 (–5.5) please to get a good idea of the graph. 3) 2 is a solution of the equation x − 2y = −2 (2. 2). going from left to right: (−5.Graphs 10 GRAPHS A mathematical theory can be regarded as perfect only if you are prepared to present its contents to the first man in the street – D. 2) 1 (0. (0. To solve linear equations in two variables. 10. 4). We observe that in this situation. Relative to a pair of coordinate axes in the 4 plane. y0) in (6. easily and clearly. y0) (4.−1. (2.

We join the points by a line segment and extend it on either direction. 5) xl–6 0 1 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 2 3 4 5 6 x yl . with at least one of a or b not equal to zero. Hence we can take general equation of a straight line as ax + by + c = 0 .5.2 Draw Straight Lines Example 10. We do this by choosing three x values and computing the corresponding y values. We get the required linear graph. Note The general equation of a straight line is ax + by + c = 0 (i) If c = 0. 214 (–5. a first degree equation in two variables always represents a straight line.2. 5). Step 2: Draw x-axis and y-axis on the graph paper. 4. Step 3: Select a suitable scale on the coordinate axes. We plot the two given points (3. y). 1) on the graph sheet.1 Draw the graph of the line joining the points (3. then the equation becomes ax + c = 0 and the line is parallel to y-axis 10.1 Procedure to Draw a Linear Graph When graphing an equation. For each value of x. 1) x axis 1 cm = 1 unit y axis 1 cm = 1 unit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 y (3. we usually begin by creating a table of x and y values. 5) and (.5. then the equation becomes ax + by = 0 and the line passes through the origin (ii) If a = 0. Although two points are sufficient to sketch the graph of a line. Step 4: Plot the points Step 5: Join the points and extend it to get the line. (. Step 1: Using the given equation construct a table of with x and y values. 3. 1) Solution 1. For the sake of simplicity to draw lines in graphs we consider y = mx + c as another simple form of the equation of straight line.2. then the equation becomes by + c = 0 and the line is parallel to x-axis (iii) If b = 0. 10. we usually choose three points so that we can check our work. Thus.Chapter 10 These points strongly suggest that the graph of x − 2y = −2 is a straight line. the equation y = mx + c gives a value of y and we can obtain an ordered pair (x. 2. Draw the x-axis and y-axis on a graph sheet with 1 cm = 1 unit on both axes.

0) and (1. 0. 0.Graphs Example 10.5 x + 2 3 x -5 x 3 y =. .1. Example 10. plot these points and draw a line passing through the points.3 Draw the graph of x = 5 Solution The line x = 5 is parallel to y-axis. 3 Solution Substituting x = . Thus we get the required linear graph. On this line x = 5. 2) xl–6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 1 2 3 4 5 6 x (3. x=5 x y 5 −2 5 0 5 2 xl –6 x axis 1 cm = 1 unit y axis 1 cm = 1 unit (–1.4 Draw the graph of the line y =. 2 we get the points (5. (0. 6) 3 2 1 (0. –3) yl . 2) (5. any point on this line is of the form (5.1.2. So. (5. 0) and (5. 0. we find the values of y as follows y =.3. Taking the values y =.1 in the equation of the line. 7) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 y= 5 x+ . 0) 2 3 4 5 6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 x (5. 6) and draw a line passing through the plotted points. Example 10.3 2 (0.2). This is the required linear graph. . –6) –6 yl y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 x=5 (5.5 x + 2 3 -3 5 7 0 0 2 3 -5 -3 215 yl y x axis 1 cm = 1 unit y axis 1 cm = 1 unit (–3. we find the values of y as follows y = 6x x y -1 -6 0 0 1 6 xl–6 x axis 1 cm = 1 unit y axis 1 cm = 1 unit 7 6 5 y (1.5 x + 2 . y). a constant.6). 0) y = 6x 4 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 2 3 4 5 6 x In a graph. 2). plot the points (. –2) In a graph sheet. 3 in the equation of the line.2 Draw the graph of y = 6x Solution Substituting the values x =.

Example 10.3) and draw a line passing through the plotted points. Now we get the required graph. This is the required graph of the equation y = . 3 in the above equation.1) and (1. 4) and (3. we rewrite the equation 2x + 3y = 12 in the form of y = mx + c . 0.5 Draw the graph of y = 4x .1 . 3 Example 10.1 in the given equation of line. we find the values of y as follows x 4x y = 4x.3. . Solution Substituting the values x =.1 y = 4x .6 Draw the graph of 2x + 3y = 12 Solution First.5 x + 2 .2 x + 4 3 -3 2 6 0 0 4 3 -2 2 xl –6 2x (–1. 0. . 6).5). -1) –2 –3 –4 3 4 5 6 x Plot the points (. 2) –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 2 3 4 5 6 x yl Plot the points (. 4) (3. 2) and draw a line passing through these points. 2) and (3.3. 2x + 3y = 12 implies y = . 216 .Chapter 10 Plot the points (.2 x + 4 3 Substituting x =.1. 7). (0.1. We now get the required linear graph. . –5) –5 –6 yl y 7 + (–3. (0. 3) xl–6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 –1 (0. 6) 3y 6 5 4 3 2 1 x axis 1 cm = 1 unit y axis 1 cm = 1 unit = 12 (0. we find the values of y as follows y = -2 x+4 3 x -2 x 3 y=. (0.1 0 -1 -4 -5 0 -1 1 4 3 x axis 1 cm = 1 unit y axis 1 cm = 1 unit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 y y=4 x-1 (1.3. 3) in a graph sheet and draw a line passing through the plotted points.

Graphs Exercise 10. (ii) (.6) (v) (4. do not meet at all. In this case the equations have a unique solution.7) and (. the graphs are one and the same. That is. where (i) m = 2 and c = 3 (iv) m = 3 and c =. 217 . Draw the linear graph joining the points (i) (2. (iii) The two graphs intersect exactly at one point.2. In this section you will learn to solve graphically a pair of two linear equations in two variables. So.5) (iii) (5. Draw the graph of the equation y = mx + c .2 and c = 2 3 10. The two graphs do not coincide but they are parallel.6 = 0 (iii) y .2 (v) m = 1 and c = 3 2 (iii) m =. 5) 2.6 (v) 2x + 7 = 0 (iii) x = 3 (vi) 6 + 3y = 0 3.3x = 0 (ii) 3x + y = 0 (v) 9y . .4x + 3 = 0 (vi) x .1. there is no common point and hence there is no solution.4) and (. Draw the graph of the following (i) y = 4x (iv) y . 10) Draw the graph of the following (i) y = 5 (iv) x = . 9) and (5.3x = 0 (iii) x =. .1.5) and (6.2y 4.2y + 1 = 0 5.2 and c =. 3) and (.3. . Here three cases arise: (i) (ii) The two graphs coincide. that is.4 and c = 1 (vi) m = . . Draw the linear graph of the following equations (i) y = 3x + 1 (iv) x = 3y + 3 (vii) 3x + 2y = 12 (ii) 4y = 8x + 2 (v) x + 2y . 6) (iv) (.4 (ii) m =. . The solutions of system of linear equations is the set of ordered pairs that satisfy all the equations in that system. In this case there are infinitely many solutions.1 1.5 (ii) y = .6.3 Application of Graphs by a system of linear equations in two variables we mean a collection of more than one linear equations in two variables.

3y = 6 .x + 2 2 We plot these points in a graph paper and draw the lines.2. Line 1: x + 2y = 4 2 y= . by choosing three valuesof x and computing the corresponding y values. 2 in the above equation. we get y values as y = -x +2 2 0 -4 2 4 0 2 xl–6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 x 2x + 4y = 8 x 4 -2 0 –6 yl -x 2 y =.2x + 8 ( y = . we get the corresponding y values as y = -x +2 2 0 -2 1 3 0 2 x 2 -1 1 x+ 2y =4 y 7 6 5 4 -x 2 y= .x + 2 2 Substituting x =.x + 2 2 Line 2: 2x + 4y = 8 x axis 1 cm = 1 unit y axis 1 cm = 1 unit (–4. Therefore each point on the line is a solution. We show our results in tables. 2 in the above equation. Solution We find three points for each equation. We present our results in the tables. Any point on one line is also a point on the other. 1) (4.x + 4 ( y= .Hence there are infinitely many solution Example 10. That is all points on the line are common points.8 Solve graphically x . 0) 2 3 4 5 6 4 y = . 0. 2x + 4y = 8 .3y + 9 = 0 Solution let us find three points for each equation.7 Solve graphically the pair of equations x + 2y = 4 . by choosing three x values and computing the corresponding y values. 2) 1 (2. 0.x + 2 2 Substituting x =. x . Then we find that both the lines coincide. 4) (–2. 218 . 3) 3 2 (0.Chapter 10 Example 10.2.

3 in above equation. we get y= x +3 3 x x 3 y = x +3 3 -3 -1 2 0 0 3 3 1 4 xl –6 -3 -1 -3 0 0 -2 3 1 -1 x + . Next. x + 2y = 8 Solution We find three points for each equation. 2) (0.3. –3) yl We plot the points (.3y 0 9= x axis 1 cm = 1 unit y axis 1 cm = 1 unit y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 (3. we plot the points (. 2) –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 –1 1 2 3 4 5 6 x x =6 . –1) (0. So. .Graphs Line 1: x .9 Solve graphically the equations 2x . We’ll put our results in tables.y = 1.3y = 6 3y = x -6 ( y = x -2 3 Substituting x = . by choosing three values of x and computing the corresponding y values.2) and (3.3y + 9 = 0 3y = x + 9 y = x +3 3 Substituting x = . –2) (–3. 0.3. 3) and (3. .3y –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 (3. we get the values of y as follows y= x -2 3 x x 3 y = x -2 3 Line 2: x .3.3) (0. the system of equations has no solution. That is no point is common to both lines. 219 . We find that the two graphs are parallel. 4) (0. 4) in the same graph sheet and draw the line through them. 0.3. Example 10. . 3) (–3. 3 in the above equation.1) in the graph sheet and draw the line through them.

3) in the same graph sheet and draw the line through them.Chapter 10 Line 1: 2x .5 = 0 8. y=3 Therefore the solution is (2. x . 0.1. y + 3x .2. 4) and (2. we find y = 2x . x .6 7. x .2y =. –1) –2 x (–1. the system of equations has only one solution (unique solution) and the solution is x=2.1 Substituting x =. 5) 5 4 3 2 1 (0.y .1 in the above equation. 0.y = 0 . 1. we plot the points (. We find that the two graphs are intersecting at the point (2. 3x .1 Line 2: x + 2y = 8 2 y = -x + 8 ( y = . 2x = y + 1 . Next. Hence.1 x 2x y = 2x .3). x + = 1 . x . y + 3 = 0 y y 12.2y = 6 . 5). 3x + 2y = 4 . 2 in above equation. 4) (2. 3) (1.4 11.y = 1 6.1) and (1.x + 4 2 Substituting x =. 3). 2x .8 = 0 5. x + y = 5 .1. (0. 1) 3 4 5 6 xl–6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 –1 (0. 3) Exercise 10. x .2x + 2 = 0 . . we get 2x -1 -2 -3 0 0 -1 1 2 1 x+ 2y =8 7 6 y (–2. 2x + y = 4 .2. .2 Solve Graphically the following pairs of equations. 4x + 2y = 8 4.5 = 0 . –3) –3 –4 –5 –6 y = -x +4 2 x -x 2 y=-x +4 2 -2 1 5 0 0 4 2 -1 3 = 1 yl x axis 1 cm = 1 unit y axis 1 cm = 1 unit We plot the points (. 4x .4 = 0 .2 = 0 3. x + 2y . (0. y . x + y . 9x + 6y . 4x + y + 4 = 0 220 2.y = 1 y = 2x .12 = 0 9.y = 0 .6 = 0 10. x + = 2 2 4 2 4 -y . 1) in a graph sheet and draw the line through them. y = 4x . y = 2x + 1 .

11. analysis and interpretation of data. statisticians have employed graphical techniques to more vividly describe the data. In the earlier classes you have studied about the collection of statistical data through primary sources and secondary sources. or percentage distributions. A frequency distribution is organizing of raw data in tabular form. G. Frequency Polygon To find Measures of Central Tendency : Mean. However. . Wells Main Targets ● ● To draw Histogram. In particular. assists in decision making. Median and Mode 11. these forms of presentation do not always prove to be interesting to the common man.2 Graphical Representation of Frequency Distribution It is often said that “one picture is worth a thousand words. in which statistical results may be presented is through diagrams and graphs.” Indeed. These numerical facts must be arranged and presented in a tabular form in an orderly way before analysis and interpretation.1 Introduction The subject statistics comprises the collection. using classes and frequencies. organization. One of the most convincing and appealing ways. In case of some investigations. A frequency distribution can be represented graphically by (i) Histogram (iii) Smoothened frequency curve and 221 (ii) Frequency polygon (iv) Ogive or Cumulative frequency curve. histograms and polygons are used to describe quantitative data that have been grouped into frequency. presentation. The data collected through these sources may contain a large number of numerical facts. the classification and tabulation will give a clear picture of the significance of the data arranged so that no further analysis is required.Statistics STATISTICS “Statistical thinking today is as necessary for efficient citizenship as the ability to read and write” Herbert.

222 . A histogram is a two dimensional graphical representation of continuous frequency distribution. Remark A histogram is often drawn as a guide. Mark the intervals on the horizontal axis and the frequencies on the vertical axis. In a histogram. rectangles are drawn such that the areas of the rectangles are proportional to the corresponding frequencies. If we have to construct histogram and frequency polygon both. Remark 11.2. 2. If the intervals are in inclusive form. a histogram utilizes classes (intervals) and frequencies while a bar graph utilizes categories and frequencies . 3. histogram is the most popular and widely used method. Class intervals must be exclusive.2 Frequency Polygon A frequency polygon uses the mid-point of a class interval to represent all the data in that interval. Draw rectangles with class intervals as bases and the corresponding frequencies as lengths. The class limits are marked on the horizontal axis and the frequency is marked on the vertical axis. Histograms are used only for continuous data that is grouped. 11.1 Histogram Out of several methods of graphical representation of a frequency distribution. It is constructed by taking mid-points of class intervals on the horizontal axis and the frequencies on the vertical axis and joining these points. The scales for both the axes need not be the same. To draw a histogram with equal class intervals 1. 4. first draw the histogram and then join the mid-points of the tops of all the rectangles and finally the extreme points with the points outside the extreme rectangles. However. so that a frequency polygon can be drawn over the top. Thus a rectangle is constructed on each class interval.2. The two extremes are joined with the base in such a way that they touch the horizontal axis at half the distance of class interval outside the extreme points. A histogram is similar to a bar graph. other two will be discussed in higher classes.Chapter 11 In this chapter we see the first two types of graphs. convert them to the exclusive form.

1 Draw a histogram and frequency polygon to represent the following data. of Students 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 X 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Marks In the above example. the intervals are exclusive. 223 . Marks No. Now. let us consider an example with inclusive intervals. of Students Solution 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 12 22 35 40 50-60 60 60-70 52 70-80 40 80-90 30 90-100 5 First we draw the histogram and then by joining the midpoints of the tops of the rectangles we draw the frequency polygon.Statistics Example 11. Histogram and Frequency Polygon Y 70 65 60 55 50 45 Scale on x-axis 1cm = 10 units on y-axis 1cm = 5 units No.

5-39.5-59. So we convert them to the exclusive form and arrange the class intervals in ascending order.5-19.5-49.5 Commuted distance (in km) 224 .5 89. of Workers 50-59 4 40-49 5 30-39 9 20-29 18 10-19 14 Solution In the given table the class intervals are inclusive. Commuted Distance (km) No.5 49. of Workers 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 X O 9.5 29.5 19.5 18 29.5 59.5 39. Represent it by a histogram and frequency polygon.Chapter 11 Example 11. of Workers 9.5 4 Histogram and Frequency Polygon Y 20 18 16 Scale on x-axis 1cm = 10 units on y-axis 1cm = 2 units No.5 99.5-29.5 5 49.5 69. Commuted Distance (km) No.2 A survey was conducted in a small industrial plant having 50 workers to find the number of km each person commuted to work and the details are given below.5 14 19.5 79.5 9 39.

So. Although the class interval 80-85 has only a frequency of 70. (ii) If the scale along the horizontal axis does not start at the origin.Statistics Note (i) The class intervals are made continuous and then the histogram is constructed. before we draw the histogram. 11. Key Concept Frequency Density Frequency density = Frequency ' class width If C denotes the minimum class width of the data set. then the length of the rectangle is given by frequency Length of the rectangle = #C Class width Time (Seconds) Frequency Class Width Length of the rectangle 40-60 100 20 60-70 60 10 70-80 90 10 80-85 70 5 85-90 60 5 90-120 90 30 90 # 5 30 = 15 100 # 5 60 # 5 90 # 5 70 # 5 60 # 5 20 10 10 5 5 = 30 = 45 = 70 = 60 = 25 225 . we need to take into account the width of each class interval. as it has the highest frequency. this frequency is spread across a time of only 5 seconds.3 Histogram with Varying Base Width Consider the following frequency distribution: Time (seconds) Frequency 40-60 100 60-70 60 70-80 90 80-85 70 85-90 60 90-120 90 The class interval 40-60 appears to be most popular.2. Note that this frequency 100 is spread across a time of 20 seconds. a zig - zag curve is shown near the origin. otherwise the histogram would not represent the data set correctly. We do this by calculating the frequency density and modifying length of the rectangle.

class width Thus. Marks No. we draw rectangles with class intervals as bases and the lengths of the rectangles given by frequency length of rectanlge = # 10 .Chapter 11 30 70 65 60 55 50 70 Scale on x-axis 1cm = 5 units on y-axis 1cm = 5 units 60 Frequency 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 45 30 25 15 O 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 Time (in Seconds) Example 11.3 Draw a histogram to represent the following data set. Marks No. of students Solution 0-10 4 10-20 6 20-40 14 40-50 16 50-60 14 60-70 8 70-90 16 90-100 5 The minimum of the class widths of the data set is 10. of students Class width Length of the rectangle 0-10 4 10 10-20 6 10 20-40 14 20 40-50 16 10 50-60 14 10 60-70 8 10 70-90 16 20 90-100 5 10 4 # 10 6 # 10 14 # 10 16 # 10 14 # 10 8 # 10 16 # 10 5 # 10 10 10 20 10 10 10 20 10 =4 =6 =7 = 16 = 14 =8 =5 =8 226 . the histogram can be drawn as follows. So.

of Students 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 8 7 6 8 5 4 O 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 X Marks Exercise 11. The following distribution gives the mass of 48 objects measured to the nearest gram.Statistics Histogram with Varying Base Length Y 20 18 16 Scale on x-axis 1cm = 10 units on y-axis 1cm = 2 units 16 14 No. of workers 25 30 50 60 15 10 3. of objects 10-19 6 20-24 4 25-34 12 227 35-49 18 50-54 8 . 0-10 8 10-30 28 30-45 18 45-50 6 50-60 10 Draw a histogram for the monthly wages of the workers in a factory as per data given below. Monthly wages 2000-2200 2200-2400 2400-2800 2800-3000 3000-3200 3200-3600 (`) No. Class Interval Frequency 2. Mass in (gms) No. Draw a histogram for the following distribution.1 1. Draw a histogram to illustrate the data.

82.. then their arithmetic mean. Class interval Frequency 10-14 5 14-20 20-32 32-52 6 9 25 52-80 21 5.3 Mean 11. 11.Chapter 11 4. positive..3. Draw a histogram to represent the following data. divided by the number of observations. Measures of Central Tendency One of the main objectives of statistical analysis is to get a single value that describes the characteristic of the entire data. xn . of patients 10-20 80 20-30 50 30-50 80 50-60 120 60-70 30 Draw a histogram for the above data. Age in years No. If we have n real numbers x1.Raw Data The arithmetic mean is the sum of a set of observations.. Median and Mode. 74 obtained by a student in 5 subjects in an annual examination. That is. 75. Such a value is called the central value and the most commonly used measures of central tendencies are Arithmetic Mean. Solution Here n = 5 228 Think and Answer ! .1 Arithmetic Mean . negative or zero. denoted by x . who does not know swimming wade through a river which has an average depth of 4 feet to the other bank? Example 11. x3 .4 Find the arithmetic mean of the marks 72. is given by /x x = x1 + x2 + g + xn or x = 1 / xi or x = n i=1 n n n Remark x= /x n ( nx = / x . 73. The age (in years) of 360 patients treated in the hospital on a particular day are given below. Total number of observations # Mean = Sum of all observations Can a person of height 5 feet. x2..

(Sum of the 4 numbers) 11. f3 .1 / f 50 Mean = 15.2 Arithmetic Mean ..4 = 28 Sum of these 4 numbers = 28 # 4 = 112 Excluded number = 160 .Statistics x = Example 11. then the mean is reduced by 4. x3 . If one of the numbers is excluded. Solution Mean of 5 numbers = 32..Ungrouped Frequency Distribution The mean (or average ) of the observations x1. 112 = 48 ( a nx = / x ) = (Sum of the 5 given numbers) . is written as x = Example 11. f2. x f Solution x 5 10 15 20 25 Total f 3 10 25 7 5 fx 15 100 375 140 125 5 3 10 10 / fx /f 20 7 25 5 15 25 Mean = / fx = 755 = 15.1 / f = 50 / fx = 755 229 .fn respectively is given by x = f1 x1 + f2 x2 + g + fn xn = i = 1 n f1 + f2 + g + fn / fi i=1 / fx i n i The above formula.6 Obtain the mean of the following data..xn with frequencies f1..2 n 5 ` Mean = 75.3. Sum of these numbers = 32 # 5 = 160 Mean of 4 numbers = 32 .2 5 The mean of the 5 numbers is 32.5 / x = 72 + 73 + 75 + 82 + 74 = 376 = 75. x2. Find the excluded number. more briefly.

