Preface

(iii)

SYMBOLS

= ! 1 # 2 $ . j k U d z 1 3 Y 1 M

equal to not equal to less than less than or equal to greater than greater than or equal to equavalent to union intersection universal Set belongs to does not belong to proper subset of subset of or is contained in not a proper subset of not a subset of or is not contained in complement of A empty set or null set or void set

T N R W Z 3 + = || ( ` a

symmetric difference natural numbers real numbers whole numbers integers triangle angle perpendicular to parallel to implies therefore since (or) because absolute value approximately equal to congruent

-

| (or) : such that / (or) , / r ! Y identically equal to pi plus or minus end of the proof

Al (or) A c Q (or) { } n(A)

number of elements in the set A

P(A) power set of A P(A) probability of the event A

(iv)

CONTENT
1. THEORY OF SETS
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Introduction Description of Sets Representation of a Set Different kinds of Sets Set Operations Representation of Set Operations using Venn Diagram

1-32
1 1 3 7 17 25

2.

REAL NUMBER SYSTEM
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Introduction Decimal Representation of Rational Numbers Irrational Numbers Real Numbers Surds Four Basic Operations on Surds Rationalization of Surds Division Algorithm

33-65
33 36 43 44 53 56 60 63

3.

SCIENTIFIC NOTATIONS OF REAL NUMBERS AND LOGARITHMS
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Scientific Notation Converting Scientific Notation to Decimal Form Logarithms Common Logarithms

66-88
66 69 71 80

4.

ALGEBRA
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Introduction Algebraic Expressions Polynomials Remainder Theorem Factor Theorem Algebraic Identities Factorization of Polynomials Linear Equations Linear Inequations in One Variable

89-123
89 89 90 96 99 101 107 116 121

5.

COORDINATE GEOMETRY
5.1 5.2 5.3 Introduction Cartesian Coordinate System Distance between any Two Points

124-142
124 125 133

(v)

6.

TRIGONOMETRY
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Introduction Trigonometric Ratios Trigonometric Ratios of Some Special Angles Trigonometric Ratios for Complementary Angles Method of using Trigonometric Tables

143-163
143 143 149 154 157

7.

GEOMETRY
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Introduction Geometry Basics Quadrilateral Parallelograms Circles

164-183
164 165 169 170 174

8.

MENSURATION
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Introduction Sectors Cubes Cuboids

184-199
184 185 193 195

9.

PRACTICAL GEOMETRY
9.1 9.2 9.3 Introduction Special line segments within Triangles The Points of Concurrency of a Triangle

200-212
200 201 205

10.

GRAPHS
10.1 Introduction 10.2 Linear Graph 10.3 Application of Graphs

213-220
213 213 217

11.

STATISTICS
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 Introduction Graphical Representation of Frequency Distribution Mean Median Mode

221-246
221 221 228 237 242

12.

PROBABILITY
12.1 12.1 12.3 12.4 Introduction Basic Concepts and Definitions Classification of Probability Probability - An Empirical Approach

247-262
247 248 250 250

(vi)

Theory of Sets

THEORY OF SETS
No one shall expel us from the paradise that Cantor has created for us - DaVID HILBert

Main Targets
● ● ● ● ● ● To describe a set To represent sets in descriptive form, set builder form and roster form To identify different kinds of sets To understand and perform set operations To use Venn diagrams to represent sets and set operations To use the formula involving problems GeorG Cantor (1845-1918)

n (A , B) simple word

The basic ideas of set theory were developed by the German mathematician Georg Cantor (1845-1918). He worked on certain kinds of infinite series particularly on Fourier series. Most mathematicians accept set theory as a basis of modern mathematical analysis. Cantor’s work was fundamental to the later investigation of Mathematical logic.

1.1

Introduction

the concept of set is vital to mathematical thought and is being used in almost every branch of mathematics. In mathematics, sets are convenient because all mathematical structures can be regarded as sets. Understanding set theory helps us to see things in terms of systems, to organize things into sets and begin to understand logic. In chapter 2, we will learn how the natural numbers, the rational numbers and the real numbers can be defined as sets. In this chapter we will learn about the concept of set and some basic operations of set theory.

1.2

Description of Sets

We often deal with a group or a collection of objects, such as a collection of books, a group of students, a list of states in a country, a collection of coins, etc. Set may be consider of as a mathematical way of representing a collection or a group of objects.
1

Chapter 1

Key Concept

Set

A set is a collection of well-defined objects. The objects of a set are called elements or members of the set. The main property of a set in mathematics is that it is well-defined. This means that given any object, it must be clear whether that object is a member (element) of the set or not. the objects of a set are all distinct, i.e., no two objects are the same. Which of the following collections are well-defined? (1) (2) (3) (4) the collection of male students in your class. the collection of numbers 2, 4, 6, 10 and 12. the collection of districts in tamil nadu. the collection of all good movies.

(1), (2) and (3) are well-defined and therefore they are sets. (4) is not well-defined because the word good is not defined. Therefore, (4) is not a set. Generally, sets are named with the capital letters A, B, C, etc. the elements of a set are denoted by the small letters a, b, c, etc. Reading Notation ! ‘is an element of’ or ‘belongs to’

If x is an element of the set A, we write x ! A . g ‘is not an element of’ or ‘does not belong to’

If x is not an element of the set A, we write x g A . For example, Consider the set A = "1, 3, 5, 9 , . 1 is an element of A, written as 1 ! A 3 is an element of A, written as 3 ! A 8 is not an element of A, written as 8 g A
2

. A (iii) 0 .Theory of Sets Example 1. Fill in the blank spaces with the appropriate symbol ! or g . (i) (ii) (iii) Descriptive Form Set-Builder Form or rule Form roster Form or tabular Form 1... A (ii) 7 . (i) 3 .. This is known as the Descriptive form of specification.. 6 . A (iv) 2 ..3 Representation of a Set a set can be represented in any one of the following three ways or forms.. 5... 3. (i) (ii) (iii) the set of all natural numbers. A Solution (i) 3 ! A ( a 3 is an element of A) (ii) 7 g A ( a 7 is not an element of A) (iii) 0 g A ( a 0 is not an element of A) (iv) 2 ! A ( a 2 is an element of A) 1. 2.. .1 Let A = "1. For example.1 Descriptive Form Key Concept Descriptive Form one way to specify a set is to give a verbal description of its elements... the description must allow a concise determination of which elements belong to the set and which elements do not... 4. the set of all prime numbers less than 100.3. the set of all letters in the english alphabets........ 3 ..

the elements in a set should not be repeated. A={ C. "C. 2. O. P = " x : x is a prime number less than 100 . E .3. 8.3. F.3 Roster Form or Tabular Form Key Concept Roster Form Listing the elements of a set inside a pair of braces { } is called the roster form.Chapter 1 1. .2 Set-Builder Form or Rule Form Key Concept Set-Builder Form Set-builder notation is a notation for describing a set by indicating the properties that its members must satisfy. F. E . 6.1. Let A be the set of letters in the word “CoFFee”. F. in roster form of the set A the following are invalid.e. In roster form we write A = "2. 0. (i) (ii) rk Let A be the set of even natural numbers less than 11. R a em (i) (ii) In roster form each element of the set must be listed exactly once. 3. O.1 # x 1 5 . A = " x : x is a letter in the English alphabet . 4 . In roster form we write A = ". 1. i. So. Reading Notation ‘|’or ‘:’ We read it as “a is the set of all x such that x is a letter in the word CHennaI” For example. 4. such that a = " x : x is a letter in the word CHENNAI . (i) (ii) (iii) N = " x : x is a natural number . (not all elements are listed) "C. o. By convention. 1. e }. A = " x : x is an integer and . 4. (element F is listed twice) (iii) In a roster form the elements in a set can be written in anY order. 10 . For example.