(ii) Divide / fx by the sum / f of the frequencies to obtain Mean. for each class interval we require a point which could serve as the representative of the class interval. LCL = Lower Class Limit) 2 Using the above formula the class marks for each of the class intervals are found out and are represented as x / fx can be used to find the mean of the grouped data.Chapter 11 11. In the interval 0-10.Grouped Frequency Distribution Consider the following frequency table. we assume it as 5. the formula for finding the arithmetic mean is x = / fx . (ii) Multiply these midpoints by the respective frequency of each class and obtain the total of fx.3. Now. Class interval (Marks) Frequency (No. arithmetic mean may be computed by applying any one of the following methods: (i) Direct Method (ii) Assumed Mean Method (iii) Step Deviation Method Direct Method When direct method is used.3 Arithmetic Mean . it is assumed that the frequency of each class interval is centered around its mid-point. Steps : (i) Obtain the midpoint of each class and denote it by x. 230 . of students) 0-10 3 10-20 4 20-30 3 30-40 7 40-50 8 The first entry of the table says that 3 children got less than 10 marks but does not say anything about the marks got by the individuals. /f where x is the midpoint of the class interval and f is the frequency. Thus the mid-point or the class mark of each class can be chosen to represent the observations falling in that class. x = /f In grouped frequency distribution. Class mark = UCL + LCL (UCL= Upper Class Limit. That is.

/f where A is the assumed mean and d = x . (iv) Apply the formula x = A + / fd /f 231 . (ii) Find the deviation.A is the deviation of midpoint x from assumed mean A.7 From the following table compute arithmetic mean by direct method.Statistics Example 11. d = x – A for each class (iii) Multiply the respective frequencies of each class by their deviations and obtain / fd . of students Solution Marks 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 Midpoint (x) No. arithmetic mean is computed by applying the x = A+ following formula. / fd . of students (f) 5 15 25 35 45 55 5 10 25 30 20 10 fx 25 150 625 1050 900 550 0-10 5 10-20 10 20-30 25 30-40 30 40-50 20 50-60 10 / f = 100 x = / fx = 3300 ` Mean = 33 Assumed Mean Method / fx = 3300 = 33 / f 100 When assumed mean method is used. Marks No. Steps: (i) Choose A as the assumed mean.

we divide the deviation by the width of the class intervals. i.20 # 10 = 35 .Chapter 11 Example 11.e calculate x . / fd # c x = A+ /f Solution: Marks 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 Width of the class interval is c = 10 Mid-value 5 15 25 35 45 55 No of students f 5 10 25 30 20 10 d = x .200 j = 35 .35 10 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 fd -15 -20 -25 0 20 20 x = A+ / fd # c = 35 . Solution Let the assumed mean be A = 35 Marks 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 Mid-value (x) 5 15 25 35 45 55 No of students (f) 5 10 25 30 20 10 d = x - 35 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 fd -150 -200 -250 0 200 200 / f = 100 x = A+ / fd = -200 / fd /f Step Deviation Method = 35 + ` .A and then multiply by c in the formula for getting the mean of c the data.8 Calculate the arithmetic mean by assumed mean method for the data given in the above example. 2 = 33 100 In order to simplify the calculation.2 = 33 ` 100 j /f ` Mean = 33 232 / f = 100 / fd = -20 .

If x1.4 + ( . x3 . x2 + 5. from the above example.. x3 + 5.. Property 2 If each observation is increased by k then the mean of the new observations is the original mean increased by k.. i.7 + 7 = 0 Hence. then the new numbers are x1 + 5.. x4 and x5 whose mean is 20. + ^ xn . 14.x h = 0 For example. x3.4 Properties of Mean Property 1 Sum of the deviations taken from the arithmetic mean is zero... Consider the deviation of each observation from arithmetic mean. Property 3 If each observation is decreased by k.10) + (9 ..xn is x . then the mean of the new observation is ( x + k ).10) + (14 . the mean of 6.2) + ( . Each observation is increased by k. consider five numbers x1.10) + (13 . 233 .e. x2.xn are n observations with mean x then ^ x1 . then the mean of the new observations is original mean decreased by k. x2.. x3 .1) + 4 + 3 = . For example.e.x h + ^ x2 . x = x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 = 20 5 If each of the number is increased by 5.x h + . x2. x4 + 5 and x5 + 5 Mean of these new numbers is x1 + 5 + x2 + 5 + x3 + 5 + x4 + 5 + x5 + 5 5 = x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 + 25 5 = x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 + 25 = 20 + 5 5 5 = original mean + the increased value.Statistics 11. i. the original mean is increased by 5. 13 is 10. 9. Sum of the deviations from arithmetic mean is (6 . suppose the mean of n observations x1.3. we observe that sum of the deviations from the arithmetic mean is zero. Hence.10) = . 8.10) + (8 .

x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 = 20 5 If each of the number is decreased by 5. 5x4. x2. New mean = x1 .k .5 + x2 . then the mean of the new observation is the original mean multiplied by k i. x5 . then the mean of the new observation is x . 234 . suppose the mean of n observations is x . x2 .5 ..25 5 5 = 20 . If each observation is decreased by k. then the new numbers are x1 . Hence. For example. x3. k ! 0 . x4 and x5 whose mean is 20.5. 5x2. x2. 5 = original mean - the decreased value. x4 and x5 whose mean is 20.5 + x4 . k ! 0 .e. then the mean of the new observations is kx .. x3. the original mean is decreased by 5. x3 . For example. If each observation is multiplied by k. 5x5 . suppose the mean of n observations x1.. i.e.5.5. 5x3.5.5 + x3 .5 + x5 .. Hence. consider five numbers x1.5 5 = x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 . then the mean of new observations is the original mean divided by k. Property 5 If each observation is divided by k. If each data is multiplied by 5. k ! 0 . then the new observations are 5x1. the new mean is 5 times its original mean. x4 . x2.Chapter 11 i. Property 4 If each observation is multiplied by k. x3 .xn is x . Mean of these numbers = x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 = 20 5 New mean = 5x1 + 5x2 + 5x3 + 5x4 + 5x5 5 5^ x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5h = = 5 (20) 5 = Five times the original mean. consider five numbers x1..e.

4. 5. Later on. x4.Statistics i. = 4000 . x5 .9 The mean mark of 100 students was found to be 40.e. where k ! 0 . Exercise 11.. 6. x3. Solution Given that the total number of students n = 100. consider five numbers x1. y3 = x3 . x.2 1. 3. suppose the mean of the n observations x1. x3..7. x2. Find the correct mean corresponding to the correct score. 1. Obtain the mean number of bags sold by a shopkeeper on 6 consecutive days from the following table Days No. 4. / x = x # n = 40 # 100 = 4000 Correct / x = Incorrect / x .xn is x . x2. 4. k For example. x = 40. x = x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 = 20 5 Now we divide each number by 5. Then x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 5 5 5 5 5 y = 5 5 = 1 ` x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 j = 1 ^20h 5 5 5 = 1 ( x ) 5 New mean is the original mean divided by 5.. x4 and x5 whose mean is 20. Example 11. it was found that a score of 53 was misread as 83. wrong item + correct item. then the mean of the new observation is x . Find x if the mean number of children in a family is 4 235 . 5.7 = 100 Hence the correct mean is 39. y2 = x2 . 83 + 53 = 3970 correct/ x Correct x = n 3970 = 39. Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday 55 32 30 25 Friday 10 Saturday 20 The number of children in 10 families in a locality are 2. So. y4 = x4 and 5 5 5 5 y5 = x5 . Let y1 = x1 . of bags sold 2. If each observation is divided by k. So.

Find the correct mean. of students 50 10 52 15 53 5 55 6 57 4 9.Chapter 11 3. of patients 10-19 1 20-29 0 14. 42kg and 40kg. 50kg. of days attending hospital 0-10 10-20 2 6 20-30 22 30-40 20 30-39 1 20-30 30-40 40-50 9 7 4 40-50 10 40-49 10 50-60 5 50-59 13 450 - 500 3 50-60 2 10. The total marks obtained by 40 students in the Annual examination are given below Marks Students 150 - 200 200 - 250 250 - 300 300 - 350 350 - 400 400 - 450 2 3 12 10 4 6 Using step deviation method to find the mean of the above data. 5. If 7 is subtracted from each number what will be the new mean? The mean of 12 numbers is 48. Using assumed mean method find the mean weight of 40 students using the data given below. 8. If 3 is added to each number what will be the new mean? The mean of 15 numbers is 44. At the time of computation two items were wrongly taken as 30 and 27 instead of 3 and 72. Find the weight of the sixth boy. It was later found that one observation was wrongly read as 43 instead of the correct value 53. the following data were obtained. 7. If each numbers is multiplied by 4 what will be the new mean? The mean of 16 numbers is 54. 11. Obtain the correct arithmetic mean of the data. 4. The individual weights of 5 of them are 50kg. No. Find the average number of patients attending the hospital in a day. of students 8 10-20 15 13. weights in kg. Mean of 100 observations is found to be 40. The mean of 20 numbers is 59. 12. The data on number of patients attending a hospital in a month are given below. Age (in yrs) No. In a study on patients. If each number is divided by 9 what will be the new mean? The mean weight of 6 boys in a group is 48 kg. No. 236 . Calculate the arithmetic mean for the following data using step deviation method. 45kg. Marks 0-10 No. Find the arithmetic mean. The arithmetic mean of a group of 75 observations was calculated as 27. of patients No. 6.

Class Interval Frequency 0 - 19 3 20 - 39 4 40 - 59 15 60 - 79 14 80 - 99 4 11. 9. 9. 13. 15. 7. 32. i. 12. 17.1 Median . 15. 21. Solution (i) (ii) Let us arrange the numbers in ascending order as below. 21. 22. 15. th (ii) When n is odd. th th Median = Mean of ` n j and ` n + 1j observations. 10.e. 23. when n is even. 14. 23. 21. Compute the arithmetic mean of the following distribution. 7. 22. 15. 2 (iii) When n is even the median is the arithmetic mean of the two middle values. 42.4 Median Median is defined as the middle item of the given observations arranged in order. 24 Number of items n = 7 th Median = ` n + 1 j observation 2 = ` 7 + 1 j observation 2 = 4th observation = 21 th ( a n is odd) Let us arrange the numbers in ascending order 7. Number of items n = 10 th th Median is the mean of ` n j and ` n + 1j observations.. 11. 12. ` n + 1 j observation is the median. 13. 10.Raw Data Steps: (i) Arrange the n given numbers in ascending or descending order of magnitude. 32. 42. 2 2 Example 11. ( a n is even) 2 2 th n th 10 th ` 2 j observation = ` 2 j observation = 5 observation = 13 237 . 21 (ii) 17.4. 14.10 Find the median of the following numbers (i) 24. 7.Statistics 15.

Chapter 11
th n = th ` 2 + 1j observation 6 observation = 15.

` Median = 13 + 15 = 14 2 11.4.2 Median - Ungrouped Frequency Distribution (i) Arrange the data in ascending or descending order of magnitude. (ii) Construct the cumulative frequency distribution. th (iii) If n is odd, then Median = ` n + 1j term. 2
th n th n $` 2 j term + ` 2 + 1j term . (iv) If n is even, then Median = 2

Example 11.11 Calculate the median for the following data. Marks No. of students Solution 20 6 9 4 25 16 50 7 40 8 80 2

Let us arrange marks in ascending order. Marks 9 20 25 40 50 80 f 4 6 16 8 7 2 n = 43 Here, n = 43, which is odd cf 4 10 26 34 41 43

Position of median

= ` n + 1 j observation . 2 = ` 43 + 1 j observation. 2 = 22nd observation.
th

th

The above table shows that all items from 11 to 26 have their value 25. So, the value nd of 22 item is 25.

` Median = 25.
238

Statistics

Example 11.12 Find the median for the following distribution. Value f Solution Value 1 2 3 4 5 6 f 1 3 2 4 8 2 n = 20 n = 20 (even) Position of the median = ` 20 + 1 j th observation 2 = ` 21 j th observation = (10.5)th observation 2
th th

1 1

2 3

3 2

4 4

5 8

6 2 cf 1 4 6 10 18 20

The median then, is the average of the tenth and the eleventh items. The tenth item is 4, the eleventh item is 5. Hence median = 4 + 5 = 9 = 4.5. 2 2

11.4.3 Median - Grouped Frequency Distribution In a grouped frequency distribution, computation of median involves the following steps. (i) Construct the cumulative frequency distribution.
th

(ii) Find N term. 2 (iii) The class that contains the cumulative frequency N is called the median class. 2 (iv) Find the median by using the formula: N -m Median = l + 2 # c, f where l = Lower limit of the median class, f = Frequency of the median class c = Width of the median class, N = The total frequency

m = cumulative frequency of the class preceeding the median class
239

Chapter 11

Example 11.13 Find the median for the following distribution. Wages (Rupees in hundreds) No of workers Solution Wages 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 f 22 38 46 35 20 N = 161 Here, N = 161 = 80.5. Median class is 20-30. 2 2 Lower limit of the median class l 20 = Frequency of the median class f 46 = Cumulative frequency of the class preceeding the median class m = 60 Width of the class c = 10 N -m Median= l + 2 #c f = 20 + 80.5 - 60 # 10 = 20 + 10 # 20.5 46 46 = 20 + 205 = 20 + 4.46 = 24.46 46 cf 22 60 106 141 161 0-10 22 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 38 46 35 20

` Median = 24.46
Example 11.14 Find the median for the following data. Marks Frequency Solution Since the table is given in terms of inclusive type we convert it into exclusive type. 11-15 7 16-20 21-25 10 13 26-30 26 31-35 9 36-40 5

240

Statistics

Marks 10.5- 15.5 15.5-20.5 20.5-25.5 25.5-30.5 30.5-35.5 35.5-40.5

f 7 10 13 26 9 5 N = 70

cf 7 17 30 56 65 70

N = 70, N = 70 = 35 2 2

Median class is 25.5-30.5 Lower limit of the median class l Frequency of the median class f = 25.5 = 26 = 30

Cumulative frequency of the preceding median class m Width of the median class c = 30.5 - 25.5 = 5 N -m Median = l + 2 #c f

= 25.5 + 35 - 30 # 5 = 25.5 + 25 = 26.46 26 26

Exercise 11.3
1. 2. Find the median of the following data. (i) 18,12,51,32,106,92,58

(ii) 28,7,15,3,14,18,46,59,1,2,9,21 Find the median for the following frequency table. Value Frequency 12 4 13 2 15 4 19 4 22 1 23 5

3.

Find the median for the following data. Height (ft) No of trees 5-10 4 10-15 3 15-20 10
241

20-25 8

25-30 5

Chapter 11

4.

Find the median for the following data. Age group No. of persons 0-9 4 10-19 6 20-29 10 30-39 11 40-49 12 50-59 6 60-69 1

5.

Calculate the median for the following data Class interval Frequency 1 - 5 1 6 - 10 18 11 - 15 25 16 - 20 26 21 - 25 7 26 - 30 2 31 - 35 1

6.

The following table gives the distribution of the average weekly wages of 800 workers in a factory. Calculate the median for the data given below. Wages 20 - 25 25 - 30 30 - 35 35 - 40 40 - 45 45 - 50 50 - 55 55 - 60 (` in hundres) No. of persons 50 70 100 180 150 120 70 60

11.5 Mode
The Mode of a distribution is the value at the point around which the items tend to be most heavily concentrated.

11.5.1 Mode - Raw Data
In a raw data, mode can be easily obtained by arranging the observations in an array and then counting the number of times each observation occurs. For example, consider a set of observations consisting of values 20,25,21,15,14,15. Here, 15 occurs twice where as all other values occur only once. Hence mode of this data = 15.
Remark

Mode can be used to measure quantitative as well as qualitative data. If a printing press turns out 5 impressions which we rate very sharp, sharp, sharp, sharp and Blurred, then the model value is sharp.

Example 11.15 The marks of ten students in a mathematics talent examination are 75,72,59,62, 72,75,71,70,70,70. Obtain the mode. Solution other.
Note

Here the mode is 70, since this score was obtained by more students than any A distribution having only one mode is called unimodal.
242

Statistics

Example 11.16 Find the mode for the set of values 482,485,483,485,487,487,489. Solution In this example both 485 and 487 occur twice. This list is said to have two modes or to be bimodal. (i) A distribution having two modes is called bimodal. Note (ii) A distribution having three modes is called trimodal. (iii) A distribution having more than three modes is called multimodal. 11.5.2 Mode - Ungrouped Frequency Distribution In a ungrouped frequency distribution data the mode is the value of the variable having maximum frequency. Example 11.17 A shoe shop in Chennai sold hundred pairs of shoes of a particular brand in a certain day with the following distribution. Size of shoe No of pairs sold 4 2 5 5 6 3 7 23 8 39 9 27 10 1

Find the mode of the following distribution. Since 8 has the maximum frequency with 39 pairs being sold the mode of the distribution is 8.

Solution

11.5.3 Mode - Grouped Frequency Distribution In case of a grouped frequency distribution, the exact values of the variables are not known and as such it is very difficult to locate mode accurately. In such cases, if the class intervals are of equal width an appropriate value of the mode may be determined by using the formula Mode = l + c f - f1 m # c, 2f - f1 - f2

where l = lower limit of the modal class f = frequency of modal class c = class width of the modal class f1 = frequency of the class just preceeding the modal class. f2 = frequency of the class succeeding the modal class.

243

f2 f 4 8 18 30 20 10 5 2 4 15-20 8 20-25 18 25-30 30 30-35 20 35-40 10 40-45 5 45-50 2 Modal class is 25-30 since it has the maximum frequency.f1 .65. 2.73 Exercise 11.71.47.f1 h# c 2f .73 = 27. 42.73 22 Mode = 27.52.49.72. Find the modal marks.82.18 . of Pairs sold 4 15 5 17 244 6 13 7 21 8 18 9 16 10 11 .4 1. Size of shoe No. The marks obtained by 15 students of a class are given below.18 # 5 = 25 + 12 # 5 22 60 .47.45.Chapter 11 Example 11.18 Calculate the mode of the following data.72 Calculate the mode of the following data. Size of item 10-15 No of items Solution Size of the item 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 45-50 Lower limit of the modal class l = 25 Frequency of the modal class f = 30 Frequency of the preceding the modal class f1 = 18 Frequency of the class reducing the modal class f2 = 20 Class width c = 5 Mode = l + ^ =25 + ` f . 30 .65.71.75.20 j = 25 + 60 = 25 + 2.72.

The marks are given below. For the following data obtain the mode. 15. of students 0 - 10 1 10 - 20 4 20 - 30 5 30 - 40 8 40 - 50 2 245 . mode and median of marks obtained by 20 students in an examination. of branches No. Calculate the mean. Obtain its mode. 15. Weight (in kg) No of students 21-25 5 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 4 3 18 20 14 8 3 5. 13. Find the mean. Marks No. median and mode of the above data. 15. 14. No. 15 years. Age (yrs) No of patients 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 12 14 36 50 20 18 4. of cases 5 - 14 6 15 - 24 11 25 - 34 12 35 - 44 10 45 - 54 7 55 - 64 4 Obtain the mean. median and mode of the data. median and mode of the above data. Find the mean. The age (in years) of 150 patients getting medical treatment in a hospital in a month are given below. 13. The following table gives the numbers of branches and number plants in a garden of a school. Age in year No. 14. 13. 7. of plants 2 14 3 21 4 28 5 20 6 17 6. The ages of children in a scout camp are 13. 8. The following table shows the age distribution of cases of a certain disease reported during a year in a particular city.Statistics 3.

Mode is preferred to median.30. 2. (iii) Median is preferred to mode.20.f1 m#c 2f . Give specific examples of your own in which. Make a general statement about each situation and compare it with the properties of mean. Divide each value by 10 and find the mean.f1 . * * * * Add 10 to each value and find the mean. (i) (ii) The median is preferred to arithmetic mean. Multiply each value by 10 and find the mean. Points to Remember The mean for grouped data  The direct method x= / fx /f / fd /f / fd #C /f  The assumed mean method x = A+  The step deviation method x = A+  The cumulative frequency of a class is the frequency obtained by adding the frequencies of all up to the classes preceeding the given class. Subtract 10 from each value and find the mean. Find the mean of 10.f2 246 .  The median for grouped date can be found by using the formula N -m median = l + 2 #c f  The mode for the grouped data can be found by using the formula mode = l + c f .40 and 50.Chapter 11 ACTIVITY 1.

Probability provides a way to make decisions when the person is uncertain about the things.1 Introduction From dawn to dusk any individual makes decisions regarding the possible events that are governed at least in part by chance. Commerce. it has been used extensively. Weather Forecasting and in various other emerging areas. in the fields of Physical Sciences. Kolmogorov. This notion made it possible to build up a strictly mathematical theory of probability based on measure theory. “Possibly” . Few examples are: “Should I carry an umbrella to work today?”. Medical Sciences.Von Mises. Insurance. The words “Probably”. Biological Sciences.CHARLES ELIOT Main Targets ● ● To understand repeated experiments and observed frequency approach of Probability To understand Empirical Probability Richard Von Mises (1883-1953) 12. quantities or actions involved in the decision. ™ Possibly Thamizhisai will catch the train today. and “Should I buy a new brand of laptop?”. and not on certainty . ™ The prices of essential commodities are likely to be stable. Fisher and R. Investments. The notion of Von Mises. an approach Such emerged gradually in the last century under the influence of many authors. attitude toward probability has been developed mainly by R.. “Chance” . will mean “the lack of certainty” about the 247 The statistical.Probability PROBABILITY All business proceeds on beliefs. . ™ There is a chance that Leela will win today’s Tennis match. or empirical. etc.F. “Likely”. or judgments of probabilities. sample space comes from R. An axiomatic treatment representing the modern development was given by A. Though probability started with gambling. Consider the statements: ™ Probably Kuzhalisai will stand first in the forth coming annual examination. “Will my cellphone battery last until tonight?”.