7. then three consecutive dots called ellipsis are used to indicate that the pattern of the listed elements continues. 2. g . 19} Example 1. 15} {1.Theory of Sets the following are valid roster form of the set containing the elements 2. the set of all prime numbers less than 20. 13. 2. 7. 3.2 List the elements of the following sets in roster form: (i) (ii) the set of all positive integers which are multiples of 7. 4. 3. 12. 5. 6. . i. 9. 8} 5 . 3 and 4. each of them represents the same set (iv) If there are either infinitely many elements or a large finite number of elements.3 Write the set A = { x : x is a natural number # 8} in roster form. 27. Representation of sets in Different Forms Descriptive Form the set of all vowels in english alphabet the set of all odd positive integers less than or equal to 15 the set of all perfect cube numbers between 0 and 100 Example 1. 8. 3. 8. the set contains the elements 1. 3. Set . 13. 6. 21. 5. 4 . 3 . 7. 11. 3. 9. g.Builder Form { x : x is a vowel in the english alphabet} { x : x is an odd number and 0 1 x # 15 } { x : x is a perfect cube number and 0 1 x 1 100 } Roster Form {a. So. Hence in roster form A = {1.g} (ii) the set of all prime numbers less than 20 in roster form is {2. or "3. 7. 4. 4. "2. 3. 60 . 64} Solution (i) the set of all positive integers which are multiples of 7 in roster form is {7. 2 . 15. 11. 5. o. 7. e. 5. "4. u} {1. 6. "2. (v) ellipsis can be used only if enough information has been given so that one can figure out the entire pattern. 14. Solution A = { x : x is a natural number # 8 }. 6. as in "5. 28. 17.

1 . x # 5} We write the set A in roster form as A = {2. 3. . Saturday} A = $1. tuesday. 2. 5 . 2. Friday. Example 1. 2.. the prime factors of 12 are 2. 1 . 0. Consider that the set A = #. 3. tuesday. 1.4 Cardinal Number Key Concept Cardinal Number the number of elements in a set is called the cardinal number of the set. 4. 4. x # 5} . 1 .4 represent the following sets in set-builder form (i) (ii) X = {Sunday. n ! N . 3. 5}. (ii) B = {x : x ! W. Wednesday. Monday. we write X = {x : x is a day in a week} (ii) A = $1. 4. 2 3 4 5 Solution (i) X = {Sunday. n (A) = 7 . Wednesday. (i) (ii) A = {x : x is a prime factor of 12} B = {x : x ! W. the set B has six elements and hence n(B) = 6 .. 12. Friday. In tabular form. 1 . Monday. n 1. 2. Hence in set builder form. 1 . 3. g . Saturday} the set X contains all the days of a week. g . B = {0. 1. 3. 3} and hence n(A) = 2.e. 1 .Chapter 1 Example 1. g 2 3 4 5 ` the set-builder form is A = $ x : x = 1 .5 Find the cardinal number of the following sets. 4. thursday.3. the set A has 7 elements. 1 . the denominators of the elements are 1. 6 Solution (i) Factors of 12 are 1. thursday. For example. ` the cardinal number of A is 7 i.1. Reading Notation n(A) number of elements in the set A the cardinal number of the set A is denoted by n(A). So. 6. 1 .

x ! N . there are no natural numbers which are less than 1. For example. Reading Notation Q or { } empty set or null set or Void set the empty set is denoted by the symbol Q or { } For example.4. ` A is a finite set (ii) Consider the set X = {x : x is an integer and . 0. A = { } and n(A) = 0.1 The Empty Set a set containing no elements is called the empty set or null set or void set. then the set is called a finite set. 2} and n(X) = 4 ` X is a finite set Note The cardinal number of a finite set is finite 7 . Consider the set A = # x : x < 1.1 . 1.2 Finite Set Key Concept Finite Set If the number of elements in a set is zero or finite. So.1 # x # 2 }. there is no natural numbers between 8 and 9.. ` A ={ } Note Think and Answer ! What is n (Q) ? the concept of empty set plays a key role in the study of sets just like the role of the number zero in the study of number system.Theory of Sets 1. 1. X = {.4 Different Kinds of Sets Key Concept Empty Set 1.4. (i) Consider the set A of natural numbers between 8 and 9.

Chapter 1 1. then X = {51. 10. 52. a has only one element ` A is a singleton set 8 .3 Infinite Set Key Concept Infinite Set A set is said to be an infinite set if the number of elements in the set is not finite. 1. Example 1. x ! N } = {5. 2..} ` X is an infinite set.} ` A is an infinite set.6 State whether the following sets are finite or infinite (i) (ii) (iii) A = {x : x is a multiple of 5. 53..4. e. (iii) Let X be the set of all positive integers greater than 50. e. the only even prime number is 2 ` B = { 2 } and hence B is a finite set.. g } The set of all whole numbers contain infinite number of elements ` W is an infinite set Note The cardinal number of an infinite set is not a finite number. x ! N } B = {x : x is an even prime number} the set of all positive integers greater than 50. Solution (i) A = {x : x is a multiple of 5. i. For example.. .. 15.4 Singleton Set Key Concept Singleton Set a set containing only one element is called a singleton set For example. A = { 2 } i.. 1. (ii) B = {x : x is even prime numbers}.4. 3. 20. W = {0. Let W = the set of all whole numbers. . Consider the set A = {x : x is an integer and 1 < x < 3}.