Probability would be effective and useful even if it is not a single numerical value.Chapter 12 events mentioned above.e. This numerical measure is referred to as probability. 12. It is a purposeful technique used in decision making depending on. i. experience. Experiment Random Experiment Trial Sample Space Sample Point Events Key Concept Experiment An experiment is defined as a process whose result is well defined Experiments are classified broadly into two ways: EXPERIMENT DETERMINISTIC RANDOM 248 . and changing with. let us define some of the basic terms required for it. To measure “the lack of certainty or uncertainty”. But based on some assumptions uncertainty can be measured mathematically. uncertainty is not perfectly quantifiable one. there is no perfect yardstick.2 Basic Concepts and Definitions Before we start the theory on Probability..

die are trials For example. 3}. For example. under identical conditions. While rolling a die each outcome. While rolling a die. {2. Random Experiment : It is an experiment whose all possible outcomes are known. 2. possible events are {1. since we cannot predict the outcome of these experiments. 3. but it is not possible to predict the exact outcome in advance. Any subset of a sample space is When a die is rolled some of the called an event. {1} {2} {3} {4} {5} and {6} are are corresponding sample points For example. Key Concept Trial For example. 6} Sample Space Sample Point Event 249 . Hence these experiments are deterministic. 2. {Tail} are the sample Each outcome of an experiment is points. in the cases-when we heat water it evaporates. consider the following experiments: (i) A coin is flipped (tossed) (ii) A die is rolled. Tail} possible outcomes of a random experiment. 3}. A Trial is an action which results “ Flipping” a coin and “Rolling” a in one or several outcomes. 5. 4.the outcomes of the experiments can be predicted well in advance. S = { Head.Probability 1. A sample space S is the set of all While flipping a coin the sample space. 2. called a sample point. when we keep a tray of water into the refrigerator it freezes into ice and while flipping an unusual coin with heads on both sides getting head . These are random experiments. sample space S = { 1. {1. Deterministic Experiment : It is an experiment whose outcomes can be predicted with certainty. 6} While flipping a coin each outcome {Head}. 5. 3. For example.

2 Classical Probability Classical probability concept is originated in connection with games of chance. 12. we shall discuss only about empirical probability.An Empirical Approach In this chapter. It applies when all possible outcomes are equally likely. The remaining two approaches would be discussed in higher classes.3.3.3 Empirical Probability It relies on actual experience to determine the likelihood of outcomes. 12. 250 . It can be applied especially when there is a little or no direct evidence about the event desired. it can be classified mainly in to three types as given below: (1) Subjective Probability (2) Classical Probability (3) Empirical Probability 12. educated guesses and perhaps intuition and other subjective factors to calculate probability .3 Classification of Probability According to various concepts of probability. Empirical or experimental or Relative frequency Probability relies on actual experience to determine the likelihood of outcomes.4 Probability . If there are n equally likely possibilities of which one must occur and s of them are regarded as favorable or as a success then the probability of a success is given by ^ s nh .3.Chapter 12 PROBABILITY Objective Subjective Empirical Probability Classical Probability 12. 12. there is no choice but to consider indirect evidence.1 Subjective Probability Subjective probabilities express the strength of one’s belief with regard to the uncertainties.

A probability of 0. and if probability is high say 0. For example. hence 0 # P (E) # 1 .0. is given by P (E) = Number of trials in which the event happened Total number of trials (or) Number of favourable observations P(E) = Total number of observations (or) P (E) = m n Clearly 0 # m # n ( 0 # m # 1 . If the probability is 1. The empirical probability of happening of an event E. Probability is its most general use is a measure of our degree of confidence that a thing will happen.9. This is called collecting experimental data. Empirical probability is the most accurate scientific ‘guess’ based on the results of experiments about an event.the probability of happening of an event always lies from 0 to 1. the decision about people buying a certain brand of a soap.e.Probability Empirical approach can be used whenever the experiment can be repeated many times and the results observed. This interpretation applied to statistical probabilities calculated from frequencies is the only way of expecting what we know of the individual from our knowledge of the populations. we can perform an experiment such as you already have or conduct a survey. we feel that the event is likely to happen. cannot be calculated using classical probability since the outcomes are not equally likely. Remark If P(E) = 1 then E is called Certain event or Sure event. Key Concept Empirical Probability Let m be the number of trials in which the event E happened (number of observations favourable to the event E) and n be the total number of trials (total number of observations) of an experiment. we know the thing happen certainly. If P(E) = 0 then E is known is an Impossible event.5 denotes that the event is a equally likely to happen or not and one of 0 means that it certainly will not. denoted by P(E). n 0 # P (E) # 1 i. The more data we collect the better the estimate is. 251 . To find the probability for such an event.

Chapter 12

If P (E) is the probability of an event, then the probability of not happening of E is denoted by P (El ) or P (E ) We know, P(E ) + P (El ) = 1; & P (El ) = 1 - P (E) P (El ) = 1 - P (E) We shall calculate a few typical probabilities, but it should be kept in mind that numerical probabilities are not the principal object of the theory. Our aim is to learn axioms, laws, concepts and to understand the theory of probability easily in higher classes. Illustration A coin is flipped several times. The number of times head and tail appeared and their ratios to the number of flips are noted below. Number of Tosses (n) 50 60 70 80 90 100 Number of Heads (m1) 29 34 41 44 48 52 P(H) = m1 n 29 50 34 60 41 70 44 80 48 90 52 100 Number of Tails (m2) 21 26 29 36 42 48 P(T) = m2 n 21 50 26 60 29 70 36 80 42 90 48 100

From the above table we observe that as we increase the number of flips more and more, the probability of getting of heads and the probability of getting of tails come closer and closer to each other. Activity (1) Flipping a coin: Each student is asked to flip a coin for 10 times and tabulate the number of heads and tails obtained in the following table. Outcome Head Tail
252

Tally Marks

Number of heads or tails for 10 flips.

Probability

Repeat the experiment for 20, 30, 40, 50 times and tabulate the results in the same manner as shown in the above example. Write down the values of the following fractions. Number of times head turn up = d Total number of times the coin is flipped d Number of times tail turn up = d Total number of times the coin is flipped d Activity (2) Rolling a die: Roll a die 20 times and calculate the probability of obtaining each of six outcomes. Outcome 1 2 3 4 5 6 Repeat the experiment for 50, 100 times and tabulate the results in the same manner. Activity (3) Flipping two coins: Flip two coins simultaneously 10 times and record your observations in the table. Outcome Two Heads One head and one tail No head In Activity (1) each flip of a coin is called a trial. Similarly in Activity (2) each roll of a die is called a trial and each simultaneous flip of two coins in Activity (3) is also a trial. In Activity (1) the getting a head in a particular flip is an event with outcome “head”. Similarly, getting a tail is an event with outcome tail. In Activity (2) the getting of a particular number say “ 5” is an event with outcome 5.
253

Tally Marks

Number of outcome for 20 rolls.

No. of times corresponding outcomes come up Total no. of times the die is rolled

Tally

Number of outcomes No. of times corresponding outcomes comes up Total no. of times the two coins are flipped for 10 times

Chapter 12

Number of heads comes up Total number of times the coins fliped empirical probability. The value Example 12.1

is called an experimental or

A manufacturer tested 1000 cell phones at random and found that 25 of them were defective. If a cell phone is selected at random, what is the probability that the selected cellphone is a defective one. Solution Total number of cell phones tested = 1000 i.e., n = 1000 Let E be the event of selecting a defective cell phone. n(E) = 25 i.e., m = 25 Number of defective cellphones P(E) = Total number of cellphones tested = m = 25 = 1 n 1000 40

Example 12.2 In T-20 cricket match, Raju hit a “Six” 10 times out of 50 balls he played. If a ball was selected at random find the probability that he would not have hit a “Six”. Solution Total Number of balls Raju faced = 50 i.e., n = 50 Let E be the event of hit a “Six” by Raju n(E) P(E) = 10 = i.e., m=10 Number of times Raju hits a "Six" Total number of balls faced = m = 10 = 1 n 50 5 P (Raju does not hit a Six) = P (El ) = 1 - P (E) =1- 1 = 4 5 5 Example 12.3 The selection committee of a cricket team has to select a team of players. If the selection is made by using the past records scoring more than 40 runs in a match, then find the probability of selecting these two players whose performance are given below? The performance of their last 30 matches are Name of the player Kumar Kiruba
254

More than 40 runs 20 times 12 times

Probability

Solution

Total number of matches observed = 30 n( E1 ) = 20 n( E2 ) = 12 m1 = 20 n 30 m2 12 P( E2 ) = = n 30 P( E1 ) =

i.e., n = 30

Let E1 be the event of Kumar scoring more than 40 runs. i.e., m1 = 20 i.e., m2 = 12 Let E2 be the event of Kiruba scoring more than 40 runs.

The probability of Kumar being selected is = 20 = 30 The probability of Kiruba being selected is = 12 = 30 Example 12.4

2 3 2 5

On a particular day a policeman observed vehicles for speed check. The frequency table shows the speed of 160 vehicles that pass a radar speed check on dual carriage way. Speed (Km/h) No. of Vehicles 20-29 14 30-39 23 40-49 28 50-59 35 60-69 52 70 & above 8

Find the probability that the speed of a vehicle selected at random is (i) faster than 70 km/h. (iii) less than 60 km/h. Solution (i) Let E1 be the event of a vehicle travelling faster than 70 km/h. n( E1 ) = 8 i.e. m1 = 8 Total number of vehicles = 160. i.e. n = 160 m1 = 8 = 1 P( E1 ) = n 160 20 Let E2 be the event of a vehicle travelling the speed between 20 - 39 km/h. (ii) between 20 - 39 km/h. (iv) between 40 - 69 km/h.

(ii)

i.e. m2 = 37 n( E2 ) = 14+23 = 37 m2 = 37 P( E2 ) = n 160 (iii) Let E3 be the event of a vehicle travelling the speed less than 60 km/h. n( E3 ) = 14+23+28+35 = 100 m P( E3 ) = 3 = 100 = 5 n 160 8
255

i.e. m3 = 100

Chapter 12

(iv)

Let E4 be the event of a vehicle travelling the speed between 40-69 km/h. n( E4 ) = 28+35+52 = 115 m P( E4 ) = 4 = 115 = 23 n 160 32 i.e. m4 = 115

Example 12.5 A researcher would like to determine whether there is a relationship between a student’s interest in statistics and his or her ability in mathematics. A random sample of 200 students is selected and they are asked whether their ability in mathematics and interest in statistics is low, average or high. The results were as follows: Ability in mathematics Low Average High 60 15 15 15 45 10 5 10 25

Interest in statistics

Low Average High

If a student is selected at random, what is the probability that he / she (i) has a high ability in mathematics (ii) has an average interest in statistics (iii) has a high interest in statistics statistics. Solution Total number of students = 80+70+50=200. (i) i.e. n = 200 Let E1 be the event that he/she has a high ability in mathematics . n( E1 ) = 15+10+25= 50 P( E1 ) = i.e. m1 = 50 m1 = 50 = 1 n 200 4 Let E2 be the event that he/she has an average interest in statistics. n( E2 ) = 15+45+10 = 70 P( E2 ) = m2 = 70 = 7 n 200 20 i.e. m2 = 70 (iv) has high ability in mathematics and high interest in statistics and (v) has average ability in mathematics and low interest in

(ii)

(iii) Let E3 be the event that he/she has a high interest in statistics. n( E3 ) = 5+10+25 = 40 P( E3 ) = m3 = 40 = 1 n 200 5
256

i.e. m3 = 40

Probability

(iv)

Let E4 be the event has high ability in mathematics and high interest in statistics. n( E4 ) = 25 i.e. m4 = 25 m P( E4 ) = 4 = 25 = 1 n 200 8 Let E5 be the event has has average ability in mathematics and low interest in statistics. n( E5 ) = 15 i.e. m5 = 15 m P( E5 ) = 5 = 15 = 3 n 200 40

(v)

Example 12.6 A Hospital records indicated that maternity patients stayed in the hospital for the number of days as shown in the following. No. of days stayed No. of patients 3 15 4 32 5 56 6 19 more than 6 5

If a patient was selected at random find the probability that the patient stayed (i) exactly 5 days (ii) less than 6 days (iii) at most 4 days (iv) at least 5 days Solution Total number of patients of observed = 127 (i) i.e., n = 127 Let E1 be the event of patients stayed exactly 5 days. n( E1 ) = 56 m P( E1 ) = 1 = 56 n 127 (ii) i.e., m1 = 56

Let E2 be the event of patients stayed less than 6 days. n( E2 ) = 15 + 32 + 56 = 103 i.e., m2 = 103 m P( E2 ) = 2 = 103 n 127 Let E3 be the event of patients stayed atmost 4 days (3 and 4 days only). n( E3 ) = 15 + 32 = 47 i.e., m3 = 47 m3 = 47 P( E2 ) = n 127 Let E4 be the event of patients stayed atleast 5 days (5, 6 and 7 days only). n( E4 ) = 56 + 19 + 5 = 80 i.e., m4 = 80 m P( E4 ) = 4 = 80 n 127
257

(iii)

(iv)

In the sample of 50 people.0. If a person is selected at random find the probability that (i) the person has type “O” blood 8. 21 has type “O” blood. its weather was forecasted correctly 195 times. Responses No. A die is rolled 500 times. 5 has type “B” blood and 2 has type “AB” blood. The responses are. 22 has type “A” blood. 4. Gowri asked 25 people if they liked the taste of a new health drink. 5. During the last 20 basket ball games. (ii) the person does not have type “B” blood (iii) the person has type “A” blood (iv) the person does not have type “AB” blood.1/5 vi) 1. Sangeeth has made 65 and missed 35 free throws.80 vii) 1 vi) trial iv) . iii) 0. A probability experiment was conducted.1 1. 3. (i) it was correct (ii) it was not correct. Which of these cannot be considered as a probability of an outcome? i) 1/3 ii) . Outcomes Frequencies 1 80 2 75 3 90 4 75 5 85 6 95 Find the probability of getting an outcome (i) less than 4 (ii) less than 2 (iii) greater than 2 (iv) getting 6 (v) not getting 6.Chapter 12 Exercise 12.78 viii) 33% v) 0 ix) 112% Define: i) experiment ii) deterministic experiment iii) random experiment iv) sample space v) event Define empirical probability. What is the probability that on a given day selected at random. 6. 258 . The following table shows that the outcomes of the die.45 2. What is the empirical probability if a ball was selected at random that Sangeeth make a foul shot? The record of a weather station shows that out of the past 300 consecutive days. of people Like 15 Dislike 8 Undecided 2 Find the probability that a person selected at random (i) likes the taste (ii) dislikes the taste (iii) undecided about the taste 7.

of Cars (i) only 2 persons sitting in it (iii) more than 2 persons in it 1 22 2 16 3 12 4 6 5 4 Suppose another car passes by after this time interval. Data of 60 such cars is given in the following table. Marks obtained by Insuvai in Mathematics in ten unit tests are listed below. find the probability that the chosen resident will be (i) a female (ii) a college student (iii) a female student (iv) a male employee 259 . Life time (months) Number of Lamps (i) less than 12 months (iii) at most 12 months 11. No. The follwing table gives the lifetime of 500 CFL lamps. Find the probability that it has (ii) less than 3 persons in it (iv) at least 4 persons in it 12. Number of girls in a family Number of families 2 624 1 900 0 476 Find the probability of a family. 9 26 10 71 11 82 12 102 13 89 14 77 more than 14 53 A bulb is selected at random.Probability 9. having (i) 2 girls (ii) 1 girl (iii) no girl 10. Find the probability that the life time of the selected bulb is (ii) more than 14 months (iv) at least 13 months On a busy road in a city the number of persons sitting in the cars passing by were observed during a particular interval of time. 2000 families with 2 children were selected randomly. chosen at random. The table below shows the status of twenty residents in an apartment Gender Male Female Status College Students 5 4 Employees 3 8 If one of the residents is chosen at random. Unit Test Marks obtained (%) I 89 II 93 III 98 IV 99 V 98 VI 97 VII VIII 96 90 IX 98 X 99 Based on this data find the probability that in a unit test Insuvai get (i) more than 95% (ii) less than 95% (iii) more than 98% 13. and the following data were recorded. of persons in the car No.

(v) neither lives in a rural area nor owns a foreign car. what is the probability that the customer (i) bought a new car (ii) was satisfied (iii) bought an used car but not satisfied 15. 150 from suburbs and 150 from rural areas were selected and tabulated as follow Type of Area Large city Car ownership Own a foreign car 90 Do not own a foreign car 110 Suburb 60 90 Rural 25 125 If a car owner was selected at random. The following table shows the results of a survey of thousand customers who bought a new or used cars of a certain model Type Satisfaction level Satisfied 300 450 Not Satisfied 100 150 New Used If a customer is selected at random. 260 . The survey has been undertaken to determine whether there is a relationship between the place of residence and ownership of an automobile. 200 from large cities. (ii) owns a foreign car and lives in a suburb. The response of both interviews is given below Buyers Plan to buy No plan to buy 200 100 Non-buyers 50 650 If a person was selected at random.000 individuals were asked whether they were planning to buy a new cellphone in the next 12 months. 16. what is the probability that he/she (i) owns a foreign car. what is the probability that he/she (i) had a plan to buy (ii) had a plan to buy but a non-buyer (iii) had no plan to buy but a buyer. A year later the same persons were interviewed again to find out whether they actually bought a new cellphone. (iv) lives in large city and owns a foreign car. (iii) lives in a large city and does not own a foreign car. A randomly selected sample of 1.Chapter 12 14. A random sample of car owners.

what is the probability that he prefers Volleyball he is between 20 . (iii) a bus at the time interval 7 a.m.m.m.m. The number of vehicles crossed are tabulated below. Age Below 20 20 .m.49 50 and above (i) Sports Volleyball 26 38 72 96 134 (ii) Basket ball 47 84 68 48 44 Hockey 41 80 38 30 18 Football 36 48 22 26 4 If a respondent is selected at random.29 years old (iii) he is between 20 and 29 years old and prefers Basketball (iv) he doesn’t prefer Hockey 19. to 7 p. 120 130 250 3 p. (iv) a car at the time interval 7 a. (v) he is at most 49 of age and prefers Football.m.m. (ii) a car at the time interval 11 a.m.39 40 . to 7 p. 261 .m.40 above 40 M.m. Find the probability that the vehicle chosen is a (i) a bus at the time interval 7 a. to 11 a. to 3 p. 300 200 500 11 a.29 30 . to 11 a. (v) not a two wheeler at the time interval 7 a.Phil and age below 30 (iii) only a bachelor degree and age above 40 (iv) only a master degree and in age 30-40 (v) M.m.Phil 5 15 5 Master Degree Only 10 20 5 Bachelor Degree Only 10 15 15 If a teacher is selected at random what is the probability that the chosen teacher has (i) master degree only (ii) M.m. to 7 pm. m. A random sample of 1.Phil and age above 40 18.m. to 7 p. to 7 p. Time interval Vehicles Bus Car Two Wheeler 7 a. The results were as follows.Probability 17. to 3 p. 400 250 350 A vehicle is selected at random.000 men was selected and each individual was asked to indicate his age and his favorite sport. The educational qualifications of 100 teachers of a Government higher secondary school are tabulated below Education Age below 30 30 . On one Sunday Muhil observed the vehicles at a Tollgate in the NH-45 for his science project about air pollution from 7 am.m.m.

P^ Eh . under identical conditions. 262 . Any subset of a sample space is called an event. is given by Number of trials in which the event happened Total number of trials Number of favourable observations (or) P (E) = m (or) P(E) = Total number of observations n P (E) = › › 0 # P^ E h # 1 P^ Elh = 1 . where El is the complementary event of E.Chapter 12 Points to remember › › › › › › › › › › Uncertainty or probability can be measured numerically. denoted by P(E). Deterministic Experiment : It is an experiment whose outcomes can be predicted with certainty. but it is not possible to predict the exact outcome in advance. Classification of probability (1) Subjective probability (2) Classical probability (3) Empirical probability The empirical probability of happening of an event E. Random Experiment is an experiment whose all possible outcomes are known. Experiment is defined as a process whose result is well defined. A trial is an action which results in one or several outcomes. Each outcome of an experiment is called a sample point. A sample space S is a set of all possible outcomes of a random experiment.

1 (B) 8 m (C) (i) and (iii) (C) 2 (C) 6 (B) Q = 0 (D) Q = "Q . x ! Z . which of the following is a subset of X? Which of the following statements are true? For any set A. . Theory of Sets 1. is Which one of the following is correct? 2 (A) " x : x =. Which one of the following is a finite set? (B) " x : x d W. is a singleton set (C) Every set has a proper subset (D) Every non . d . If A = "5. ! A (C) "c. then the number of non-empty proper subsets of A is .empty set has at least two subsets. (A) " x : x d Z. 9. "5. x $ 5 . ! A (A) " a. (A) 2 (A) 3 m (B) (ii) and (iii) (B) 2 . (C) " a . (D) "6 . c . 263 (B) Q d " a. ! A (B) " b. Which of the following is a correct statement? (A) Q 3 " a. 2. 7 . b . m-1 (D) (i) (ii) and (iii) (D) 2 (2 (D) 7 m-1 If a finite set A has m elements. (C) "7 . d .. x < 5 . b .MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. 12 . A is a subset of A (A) (i) and (ii) 4. 7. x > 10 . (D) " x : x is an even prime number . 11.8 =. c . Which one of the following is incorrect? (A) Every subset of a finite set is finite (B) P = " x : x . Q and the set itself 8. 6 . (C) " x : x d N. b . 6 . which of the following is correct? (A) "5. ! A (D) " a. " b.1) The number of subsets of the set "10. If X = " a.1.8 . ! " a.. . 3. 5. A is a proper subset of A (ii) For any set A. (D) a 3 " a. = Q (C) Q = "0 . Q is a subset of A (iii) For any set A. d . 6. (i) (B) "5 . b . b . .

6 . 9. then Al is If A 3 B . 5. 17. 19. then A + B = (D) A . 5. 7. . 12. 6 . (B) 2 (B) m + n . 8. (C) 1 (C) m . B = "e. Real Numbers 21. f. B The shaded region in the adjoint diagram represents If A = " a. then A . B = 2 The number of elements of the set " x : x d Z. (A) B (A) A (A) A (A) A – B (A) Q (A) A – B (B) A (B) A 3 A (B) "1. 13. 4. 6 . 8 . 6. Y h = If U = "1. (C) Q (C) Q (C) B (D) B – A (D) "5 . (A) 3 (A) m + n + p (A) "2. 4. Which one of the following is incorrect? (A) Q 3 A (A) "1. 10 .p (C) "1. 4. 7. 6 . then A – B is If A is a proper subset of B. 3. . 5. 2. 5. 2. 14. B (D) A + B A U B If A = "3. 6 . 6. 8. 3. 15. is If n^ X h = m. n^Y h = n and n^ X + Y h = p then n^ X . 2.10. andB = "1. x = 1 . 5. 10 . 6. c . A number having non terminating and recurring decimal expansion is (A) an integer (C) an irrational number 22. 9. 16. 9 . 4. 5. 5. 10 .p (B) Q (B) A (B) B (B) Q (B) Al (C) Bl (C) B (B) B – A (C) "7. 10 . 11.. then A . 3 A (C) "1. f A (D) "3. 5. 3. 6. 20. 2. b. (D) 0 (D) m . and A = "2.n + p (D) "1. 8 . then it is (A) a rational number (C) an irrational number (B) a natural number (D) an integer. 9. then A + B = If A is a proper subset of B. 18. g . 3. . 264 . 2. 7. Given A = "5. B U A B The shaded region in the adjoining diagram represents (C) A 3 B (D) Al 2. (D) B – A (D) A . 4. (B) a rational number (D) a whole number If a number has a non-terminating and non-recurring decimal expansion. 6 . 3. 4. 5.

4 11 is equal to (B) 8 114 (C) 8 118 (D) 8 116 (A) 8 112 32. 2 is equal to 2 (A) 2 2 (B) 2 (C) 2 2 (D) 2 265 .75 (B) – 0.3 is q (B) 2 7 (C) – 0.(ii) and (iv) (D) (i). (A) 1 7 25. Decimal form of . Which one of the following is not a surd? (A) 30.(ii) and (iii) 29. 3 (B) (i).(iii) and (iv) (B) (C) (D) 8 3 30 5 4 8 3 The simplest form of (A) 5 10 50 is (B) 5 2 (C) 10 5 (D) 25 2 31.(iii) and (iv) (C) (i). (D) 1 5 (iv) 8.3 8 28.25 (D) – 0.3 is 4 (A) – 0.50 The p form of 0. 26.23. 5+ 7 (A) (ii). Which one of the following has a terminating decimal expansion? (B) 7 (C) 8 (D) 1 (A) 5 32 9 15 12 Which one of the following is an irrational number? (B) 9 (A) r (C) 1 4 Which of the following are irrational numbers? (i) 2+ 3 (ii) 4 + 25 (iii) 3 27. (C) 1 3 (D) 2 3 Which one of the following is not true? (A) Every natural number is a rational number (B) Every real number is a rational number (C) Every whole number is a rational number (D) Every integer is a rational number.125 24.

The order and radicand of the surd 8 12 are respectively (A) 8.2h^ 5 + 2h is equal to (A) 1 (B) 3 (C) 23 (D) 21 266 .12 (D) 12. The ratioanlising factor of 3 5 is 3 (A) 3 6 (B) 3 3 (C) 3 9 (D) 3 27 34. ^ 5 .33. Which one of the following is not true? (A) When x is not a perfect square.8 (C) 16. (D) The square root of every positive integer is always irrational 39.10110011100011110g is an irrational number (D) 4 16 is an irrational number 35. Which one of the following is not true? (A) 2 is an irrational number (B) 17 is a irrational number (C) 0. Which one of the following is not true? (A) (B) (C) 2 is an irrational number If a is a rational number and b is an irrational number then a b is irrational number Every surd is an irrational number.12 (B) 12. 5 3 3 represents the pure surd (A) 3 15 (B) 3 375 (C) 3 75 (D) 3 45 38. The surd having radicand 9 and order 3 is (A) 9 3 (B) 3 27 (C) 3 9 (D) 3 81 37. (B) The index form of m x is an irrational number x n is x 1 1 n m mn m (C) The radical form of ` x n j is x (D) Every real number is an irrational number 40.16 36.

3.234 # 1042. The scientific notation of 923.57 # 10 is (A) 257 (B) 2570 2 (C) 25700 (D) 257000 44.234 # 10 3 (D) 9. log10 8 + log10 5 .6 # 103 (B) 3. (C) 1 7 (C) 1 2 (C) 1 (D) 1 49.00036 is (A) 3. The value of log 1 4 is (A) – 2 (B) 0 (D) 2 50. The coefficients of x and x in 2x . (B) –3. The decimal form of 2.6 45. Algebra 51. Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms 41.7x + 6x + 1 is (A) 2 (B) 1 267 (C) 3 (D) 0 .06 (D) 350.is (A) 0.2x + 3 are respectively (A) 2. The logarithmic form of 5 = 25 is (A) log5 2 = 25 (B) log2 5 = 25 (B) 4 = 16 2 (C) log5 25 = 2 (C) 2 = 4 16 (D) log25 5 = 2 (D) 4 = 2 16 46.4 is (A) 9.003506 2 (C) 35.03506 (B) 0.–2 2 3 2 3 2 (C) –2.6 # 10- 4 (D) 3.–3 (D) 2.3x . The value of log 3 ` 4 j is 3 4 (A) – 2 (B) 1 The value of log49 7 is (A) 2 (B) 1 2 2 (C) 2 (D) –1 48. The exponential form of log2 16 = 4 is (A) 2 = 16 4 47.3 52.6 # 10 4 43.234 # 10- 3 The scientific notation of 0.–3 The degree of the polynomial 4x . 2 (B) 9.234 # 10 2 (C) 9.6 # 10 3 3 (C) 3.506 # 10.log10 4 = (A) log10 9 (B) log10 36 (D) –1 4. The decimal form of 3.

2 (B) x = 1. The polynomial 3x . .6 (D) x + 2x + 5x + 6 3 2 3 2 . then the remainder is (A) p` b j a (B) p`.2 (D) x + 2 63. The expansion of ^ x + 1h^ x .53. The expansion of ^ x + 2h^ x .2h^ x + 3h is (A) x + 2x . then (A) p^ bh = 0 (B) p`. One of the factors of x .6 268 3 2 3 2 (B) x .2 (D) x = 0.x .2x + 2x . If ^ax .5x .3x .ax + 2x .10 is (A) x . One of the factors of x . If a polynomial p^ xh is divided by ^ax + bh .1h is (A) x .2 is a (A) linear polynomial (C) cubic polynomial (B) quadratic polynomial (D) constant polynomial 54.5 is (A) 5 2 (B).2 2 (B) x + x + 2 2 (C) x + x . .a is divided ^ x .1 = 0 is (A) x =.b j = 0 a 2 (C) p^ah = 0 (D) p` b j = 0 a (D) x – 3 61.x + 2 2 64.2 2 (D) x . The polynomial 4x + 2x . 2 (C) x = 1.2 is a (A) linear polynomial (C) cubic polynomial (B) quadratic polynomial (D) constant polynomial 2 55.2 58. then remainder is (A) a 3 (B) a 2 60.a j b (D) – a 59. The zero of the polynomial 2x .2 (B) x +5 3 2 (C) x – 5 62.2 5 (D) x = 3 56.2x + 5x .bh is a factor of p^ xh .1 is (A) x .6 (C) x + 2x + 5x .5 2 (B) x = 1 3 2 (C) 2 5 (C) x = 1 (D).b j a 3 2 (C) p` a j b (C) a (D) p`.1 3 57. If the polynomial x . The root of the polynomial equation 3x . The roots of the polynomial equation x + 2x = 0 are (A) x = 0.ah .1 (B) x + 1 (C) x .

3 (C) 2.y 2 2 (D) x . If x + y = 10 and x .3 (C) x > 3 (D) x < 3 5. b > 0 D) a < 0.0) and (0.–1) is A) 2 B) 4 C) 2 D) 8 75.b) lying in quadrant III A) a > 0. 73. b < 0 (B) a < 0.2h 67.6x . The point (–2. The distance between the points (0. If one of the factors of x . The solution of 2 .7) lies is the quadrant (A) I 72. b > 0 74.16 is ^ x + 2h then other factor is (A) x + 5 (B) x .–3 (D) 1.8) and (0.0) (0.0) and C (0.–2) is A) 6 C) 36 D) 10 .0) B (5.2h (B)^ x .3 (B) –2. b < 0 C) a > 0. (A) ox (B) II (B) oy (C) III (C) OX l (D) IV (D) OY l The point (x. 3 3 2 (B) x + y 2 2 (C) x . The triangle obtained by joining the points A (–5.y 3 3 Factorization of x + 2x .4h^ x + 2h 2 (C)^ x + 4h^ x + 2h (D)^ x .yh^ x + xy + y h is equal to (A) x + y 66.1) (–1. If ^2x + 1h and ^ x .3h are the factors of ax . then the values of a and c are respectively (A) 2.x < 5 is (A) x > .0) where x < 0 lies on For a point A (a.8 is (A) ^ x + 4h^ x .y = 2 . 2 2 ^ x .3 (B) x < .4h^ x . The diagonal of a square formed by the points (1.6) is A) an isosceles triangle C) scalene triangle B) right triangle D) an equilateral triangle B) 100 269 76. Coordinate Geometry 71.5 (C) x + 8 2 (D) x – 8 68.5x + c .–3 69. then value of x is (A) 4 (B) –6 (C) –4 (D) 6 70.65.

(4. 0) and (4.1 is equal to (A) cos2 60c (B) cot2 60c (C) sec2 60c (D) tan2 60c 86. then the value of x is 1 . 0) (D) (0. The value of sec2 45c . 0) (C) (5. –b) is (A) 2a (B) 2b (C) 2a + 2b (D) 2 a2 + b2 79.q) is equidistant from (–4.1). 5) 6. b) and (–a.tan2 30c (B) tan 30c (A) tan 45c (B) tan2 45c + cot2 45c (D) 0 (C) tan 60c (D) tan 90c 83. The relation between p and q such that the point (p.0) is (A) p = 0 (B) q = 0 (C) p + q = 0 (D) p + q = 8 80. (–2.77. (7.sin 60c sin 30c is equal to (A) cos 90c (B) cosec 90c 270 (C) sin 30c + cos 30c (D) tan 90c . –5) (B) (–5. The distance between the points (a.cos2 60c (C)sec2 60c .tan2 60c (B) sin2 45c + cos2 60c (D) 0 84.1) are points (A) on x axis (C) on aline paralled to y axis (B) on a line parallel to x axis (D) on y axis 78.1) and (10. Trigonometry 81.1). The value of 2 sin 30c cos 30c is equal to (A) tan 30c (B) cos 60c (C) sin 60c (D) cot 60c 85.tan2 45c is equal to (A) sin2 60c . The point which is on y axis with ordinate –5 is (A) (0. The value of cosec2 60c . cos 60c cos 30c . The value of sin2 60c + cos2 60c is equal to (A) sin2 45c + cos2 45c (C) sec2 90c 82. If x = 2 tan 30c .

If cos A cos 30c = (A) 90c 3 .cosec 61c is (A) 1 (B) 0 (C) sec 60c (D) cosec 29c 90. If 3x cosec 36c = sec 54c. (C) 0 (D) 1 7.87. (C) 47c (D) 90c 89. The value of sec 29c . then the value of x is (A) 57c (B) 43c (C) tan 27c (D) cot 63c 88. Then +PoQ is equal to (A) 90c (C) 60c (B) 120c (D) 100c P B o .sin2 30c is (A) cos 60c (B) sin 60c (C) 3 2 (D) 1 95. oP bisect +BOC and oQ bisect +AoC. The value of tan 26c cot 64c is (A) 1 2 (B) 3 2 (C) 0 (D) 1 94. An angle is equal to one third of its supplement its measure is equal to (A) 40c 97. The value of sin 60c . (D) sin 90c 92. Geometry 96. (B) 50c (C) 45c (D) Q A 271 55c C In the given figure. then the value of x is (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 1 3 The value of sin 60c cos 30c + cos 60c sin 30c is equal to (A) sec 90c (B) tan 90c (C) cos 60c (D) 3 4 91. then the measure of A is 4 (B) 60c (C) 45c (D) 30c 93.cos 30cis (A) 0 (B) 1 2 The value of cos2 30c . The value of sin 27c is cos 63c (A) 0 (B) 1 If cos x = sin 43c.

E is the mid-point of AB and CE bisects + BCD.98. then what is the area of the circle in cm2 (A) 24. AB is one of the diameters of the circle and oC is perpendicular to it through the center o. what is the radius of the circle (A) 10cm (C) 15cm (B) 12cm (D) 18cm 102. In the given figure. Then the angle is equal to (A ) 25c (B) 30c (C) 15c angle. In the given figure. Given that+ADB + +DAB = 120c and +ABC + +BDA = 145c. AB is a diameter of the circle and points C and D are on the circumference such that + CAD = 30c and + CBA = 70c what is the measure of ACD? (A) 40c (C) 30c (B) 50c (D) 90c 272 D A C B . If AC is 7 2 cm. Find + B C C B D o 101. o is the centre of the circle. Then + DEC is (A) 60c (B) 90c (C) 100c (D) 120c 105. if six times its (D) 35c complement (D) 58c A 130c is 12c less Find the measure of an than twice its supplement. 99. (A) 48c (A) 120c (C) 78c (B) 96c (B) 52c (D) 130c B A (C) 24c 100. If the length of CD is 2cm and the length of chord is12 cm. + B:+ C = 2:3. The complement of an angle exceeds the angle by 60c. (B) 49 (D) 154 o ABCD is a parllellogram. AB is the chord and D is mid-point of AB. In the given figure. ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral. Find the value of +CDB (A) 75c ( C) 35c (B) 115c (D) 45c B A D C A B C 103.5 (C) 98 104.

Angle in a minor segment is (A) an acute angle (B) an obtuse angle (C) a right angle (D)a reflexive angle In a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD. 108. If the area and arc length of the sector of a circle are 60 cm2 and 20 cm respectively. then the angle opposite to it is (A) 20c (B) 110c (C) 140c (D) 160c 8. then the area of the sector in square units is (A) 2rr2 (B) 4rr2 2 (C) rr 4 2 (D) rr 2 114. Angle in a semi circle is (A) obtuse angle (B) right angle (C) an acute angle (D) supplementary 107. The area of a sector with radius 4 cm and central angle 60c is (A) 2r cm2 3 (B) 4r cm2 3 (C) 8r cm2 3 (D) 16r cm2 3 116.106. The length of the arc of a sector having central angle 90c and radius 7 cm is (A) 22 cm 112. then the perimeter is (A) 16 cm (B) 61 cm (C) 32 cm (D) 80 cm 113. If the angle subtended by the arc of a sector at the center is 90c. +C = 4x the value of x is (A) 12c (B) 20c (C) 48c (D) 36c 109. (B) 44 cm (C) 11 cm (D) 33 cm If the radius and arc length of a sector are 17 cm and 27 cm respectively. Angle in a major segment is (A) an acute angle (B) an obtuse angle (D) a reflexive angle 110. Mensuration 111. +A = 5x. (C) a right triangle If one angle of a cyclic quadrilateral is 70c. then the diameter of the circle is (A) 6 cm (B) 12 cm 273 (C) 24 cm (D) 36 cm . Area of a sector having radius 12 cm and arc length 21 cm is (A) 126 cm2 (B) 252 cm2 (C) 33 cm2 (D) 45 cm2 115.

(B) 55 (C) 5.29 cm (C) 32 cm (D) 259 cm 118. 4. The mean of first 5 whole number is (A) 2 128. The quantity of space occupied by a body is its (A) area (B) length (C) volume (D) T. (B) 2. 8. 9. 1. x + 8 is 20 then x is (A) 32 (B) 16 (C) 8 (D) 4 124.5 (D) 7 127.117. 9. 4. The LSA of a cube of side 1dm is (A) 16 dm2 (B) 4 dm2 (C) 2 dm2 (D) 1 dm2 11. If 5 is added to every number. 5. x + 4. A solid having six equal square faces is called a (A) cube (B) cuboid (C) square (D) rectangle 119. If its radius is 7cm. 5.5 (C) 3 (D) 0 The Arithmetic mean of 10 number is –7. 4.S. The median of 2.5 The Arithmetic mean of integers from –5 to 5 is (A) 3 (B) 0 (C) 25 (D) 10 123.5 126. 4. 12. The perimeter of a sector of a circle is 37cm. x + 6. 1 is (A) 4 (B) 6 (C) 5. Statistics 121. 5. 4 is (A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 5 125.5 (D) 10.5 (D) 2. then its arc length is (A) 23 cm (B) 5. 3. 3. 11 is (A) 11 (B) 10 (C) 9. 7. 2.A 120. 2. The mode of the data 5. If the mean of x. then the new Arithmetic mean is (A) –2 (B) 12 274 (C) –7 (D) 17 . x + 2. The mean of the first 10 natural numbers is (A) 25 122. 10. 5. 3. The median of 14.

If one number is excluded their mean is 15. Probability 131.129.67 (C) 7 (D) 7.1 (C) 1 (D) 0 275 . Then the excluded number is (A) 5 (B) 40 (C) 20 (D) 10. The mean of 5 numbers is 20.5 130. Probability of sure event is (C) 1 2 Which one can represent a probability of an event (A) 1 (B) 0 (B) – 1 (A) 7 4 Probability of impossible event is (A) 1 134. (B) 0 (C) – 2 3 (C) 1 2 (C) 0 # x # 1 (D) 2 (D) 2 3 (D) – 1 132. Probability of any event x lies (A) 0 1 x 1 1 (B) 0 # x 1 1 (D) 1 1 x 1 2 135. the Arithmetic mean of all the factors of 24 is (A) 8.5 (B) 5. P (El ) is (A) 1 .P (E) (B) P (E) . 12. 133.

. 6. 8. 3. 4 . No. " a. {5. (i) 4 (ii) 21 (iii) 1 (iv) 0 (v) 9 7. (i)64. {6.3. c . 127 (iii) 2.. 4. 8. 10 . (i) A = "3. " b .e. {6.8}. (i) infinite (ii) finite (iii) infinite (iv) infinite (v) finite (i) equivalent (i) equal (ii) not equivalent (iii) equivalent (ii) not equal (iii) equal (iv) not equal 10. " a. . 2. {5. (i) M (ii) 3 (iii) 3 15. {5. (ii) " x : x is a whole number and x < 20 . 9 . (iii) C = "2..ANSWERS Exercise 1.8}.8}..8}.1. (ii) P^ Ah = "Q. {5. {5. {5. {5}.2. {7}.7}. A is not a subset of B 16.. 3 . {6.. 5.6. 1. 1. (v) " x : x is a letter in the word 'TAMILNADU' . contains one element. 0. 3. (iv) P = The set of all letters in the word ‘SET THEORY’ (v) Q = The set of all prime numbers between 10 and 20 6.7. (i) A = The set of all vowels in the English alphabet (ii) B = The set of all odd natural numbers less than or equal to 11 (iii) C = The set of all square numbers less than 26. b . 1 18.. 7. the null set (iv) M 14. .7}..6.. 5.8}. 3. {5. {7.6. c . It is not a set "0 . (iii) P(A) = { Q. 2. 63 (ii) 128. (vi) P = ". c . 3. 0 is an integer. 1. " a. (v) M = ". 4. b. (ii) B = "0. 13. " x. y . A is the empty set 276 Q contains no element "Q .8}} 17.4. 4. B = D and E = G 11. 32 . 5. 2. 0. 9. 9. 5 . 8.7..7}.8}.6}. Each one is different from others. (iv) X = "2.1 1. (i) Not a set (i) 0 d A (ii) Set (ii) 6 g A (iii) Not a set (iii) 3 d A (iv) Set (iv) 4 d A (v) Set (v) 7 g A (i) " x : x is a positive even number . " a . (i) P^ Ah = "Q.7. contains one element i. contains one element.. 16. (i) (a) 1 (b) 8 (ii) 9 (iii) 10 19. " b.1. " y . . (i) X is not a subset of Y (ii) Y is a subset of X . i. " x . Q contains no element but "Q . 12. 4. {6}. {8}. (iii) " x : x is a multiple of 3 .. (iv) " x : x is an odd natural number and x < 15 .e. 7. " c .