A and B are equivalent if n(A) = n(B). 5.B two sets A and B are said to be equal if they contain exactly the same elements. are said to be equal if (i) every element of A is also an element of B and (ii) every element of B is also an element of A. regardless of order.4. the null set Q the set having the null set as its only element {Q } the set having zero as its only element { 0 } (i) (ii) (iii) 1. 11 }. Here n(A) = 4 and n(B) = 4 1. we write A ! B . two sets A and B. 8. 10 } and B = { 3. otherwise the sets are said to be unequal. In other words.6 Equal Sets Key Concept Equal Sets ` A. not equal When they are unequal.Theory of Sets m Re ark It is important to recognise that the following sets are not equal. equivalent A and B are equivalent is written as A c B Consider the sets A = { 7. 9.4. Reading Notation = ! equal When two sets A and B are equal we write A = B.5 Equivalent Set Key Concept Equivalent Set two sets A and B are said to be equivalent if they have the same number of elements In other words. 9 . Reading Notation . For example. 6.

if n(A) = n(B).7 Subset Key Concept Subset a set A is a subset of set B if every element of A is also an element of B. 8. 12. 14} Since A and B have exactly the same elements. x ! N and x # 14 } In roster form. x ! N and x # 14 } State whether A = B or not. 8. 10. 10. 14} and B = {x : x is a multiple of 2. 10. b. 9. 6.4. then n(A) = n(B). 9} and B = { 7. 8. 10 } 10 . Solution A = {2. A = B 1. 12. 8.7 Let A = {2. c. d } and B = { d. a. c } Set A and set B contain exactly the same elements ` A = B Note If two sets A and B are equal. 12. But. b. 4. 6. then A and B need not be equal thus equal sets are equivalent but equivalent sets need not be equal Example 1. Consider the sets A = {7. 6. B = {2. 14} and B = {x : x is a multiple of 2. 4.Chapter 1 For example. In symbol we write A 3 B Reading Notation 3 is a subset of (or) is contained in read A 3 B as ‘A is a subset of B’ or ‘A is contained in B’ M is not a subset of (or) is not contained in read A M B as ‘A is not a subset of B’ or ‘A is not contained in B’ For example. 8. 4. Consider the sets A = { a.

11 . (iii) the empty set Q is a proper subset of every set except itself (Q has no proper subset). 7.Theory of Sets We see that every element of A is also an element of B.e. B is called super set of A. A is a proper subset of B For example..4. thus Q 3 {a.e.. but Q ! {a. i. Reading Notation 1 is a proper subset of read A 1 B as. the notation A 3 B means A is a subset of B. 8} and B = { 5. A 3 A for any set A the empty set is a subset of any set i. Q and the set itself. It is true that x ! {x}. Consider the sets A = {5. then A = B. if A = B then A 3 B and B 3 A every set (except Q ) has atleast two subsets. b. the notation x ! A denotes x is an element of A. Q 1A if A is a set other than Q (iv) It is important to distinguish between ! and 3. c} is not true. the converse is also true i. b. In symbol we write A 1 B . 6. 8 } every element of A is also an element of B and A ! B ` A is a proper subset of B m Re ark (i) Proper subsets have atleast one element less than its superset (ii) no set is a proper subset of itself. c} is true. Note (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) every set is a subset of itself i. for any set A If A 3 B and B 3 A . but the relations x = {x} and x 3 {x} are not correct. i. 7.e.e. A 3 B .e. ` A is a subset of B. 1.8 Proper Subset Key Concept Proper Subset a set A is said to be a proper subset of set B if A 3 B and A ! B . Q 3 A .

the element 14 belongs to {8. 13} 3 {8. 6. 7. 13. 5. (a) {4. b. 7} 3 {4. 7} is also an element of {4. b. 14} (ii) every element of {a. 13} is also an element in the set {8. 11. 7} ----. 6. 11.9 Power Set Key Concept Power Set (b) {a. 5. 8}. 11. 6. 11. 13} ` {8. 14} {a. 13} 1 {8. c} but not to {b. 6. b} and hence they are equal. 7} ----. g} Solution (i) every element of the set {8.{4. 5. c} M {b.{a. So. 1. 5.11. b. ` {4. can be placed in each blank to make a true statement. 5. c} ----. 8} Solution (a) {4. f.Chapter 1 Example 1. place 3 in the blank. e. Reading Notation P(A) Power set of A the power set of a set A is denoted by P(A) 12 . 11. e. b.{b. 14} also. 13} is proper subset of {8. c} is not a proper subset of {a. g} So. So. 6. 14} the set of all subsets of A is said to be the power set of the set A. b. 14} but does not belong to {8. 13} ----. 5. ` {8. c} is also an element of {a. (i) (ii) {8. place 3 in the blank ` {8. 11. b} So. 7. 6. 11. 3 or both.9 Decide whether 1. c. f. we can also place 1 in the blank.13. c. 13. 7. 13. c} -----. g} Example 1.{4. 5. b} Hence we can only place 3 in the blank. 13.8 Write 3 or M in each blank to make a true statement. f.11. 8} (b) the element a belongs to {a. 11.{8. {a. 11. 14}. 7. c. b. 6. 11. 13. 6. 5. place M in the blank ` {a. c. 8} Since every element of {4.4.

6} has subsets Q.. 4} . 7}. 6. 7} this information is shown in the following table number of elements number of subsets 0 1 = 20 1 2 = 21 2 4 = 22 3 8 = 23 this table suggests that as the number of elements of the set increases by one.3}. n (A) = m & n [P (A)] = 2 m ` The number of proper subsets of a set with m elements is 2 m . 4 } the subsets of A are Q.3}. {7}. 6} the set A = {5. {4. {5. {. ""4. {3. Let A = {.Theory of Sets For example. the number of subsets doubles. 5}} ` P (A) = "Q. {6.3. 4} . Number of Subsets of a Finite Set For a set containing a very large number of elements. {5.3. Let us find a rule to tell how many subsets are there for a given finite set. {.. {5}.. i. it is difficult to find the number of subsets of the set.10 Write down the power set of A = {3. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) the set A = Q has only itself as a subset the set A = {5} has subsets Q and {5} the set A = {5. "3 . {4}. {. 5}} the subsets of A are Q. {4. 5}} Solution A = {3. {3. {5.. 5 . 5 . thus we have the following generalization The number of subsets of a set with m elements is 2 m the 2m subsets includes the given set itself.3. 6. {6}. {6}.. {4}. {4. 6}. 7} has subsets Q. ""4. then the power set of A is P (A) = "Q. {. {5}.e. the number of subsets in each case is a power of 2.1 13 . 5}} . {4.. "3 . Example 1. 7} and {5.

5}. . 9. 1.1 1. the collection of all students in your school the collection of all even numbers Let A = {0.1 = 255 the number of proper subsets = 25 . 3. the collection of good books the collection of prime numbers less than 30 the collection of ten most talented mathematics teachers. 2 1 x # 10} B = $ x : x ! Z.11 Find the number of subsets and proper subsets of each set (i) A = {3. (ii) A = {1. 9. Hence. 7} .A 3.A (ii) 6 ----. 4. 6. 7} (ii) A = {1. 2. 4. now. 5. 4. 2 2 14 .A (iii) 3 ----. 4. 2. Write the following sets in roster form (i) (ii) A = {x : x ! N. Which of the following are sets? Justify your answer. 6. 3. 14} . 2. 4.1 = 32 . the number of subsets = n 6 P (A) @ = 25 = 32 . 3.A (v) 7 ----.A 4 ----. 5. the set of all letters in the word ‘taMILnaDU’ 4. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 2. 12. Insert the appropriate symbol ! or g in the blank spaces (i) (iv) 0 ----.1 1 x 1 11 . 5. ` the number of subsets = 28 = 25 # 23 = 32 # 2 # 2 # 2 = 256 the number of proper subsets = 28 . Write the following sets in Set-Builder form (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) the set of all positive even numbers the set of all whole numbers less than 20 the set of all positive integers which are multiples of 3 the set of all odd natural numbers less than 15. n (A) = 8 . n (A) = 5 .Chapter 1 Example 1. 5. So. 12.1 = 31 Exercise 1.1 = 256 . 14} Solution (i) A = {3.

1. 11} C = {1. 25} P = {x : x is a letter in the word ‘Set tHeorY’} Q = {x : x is a prime number between 10 and 20} A = {x : x = 5 n. x ! W } Q = { x: . 5. 1. y # 5. 2. i. 4. 3. 2. 9. Which of the following sets are equivalent? (i) (ii) (iii) A = {2. 1} 15 . 4}. 4. 9. x2 # 16} A = {a.. 5. 3. 0 # x 1 5 } 9. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 7. 9} X = {x : x ! N.1 1 x 1 6}. 7.3 # x # 5. o. n ! N and n 1 5} B = {x : x is a consonant in english alphabet} X = {x : x is an even prime number} P = {x : x < 0. e. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 6. 7. 16. Which of the following sets are equal? (i) A = {1. C = {x : x is a prime number and a divisor of 6} X = {x : x = 2 n. u} B = {1. . n ! N and n # 5} M = {x : x = 2y .. Y = {x : x is vowel in the english alphabet} P = {x : x is a prime number and 5 1 x 1 23 } Q = {x : x ! W. x ! Z } Write the following sets in Descriptive form Find the cardinal number of the following sets Identify the following sets as finite or infinite (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) A = {4. 2. y ! W} P = {x : x is an integer. 3. 5.. B = {1. 6. 6. 10}. B = {4. . 3. 3.} B = {0. 4. 75} X = {x : x is a even natural number} Y = {x : x is a multiple of 6 and x > 0} P = the set of letters in the word ‘KarIManGaLaM’ 8. 8.Theory of Sets (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 5..

. b. d. {Q} 13. (i) (ii) (iii) A = {13. find n(a) . H = {10. 6. 11 }. Q. } 10.3. c} 14.{0. find n(a) (ii) If n (A) = 3.11.. select equal sets.3 # x 1 2} (i) Is X a subset of Y ? (ii) Is Y a subset of X ? 15. 18} X = {2. {0}. 2. examine whether A = {x : x is a positive integer divisible by 3} is a subset of B = {x : x is a multiple of 5. 13. Let X = {. 4. c. x ! N } Q = {10..{a. . c} (iii) a = {5. 1. b. 18} B = {a. (i) (iii) (iv) 19. 14.11 }. y} (ii) X = {a. 0. 15. F = {10. 18. 18. x ! N } 16. 17. . Find the number of subsets and the number of proper subsets of the following sets. Fill in the blanks with 3 or M to make each statement true. 0. find n 6 P (A) @ 18. B = {8. 8} Y = {x : x is a positive even integer 0 < x < 10} (iv) P = {x : x is a multiple of 10. 14}. 20. 8} (iv) A = Q 17.Chapter 1 (ii) (iii) A = {4. what can you say about the set A? 16 If n 6 P (A) @ = 1024 . 8} (ii) {a } ----. 14.1. 14}. c} (iv) {d} ----. If n 6 P (A) @ = 1 .{a. b. g} X = {x : x ! W. 16. 4. find n 6 P (A) @ If n 6 P (A) @ = 512 . 15. 16. 22. 24} D = {13. 18} ----. e. f. 6} (iii) {8..{18. (i) {3} ----. Write down the power sets of the following sets. 16}. B = {11. 7. 11} 11. E = {. 6. 12. 2} and Y = {x : x is an integer and .2. 12. x g N} If A = Q . C = {14. 25 30. 8. 11. 12. . 4. G = {11. A = {12. b. 22}. 12. Is Q = {Q} ? Why ? Which of the sets are equal sets? State the reason. 19}. (i) a = {x. From the sets given below.

State whether the following are true (t) or False (F) (a) 7 ! B (c) {15.1 Venn Diagrams explain a concept or a situation and sometimes we also use them to solve problems..e. then the universal set U is the set of all integers.2 The Universal Set given discussion. Sometimes it is useful to consider a set which contains all elements pertinent to a the set that contains all the elements under consideration in a given discussion is called the universal set. 17 . n(B). U = {n : n d Z} Remark the universal set may change from problem to problem. 20.5. we use diagrammatic representations called Venn Diagrams to visualise the relationships between sets and set operations. If the elements currently under discussion are integers. C Find n(A).Theory of Sets 20. the universal set is denoted by U.5. 12} 1 B 1. Let A = {x : x is a natural number < 11} B = {x : x is an even number and 1 < x < 21} C = {x : x is an integer and 15 # x # 25 } (i) (ii) (iii) List the elements of A. i. B. 1. For example. n(C).5 SET OPERATIONS We use diagrams or pictures in geometry to John Venn (1834-1883) 1. 25} 1 C (b) 16 g A (d) {10. Key Concept Universal Set a John British Venn (1834-1883) used mathematician diagrammatic representation as an aid to visualize various relationships between sets and set operations. In mathematics.

c. 1. h} . B . the universal set is generally represented by a rectangle and its proper subsets by circles or ovals inside the rectangle.5. the complement of set A is represented as shown in Fig. f} A Al U In Venn diagram Al .2 Note Al (shaded portion) Fig. h} and A = {b. b. e. B as ‘a union B’ In symbol. We write the union of sets A and B as A .Chapter 1 In Venn diagrams. Reading Notation In symbol.2 (i) (Al )l = A (ii) Ql = U (iii) U l = Q 1. e.5. Al = {x : x ! U and x g A} For example. 1. c. Union read A . B = {x : x ! A or x ! B} 18 . the complement of A is denoted by Al or A c .3 Complement of a Set Key Concept A 3 1 5 6 4 7 8 U Fig. g. 1. We write the names of its elements inside the figure. Reading Notation .4 Union of Two Sets Key Concept Union of Sets the union of two sets A and B is the set of elements which are in A or in B or in both A and B. d. 1. A . Al = {a. g. f.1 Complement Set the set of all elements of U (universal set) that are not elements of A 3 U is called the complement of A. d. Let then U = {a.