17 . 4. 10 . . h . 22. (ii) ^ A . 16. 13.M = "18 . (iv) ^ A + Bhl = " a. 10 .1. 2. 7.3. 0. 10. 10 . 2. c) C = "15. B = " a. 9. (e) E + F = "4. 2. 20. 18. . 48 . d . 40. (i) M – N= "3. 18. 4. 1. (d) n^G + H hl = 7 (b) E = "1. 6. 24. d. .A = "5. . h . B = "4. 4. 25. 2. (v) n^ A . (i) A . 8. (i) A . 6. (ii) (a) A . 3. 15. B = ". 8. 12. f. 3g49 . . 1012. (iii) A 3 B = ". 9 . 14. 14. (iii) A + B = " b. 16. 15. 11 . 6. 2. 6. (b) A + B = "16. 7} . 4. 6. (b) G = "1. (i) a) A = "1. 3. 2.N h = "3. 25 . 8.M h = "7. 32. 28. 5. 5. 6. 18. f. 25 . 12 . 21. 36. b. 8 . 3. 11. 4.B = "3. . 20 . 3. 10 . 10 . c. 16. g . 4. 14. 4 . (d) n^ A + Bh = 2 12. 25 . 6 . 48 . 8. 9. 6. e. . 11. 9. (e) G l + H l = "3. (c) n^ E + F h = 2 (c) F = "4. 9. (ii) a) n^ Ah = 10 b) n^ Bh = 10 c) n^C h = 11 (iii) a) F b) T c) T d) T Exercise 1. 12. 28. 30 . Bl = "1. 5. 1.D = "2. (ii) A + B = "10. 44 . 4. Y = "0. (iv) M l . 5. 12.2. 10. 11 . (i) X 3 Y = " a. (ii) Bl = "1. 7. 6. 5 . (i) X . 11 . (b) H l = "1. (ii) N . (i) A . 10. 4. (ii) P 3 Q = "0. . 3. (vii) n^ M .20. 6. 15. 8. (i) "7 . 10 . 7 . F h = 6 . e. 2. (ii) (a) G l = "3. 1. 3. 2. 4. 2. 24. 15. 10. (ii) B . 4.N h = 2 (v) M + ^ M . (iv) Al + Bl = "4. 6. (ii) (a) n^. 8 . 4. 7. 6. 9 . 2. B = "1. 4. 16. A + B = {2. 5. 8. 36. H hl = 3 . 4. 9 . (b) n^ E . 7. 2. 8 . 30. 6. 8.2 1. 6. 18. f. 8. 7 . 19. 7. 3. 12. 8. 277 (c) n^G . 5. 8. 2. (iii) Al . (c) B = "16. B = "0. X . d. 5} (iv) A . 10. 7 . (ii) Ais the set of all prime numbers (i) A . 9. 2. 20 . 9 .1. 5. 17 . 9. 20. 8. 5. 2. 4. 23. 6. (c) H = "2. 12. 5. A + B = "3. .M = "15. 7. (i) Al = "2. 30. 5. k . (i) (a) U = "1. b. . Y = "4. B = {1. (i) (a) U = "1. 20. 4. (iii) N l . 10 . 20 . 4.4. A + B = "0. 8 . (i) (a) U = "1. (c) n^ A . 16. . 3. Bhl = "e. 24. ^ N . 7. 4. 44. 9. 18 . Bh = 13 . . b) B = "2. 44 .N = "18 . 8. (d) E . (iii) A .C h = 4 (iii) C . 20. c. 8. 6 . 4.h = 8 . 17. 44. 5. 40. 6. 9. 32. g. 7. F = "1. B = "2. 5. 4. 16. 4. 3. . (b) A = "4. 20 . 2. 8 . (ii) A . 3. 7. 1. 5. (vi) N . 6. (iv) D . 20. (ii) X and Y are disjoint sets (i) Al = "0.C = "16. 2. .

42. nonterminating and recurring (iii) 0. Yes.non-terminating and recurring (vii) 6. 6 = 0.428571. terminating (iii) terminating (iv) non-terminating (i) 2 . Bh = 22 10. n^ A + Bh = 6.285714 .4 .3 7 7 Yes. 4 = 0. n^ A + Bh = 15 13 3. (vi) 206 4. .non-terminating and recurring (iv) 0. 3 2 4 5 2 3 5 278 . (v) 22 . (ii) 8. (ii) 427 .h = 43 9. (i) 180 (ii) 150 (iii) 450 6. .142857.Exercise 1.1 1. 16.0. 7 7 7 7 5 = 0.non-terminating and recurring (vi) . n^ A .0. For 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = g 1 2 3 -1 (i) 0. 12 15. (i) 35 (ii) 25 (iii) 20 17. 12 8 11 5 10 6 7 9 2. B) = 88 16. (iv) 16 . 3 = 0.571428 . 29 7. 2 = 0. 5.3 .918. (i) terminating (ii) non-terminating (viii) . terminating Exercise 2. 47 14.09. 150 12.3 1. 12 4. 6 11 999 9999 11 3 495 1 = 0. 35 11. correct 5. 2. non-terminating and recurring 2.076923 .3 1.236 .21875 .230769 . (i) True (ii) False (iii) True (iv) False (v) False (vi) False 3. n^ Bh = 27 8.714285.2 1.857142 7 7 Exercise 2.285714 . n^. 3. 0. 1400 13. (iii) 1 . (i) x = 8 (ii) n (A . terminatting (v) 0. 16% Exercise 2.

5 3. (i) 3 10 (ii) 2 3 7 (iii) 2 4 6 3 180 (ii) 500 (iii) 4 405 8 (iv) 7.3 118 (i) 0.655 (v) 0. 0.11 2 (iii) 1.20 [Note: Questions from 2 to 8 will have infinitely many solutions] Exercise 2.93205g . 1. 9.1510100110001110g .5 1. (i) 3 5 (ii) 2 3 5 9 (ii) 3 . ascending order : 4 . 3. 0. 4. 4. 4 5.464 (viii) 0. 0. 1.3 3. b = 4 10.93205g 3. An irrational number : 1.6 1.102 (vi) 4.03205g 0. (i) Surd (ii) Surd (iii) not a surd (iv) Surd (iii) 11 (v) not a surd (iv) 61 (i) 20 + 10 5 + 2 3 + 15 (ii) 8 + 2 15 (i) 71 3 (i) (iv) 8. a = 3. 0 279 .5 12 (ii) 3. 3 2 2 (ii) 3 2 4 4 (iii) 5. 6. 1.887 (iv) 3 + 5 (v) 17 3 . 0. 6 (ii) 16 3 2 (iii).10110011100011110g .732 7.21 71 2 (iv) 0. 2. (i) 4 3 45 (v) 3 5 2 (vi) 3. a = 31 .1530300330003330g 0. (i) 11 . b = 16 9. 5.9199119991119g 8. 3. 0. 4 3 3 2. 4. 4 3 6 9 9 6 3 Exercise 2. (i) 3 3 4 (ii) 7 2 (iii) 8 3 (iv) 5 9 2 6. ascending order : 2 .441 6. 4. 3 3 4 2 4. 4.102. 3.13. One rational number : 1. 3. 3 4 10 2 3 (i) descending order : (ii) descending order : (iii) descending order : 3 5 .2022002220002222g 7. 1 2. (i) 2 (ii) 7 (iii) 3 (iv) 3 25 (v) 5 + 4 3 (vi) (iii) 3 6 2 .83205g . 2.83205g . 3 32 4. 2. a = 7.3 (vii) 5+ 2 (viii) 2 .58088008880g .185 (iii) (iv) 2 77 11 (v) 3 15 13 . ascending order : 4 4.7 1.37 2 (iv) 3 3 5 3 4.2.59099009990g 1. b = 0 2. a = 0. b = 10 19 19 8.707 (vii) 3. 3. 3. 14 11 Exercise 2. 5.

3 (v) .y + z (vi) y .497 (x) 0.= 8 8 4.3576 (vi) 3.3 # 10 7 6 (iii) 1.3307 # 10(ii) 0.243 # 10.772 Exercise 4.5179 5.4 # 10 1.1 1.888 (xii) 1. (i) 7.4 (ii) 3 (iii) 5 (iv) .2 4 3 2. (i) 6.3576 (ii) 1. (i) 1180 (ii) 57.2 (ii) x = 2 (iii) x = 2 (iv) x = 4 (v) x = 3 (vi) x = 5 (vii) x = 5 (viii) x = 7 8.249 (xi) 1. (i) x = 2 (ii) x = 1 (iii) y = 1 (iv) x = 5 (v) x = 10 125 9 3 6. (i) y + z (ii) 3x (iii) x + y + z (iv) 3^ y .243 # 10 (iv) 9.5) .Exercise 3.0 # 10- 2. (i) True 13 (v) 9870000000 (vi) 0.004015(v) 1.375 # 10 (iii) 2.2413 6. (i) log10 9 (ii) log25 ` 7 j (iii) 2 (iv) 2 (v) log10 ` 72 j (vi) 1 2 25 7. .82 (iii) 0. (i) 3 (ii) 1 (iii) –3 (iv) –2 (v) –1 (vi) 0 3.8180 (vi) 0. (i) x =.3576 (iii) 0. (i) .243 # 101.4 5.5948 (vi) 5. (v) Since the exponent of t is not a whole number is not a polynomial. (i) 9.0004134 1 (viii) 9.05309 (vii) 2.1348 (v) 1.1 (iv) log8 ` 1 j =.3576 (iv) 3.56 # 10 (iv) 6. (i) 1.3576 (v) 7. (vi) Polynomial in three variable 280 (ii) Polynomial in one variable.x Exercise 3.(iii) 9.zh (v) x .000000001432 (ii) 3.6 # 1011 (ii) 1.243 # 10 2 (vi) 9. (i) 4. (i) Polynomial in one variable (iii) Polynomial in one variable (iv) Since the exponent of x is not a whole number is not a polynomial.1 =.666 (ix) 0.1 1.3576 (iv) 1.493 # 10 (v) 9. (i) 0.2 2 144 1 -1 4 3 0 3 2 3. (i) log2 16 = 4 (v) log25 5 = 1 (vi) log12 ` 1 j =.9694 (iii) 2.876 (iv) 3.3 (ii) 9. (i) 30550 (ii) 21.9984 # 10(v) 3. (i) 6 = 216 (ii) 9 = 3 (iii) 5 = 1 (iv) ^ 3 h = 9 (v) (64) 2 = 1 (vi) (.05003 # 10 (vii) 2.2 # 10(iii) 41340 3 9 5 (iv) 5.08366 (v) 328100000 (vi) 8.3649 (ii) 0.2 (ii) False (iii) False (ii) log3 243 = 5 (iv) False (v) True (vi) False (iii) log10 0.00000325 3.2.243 # 10 (v) 9.41 (iii) 0.436 # 10 (iv) 18600000 28 14 13 3 (vi) 1.243 # 10.9946 (iv) 0.122 (viii) 1.01513 1 1 3 5 3 4.993 # 10 2 Exercise 3.4 (vi) 5 (vi) x =.

52 10. 5.27y (i) 27a + 135a b + 225ab + 125b 3 (iii) 8y . 111. (i) 10 (ii) –8 3. 3. (i) Factor (ii) Factor 4.24xyz (ii) x .5 (iii) x = 0 3 (ii) x = 6 (iii) x =. 5. (i) –486 (ii) 2880 Exercise 4.1 is a root. x = 2 is a root.4pq . x = 2 is not a root (i) x = 2 is a root.27 6. m = 13 (iii) 20 (iv) –145 (v) –2 (vi) 26 (vii) –3a 2. Factor 2 2 (iii) Not a factor 5.3 1. (i) a ^2a . 2. m = 5 . x = 3 is a root (iii) x = 1 is a root. 793 8.9 (ii) x =.6bc .7ax2 + 14a2 x . lx + mx + nx (i) x = 1 4 (i) x = 3 Exercise 4.zh^ x + ah 2 (ii) 16x^1 + 4xyh (v) ^ p + qh^ p + r h 281 (iii) 5x ^2 . x = 3 is a root (iv) x =.125z .4xy + 16yz . (i) 8x + y + 64z .48 (iv) x3 . 40 (iii) 60. (i) 2 (ii) 1 (iii) 3 (iv) 0 3 (i) quadratic polynomial (ii) cubic polynomial (iii) linear polynomial (iv) quadratic polynomial 27 49 36 35 (v) cubic polynomial 2 (vi) linear polynomial ax + b.1 (iv) x = 0 5 11 (ii) x =.45xyz 3 3 3 12.144x y + 108xy . 6 3 2 2 3 3 2 4.36y + 54 .6 1.4 1.2 (iv) x =. –5. 2 Exercise 4. 3 (iii) 2 . 3 (ii) 0. 1. 1 3. 105 (iv) –100.27y . (i) 970299 (ii) 1030301 (iii) 941192 (iv) 1061208 3 y y (v) 1006012008 7.8zx (i) x + 12x + 39x + 28 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 (ii) 4a + 9b + c + 12ab .5xyh 3 .8a3 (v) 27x + 72x + 51x + 10 (vi) 8x . 2. –10. m = 3 5. p = 10 (iv) Not a factor 2. x =.4ca (iv) p + 4q + r .20p . 10 2 3 (ii) 64x .1 is a root. 4 (iv) 1 . (i) –4. a = 5 4.36x . –3.5 (i) 25x + 4y + 9y + 20xy + 12yz + 30zx (iii) x + 4y + 16z .3b + 2ch (iv) ^ y . 2. –288 9. 142. 189 (ii) –7. Exercise 4. 36 3 3 3 11.2. x = 3 is not a root Exercise 4. remainder is 15.2 is a root. Not a factor 1.17x + 15 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (ii) p + 4p . 3.4qr + 2rp (iii) x + x . cx . 4.2x + 105 (i) 19.

16.1h^2x .4) 282 11.2b .1h^ x .9h (ii) ^ x + 1h^ x .2h^ x + 11h (xi) ^m + 8h^m .b + 3c) (ii) (a .12h (vii) ^ x .2. (ii) ^ x + 3h^ x + 10h (v) ^ y .4h^ x .xh^3x + 10h Exercise 4.18h (ii) ^5x + 2h^ x + 4h (v) ^5y .7 1.8h^t .6h^ y .1 1.y + 1) 2 (v) (5x . (i) ^3x + 1h^ x + 6h (iv) ^14x + 3h^ x + 2h (vii) ^3x . ABCD is a rectangle 9. 22 (iv) x $ . (i) –7 (ii) 3 (iii) 8 (iv) –5 4.6xh 2 (i) ^ p + q + r h2 (iv) (2a . (i) x > 4 2. 4. parallel to y axis 6.1h^ x + 2h (xi) ^ x + 1h^11 . 50.1h^ x + 2h (iii) ^ x + 1h^ x + 2h^ x .8 (i) x = 1.2h 2 2 (iv) ^1 + 6xh^1 .1h (ii) ^ p .3z) 2 2 (i) ^3x + 4yh^9x .5 (ii) True (iii) x # .3) . (i) False (iii) True (iv) False (v) True (vi) False (vii) True 2.10h (viii) ^ x .q + 2h^ p . (i) ^a + b + 2h^a + b + 7h (i) ^ x + 1h^ x .11h 2. (4.3h^a + 10h (xiii) ^ x + 2h^2x .2 (viii) True Exercise 5.3h (vi) ^ x + 1h^ x .2h (ix) ^3x .3 (v) x = 1 . (0. y = 1 2 5. 4. 27 (iv) x = 1 .q .2h 1.6) (iii) (3x . y = 3 (ii) x = 2.1h^ x + 15h (x) ^ x + 9h^ x .7h^ y .2. (i) 5 (ii) 9 (iii) 8 (iv) –4 5. y = 2 3.1h (x) ^2a .5 (iii) x = 3.3yh^4x + 6xy + 9y h Exercise 4. y = 1 5 2 4.1h (viii) ^3x .5a + 25h 2 2 (v) ^ x . (i) ^ x + 1h^ x + 14h (iv) ^ x .5h (iii) ^ y + 3h^ y + 4h (vi) ^t .4y) 2 2 (iii) ^b + 2h^b .6xh (xii) ^8x .12xy + 16y h 2 (iii) ^a + 5h^a .1h^ x + 5h (xv) ^1 .3h^ x + 4h (xiv) ^9x + 4h^2x . (i) I (ii) III (iii) on x axis (ix) False (x) True (iv) III (v) on y axis (vi) on y axis (vii) IV (viii) origin (ix) I (x) II 3. y =.2y .2m + 4h 2 2 (iv) ^2x .5h (iii) ^ x + 2h^2x + 5h (vi) ^9y . (i) (x + 1) 2 (ii) (3x .9h (ix) ^ y . parallel to x axis 7.4h^ y + 9h (xii) ^ y + 4h^ y . 3.7h 3.2h^ x .2yh^ x + 2xy + 4y h (ii) ^m + 2h^m . 8 (ii) x < 3. y axis 8.4h^ y .

cos C = 24 . cos i = 8 . 1 9.Exercise 5. tan i = 35 . tan A = 24 . cosec C = 26 26 24 17 63 5. sec P = 13 . cot i = 11 61 61 11 11 60 (vi) cos i = sec i = 3.–15) (–8. 15) Exercise 6. tan i = 9 . cosec i = 17 . tan i = 6 . tan A = 8 . (0. tan i = 7 . 6. (i) 202 (ii) 4 5 (ix) 18 16. cos i = 11 . tan i = y y x . cot i = 8 10 10 8 6 8 6 (ii) sin i = 7 . cosec i = 37 . cosec A = 15 . cos P = 12 . cosec i = 25 . sec A = 15 . cos i = 24 . sec A = 26 .11.15)(8. cosec P = 13 .–3) 20. (i) 24 (ii) 10 + 4 10 18. tan i = 60 .2 1. cot A = 12 15 12 9 12 9 8 .2 1. cosec A = 26 26 10 sin C = 10 . 30 24. cosec A = 17 . cosec i = 41 . cos i = 40 . (4. sec i = 25 .cot i = 24 25 25 24 7 24 7 (iii) sin i = 35 . 1 7. cot i = 12 37 37 12 35 12 35 (iv) sin i = 9 . (8. (i) sin i = 6 . cos i = 12 . –10. collinear points 25. sin A = 24 . tan C = 10 . cot A = 15 (ii) sin A = 17 15 8 15 8 (iii) sin P = 5 . 225 19 4 64 13. tan A = 9 . cosec i = .x2 . cos A = 10 . sec i = 61 . (i) 45c y2 . (i) 1 (ii) 0 (vii) 9 (viii) 2 4. cot i = 40 41 41 40 9 40 9 2. 7.x2 . sec i = 41 . (i) cos A = 12 . 20 21. (i) 1 (ii) 1 (iii) 1 (iv) 1 (v) 1 (vi) 1 283 .x2 (ii) 0c (iv) 30c (iii) 60c 26 . 8. cot i = 8 17 17 8 15 15 (v) sin i = 60 . cos i = 8 . 4 5 (iii) (x) 29 74 (iv) 2 2 10. 2 x y -x 2 y y2 . cot C = 24 10 24 10 10. sec C = 26 .–7) 14. cot A = 10 24 10 24 26 .1 1. sec i = 37 . sec i = 10 . –5 19. cosec i = 10 .–15) (–8. sec A = 17 . 7 (v) 5 2 13. tan i = 15 . cot P = 12 13 13 5 12 5 (iv) sin i = 15 . cot i = x y2 . No. (i) 2 (ii) 1 (iii) 3 (iv) 25 (v) 7 (vi) 4 4 2 144 3 Exercise 6. –2 (vi) 1 (vii) 5 (viii) 15 15.

25c.3 1. 8. 15 8.3090 (iii) 0. 14.96c . (i) 22 cm.4384 (vii) 0.100c (vi) 54c. 39 cm (iv) 16.5 cm (v) 88 dm.3 1.1056 cm 12. 12.60c. 110c 2.3 cm. 8.7002 (iv) 0.7623 (iii) 20c12l (iv) 4.4996 7. 1cm (vi) 42c 7. (ii) 43c (iii) 100 12. 123.3579 (iii) 1.36c 5. (i) 122c (ii) 32c (iii) 60c (iv) 140 3.57 cm.1778 (iv) 76c30l (v) 89c6l (v) 4. (i) 80c (ii) 35c 4.09 cm 11. 50c (ii) 31c .1 1. 6.72c 5. (i) + A = + C = + E = + G =115c .0042 3. (i) 50c. 20.784 cm Exercise 7. 45c. 72c . 46. 77 cm2. 59c (iii) 30c .130 dm 284 .8098 8. (i) 80c (ii) 80c Exercise 8. (i) 60c (ii)41c (iii) 55c (iv) 55c (v) 47c (vi) 60c Exercise 6. (i) 45c (ii) 45c (iii) 45c (iv) 60c 6. 15cm 3.8568 m 2. 67. (i) 1. 12 7.60c 7.4134 cm2 5. 924 dm2. 7cm 9.2113 (vi) 0.144c 4. 30c Exercise 7.2 1. (i) 30c (ii) 32c 6. (i) 100c (ii) 30c 13. (i) 0 (ii) 2 (iii) 0 (iv) 6 (v) 1 (vi) 9 (vii) 0 (viii) 3 (ix) 1 2 3 3. 26cm 4. (i) 55c. 50c (ii) 40c (iii) 30c 15. 99.9760 (viii) 0. 40cm (v) 40c 6.90c 9.2698 4. (i) 30c (ii) 36c (iii) 60c (iv) 72c (v) 80c.72c . b = 6 3. 13. l = 9 . 12cm 2. 30cm (iv) 115c 5.376 cm2 9. 48c.7475 (x) 1.6278 cm2 6.110c Exercise 7. 60c 10.37 cm (iii) 11 cm. 64 cm (ii) 2. (i) 0. 70c. 231 cm2. 30c . (i) 75c (ii) 55c (iii) 110c 11.9670 (v) 0. (i) 27c (ii) 66c (v) 80c (iii) 42c (iv) 55c (v) 70c 2.50c + B = + D = + H = 65c 10. 70c. 110c .5 cm. 13cm 8.1841 (ix) 2. (i) 36c (ii) 40c (iii) 40c.108c. (i) 50c (ii) 130c 10.75 cm2.2.0389 cm2 (ii) 0. 109. 80c. 3.1 1. (i) 35c 14. (i) 44c30l (ii) 14c54l (ii) 1.

34. 12. Rs. 3. 40. Rs. 6. 720 m2 . 700 dm2.84 cm2 Exercise 8. 40 . (2. (i) 51 (ii) 14. (i) 7 hrs.18 2. 192 6. 6. 4. 5 3. 82 m2. (iv) 512 m2. (1. 110 cm3 (ii) 400 dm2. (i) 280c (ii) 120c 7.5 m2 8. Exercise 10. Rs. 3) 2.25cm (iv) 250 cm2. 38. 30 Exercise 11.44 cm2.58 9. (2. 28 13.160.5 cm2. 6 7. 28.67 12. 37 5. 27 cm 3. 8 4. 123 7. (iii) 15 hrs 13.625 m3. 15.2 1. (i) 154 cm2. 2) 9. no solution 11. 37. 15. 6) 6.2 m.2. 3.000 9.12. 346. 3) 4. Rs. 17 3. 216 cm2 (ii) 144 dm2. 5.8 m 11. (i) 19 cm. 4. 13824 cm3 2.00. 61kg 8.5 cm 9.62 cm3.5 Exercise 11. 216 dm3 (iv) 2304 cm2. 1920 m3 4. 5 2. 4 m 5. 6. (1. 216 dm2.25 cm2 (ii) 700 cm2 6. (i) 110. 50. 48. 123. (i) 10 cm (ii) 30 cm (iii) 6 cm 5. 8000 cm3. 29791 cm3 3. 80.67 10. (3.3 1. 6 3. 60.992 m2. 4. 19 4. (iii) 25 m2.025 Exercise 8.3456 cm2. 25. 14.65 cm 4. (i) 15 cm (ii) 13 cm (iii) 5 dm 6. 53. 120. 175. (i) 125.7 6. 174 cm2. 53 cm (ii) 2200 cm2. 3 5. (ii) 350 m2. 4. 62 4. (ii) 8. 8000 cm2. many solutions 3.2 1.05 285 5. no solution Exercise 11. 39.280 5. 52.3 1. 3) 8. 27. 11. 0. 60c . 30. 326. 6. 25.16 cm2.56. (–3. many solutions 7. –3) 11.1 1. (v) 3844 cm2. 42 m3 2.25 15.5766 cm2. 0) 5. (2. 96 cm2. 308cm2 (ii) 25m.5 m2. 28. 5. –12) 12. 4. 125 cubes 7. 4000 hollow blocks. 147 m2. (ii) 2 hrs. (i) 120c (ii) 90c (iii) 36 cm 3. 40. 4. 188.5 cm2 10. 190 cm (iii) 91. (i) 154 m2. (i) 165 cm. 160 cm2 6. 1200 dm3 (iii) 70 m2.5 2.1 14. 64000 cm3 8.2 1. 55. (i) 72 cm. 7.13 11.16 cm2 14. (2. Rs.

15 4 27. 72 2. 8.78 (vi) 1. (i) 4 (ii) 19 15 30 (ii) 9 20 (ii) 1 20 (v) 3 4 (v) 1 20 (v) 33 250 (v) 14 25 (iii) 1 5 (iii) 1 10 16. (i) 179 (ii) 53 500 500 12.4 1. 4.Exercise 11. (i) 2 5 (ii) 3 10 (ii) 3 4 9.05 32.1 1. (i) 7 (ii) 3 20 25 17. (i) 183 (ii) 1 500 4 19. 5. (i) 3 (ii) 19 25 125 286 . (i) 1 4 (iv) 9 50 (iv) 1 5 (iv) 793 100 (iv) 29 125 (ii) 9 10 (v) 81 100 4.1 (iv) -0. (i) 3 5 (ii) 8 25 (iii) 2 25 (iii) 69 100 (iii) 201 500 (iii) 1 5 (iii) 9 20 (iii) 11 50 (iii) 3 20 (iii) 21 250 (iii) 21 125 7. (i) 7 (ii) 1 20 20 18. (ii) . (i) 7 10 14. 43.2 30 Mode 13. (i) 3 5 15.8 33. 13 20 (iii) 11 25 5.75 Mean 14 4.3 Exercise 12. No. (i) 13 20 (iv) 24 25 (iii) 119 500 (iv) 1 6 (ii) 7 20 8. 7. (i) 49 (ii) 4 100 25 10.18 Q.45 (ix) 112% 5 6. 6. (i) 21 50 (iv) 19 100 (iv) 219 500 13. (i) 39 (ii) 9 125 20 (iii) 11 30 (iv) 3 20 11. 41.1 28 Median 14 4 31. 7 3.

Multiple Choice 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 A D B D B A C A D C A B B D C A C D A C B C A C B A A 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 D A B A B C D A C B D D B B C B A C A D B A C B C A B 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 A B D B C D C A C A D A D C D A B C B A A D B D A A A 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 C C C B A B C B C D B D A A D B A D B A D D D C B B B 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 A B C B C A C B A C C B C B B D A C A A D B A D A C A 287 .

6990 0.4914 0.2900 0.6803 0.4472 0.6 3.4 3.7372 7 0.1 1.4 2.3962 0.5682 0.3674 0.2833 0.1584 0.1673 0.1173 0.6739 0.3874 0.3054 0.6599 0.5587 0.4829 0.6010 0.5250 0.2856 0.3598 0.7152 0.5 1.5079 0.2601 0.5539 0.4698 0.6212 0.7243 0.7076 0.1790 0.6180 0.6637 0.2 1.6222 0.LOGARITHM TABLE Mean Difference 0 1.7059 0.4928 0.1430 0.5729 0.7143 0.4298 0.1553 0.5899 0.2014 0.0569 0.6513 0.3979 0.6646 0.8 4.1399 0.3010 0.5092 0.3655 0.6730 0.5658 0.0828 0.1703 0.6149 0.5502 0.1987 0.1931 0.6405 0.1271 0.6395 0.4609 0.4440 0.1072 0.1335 0.4031 0.3444 0.1367 0.5185 0.5999 0.5289 0.6955 0.6590 0.2253 0.3032 0.6064 0.5705 0.2227 0.6107 0.4 1.6138 0.5933 0.4886 0.4639 0.3324 0.5198 0.4314 0.6571 0.6542 0.2455 0.7267 0.3118 0.4728 0.6484 0.0086 0.6075 0.0607 0.1004 0.7160 0.2765 0.1732 0.0294 0.5877 0.2742 0.4533 0.4183 0.6561 0.0253 0.6884 0.3560 0.4900 0.5623 0.5065 0.1038 0.6435 0.8 3.2695 0.2625 0.0 2.2553 0.7308 0.7101 0.6964 0.5647 0.0128 0.0212 0.7226 0.5011 0.8 2.3096 0.4624 0.5635 0.5527 0.3838 0.1761 0.4249 0.6785 0.7388 9 0.5763 0.6551 0.6767 0.6875 0.4871 0.5798 0.2405 0.5599 0.9 4.6693 0.5340 0.5 2.6839 0.9 2.4265 0.6522 0.3541 0.5888 0.5353 0.4200 0.2504 0.7033 0.0 5.4082 0.4150 0.2279 0.1 5.5051 0.1847 0.3263 0.4 0.5955 0.6263 0.2380 0.7177 0.6628 0.5038 0.5843 0.3636 0.6160 0.9 5.6981 0.2480 0.7210 0.2648 0.6758 0.8 1.7118 0.3243 0.7126 0.3139 0.0682 0.6902 0.4166 0.5302 0.1818 0.4757 0.6284 0.5966 0.1206 0.5821 0.6503 0.5551 0.6609 0.5988 0.3 1.3 3.3 5.6454 0.6 4.1644 0.6314 0.2 2.4518 0.3160 0.4116 0.6794 0.2945 0.4969 0.1492 0.7 2.6474 0.6702 0.9 3.0645 0.2529 0.6117 0.4425 0.3892 0.7 3.3522 0.7340 3 0.1139 0.4393 0.5403 0.6335 0.2967 0.4502 0.3222 0.3181 0.6415 0.4579 0.6972 0.2175 0.1303 0.1461 0.1875 0.5832 0.4216 0.5263 0.7218 0.5855 0.5575 0.7110 0.6274 0.4232 0.5944 0.5378 0.7332 2 0.6946 0.4771 0.2672 0.1614 0.6848 0.3820 0.0755 0.7356 5 0.4409 0.2148 0.5428 0.4942 0.4456 0.0 4.7275 0.0334 0.7235 0.6444 0.6031 0.3284 0.7292 0.4786 0.7084 0.4800 0.0864 0.2788 0.7251 0.7093 0.5441 0.0170 0.3617 0.6325 0.1959 0.6355 0.3502 0.6911 0.3856 0.0453 0.3784 0.0414 0.5717 0.7364 6 0.4330 0.5670 0.2 3.7348 4 0.6365 0.6675 0.5211 0.7300 0.6821 0.5775 0.0934 0.3579 0.6712 0.2989 0.1239 0.6201 0.2068 0.4983 0.6998 0.2430 0.0719 0.0 3.4654 0.6866 0.2878 0.5563 0.2 4.1 3.5 3.5276 0.0043 0.5465 0.6375 0.4 4.3 4.4281 0.6749 0.5237 0.0899 0.5159 0.5911 0.6304 0.3365 0.4487 0.6191 0.5366 0.6665 0.4594 0.2577 0.5740 0.5172 0.4564 0.5611 0.3483 0.1 2.4742 0.6170 0.5809 0.2810 0.6243 0.3692 0.3729 0.4683 0.1903 0.7042 0.7324 1 0.7284 0.6425 0.2095 0.6857 0.3345 0.2718 0.6464 0.4133 0.6656 0.3075 0.3711 0.6532 0.5977 0.5105 0.3766 0.4857 0.7193 0.7316 0.6 1.4014 0.1 4.4843 0.3909 0.5132 0.2 5.6830 0.2304 0.4362 0.4378 0.0492 0.0 1.6294 0.5866 0.3 2.5024 0.1523 0.6721 0.7 4.6253 0.3927 0.6345 0.5119 0.0969 0.7380 8 0.4713 0.5478 0.3424 0.5514 0.3464 0.3201 0.7024 0.3997 0.5224 0.4065 0.7185 0.7007 0.5490 0.5 4.4814 0.2330 0.5145 0.5694 0.7259 0.4048 0.7067 0.3802 0.5391 0.2201 0.4669 0.3945 0.6096 0.6493 0.5922 0.5752 0.6085 0.0531 0.6684 0.7202 0.4099 0.2923 0.7016 0.7 1.1106 0.6053 0.6232 0.2355 0.6893 0.2122 0.7135 0.3304 0.6021 0.6385 0.7050 0.4346 0.5328 0.6128 0.4997 0.5786 0.4548 0.6 2.6920 0.0792 0.7168 0.5315 0.7396 1 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 8 8 7 6 6 6 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 12 11 10 10 9 8 8 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 4 17 15 14 13 12 11 11 10 9 9 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 5 21 19 17 16 15 14 13 12 12 11 11 10 10 9 9 9 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 25 23 21 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 13 12 12 11 11 10 10 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 7 29 26 24 23 21 20 18 17 16 16 15 14 14 13 12 12 11 11 11 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 33 30 28 26 24 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 15 14 14 13 13 12 12 11 11 11 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 9 37 34 31 29 27 25 24 22 21 20 19 18 17 17 16 15 15 14 14 13 13 12 12 12 11 11 11 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 288 .3385 0.6618 0.6042 0.4955 0.6776 0.5416 0.6937 0.3747 0.2041 0.6580 0.3404 0.0374 0.6928 0.6812 0.5453 0.0000 0.

9619 0.8876 0.8531 0.9609 0.9987 0.9647 0.8762 0.7474 0.8035 0.9253 0.8331 0.8537 0.7839 0.9138 0.7959 0.9 7.8543 0.9850 0.9952 0.8445 0.8585 0.7917 0.9489 0.8603 0.6 8.8998 0.9435 0.8228 0.8831 0.9523 0.8751 0.9465 0.9455 0.9795 0.9863 0.9899 0.9036 0.8476 0.9675 0.8376 0.9605 0.8825 0.9908 0.9079 0.9841 0.9814 0.9552 0.8779 0.9912 0.7980 0.8209 0.8814 0.8525 0.9390 0.9547 0.7566 0.7466 0.9191 0.7634 0.7868 0.9827 0.9479 0.8899 0.9763 0.0 9.7993 0.7803 0.5 6.8960 0.5 5.8122 0.9961 0.9380 0.8871 0.9978 0.7482 0.8651 0.8344 0.9832 0.8954 0.7427 0.7679 0.9430 0.8457 0.9991 0.9096 0.7627 0.8439 0.9638 0.9058 0.8904 0.9600 0.7672 0.8000 0.8645 0.8506 0.9474 0.9170 0.9917 0.9450 0.9791 0.9948 0.9289 0.9894 0.9557 0.9823 0.8055 0.8756 0.9074 0.9581 0.7412 0.7924 0.9 8.7419 0.8591 0.8609 0.8096 0.8312 0.8987 0.7513 0.9248 0.8241 0.9939 0.7619 0.8555 0.9212 0.8062 0.7 8.7731 0.8639 0.7752 0.8675 0.7860 0.7 7.9330 0.8319 0.8325 0.3 8.7 5.8075 0.9186 0.9009 0.8370 0.9143 0.8887 0.8426 0.8116 0.9149 0.8837 0.9881 0.7709 0.9122 0.7774 0.7966 0.8633 0.8293 0.9294 0.9410 0.9309 0.8280 0.7903 0.7789 0.9800 0.9996 289 .8710 0.9657 0.9 6.9685 0.8235 0.9768 0.8382 0.8162 0.8021 0.8482 0.8579 0.8739 0.9652 0.7952 0.0 6.9903 0.9370 0.9930 0.9365 0.9750 0.8028 0.7875 0.7701 0.9926 0.8267 0.5 7.8215 0.7443 0.9154 0.8727 0.8451 0.9243 0.9845 0.9786 0.8261 0.9106 0.4 8.6 6.8669 0.9345 0.8 6.9128 0.9201 0.9713 0.9 9.9759 0.7505 0.9965 0.7846 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 0.9694 0.9263 0.8745 0.1 7.8169 0.8859 0.7551 0.7686 0.9859 0.8351 0.8254 0.9528 0.2 8.7973 0.7543 0.9689 0.9279 0.8704 0.2 6.8388 0.7745 0.8 5.2 9.8932 0.8195 0.8414 0.8692 0.9969 0.7938 0.9112 0.8069 0.9943 0.8129 0.8248 0.8976 0.8722 0.9741 0.9047 0.8982 0.9886 0.8432 0.8842 0.9818 0.9538 0.9469 0.9159 0.9671 0.8 8.6 5.7459 0.9425 0.8082 0.9085 0.9440 0.9053 0.8627 0.9777 0.7889 0.7723 0.8802 0.7694 0.7782 0.9117 0.7987 0.9643 0.8222 0.9299 0.7664 0.9586 0.8791 0.9405 0.8 9.9628 0.9042 0.9533 0.9661 0.8007 0.8681 0.9974 0.9877 0.8357 0.3 7.8156 0.7582 0.8965 0.8808 0.8470 0.9680 0.9350 0.9494 0.9731 0.8993 0.7497 0.7612 0.6 7.9983 0.7796 0.1 8.9509 0.7882 0.7451 0.8698 0.8182 0.9934 0.8938 0.9090 0.9595 0.9284 0.8561 0.7760 0.9232 0.8338 0.8513 0.0 7.9325 0.9614 0.9773 0.7825 0.4 6.8407 0.9355 0.9717 0.9133 0.9513 0.8500 0.9754 0.9445 0.8820 0.9956 0.8567 0.9165 0.8865 0.8102 0.9340 0.9258 0.7604 0.8971 0.9069 0.9206 0.8848 0.8142 0.7404 0.8927 0.8 7.8189 0.8949 0.7 6.8663 0.9320 0.7642 0.9269 0.8109 0.8716 0.7 9.8395 0.9063 0.9836 0.7559 0.9385 0.9722 0.9222 0.8615 0.8915 0.8921 0.9805 0.9921 0.8420 0.8274 0.8943 0.8573 0.8686 0.LOGARITHM TABLE Mean Difference 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5.9872 0.9699 0.8306 0.5 8.9890 0.9415 0.7931 0.9854 0.9400 0.9015 0.5 9.8041 0.6 9.8774 0.9518 0.8488 0.7528 0.9703 0.9315 0.1 9.9196 0.9624 0.7657 0.9727 0.7738 0.9571 0.7589 0.9499 0.8797 0.9708 0.9484 0.3 6.9504 0.3 9.7853 0.9274 0.7945 0.8149 0.9101 0.9542 0.8363 0.8401 0.7810 0.9175 0.9020 0.1 6.7574 0.9360 0.8494 0.7832 0.9227 0.0 8.8089 0.8014 0.9375 0.9217 0.9576 0.8176 0.4 9.9180 0.9562 0.9025 0.8768 0.9335 0.8048 0.7910 0.4 7.8597 0.9238 0.7520 0.8621 0.7597 0.9736 0.9460 0.7716 0.7435 0.9395 0.8519 0.9004 0.7818 0.8287 0.8854 0.8463 0.9590 0.9868 0.7536 0.9 0.9782 0.8893 0.8733 0.7896 0.8299 0.8910 0.9420 0.9304 0.8136 0.7490 0.9031 0.2 7.9633 0.8657 0.9666 0.7767 0.9566 0.8785 0.9809 0.8549 0.8882 0.9745 0.7649 0.8202 0.

135 1.831 2.090 1 1.148 1.10 0.300 1.009 1.126 6 1.368 1.37 0.ANTI LOGARITHM TABLE Mean Difference 0.884 1.588 2.824 1.614 1.27 0.607 1.35 0.067 1.083 3.064 1.803 1.161 1.096 1.070 2.47 0.061 2.585 1.718 1.459 1.972 3.294 1.992 3.500 1.919 1.009 2.19 0.360 2.500 2.11 0.959 2.091 1.396 1.08 0.945 1.388 2.854 1.413 1.965 3.303 1.799 1.426 1.374 1.280 2.472 2.514 1.816 1.986 2.056 2.094 1.600 1.493 1.780 2.234 2.547 2.188 2.346 1.606 2.629 1.905 1.132 1.014 1.977 2.288 1.018 2.393 2.698 1.767 2.596 1.081 1.327 1.218 2.216 1.486 1.560 1.979 3.138 2.685 2.683 1.023 2.203 2.782 1.517 1.274 1.352 1.422 1.722 1.773 2.153 1.432 1.119 5 1.32 0.164 1.148 9 1.141 8 1.766 1.09 0.371 1.535 1.875 1.18 0.774 1.349 1.954 2.489 2.242 1.958 3.259 1.236 1.193 2.46 0.072 1.545 1.432 2.793 2.864 2.415 2.403 1.928 1.270 2.663 1.469 1.48 0.146 1.318 1.155 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 6 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 7 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 8 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 9 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 290 .01 0.016 1.178 2.080 2.507 1.112 4 1.094 2.00 0.275 2.845 1.052 1.419 1.735 2.951 3.265 2.406 1.069 3.250 1.452 1.443 2.086 1.03 0.528 1.128 2.581 1.917 2.002 1.004 2.950 1.995 2.849 1.256 1.891 2.710 1.570 2.183 1.042 1.858 2.321 1.042 2.460 2.455 2.622 1.333 2.285 1.055 3.710 2.271 1.105 3 1.648 1.127 1.227 1.600 2.820 1.660 1.726 1.400 1.851 2.355 1.449 1.570 1.197 1.035 1.14 0.714 1.143 1.655 2.844 2.343 1.118 2.037 2.901 1.225 1.897 1.38 0.297 1.510 1.027 3.892 1.021 1.371 2.538 1.156 1.924 2.033 1.679 2.476 1.050 1.738 1.524 1.28 0.012 1.45 0.02 0.254 2.730 1.084 1.762 1.114 1.416 1.057 1.06 0.244 2.158 2.36 0.671 1.858 1.692 2.871 2.140 1.007 1.380 1.542 1.39 0.758 1.483 2.483 1.350 2.592 1.382 2.421 2.138 1.706 1.535 2.030 1.168 2.923 1.366 2.512 2.189 1.059 1.559 2.531 1.626 1.968 2.107 1.44 0.230 1.754 2.811 1.173 2.652 1.438 2.723 2.941 1.897 2.34 0.786 1.268 1.377 2.21 0.17 0.936 1.393 1.770 1.186 1.399 2.429 1.30 0.062 1.991 2.449 2.618 2.932 1.698 2.183 2.518 2.069 1.117 1.567 1.679 1.603 1.167 1.194 1.594 2.023 1.262 1.466 2.199 1.576 2.49 0 1.384 1.16 0.466 1.442 1.972 2.355 2.812 2.097 2 1.198 2.112 1.223 2.529 2.013 3.133 2.871 1.746 1.062 3.33 0.641 1.178 1.427 2.330 1.159 1.439 1.636 2.866 1.05 0.445 1.564 2.761 2.104 2.180 1.999 3.716 2.409 1.541 2.222 1.877 2.148 2.286 2.667 2.805 2.089 2.228 2.982 2.358 1.309 1.006 3.832 1.191 1.328 2.496 1.151 1.163 2.014 2.841 1.43 0.618 1.673 2.307 2.312 1.032 2.208 1.317 2.791 1.047 1.633 1.028 1.837 1.213 2.944 3.075 2.276 1.213 1.963 2.334 1.15 0.339 2.904 2.549 1.455 1.911 2.574 1.099 1.306 1.122 1.089 1.337 1.26 0.667 1.279 1.404 2.611 1.377 1.729 2.219 1.245 1.624 2.312 2.259 2.026 1.553 2.301 2.582 2.233 1.552 1.25 0.521 1.828 1.390 1.143 2.656 1.742 2.477 2.649 2.24 0.41 0.931 2.104 1.208 2.879 1.04 0.40 0.495 2.034 3.000 1.742 1.734 1.239 2.054 1.862 1.130 1.020 3.119 1.084 2.169 1.019 1.799 2.079 1.479 1.642 2.523 2.690 1.125 1.644 1.109 2.239 1.102 1.435 1.07 0.202 1.472 1.23 0.387 1.205 1.040 1.076 1.807 1.048 3.028 2.315 1.563 1.556 1.291 1.489 1.20 0.938 3.675 1.29 0.818 2.113 2.786 2.211 1.661 2.175 1.12 0.076 3.462 1.344 2.340 1.702 1.506 2.324 1.503 1.005 1.630 2.694 1.323 2.365 1.838 2.888 1.153 2.038 1.22 0.291 2.31 0.065 2.247 1.884 2.612 2.249 2.282 1.172 1.704 2.914 1.42 0.133 7 1.589 1.795 1.687 1.074 1.109 1.13 0.099 2.985 3.361 1.825 2.000 2.041 3.637 1.910 1.045 1.578 1.123 2.265 1.051 2.778 1.046 2.750 1.754 1.410 2.253 1.748 2.296 2.