3. 14. 4. 6. B = {9.3 (i) (iv) (v) A. B = {1. then A . 6. 5. 7. 15}. 8} (ii) X = {3. 5. 6. U = U A 3 B if and only if A .Q = A (iii) (vi) A .5}. Y = {3.A = A (ii) A. 5. 5. 2. Y = Q .5 Intersection of Two Sets Key Concept Intersection of Sets the intersection of two sets A and B is the set of all elements common to both A and B. 1. 2. 3.4. there are no elements in Y ` X . 8} 1. B (shaded portion) Fig. 8} (ii) = {3. 10.A Example 1. We denote it as A + B . 5. 11.3 Note A B U U A . B = B A. 5. 2. B) and B 1 (A . 7. 4. 3. (i) A = {1. Reading Notation + Intersection read A + B as ‘A intersection B’ Symbolically.12 Find the union of the following sets. 6 . Al = U If a is any subset of U. 6} and B = {4. 1. 14. 10. B) ? Solution (i) A = {1. 5} and Y = Q Think and Answer ! Can we say A 1 (A . Let A = {11. we write A + B = {x : x ! A and x ! B} 19 . 13. 5} 1.Theory of Sets For example.B = B. 12. 4. then A . 12.5. 7. 7. 15} the union of two sets can be represented by a Venn diagram as shown in Fig. 3. 2. 12. 5. 6. 4. 13. 6} and B = {4. 8 (repeated) ` A . 14} and B = {9.

1. B (shaded portion) Fig.7 Disjoint Sets two sets A and B are said to be disjoint if there is no element common to both A and B. 11}. B = Q Solution (i) A = {10. 13} (ii) A = {5. 13} and B = {12. 13}. if A and B are disjoint sets. e} and B = {a. 12.1.13 Find A + B if (i) A = { 10.6 Disjoint Sets Key Concept A . 9. ` A + B = {12. 13. 9.7respectively A B B A B A B3A Fig. 12. there is no element in common and hence A + B = Q Remark When B 3 A . e. b. d. d. 15}.5 1.Chapter 1 For example.1. then A + U = A (vi) If A 3 B if and only if A + B = A Example 1. ` A + B = {a.6 and in Fig.1. 15} (ii) A = {5. d. In other words. 11. c. 14. e} the intersection of two sets can be represented by a Venn diagram as shown in Fig. 14. 13. 1. 11. the union and intersection of two sets A and B are represented in Venn diagram as shown in Fig.1.6 A + B (shaded portion) Fig.4 (i) A+A = A (ii) (iv) A+Q = Q A+B = B+A Think and Answer ! Can we say (A + B) 1 A and (A + B) 1 B ? (iii) A + Al = Q (v) If A is any subset of U. 12 and 13 are common in both A and B.1. f} . B = {12. 11} and B = Q . Let A = {a. then A + B = Q 20 .4 Note A B U A + B (shaded portion) Fig.5.

B .1. 5. 7. Reading Notation A-B A difference B (or) A minus B In symbol. 5. 7.B .Theory of Sets For example. 7} and B = {1. 1.A = {x : x ! B and x g A} For example. 8. we remove the elements of B from A. Solution A = {4. 3. 5. 8} and B = {11. 11} and B = {5. So A and B are disjoint sets. 3} 21 . 3. 12. Find A + B .1. We have A + B = Q .9 Example 1. 7. So A + B = Q . Hence A and B are disjoint sets.B = {x : x ! A and x g B} Similarly. ` A .1. Consider the sets A = {5. 8. 9}. 9. 11. B (shaded portion) Fig. 13}.8 Note (i) the union of two disjoint sets A and B are represented in Venn diagram as shown in Fig. 9}. we write : A .7 Difference of Two Sets Key Concept Difference of two Sets the difference of the two sets A and B is the set of all elements belonging to A but not to B.5. we write : B .B = {2. U A B two disjoint sets A and B are represented in Venn diagram as shown in Fig. 7} and B = {1.8 Disjoint sets Fig.9 (ii) If A + B ! Q . 3. 13} To find A . the difference of the two sets is denoted by A . 6.1. then the two sets A and B are said to be overlapping sets A U B A . 6. 6. Consider the sets A = {2.14 Given the sets A = {4.

e. 4} (ii) B .A) = {a. 3. 5} . Consider the sets A = {a.1.A If A = {. We have A . B = {.8 Symmetric Difference of Sets Key Concept Symmetric Difference of Sets the symmetric difference of two sets A and B is the union of their differences and is denoted by A D B .Chapter 1 Note (i) Generally.A = { 5 } 1.A . 3. 5} .11 (ii) B . Reading Notation ADB A symmetric B thus. A . the shaded portion represents the difference of the two sets A B U A B U Example 1. (B . (B .1. e.1.5.A + A = B (iv) U .A) Fig. (B . b. .Al = A (iii) U . (ii) A . 0. 4}.1.10 and in Fig.2. 0. . c} and B .1.10 B -a Fig.B) . 4} and B = {.1.15 a -B Fig. d.1.A) For example. f} . A D B = (A .1.1. f } ` A D B = (A . c.1.B ! B . 22 U A B A-B B-A A 3 B = (A . 3. d} and B = {b.A = Al the difference of two sets A and B can be represented by Venn diagram as shown in Fig.B = {.B = B . 0.12 .2.B) .2. 3.12 the shaded portion represents the symmetric difference of the two sets A and B.B Solution A = {.B) .A = {e. find (i) A .B = {a. (i) A . c.11. f} the symmetric difference of two sets A and B can be represented by Venn diagram as shown in Fig.

7. So. 4. c} 23 . 11} and B = {5.A) = {2. S = {d. 52.1. Y = {0. 7. (i) (ii) A = {0. 56}. 21. 13}. 13}. If A = {x : x is a multiple of 5 . 10. a. 3. . 7. 11. 0. find A 3 B . b. 2. 4. 5. 11} and B = {5. by listing the elements which are not common to both A and B. Hence = (A . State which of the following sets are disjoint (i) (ii) A = {2. 1. So = {2. 8. Q = {prime numbers}.2 Find A . If X = {x : x = 2n. 2.A = {9. 17. 6} and B = {.16 If A = {2. 2. c. B and A + B for the following sets. 13} Exercise 1. 11. Y (ii) X + Y U = {1. e. B (ii) A + B 3. 6. (B . 7.3. e}. 10} (iii) P = {x : x is a prime < 15} Q = {x : x is a multiple of 2 and x < 16} (iv) R = {a. 3} and B . 6. we can find the elements of A 3 B . 8} and B = Q (iii) A = {x : x ! N. 7. 18. Solution Given a A-B A3B 1. 4. 12. 2. 5. 9. 9. 4. 6. x # 20 and n ! W } Find (i) X . 7. x ! N } X = {1. 35. x # 20 and n ! N} and Y = { x : x = 4n. 9}. 2 1 x # 7} and B = {x : x ! W. 3. 4. P = {numbers divisible by 7}. 7. 25}. = {2.Theory of Sets Note (i) A 3 A = Q (ii) A 3 B = B 3 A (iii) From the Venn diagram 1.B) . 9. 12. 0 # x # 6} 2. we can write A 3 B = " x: x g A + B . x # 5} and B = { x : x is a prime number less than 11} (iv) A = {x : x ! N. b. B = {x : x is an even number < 10. 6. 3. x # 30 and x ! N } B = {1. 13} . 15. 8} . 3. 5} A = {2. 3. 3. 4.12. List the elements of the set {x : x ! P + Q} 5. Example 1. 5. Find (i) A . d.

Use the Venn diagram 1. e. 15. 16.B (ii) B .N) (vi) N . F.13 to answer the following questions (i) (ii) 14. f. A . 9. 0. b. d} and B = {b. h}. F and E + F Find n (U) . B . 9. (A . 15. B find (i) Al find (i) M . (i) List the elements of U. n (E . List the elements of E. 18}. 12. 12} and D = {5. 25}.1.D (iv) D . 10}. Find the symmetric difference between the following sets.N) 10. 5. . 20. B)l (ii) Bl (ii) N .4.M) (vii) n (M . F) and n (E + F) 3 E 1 2 4 7 9 11 10 F U Fig. x ! W} and A = {x : x is a multiple of 3}. 7. (N . 11. 5. 20}. . If U = {a. A = {a. Q = {x : x 1 5.13 Use the Venn diagram 1.C (iii) C . G and H Find G l . c. 2.3. E . f. n (A + B) . 9} and B = {2. find (i) A . 3} 13. b. 17. (v) M + (M . A and B (ii) Find A . 15. If A = {3. 2. 6. 4. 6. 12. Given that U = {3.M (iii) A + B (iii) Al . x ! N}. 9. B = {. 1. 5}. c. 7. A = {x : x is divisible by 4} and B = {x : x leaves a remainder 2 when divided by 14}. C = {2. d. f. find Al If U is the set of natural numbers and Al is the set of all composite numbers.N 7.14 to answer the following questions (i) (ii) List U. g. 11} and N = {7. (i) (ii) X = {a. 8. 1.M (iv) (A + B)l (iv) Al + Bl (iv) M l . x ! N} . 9. H)l and n (G + H)l 5 G 1 4 8 2 6 10 9 U H 3 Fig.A 11. 3. 9. d.C) (vi) n (B .N If U = {x :1 # x # 10. 8.2. B)l . d. then what is A ? (ii) (A . A + B . Bl (iii) N l .3. h. G l + H l . B = {4. n (G . 8. 18}. k} P = {x : 3 1 x 1 9. h} . g. g} .A) Let U = {x : x is a positive integer less than 50}. 11. (i) (ii) If U = {x : 0 # x # 10. g. 3. . 17}. Y = {b.A (v) n (A . 3. 10. 7. find (i) A . 0. 15.14 24 .Chapter 1 6. 10. 12.B and B . x ! W} (iii) A = {. M = {3. A = {1. H l . e.

20.B U A B A B (b) ^ A .6 (a) Representation of Set Operations Using Venn Diagram We shall now give a few more representations of set operations in Venn diagrams A. 25 Al + B (shaded portion) Fig. Bl A Fig. 1. 1. A B U A B U A + B (shaded portion) Fig. Bhl U (c) Al .19 U A B A + Bl (shaded portion) Fig 1. 1.15 U B A Fig. 1.16 Step 1 : Shade the region Al U B Step 2 : Shade the region Bl Al . 1.21 . Bl (shaded portion) Fig. 1.17 U A B Similarly the shaded regions represent each of the following set operations.Theory of Sets 1.18 U A B ^ A + Bhl (shaded portion) Fig.

1. 1. 1 A 2 3 4 B U In Fig. these four regions are numbered for reference. region 1 region 2 region 3 region 4 Example 1. this numbering is arbitrary.23 tip to shade Shaded region 1 and 4 Set Al Al (shaded portion) Fig. 1. Bl Al . Bl (iv) (A .22 Contains the elements outside of both the sets A and B Contains the elements of the set A but not in B Contains the elements common to both the sets A and B.17 Fig. Bl .26 26 Al .25 U A B tip to shade Set Al Bl Shaded region 1 and 4 1 and 2 1.Chapter 1 Re rk ma We can also make use of the following idea to represent sets and set operations in Venn diagram. 1. B)l U (v) Al + Bl Fig. 2 and 4 (iii) Al . 1. 1.22 the sets A and B divide the universal set into four regions. Contains the elements of the set B but not in A U A B Draw a Venn diagram similar to one at the side and shade the regions representing the following sets (i) Al (ii) Bl Solution (i) Al A B (iii) Al .24 U A B tip to shade Set Bl Shaded region 1 and 2 (ii) Bl Bl (shaded portion) Fig. Bl (shaded portion) Fig.

4. 5.18 From the given Venn diagram. 6.n (A + B) n (A .B) + n (A + B) + n (B . 1.28 Important Results Al + Bl For any two finite sets A and B. 9.B (A . 3. 6.A) + n (A + B) n (A . B) = n (A) + n (B). 8. when A + B = Q n (A) + n (Al ) = n (U) A-B U A B A+B Fig. we have the following useful results (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) n (A) = n (A . find the following (i) A (ii) B (iii) A . 7. 9} and 27 Fig. A . 7. B)l A B U tip to shade Set A. B) = n (A) + n (B) .A) n (A . B (iv) A + B also verify that n (A . 6.30 (iv) A + B = {3. 5.27 (v) Al + Bl A B U tip to shade Set Al Bl Shaded region 1 and 4 1 and 2 1 Al + Bl (shaded portion) Fig. B)l Shaded region 2. 3 and 4 1 (A . 1.n (A + B) Solution From the Venn diagram (i) (iii) A = {2. 8. 1. 4.B) + n (A + B) n (B) = n (B . 1. 3. 9}. B = {2. 9} . B)l (shaded portion) Fig.}. B) = n (A) + n (B) . B) = n (A .Theory of Sets (iv) (A .29 B-A Example 1. (ii) B = {3. 6.

B) = 21 By using the formula n (A .n (A + B) Solution From the Venn diagram (i) (iii) So. e. i. d.20 If n (A) = 12. d. n (A . Solution Let the population of the city be 100. n (E) = 40. Example 1. h. B) = n (A) + n (B) . e. So. Let T denote the set of people who view tamil movies and E denote the set of people who view english movies. b. B) = 10. e. B) Example 1.Chapter 1 We have n (A) = 8.20 = 85 Hence the number of people who do not view any of these movies is 100 . j } and (iv) A + B = {b. h} (ii) B = {b. n (B) = 17 and n (A .n (A + B) n (A + B) = 12 + 17 . Find the percentage of people do not view any of these two movies. n (A) + n (B) .21 = 8 Example 1. g. n (A + B) = 3 . g. the number of people who view either of these movies is n (T . n (B) = 3.31 A .85 = 15 Hence the percentage of people who do not view any of these movies is 15 28 . 1. n (A + B) = 3 . n (A .n (A + B) = 8 + 3 . 20% of the people view both tamil and english movies. c. h} n (A) = 6. f.3 = 10 Hence. c.n (A + B) = n (A . f. A = {a.n (T + E) = 65 + 40 . B) = 21 . i. e. B = {a. B (iv) A + B also verify that n (A . find n (A + B) Solution Given that n (A) = 12. j} Fig. then n (T) = 65.n (A + B) = 6 + 7 . B) = n (A) + n (B) . h. B) c d b e h f i j B B U g n (A) + n (B) . n (B) = 7. now n (A) + n (B) . B) = 8. now a a A n (A) + n (B) . n (T + E) = 20 .3 = 8 Hence. b.19 From the given Venn diagram find (i) A (ii) B (iii) A . n (B) = 17 and n (A .n (A + B) = n (A . E) = n (T) + n (E) .21 In a city 65% of the people view tamil movies and 40% view english movies.