091 8.026 6.484 9.427 6.890 3.795 2 3.89 0.508 3.982 7.162 3.531 8.699 6.486 6.256 4.362 7.072 8.516 6.998 6.475 3.65 0.561 6.295 6.446 4.209 6.070 5.872 9.112 7.864 4.370 5.420 3.495 5.012 5.261 7.506 9.839 6.64 0.817 3 3.674 7.995 9.811 3.918 7.093 5.957 6.170 3.943 8.311 9.200 5.710 4.064 4.677 4.273 3.630 8.998 8.128 8.295 7.780 7.121 4.095 6.846 3.222 8.664 3.963 4.97 0.808 6.188 4.379 7.335 4.036 9.501 6.656 7.592 6.887 5.614 3.51 0.281 3.816 7.69 0.810 9.356 8.732 4.851 9.966 7.831 9.276 4.907 8.705 9.228 3.166 8.464 7.790 8.433 5.546 6.395 4.724 3.855 3.057 9.315 4.984 6.589 3.482 7.715 3.699 4.324 6.223 6.559 5.585 5.95 0.58 0.762 7.54 0.71 0.715 5.999 4.443 3.141 9.875 4.754 5.164 5.76 0.290 9.519 4.784 3.802 3.908 7 3.920 5.318 8.92 0.198 4.365 3.311 7.750 3.397 9.689 5.775 4.67 0.93 0.73 0.319 3.745 7.396 3.565 3.246 4.667 4.376 9.638 9.483 3.797 4.354 9.406 4.333 9.670 8.55 0.368 6.721 4.117 5.483 5.79 0.328 7.521 5.933 9.096 7.909 5.837 3.532 3.943 5.913 9.416 4.631 3.63 0.75 0.714 6.152 5.458 5.730 6.53 0.266 6.828 3.970 6.055 4.594 9.741 3.730 8.81 0.776 3.081 6.929 6.572 5.046 4.508 5.353 6.381 3.70 0.138 6.244 7.550 9.690 3.610 5.770 8.442 6.96 0.636 5.350 3.180 6.176 5.140 5.375 4.998 7.772 1 3.650 8.472 8.305 4.414 8.908 3.178 4.707 3.445 5.129 5.581 4.727 9.508 4.656 4.357 3.397 6.639 3.962 8.492 8.310 6.285 4.408 5.623 5.86 0.84 0.299 8.834 5.548 3.981 4.750 8.447 7.487 4.870 8.346 5.383 5.214 3.436 3.88 0.278 7.758 3.404 3.105 5.491 3.236 5.266 3.110 8.702 5.675 5.899 3.047 7.337 8.358 5.279 8.499 3.597 3.074 4.945 4.954 4.079 7.733 3.634 4.516 7.039 6.082 5.831 4.966 5.412 6.012 6.683 9.888 6.252 6.50 0.621 7.950 7.61 0.99 0 3.281 6.120 9.977 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 6 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 7 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 8 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 9 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 20 291 .83 0.586 7.161 7.761 6.72 0.430 7.227 4.673 3.753 4.345 7.459 3.980 8.385 4.243 3.457 6.419 9.296 3.016 9.581 3.260 5.892 9.764 4.528 9.622 6.063 7.794 5.886 6 3.62 0.781 5.169 4.212 5.709 7.471 6.834 8.767 3.864 3.68 0.228 7.853 4.224 5.260 8.251 3.861 5.974 9.786 4.875 6.531 6.355 4.321 5.821 5.603 4.145 7.204 9.058 5.649 5.436 4.124 6.989 5.129 7.192 3.90 0.457 4.018 4.592 4.334 3.624 4.031 7.166 6.954 9.083 4.607 6.656 3.221 3.140 4.395 5.681 3.74 0.499 7.365 4.236 3.683 6.606 3.776 6.413 7.383 6.573 3.613 4.162 9.91 0.036 4.637 6.152 6.388 3.741 5.56 0.297 5.477 4.111 4.396 7.540 3.054 8.325 4.648 3.943 6.871 7.109 6.616 9.183 9.842 4.441 9.823 6.568 7.590 8.375 8.551 8.339 6.82 0.426 4.560 4.289 3.955 5.661 9.428 3.556 3.258 3.546 5.916 6.898 5.188 5.047 5.925 8.662 5.027 4.917 4.467 4.498 4.551 7.023 5.98 0.453 8.534 5.57 0.808 5.333 5.852 8.931 8 3.009 4.237 6.577 6.840 4 3.395 8.015 7.638 7.691 7.688 4.882 3.572 9.710 8.247 9.516 3.728 5.345 4.598 5.768 5.934 7.159 4.863 5 3.745 6.470 5.977 5.236 4.954 9 3.268 9.241 8.668 6.926 4.035 5.467 3.035 8.742 4.571 4.932 5.529 4.645 4.373 3.902 7.511 8.534 7.727 7.78 0.451 3.873 3.130 4.94 0.990 4.266 4.972 4.194 6.902 6.211 7.420 5.412 3.178 7.889 8.819 3.819 4.304 3.207 4.078 9.217 4.887 7.539 4.936 4.793 3.66 0.690 8.295 4.808 4.848 5.433 8.147 8.603 7.177 3.184 3.000 5.053 6.309 5.80 0.60 0.855 7.653 6.750 9.524 3.85 0.248 5.59 0.792 6.52 0.204 8.87 0.622 3.610 8.698 3.342 3.327 3.185 8.284 5.206 3.150 4.550 4.272 5.77 0.067 6.093 4.462 9.ANTI LOGARITHM TABLE Mean Difference 0.102 4.798 7.194 7.099 9.311 3.226 9.017 8.570 8.199 3.

0506 0.4019 0.2740 0.6455 0.2250 0.4083 0.0802 0.0906 0.0˚ 0.1271 0.5060 0.5721 0.5045 0.4163 0.1080 0.4863 0.1357 0.5664 0.4726 0.6401 0.3584 0.4679 0.1097 0.4909 0.3633 0.5606 0.0436 0.4617 0.6184 0.5446 0.5150 0.3616 0.0244 0.1478 0.0698 0.0105 0.2351 0.2773 0.4462 0.4710 0.3714 0.0140 0.6428 0.5934 0.5284 0.6˚ 0.5678 0.3289 0.6157 0.1668 0.1702 0.0541 0.0819 0.5821 0.3387 0.6909 0.6508 0.1736 0.2436 0.6547 0.1288 0.7046 54´ 0.5779 0.2113 0.3156 0.3843 0.0070 0.5135 0.5750 0.5892 0.6347 0.6534 0.6997 30´ 0.5736 0.2198 0.4131 0.6959 12´ 0.4970 0.1513 0.2571 0.4210 0.2656 0.4415 0.6129 0.6972 18´ 0.3420 0.4664 0.0227 0.0471 0.2130 0.4756 0.1771 0.1805 0.0576 0.1426 0.0663 0.0419 0.2840 0.1132 0.2605 0.3795 0.4051 0.4524 0.0209 0.3090 0.3453 0.3649 0.0715 0.2907 0.0732 0.0976 0.6833 0.3190 0.3762 0.5490 0.1305 0.6691 0.1323 0.0958 0.2990 0.2267 0.5476 0.0680 0.5180 0.4035 0.1891 0.5225 0.2079 0.3502 0.2706 0.1149 0.3923 0.0610 0.5329 0.1942 0.0750 0.5358 0.7034 48´ 0.6756 0.6521 0.5835 0.1461 0.2300 0.5030 0.6388 0.4478 0.0924 0.2334 0.2147 0.5402 0.1392 0.2723 0.3355 0.0401 0.5807 0.4509 0.4384 0.2402 0.5˚ 0.3173 0.0454 0.2874 0.7˚ 0.6307 0.0384 0.4195 0.5195 0.0523 0.6600 0.1011 0.4924 0.2453 0.6266 0.3˚ 0.3746 0.6934 0.6820 0.0593 0.6845 0.1633 0.1874 0.6574 0.3859 0.6074 0.2487 0.0645 0.2588 0.5707 0.1925 0.4741 0.6225 0.9˚ 0.3486 0.5165 0.3827 0.6361 0.4571 0.2857 0.6704 0.1340 0.6613 0.6115 0.2062 0.0872 0.3140 0.5519 0.5563 0.6060 0.3371 0.5976 0.5075 0.3681 0.6494 0.6807 0.4818 0.4274 0.2924 0.6468 0.5105 0.3665 0.0349 0.2940 0.3891 0.1374 0.0087 0.0558 0.1840 0.7009 36´ 0.5906 0.3404 0.6769 0.6441 0.6334 0.3535 0.4067 0.4772 0.3437 0.6414 0.2096 0.6088 0.6561 0.5000 0.1650 0.5548 0.4099 0.3024 0.0767 0.6143 0.5990 0.4147 0.4493 0.6984 24´ 0.6782 0.5120 0.1719 0.6046 0.1219 0.3272 0.5534 0.0854 0.2538 0.3007 0.6198 0.1822 0.2284 0.3123 0.4633 0.3057 0.2233 0.5344 0.3322 0.3875 0.2045 0.3551 0.3811 0.4431 0.6004 0.2672 0.0366 0.6678 0.2419 0.2957 0.3778 0.1253 0.6170 0.5015 0.3697 0.5388 0.1564 0.0314 0.6921 0.6032 0.5090 0.6374 0.4179 0.6211 0.5373 0.4833 0.4955 0.6320 0.3567 0.1994 0.6665 0.3907 0.4399 0.5577 0.3518 0.2317 0.2554 0.2890 0.4305 0.5621 0.3206 0.5635 0.2622 0.2011 0.3074 0.0837 0.5650 0.5962 0.6280 0.6239 0.5693 0.1959 0.2823 0.0993 0.3939 0.2028 0.0017 0.6652 0.2974 0.5850 0.1201 0.8˚ 0.3469 0.1063 0.6587 0.0889 0.4879 0.3730 0.3107 0.4321 0.6639 0.0488 0.1184 0.NATuRAL SINES Degree 0´ 0.1547 0.0332 0.0192 0.1530 0.6252 0.3305 0.3971 0.6884 0.3600 0.1857 0.3223 0.4258 0.1977 0.0122 0.3955 0.5240 0.1495 0.7022 42´ 0.4003 0.2504 0.4586 0.2385 0.1˚ 0.6794 0.5920 0.5793 0.4848 0.0941 0.1599 0.4242 0.0297 0.5299 0.2368 0.4446 0.2689 0.6743 0.3338 0.6101 0.6858 0.5878 0.2˚ 0.6717 0.4337 0.5461 0.1028 0.0157 0.4602 0.6871 0.2470 0.5505 0.4787 0.2807 0.3256 0.4985 0.5255 0.5764 0.0035 0.2215 0.4540 0.1908 0.1236 0.4555 0.1115 0.4368 0.0000 0.4894 0.1754 0.3239 0.2521 0.6730 0.0052 0.5210 0.3040 0.3987 0.0785 0.5592 0.1582 0.1616 0.5864 0.1409 0.4226 0.5314 0.6018 0.4352 0.2181 0.1685 0.4802 0.4648 0.2756 0.5948 0.0279 0.7059 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Mean Difference 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 4 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 5 15 15 15 15 15 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 11 11 11 11 11 11 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 292 .2790 0.6293 0.6481 0.1788 0.4115 0.5270 0.0175 0.6947 6´ 0.5432 0.4695 0.4289 0.1444 0.6896 0.4939 0.0628 0.4˚ 0.1167 0.5417 0.2639 0.2164 0.0262 0.1045 0.6626 0.

7593 0.9367 0.7683 0.7314 0.NATuRAL SINES Degree 0´ 0.9806 0.7513 0.9992 0.7581 0.7431 0.9893 0.9432 0.8625 0.9836 0.9265 0.9938 0.9995 0.9690 0.9854 0.9494 0.9500 0.7218 0.8181 0.8738 0.9627 0.8973 0.8368 0.8910 0.7965 0.9936 0.9558 0.8˚ 0.9813 0.9898 0.8241 0.9385 0.9323 0.9945 0.9957 0.7373 0.9641 0.7880 0.9421 0.9969 0.7955 0.9646 0.8643 0.9956 0.9829 0.9799 0.8387 0.9449 0.9998 1.9135 0.8415 0.9951 0.9863 0.9573 0.9397 0.7782 0.9959 0.9121 0.9857 0.9833 0.9472 0.8996 0.8261 0.9212 0.7181 0.9650 0.9952 0.9763 0.8059 0.8018 0.8729 0.9903 0.8746 0.9954 0.9971 0.9905 0.8590 0.9184 0.9245 0.8377 0.7254 0.8669 0.8563 0.7547 0.8499 0.9869 0.7206 0.7096 0.8141 0.8755 0.9880 0.9839 0.8988 0.9848 0.8290 0.9989 0.9993 0.8829 0.7660 0.9003 0.9298 0.9348 0.9171 0.8763 0.9379 0.9317 0.9890 0.9026 0.9677 0.7705 0.9659 0.9426 0.7727 0.9965 0.9018 0.9143 0.7672 0.8870 0.0000 48´ 0.9409 0.9593 0.9583 0.8300 0.9461 0.9990 0.8902 0.7976 0.9563 0.8878 0.9823 0.8634 0.7760 0.9699 0.7559 0.9070 0.9063 0.9785 0.9966 0.2˚ 0.8771 0.9150 0.8131 0.9932 0.9085 0.8805 0.8854 0.8678 0.8007 0.9803 0.9715 0.9770 0.9826 0.7749 0.9415 0.9078 0.9984 0.8211 0.9987 0.8121 0.8788 0.8339 0.9744 0.9919 0.9608 0.8100 0.9910 0.8517 0.9860 0.9895 0.9354 0.9219 0.9993 0.7478 0.8980 0.7169 0.9736 0.8231 0.7826 0.7934 0.8926 0.6˚ 0.9391 0.9239 0.8686 0.8572 0.9907 0.8192 0.9336 0.8320 0.9997 1.8151 0.7266 0.9232 0.9198 0.8453 0.7649 0.9820 0.9996 0.9128 0.7349 0.9994 0.9977 0.8581 0.9438 0.7837 0.9703 0.8652 0.7443 0.0000 36´ 0.9537 0.7536 0.9963 0.9978 0.8070 0.8358 0.0˚ 0.9972 0.8846 0.8894 0.8780 0.9403 0.8462 0.8171 0.9598 0.9960 0.9489 0.8862 0.8695 0.7570 0.9845 0.7083 0.9912 0.9622 0.9999 18´ 0.9511 0.8949 0.8526 0.7302 0.9285 0.9681 0.7986 0.9914 0.9728 0.7490 0.7638 0.9990 0.9810 0.9921 0.8396 0.9874 0.7869 0.9949 0.9917 0.7466 0.9774 0.9720 0.7771 0.9781 0.9998 6´ 0.9505 0.9997 1.9100 0.8934 0.9178 0.9796 0.8813 0.9205 0.7891 0.9686 0.9483 0.9740 0.9871 0.7420 0.8111 0.9998 1.9789 0.9011 0.8090 0.8886 0.7902 0.9973 0.9157 0.9900 0.8616 0.7396 0.9979 0.8918 0.7615 0.8028 0.9673 0.9542 0.9759 0.7157 0.9767 0.9259 0.9724 0.9568 0.7455 0.9164 0.8704 0.9986 0.8545 0.9980 0.9272 0.9048 0.9928 0.9613 0.7815 0.8490 0.7071 0.9792 0.9999 12´ 0.9996 0.7944 0.8508 0.7˚ 0.9991 0.9974 0.7108 0.9962 0.8660 0.9885 0.9668 0.7501 0.4˚ 0.8480 0.9033 0.7325 0.7716 0.9617 0.7694 0.8202 0.9455 0.9342 0.8712 0.1˚ 0.9877 0.9311 0.7604 0.8599 0.9976 0.9304 0.9968 0.9603 0.8221 0.9588 0.9943 0.9778 0.9516 0.7912 0.7997 0.9107 0.8957 0.7278 0.9056 0.9191 0.8434 0.8406 0.9995 0.9866 0.9478 0.8607 0.9041 0.9923 0.9707 0.8471 0.8942 0.9925 0.8796 0.9947 0.9˚ 0.9999 24´ 0.0000 42´ 0.8080 0.9636 0.8721 0.0000 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mean Difference 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 4 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 5 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 293 .8348 0.7290 0.9655 0.9934 0.9291 0.9940 0.7120 0.9694 0.7385 0.8536 0.9252 0.7145 0.7738 0.8965 0.7230 0.8281 0.9816 0.9985 0.7627 0.9748 0.9732 0.5˚ 0.9851 0.9942 0.9755 0.8821 0.7133 0.9466 0.9521 0.8329 0.7193 0.8039 0.9751 0.8251 0.9114 0.0000 54´ 0.8049 0.8271 0.8161 0.7804 0.9444 0.8554 0.9330 0.7242 0.9983 0.9997 1.8838 0.9842 0.9578 0.9527 0.8425 0.9092 0.3˚ 0.9361 0.9632 0.9548 0.7408 0.9553 0.7524 0.7793 0.7923 0.8443 0.9981 0.9664 0.9882 0.9225 0.9999 30´ 0.9711 0.9988 0.7337 0.9888 0.9278 0.9982 0.9930 0.9532 0.8310 0.7848 0.7361 0.7859 0.9373 0.