36 x = 36 Hence.1000 = 36 Hence.x Fig. Aliter From the Venn diagram.22 tT e E 45 20 20 Fig.32 In a survey of 1000 families.Theory of Sets Aliter From the Venn diagram the percentage of people who view at least one of these two movies is 45 + 20 + 20 = 85 Hence. 552 families use gas stoves. 36 families use both the stoves. then n (E + G) = x . Using the result n (E . G) = n (E) + n (G) . 1.x + x + 552 .23 In a class of 50 students.33 . G) = 1000 . n (E .x & x = 1036 . Find how many students passed in mathematics? Solution Let M = the set of students passed in Mathematics S = the set of students passed in Science 29 e E G G 484 .x = 1000 & . 1. each of the student passed either in mathematics or in science or in both.x = 1000 & 1036 . it is found that 484 families use electric stoves. If all the families use atleast one of these two types of stoves. n (G) = 552. then n (E) = 484. find how many families use both the stoves? Solution Let E denote the set of families using electric stove and G denote the set of families using gas stove. 10 students passed in both and 28 passed in science.85 = 15 Example 1. 484 . 36 families use both the stoves.x = . Example 1.n (E + G) 1000 = 484 + 552 . Let x be the number of families using both the stoves .x x 552 . the percentage of people who do not view any of these movies = 100 .

1. B) = 30. then find the minimum and maximum number of elements in A . Find the number of persons who do not read either of the two papers. 7. 6. 7. 3. n (M + S) = 10 .35 If A and B are two sets such that A has 50 elements. 11}. 7. find n (A . find n (B) .3 1. find n (A + B) and n (. S) = 50 We have n^ M .Bh = 30. 12. If n (. Find n^ Bh the population of a town is 10000.28 = 22 = n^ M h + n^ S h . n (Al ) = 17 .34 number of students passed in Mathematics = x + 10 = 22 + 10 = 32 Exercise 1. how many elements does A + B have? If A and B are two sets containing 13 and 16 elements respectively. M M N n U = {5. Find (i) (ii) (iii) the number of students who play Foot ball only the number of students who play Volley ball only the total number of students in the school 30 M = {5.10 n^ M h = 32 x 10 18 Fig. 13} Fig. 8. B) = 35.) . n (A) = 16. n^ A + Bh = 60.) = 38. 4. n (A . B) .n^ M + S h M M S S 50 = n^ M h + 28 . 8. 1500 persons read both the newspapers. n (Bl ) = 20 . n (M . 1. n (S) = 28. If n (A) = 26. Let A and B be two finite sets such that n^ A . n (B) = 10. 6. 9. Place the elements of the following sets in the proper location on the given Venn U diagram. out of these 5400 persons read newspaper A and 4700 read newspaper B. 10. .Chapter 1 then. n (A) = 13 . B has 100 elements. 270 students play Volley ball and 120 students play both games. Sh & Aliter From the Venn diagram x + 10 + 18 = 50 x = 50 . all the students play either Foot ball or Volley ball or both. n (A + B) = 12. 11. 10. B has 65 elements and A . 9. n (A . 300 students play Foot ball. n = {5. Bh = 180. 10} 2. 9. In a school. 8. 6. n^ A . 5. B ? If n (A + B) = 5.

B) . In a School 150 students passed X Standard examination. How many families speak both tamil and Urdu.B) = 32 + x. 11 can do both. Competition Percentage of Students elocution 55 Drawing 45 Both 20 16. A and B are two sets such that n (A . 31 .A) = 5x and n (A + B) = x Illustrate the information by means of a Venn diagram. In a village there are 60 families. the following table shows the percentage of the students of a school who participated in elocution and Drawing competitions. Find the percentage of population who use neither of these soaps. Calculate (i) the value of x (ii) n (A . Pradeep recently reported the following information to the management of the utility. 50 can climb poles. Out of these 50 students obtained first class in both English and Mathematics. 55 can cut tall trees. 14. Find how many take coffee but not tea. if each person takes atleast one of the drinks. Is this information correct? 11. the employees in his section cut down tall trees or climb poles. How many students secured first class in English only? In a group of 30 persons. Given that n (A) = n (B) . 18 take tea. 17. out of 100 employees in my section. Draw a Venn diagram to represent this information and use it to find the percentage of the students who (i) participated in elocution only (ii) participated in Drawing only (iii) do not participate in any one of the competitions. 10 take tea but not coffee. out of which 1300 use brand a soap and 1050 use brand B soap and 250 use both brands. 95 students applied for Group I and 82 students applied for Group II in the Higher Secondary course.Theory of Sets 10. 15. 12. 115 students secured first class in Mathematics. out of these 28 families speak only tamil and 20 families speak only Urdu. 6 can’t do any of the two. If 20 students applied neither of the two. 13. how many students applied for both groups? Pradeep is a Section Chief for an electric utility company. In an examination 150 students secured first class in English or Mathematics. a village has total population 2500. n (B .

Otherwise. It is denoted by P(A).1 the set of all elements of the universal set that are not elements of a set a is called the complement of A. two sets A and B are said to be equal if they contain exactly the same elements. the number of subsets of a set with m elements is 2 m . If A and B are disjoint sets. when A + B = Q › › › › › › › › › › › › › › › › 32 . we have (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) n (A) = n (A . the number of proper subsets of a set with m elements is 2 m . It is denoted by Al . the union of two sets A and B is the set of elements which are in A or in B or in both A and B.A) For any two finite sets A and B.B) + n (A + B) + n (B . B) = n (A) + n (B). (B . a set containing no element is called the empty set If the number of elements in a set is zero or finite. B) = n (A) + n (B) . Symmetric difference of two sets A and B is defined as A 3 B = (A . the intersection of two sets A and B is the set of all elements common to both A and B. the set is called a finite set.A) + n (A + B) n (A . a set A is a proper subset of set B if A 3 B and A ! B the power set of the set A is the set of all subsets of A.Chapter 1 Points to Remember › › A set is a well-defined collection of distinct objects Set is represented in three forms (i) Descriptive Form (ii) Set-builder Form (iii) roster Form the number of elements in a set is said to be the cardinal number of the set.B) .n (A + B) n (A . a set A is a subset of a set B if every element of A is also an element of B.B) + n (A + B) n (B) = n (B . B) = n (A . the set is an infinite set.A) n (A . then A + B = Q the difference of two sets A and B is the set of all elements belonging to A but not to B.