8310 0.9505 0.9317 0.4˚ 1.9583 0.8643 0.9736 0.7955 0.9799 0.9995 0.8508 0.9914 0.7455 0.7869 0.8771 0.9636 0.7513 0.7660 0.8˚ 0.8755 0.0000 0.8616 0.9973 0.0000 0.7157 24´ 0.9940 0.7133 0.9421 42´ 0.9833 0.7804 0.9785 0.9974 0.9379 0.9330 0.9724 0.0000 0.8462 0.8049 0.9373 0.8590 0.9978 0.9934 0.9851 0.9578 0.8712 0.9860 0.9409 54´ 0.9997 0.9905 0.9348 0.9755 0.8151 0.9100 0.9026 0.8281 0.8878 0.8721 0.7349 0.8918 0.8926 0.7716 0.9829 0.9980 0.9912 0.9823 0.7793 0.7727 0.9895 0.9985 0.9673 0.8910 0.9984 0.8934 0.9573 0.9472 0.9494 0.8141 0.9907 0.8202 0.7218 0.9990 0.7478 0.8965 0.9715 0.7278 0.9874 0.9003 0.9018 0.9999 0.8221 0.8625 0.9489 0.9553 0.9969 0.7826 0.7593 0.7337 0.9259 0.9311 0.8358 0.9707 0.9792 0.7169 18´ 0.9778 0.9285 0.6˚ 0.9114 0.9930 0.9857 0.9903 0.8652 0.9890 0.9999 0.8499 0.9866 0.8368 0.7242 0.7083 294 .9842 0.9085 0.8838 0.8261 0.7986 0.9711 0.7837 0.9976 0.8490 0.9466 0.9056 0.9432 30´ 0.NATuRAL COSINES (Numbers in mean difference columns to be subtracted.9925 0.9641 0.9622 0.9971 0.9323 0.7738 0.9923 0.9996 0.8788 0.9720 0.9979 0.8870 0.8329 0.9239 0.8973 0.9748 0.8660 0.7559 0.7443 0.9806 0.7694 0.7749 0.9367 0.9968 0.7193 6´ 0.9511 0.9563 0.9998 0.7944 0.9212 0.9983 0.9728 0.8949 0.9986 0.9990 0.9893 0.9965 0.9744 0.8980 0.7848 0.7254 0.3˚ 1.9461 0.9128 0.9951 0.7˚ 0.9954 0.9191 0.9991 0.9304 0.9877 0.9225 0.7536 0.7096 0.8320 0.8090 0.8171 0.9532 0.7420 0.9932 0.8536 0.9198 0.9078 0.7108 0.9143 0.8599 0.9972 0.7408 0.7965 0.7912 0.9659 0.7466 0.7880 0.9820 0.7615 0.9981 0.9694 0.8821 0.9993 0.2˚ 1.9588 0.8517 0.9957 0.9993 0.9135 0.7230 0.8039 0.9996 0.8425 0.9880 0.9882 0.9759 0.8581 0.9900 0.8780 0.9403 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Mean Difference 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 5 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 0.0000 0.8111 0.9836 0.9839 0.8988 0.9803 0.8161 0.9568 0.9917 0.7120 0.9994 0.8805 0.8290 0.7997 0.7206 0.7683 0.7501 0.9265 0.8443 0.8886 0.9962 0.9361 0.9789 0.9646 0.9252 0.9426 36´ 0.8545 0.7302 0.9245 0.7547 0.8080 0.7181 12´ 0.8339 0.9997 0.9871 0.9415 48´ 0.8480 0.7672 0.9171 0.8695 0.9598 0.9767 0.9521 0.9617 0.7361 0.9966 0.8894 0.9998 0.8028 0.8704 0.9947 0.9863 0.9278 0.9826 0.9632 0.9354 0.7934 0.9919 0.9232 0.9048 0.9960 0.7385 0.8686 0.8526 0.9848 0.9999 0.7290 0.9949 0.9483 0.9527 0.8957 0.9603 0.9548 0.9184 0.8729 0.9558 0.9854 0.9478 0.9770 0.8231 0.7760 0.0000 0.9898 0.7976 0.9627 0.9796 0.8070 0.9845 0.9810 0.9107 0.8996 0.9943 0.5˚ 1.9385 0.9668 0.9650 0.9781 0.9952 0.7891 0.8902 0.9690 0.7396 0.9041 0.9537 0.8738 0.9272 0.9888 0.8348 0.9677 0.9997 0.8796 0.8763 0.8181 0.9063 0.8192 0.9995 0.7604 0.9516 0.7782 0.8100 0.8746 0.8415 0.9164 0.8007 0.8387 0.8813 0.9438 0.7902 0.9121 0.9999 0.9011 0.7524 0.8669 0.9956 0.9070 0.9455 0.7923 0.9342 0.8396 0.7570 0.8942 0.9178 0.9449 0.8251 0.7705 0.9664 0.7627 0.9681 0.7314 0.7266 0.9205 0.9774 0.9992 0.8554 0. not added) Degree 0´ 0.7859 0.9740 0.8453 0.9936 0.7145 0.8121 0.9699 0.9942 0.9397 0.9336 0.9613 0.1˚ 1.7325 0.8862 0.9˚ 0.8634 0.0˚ 1.9444 0.8572 0.9963 0.9813 0.9885 0.9500 0.8241 0.9608 0.9219 0.7431 0.9391 0.9910 0.9921 0.8300 0.9033 0.9542 0.9938 0.7373 0.9092 0.8471 0.9763 0.8059 0.8563 0.9928 0.7490 0.8434 0.8211 0.9959 0.8406 0.9703 0.9655 0.8607 0.9298 0.8131 0.9987 0.9988 0.9157 0.8678 0.9945 0.8377 0.9977 0.9686 0.8018 0.9732 0.7815 0.9751 0.9291 0.7649 0.9150 0.9989 0.9593 0.9816 0.0000 0.9982 0.8829 0.7638 0.8271 0.8846 0.9998 0.7581 0.7771 0.9869 0.8854 0.

0593 0.5678 0.0523 0.6997 0.6574 0.6587 0.0349 0.3762 3 0.5255 0.3140 0.5000 0.6018 0.1132 0.6743 0.6730 0.2790 0.3955 0.3795 0.1771 0.6060 0.4617 0.3584 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 0.1616 0.6833 0.5962 0.3811 0. not added) Degree 0´ 0.7046 0.1357 0.0227 0.4710 0.0628 0.2571 0.2756 0.1891 0.6225 0.2807 0.4384 6´ 0.1857 0.5388 0.3665 0.0993 0.2723 0.3289 0.4756 0.4035 0.2874 0.2334 0.3875 0.6198 0.3437 3 0.5150 0.5807 0.0052 0.3173 0.4242 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 Mean Difference 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 3 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 4 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 5 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 0.1633 0.0680 0.5606 0.3891 0.7˚ 0.6691 0.5664 0.5225 0.6896 0.6184 0.6820 0.6909 0.6678 0.4540 0.2284 0.4726 0.1668 0.1650 0.2890 0.2079 0.0˚ 0.2˚ 0.0140 18´ 0.0471 0.0872 0.6266 0.1461 0.4321 30´ 0.4802 0.1374 0.2113 0.7009 0.1028 0.0314 0.2605 0.0802 0.2689 0.4772 0.1530 0.3746 69 0.1513 0.3024 0.0017 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 295 .6717 0.2924 0.5850 0.1495 0.6782 0.6884 0.6143 0.5120 0.5240 0.4051 0.5270 0.1736 0.0889 0.6984 0.5563 0.3987 0.6307 0.2487 0.6871 0.3469 0.3502 0.0767 0.1045 0.5060 0.3649 0.2974 0.1097 0.2622 0.2130 0.6613 0.5976 0.5045 0.5135 0.3697 0.5358 0.0401 0.0958 0.2470 0.5461 0.6211 0.3843 0.0105 0.4509 0.5402 0.5505 0.2840 0.4115 0.6401 0.4955 0.0244 0.2028 0.3907 68 0.4478 0.5417 0.4083 3 0.5015 0.2351 0.6004 0.2045 0.0419 0.4258 54´ 0.4305 36´ 0.2521 0.4179 0.7071 0.1444 0.0976 0.5821 0.5864 0.0035 0.4337 24´ 0.1167 0.6626 0.6959 0.4833 0.5990 0.2368 0.4879 0.2823 0.5920 0.2250 0.3007 0.3256 0.1340 0.4555 0.2740 0.2419 0.2402 0.1271 0.4695 0.2181 0.2147 0.4787 0.1977 0.0366 0.6665 0.0732 0.1564 0.2096 0.4399 0.0785 0.5750 0.8˚ 0.5577 0.6934 0.0070 0.2907 0.1184 0.3040 0.5165 0.6170 0.1201 0.3223 0.5948 0.4586 0.1805 0.0558 0.5736 0.1392 0.3923 3 0.1063 0.5299 0.6280 0.6074 0.1219 0.4848 0.4289 42´ 0.3371 0.4147 0.6858 0.3˚ 0.3123 0.2198 0.2215 0.1149 0.4939 0.6252 0.2062 0.0506 0.6468 0.6508 0.5373 0.5635 0.5548 0.2317 0.3305 0.1788 0.0262 0.2453 0.5210 0.1874 0.2267 0.0436 0.1685 0.0157 12´ 0.2233 0.3616 0.0175 0.5030 0.1080 0.3859 0.4274 48´ 0.4524 0.1719 0.6088 0.5934 0.1˚ 0.5284 0.4633 0.1840 0.4099 0.4648 0.1409 0.0924 0.1011 0.3355 0.0663 0.4067 67 0.5075 0.2538 0.2706 0.4019 0.6˚ 0.6239 0.6534 0.6481 0.2300 0.0906 0.2164 0.0192 0.6293 0.2940 0.3551 0.1582 0.1305 0.5476 0.5090 0.6547 0.2385 0.1942 0.NATuRAL COSINES (Numbers in mean difference columns to be subtracted.3338 0.4571 0.4368 0.4818 0.4131 0.1925 0.2588 0.1754 0.3567 0.3633 0.7059 0.3778 0.3239 0.6046 0.4415 0.3730 0.4226 66 0.3156 0.5180 0.6414 0.6704 0.5779 0.3518 0.3600 3 0.6845 0.4970 0.0122 0.6600 0.0941 0.6561 0.6455 0.1288 0.4924 0.6972 0.2857 0.2639 0.4462 0.3322 0.5906 0.2957 0.3206 0.4163 0.0087 0.3681 0.5892 0.1908 0.5835 0.4664 0.6521 0.0541 0.0279 0.6320 0.0209 0.2011 0.6794 0.6807 0.2990 0.5721 0.4˚ 0.1115 0.1822 0.6921 0.6347 0.6334 0.3404 0.5534 0.6441 0.3420 0.1323 0.1253 0.3387 0.0332 0.4431 0.6639 0.6032 0.0854 0.6157 0.5519 0.2656 0.4352 0.0750 0.5344 0.6101 0.5650 0.3057 0.5490 0.6129 0.3714 0.3971 0.4003 0.5446 0.1426 0.0819 0.4863 0.1236 0.3272 0.9˚ 0.5592 0.2773 0.0610 0.3535 0.0454 0.5432 0.6769 0.2672 0.6494 0.3190 0.0715 0.2436 0.5195 0.5621 0.5707 0.3827 0.4985 0.1959 0.7034 0.1547 0.3074 0.5693 0.0837 0.5329 0.1994 0.7022 0.0488 0.6361 0.4210 0.2554 0.6652 0.2504 0.1599 0.6115 0.4894 0.3453 0.6756 0.5878 0.3486 0.5˚ 0.4602 0.6947 0.4446 0.0384 0.0576 0.4679 0.5764 0.6428 0.5314 0.4493 0.4195 0.0698 0.3939 0.0297 0.1702 0.0645 0.4741 0.4909 0.5793 0.5105 0.6388 0.1478 0.6374 0.3090 0.3107 0.

4684 0.2661 0.5184 0.2053 0.0805 0.5117 0.9424 0.6080 0.7427 0.4020 0.4727 0.3859 0.7926 0.0857 0.5051 0.5658 0.2035 0.4040 0.5139 0.1998 0.7536 0.3096 0.3502 0.1745 0.3919 0.2071 0.6128 0.1871 0.0928 0.6176 0.2698 0.7508 0.3˚ 0.1962 0.2382 0.3115 0.7054 0.3327 0.4834 0.3939 0.6594 0.2401 0.7346 0.1051 0.4˚ 0.6924 0.6619 0.9930 54´ 0.4494 0.3779 0.7107 0.0910 0.2886 0.1122 0.6322 0.1495 0.1228 0.4748 0.6420 0.2364 0.0175 0.5635 0.7˚ 0.0087 0.4245 0.3899 0.6200 0.7186 0.4813 0.4265 0.1548 0.8481 0.1944 0.8391 0.6720 0.3719 0.6873 0.1691 0.2679 0.7265 0.9195 0.9623 0.1033 0.8941 0.1441 0.2549 0.2773 0.9004 0.3839 0.5073 0.2272 0.3424 0.9490 0.4921 0.3581 0.2107 0.0752 0.5750 0.4348 0.1069 0.6822 0.5938 0.9131 0.2144 0.5914 0.5029 0.2254 0.0017 0.4642 0.8785 0.3443 0.7813 0.3620 0.4621 0.5727 0.8662 0.1908 0.9036 0.5797 0.0052 0.3561 0.0105 0.0507 0.8541 0.5704 0.0629 0.6644 0.6745 0.1727 0.3057 0.1281 0.1512 0.3153 0.4706 0.8724 0.8098 0.0664 0.0472 0.5890 0.5452 0.5566 0.2981 0.5589 0.5681 0.8214 0.3600 0.0140 0.8601 0.0981 0.1104 0.0000 0.3211 0.0192 0.8185 0.0122 0.3000 0.9067 0.2327 0.0945 0.7954 0.1210 0.7373 0.4986 0.0524 0.2089 0.0035 0.2126 0.2830 0.2605 0.8156 0.1405 0.2438 0.7841 0.0244 0.0577 0.6371 0.5206 0.9457 0.5228 0.8632 0.1˚ 0.1835 0.2642 0.0840 0.9657 6´ 0.3819 0.2345 0.6469 0.2˚ 0.4183 0.6104 0.4411 0.3288 0.3959 0.7869 0.6494 0.4369 0.6544 0.4286 0.1175 0.4000 0.0489 0.7002 0.4101 0.3038 0.2943 0.4557 0.2530 0.5498 0.6˚ 0.4599 0.4431 0.2811 0.2162 0.7481 0.0262 0.5272 0.0384 0.8069 0.1638 0.3172 0.0314 0.5520 0.0419 0.5095 0.5985 0.0070 0.8754 0.3679 0.1477 0.3640 0.1620 0.2419 0.2754 0.8127 0.5˚ 0.6273 0.1566 0.5340 0.8421 0.6056 0.3307 0.2568 0.8302 0.2792 0.7028 0.3385 0.0682 0.1709 0.9358 0.2475 0.9325 0.9228 0.4791 0.9099 0.3365 0.7898 0.9556 0.NATuRAL TANGENTS Degree 0´ 0.1423 0.2924 0.3230 0.4877 0.0892 0.4224 0.5774 0.7729 0.9293 0.1853 0.3463 0.7618 0.2867 0.0349 0.0647 0.5820 0.0559 0.3269 0.1530 0.4856 0.5250 0.3191 0.8816 0.0367 0.4122 0.0542 0.7757 0.3249 0.0454 0.1317 0.1334 0.2849 0.3659 0.9896 48´ 0.8361 0.0734 0.1799 0.6771 0.4536 0.9590 0.1763 0.0297 0.4327 0.7785 0.8012 0.6847 0.9523 0.7646 0.0612 0.6796 0.0822 0.4142 0.9759 24´ 0.7080 0.5961 0.2180 0.8243 0.2456 0.5384 0.7292 0.0402 0.8878 0.1139 0.1817 0.4899 0.2905 0.5407 0.4204 0.8˚ 0.8571 0.5612 0.8693 0.4964 0.8511 0.8040 0.0717 0.4770 0.7212 0.9˚ 0.6976 0.4578 0.1370 0.4390 0.1016 0.3541 0.7983 0.0699 0.6395 0.0963 0.9861 42´ 0.0998 0.3799 0.3979 0.3699 0.1246 0.9691 12´ 0.9725 18´ 0.9391 0.7673 0.0227 0.6224 0.2623 0.9793 30´ 0.1890 0.6249 0.2199 0.3739 0.0787 0.1388 0.3346 0.5867 0.3134 0.3076 0.0332 0.5008 0.1926 0.5543 0.9260 0.7590 0.3404 0.1584 0.6346 0.6009 0.2512 0.9163 0.6297 0.1980 0.4663 0.8273 0.1352 0.4307 0.0209 0.6694 0.2493 0.5844 0.1086 0.9965 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 Mean Difference 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 3 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 16 17 17 4 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 18 18 18 19 20 20 21 21 22 23 5 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 25 26 27 28 29 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 296 .8910 0.5317 0.6950 0.6519 0.9827 36´ 0.5362 0.0437 0.6669 0.5295 0.4163 0.8332 0.4452 0.5161 0.0594 0.7239 0.1263 0.2217 0.8972 0.0769 0.4515 0.1602 0.0˚ 0.2309 0.2736 0.4473 0.2290 0.1459 0.8451 0.3879 0.7701 0.3522 0.4061 0.7454 0.5430 0.0279 0.1655 0.0157 0.1781 0.4081 0.1673 0.2962 0.6569 0.2586 0.7159 0.6445 0.2717 0.6152 0.1157 0.4942 0.0875 0.3482 0.7400 0.2235 0.2016 0.7319 0.3019 0.6032 0.1192 0.6899 0.1299 0.7563 0.8847 0.5475 0.7133 0.3759 0.

9208 3.9395 7.7848 4.6427 10.0951 1.3906 2.5126 10.2753 1.8945 16.0428 1.5129 2.5026 6.7966 1.9520 4.3270 1.5887 297 .7583 4.2045 2.1988 30´ 0.1544 1.9174 143.9962 16.9711 2.7321 4.6305 3.2846 1.2305 1.8006 38.2174 1.9038 35.8118 4.5399 1.3613 1.0247 1.9842 48´ 0.8967 1.0035 1.9594 5.1154 8.7747 1.1632 15.6003 1.4638 21.8667 4.3416 1.2460 2.2566 2.7046 5.6255 1.1543 2.0649 1.2251 2.7321 1.5818 1.1˚ 1.4197 3.2002 1.0913 1.7769 10.0000 1.1504 1.5880 1.1626 1.2914 3.7403 30.2218 1.5757 1.0557 20.1667 1.3445 2.0061 3.1066 6.1524 3.8716 3.0724 1.0141 1.6746 2.5350 7.6383 1.5649 2.5816 3.3432 24.2052 10.7894 6.1446 5.9758 6.6512 1.0285 9.2799 1.3955 5.3814 1.9152 10.9158 9.5107 4.7297 6.3962 8.2900 6´ 0.8650 1.2506 3.7475 2.2709 3.4486 6.8391 4.8728 1.0415 3.7062 3.3865 1.8556 3.8319 23.0108 4.6464 2.2305 3.3367 1.2715 52.7395 286.6713 6.6066 1.0970 5.3127 1.4826 1.1334 3.8341 1.7893 1.5002 2.5916 2.2635 4.3332 3.2355 2.7182 1.4627 2.4496 1.5958 8.5339 3.2985 1.7797 13.0612 1.4335 1.3315 4.7776 2.8115 1.9507 18.3˚ 1.5637 1.2998 2.8716 5.0811 28.7045 1.8887 1.0501 1.1224 1.8083 2.4023 2.0408 4.1446 63.0579 10.8878 3.1875 1.5144 11.3572 11.7867 5.1028 1.4442 1.9375 2.4550 1.6252 5.0464 1.6128 1.3977 3.9375 3.8470 24´ 0.0990 1.4301 14.6554 3.8593 40.3713 1.1383 1.2066 8.5576 3.3109 2.9970 2.9124 6.3673 2.7603 1.5257 2.9883 2.4645 27.5697 1.7532 1.2892 1.1708 1.6363 57.6912 7.5386 2.4751 2.9042 3.4124 1.1145 1.3175 1.3514 1.0145 2.4071 1.0761 1.0875 1.8947 4.2422 5.2045 1.4777 54´ 0.1585 1.9887 3.8495 1.2673 2.2088 1.1976 4.4646 3.5941 1.5517 1.6191 1.6577 1.3564 1.1263 1.2˚ 1.6645 14.4947 8.1885 95.6325 2.6051 2.0212 1.9544 3.3220 2.4874 3.9626 2.9047 1.0392 1.5578 6.7929 2.4˚ 1.2437 1.5105 3.4388 1.4770 1.3662 4.9˚ 1.0105 1.0057 2.0319 1.7391 1.2393 1.6567 12´ 0.8502 6.0713 4.4015 4.0661 190.6174 17.8˚ 1.2662 1.1335 4.6935 81.2106 3.1910 3.5782 2.9542 2.3759 3.0594 2.4373 4.7034 2.4882 1.0307 47.8418 1.0807 572.7461 1.4262 2.6977 1.8205 71.8190 1.5˚ 1.7326 2.1343 1.3663 1.1060 2.8265 1.3968 1.4876 2.7113 1.9812 4.0323 2.4465 31.0045 5.6842 1.5340 1.3032 1.6˚ 1.5483 4.1022 4.1642 2.9232 4.8572 1.3122 3.8978 44.4383 2.6140 6.2371 42´ 0.1842 2.0799 1.4019 1.0413 2.2572 1.6709 1.3222 1.1792 1.6996 8.4281 1.4938 1.8239 2.0965 2.1943 2.2349 1.6768 11.3319 1.0837 1.7720 7.7675 1.1929 5.5864 5.3138 7.9210 2.6775 1.1303 1.4420 3.0283 1.3435 5.1443 9.4229 1.4504 2.2781 2.1653 4.6806 3.5108 1.0778 2.1251 2.5458 1.4659 1.5224 1.9572 1 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 22 24 26 29 32 36 41 46 53 Mean Difference 2 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 16 16 17 18 19 20 21 23 24 26 27 29 31 34 37 40 43 47 52 58 64 72 81 93 107 3 18 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 29 30 32 34 36 38 41 44 47 51 55 60 65 71 78 87 96 108 122 139 160 4 24 25 25 27 28 29 30 31 33 34 36 38 40 43 45 48 51 55 58 63 68 73 79 87 95 104 116 129 144 163 186 213 5 30 31 32 33 34 36 38 39 41 43 45 48 50 53 56 60 64 68 73 78 85 92 99 108 119 131 145 161 180 204 232 267 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 12.1742 2.2708 1.1960 1.2131 1.9714 3.0217 22.3499 22.6319 1.7062 15.8548 7.1445 2.7251 1.5051 1.3007 19.3465 1.0176 1.5789 12.0355 1.1833 1.6685 19.1463 1.NATuRAL TANGENTS Degree 0´ 0.2261 1.1348 2.0961 3.0872 2.1742 6.2048 13.0504 5.6605 2.6122 7.0595 3.6187 2.2303 4.3764 1.6059 3.9797 2.8040 1.6889 2.7453 5.0686 2.1716 3.0264 8.5517 2.2617 1.1184 1.5577 1.6447 1.2996 17.3916 1.2972 4.0070 1.9128 1.9882 13.0237 3.4142 2.2636 9.2889 2.8807 1.1155 2.7179 2.1067 1.6909 1.8397 3.3002 8.4737 4.0503 2.7625 2.4895 114.9458 2.2148 2.4288 12.5282 1.2432 7.0233 2.7820 1.6646 5.8062 9.2527 1.3559 2.0538 1.2482 1.7˚ 1.2938 1.3859 7.3079 1.3863 9.4715 1.4596 7.2049 33.4605 1.8288 5.1423 1.1918 1.0187 12.6151 18´ 0.3544 3.9292 2.0575 1.5166 1.3789 2.1146 3.1750 1.0777 3.8448 11.2924 5.0405 6.6643 1.4994 1.0686 1.3332 2.1106 1.3854 36´ 0.8863 26.4176 1.9087 15.9152 5.0˚ 1.