a standard definition of the real numbers. The development of calculus around 1700 A. Natural numbers came into existence when man first learnt counting.D. algebraic number theory and laid the foundations for the concept of the real numbers. To rationalise the denominator of the given irrational numbers. 2. RIchaRd dedekInd (1831-1916) Richard Dedekind (1831-1916) belonged to an elite group of mathematicians who had been students of the legendary mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss. are called Real Numbers. etc. Integers. To understand the existence of non terminating and non recurring decimals. time. The Egyptians had used fractions around 1700 BC. 33 .SIMEON POISSON Main Targets ● ● ● ● ● ● To recall Natural numbers.Real Number System REAL NUMBER SYSTEM Life is good for only two things. around 500 BC. the Greek mathematicians led by Pythagoras realized the need for irrational numbers. The extensions became inevitable as the science of Mathematics developed in the process of solving problems from other fields. To classify rational numbers as recurring / terminating decimals. loss. To represent terminating / non terminating decimals on the number line.. speed. Negative numbers began to be accepted around 1600 A. He did important work in abstract algebra.D. The system of real numbers has evolved as a result of a process of successive extensions of the system of natural numbers. George Cantor can be considered the first to suggest a rigorous definition of real numbers in 1871 A. He was one of the few mathematicians who understood the importance of set theory developed by Cantor. To understand the four basic operations in irrational numbers.1 Introduction All the numbers that we use in normal day-to-day activities to represent quantities such as distance. Dedekind came up with the notion now called a Dedekind cut. While teaching calculus for the first time at Polytechnic. temperature. area. Whole numbers. discovering mathematics and teaching mathematics . profit. used the entire set of real numbers without having defined them clearly.D.

g } 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The line extends endlessly only to the right side of 0.1. i. 2. but 0 g N 3) N 1 W W N 2.3. let us recall various types of numbers that you have learnt in earlier classes. g } The line extends endlessly on both sides of 0. The smallest natural number is 1.3 Integers The natural numbers. 2.1 natural numbers The counting numbers 1. 2) Every whole number need not be a natural number. N = {1. 2.2. g are called natural numbers. their negative numbers together with zero are called integers. First. 3.2 Whole numbers The set of natural numbers together with zero forms the set of whole numbers. The set of all natural numbers is denoted by N.e. The smallest whole number is 0 Remark 1) Every natural number is a whole number. but there is no largest number as it goes up continuously.1.Chapter 2 In this chapter we discuss some properties of real numbers. Z is derived from the German word ‘Zahlen’. 2. For. 2. The set of whole numbers is denoted by W . 1. 3.1. means ‘to count’ The set of all integers is denoted by Z Z = { g . 3. W = { 0. 2.1. 0 d W . . 3. 1.. . g} 1 Remark 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The line extends endlessly only to the right side of 1. 0. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 34 2 3 4 5 .

. 2) Every integer n is also a rational number. 3) N 1 W 1 Z W N Z 2.1 . 2. 4 4 35 Can you correlate the word ratio with rational numbers ? 2) Think and answer ! . 6 8 1 The set of all rational numbers is denoted by Q . 2) Every whole number is an integer.1 Find any two rational numbers between 1 and 3 . example 2.4 Rational numbers p A number of the form . 3 g are called positive integers. 7 are rational numbers. p Q = ' : p ! Z. since we can write n as n . 1 3) N 1 W 1 Z 1 Q Z W Q N Important Results 1) If a and b are two distinct rational numbers. . 3 = 3 .1. then a + b is a rational number 2 between a and b such that a < a + b < b .3 g are called negative integers. . where p and q are both integers and q ! 0 is called a q rational number. q ! Z.Real Number System 1.2.4 . Remark Think and answer ! Is zero a positive integer or a negative integer? 1) Every natural number is an integer. negative or zero.4 0 2 1 4 1 2 3 4 We find numbers in between integers 1 2 Remark 1) A rational number may be positive. . For example. 2 There are infinitely many rational numbers between any two given rational numbers.5 . and q ! 0 1 q -2 3 1 -1.1.

1 are two among them 8 Exercise 2.1 1.4375 Let us express 7 in decimal form. case (i) The remainder becomes zero 7 = 0.Chapter 2 Solution A rational number between 1 and 3 = 1 ` 1 + 3 j = 1 (1) = 1 4 4 2 4 4 2 2 Another rational number between 1 and 3 = 1 ` 1 + 3 j = 1 # 5 = 5 2 4 2 2 4 2 4 8 The rational numbers 1 and 5 lie between 1 and 3 2 8 4 4 Note There are infinite number of rationals between 1 and 3 . 2. Find any two rational numbers between . we get the decimal representation q by long division. State whether the following statements are true or false. 3. The rationals 1 and 4 4 2 5 that we have obtained in Example 2. (iii) Every integer is a rational number.2 . we observe that the remainder becomes zero after a few steps. (vi) Every integer is a whole number. 36 .5 and . Is zero a rational number ? Give reasons for your answer. (i) Every natural number is a whole number. (ii) Every whole number is a natural number. 7 7 2. When we divide p by q using long division method either the remainder becomes zero or the remainder never becomes zero and we get a repeating string of remainders.2 decimal Representation of Rational numbers If we have a rational number written as a fraction p . (v) Every rational number is an integer. (iv) Every rational number is a whole number. Then 16 16 In this example.

11 Thus. So. using long division method we can express the following 64 rational numbers in decimal form as 60 48 1 = 0.5. 16 16 7.32.0000 44 60 55 50 44 60 55 50 j 1. comes to an end) q the decimal expansion is called terminating. the decimal expansion of a rational number need not terminate. 37 .4375 Also the decimal expansion of 7 terminates. let us express 5 .00000000 21 10 7 30 28 20 14 60 56 40 35 50 49 10 22 = 3.0000 60 10 6 40 36 40 36 40 36 40 j 7 = 1. 0 Key Concept When the decimal expansion of Terminating Decimal p terminates (i. 7 and 22 in decimal form. 9 = 0.0. case (ii) The remainder never becomes zero Does every rational number has a terminating decimal expansion? Before answering the question. we observe that the remainders never become zero.1666g .054 120 2 5 25 64 500 112 In these examples.1666g 6 7.4. 11 6 7 0.142857 1g j 7 ` 5 = 0.142857 142857g 7 22..8 = .4545g 11 5. 6 3.140625. In the above examples.Real Number System 0. the decimal expansion terminates or ends after a 80 80 finite number of steps.e. we have a repeating (recurring) block of digits in the quotient. .4545g . 7 = 1. 527 = 1.0000 Similarly. Also we note that the remainders repeat after some steps.

142857 7 The following table shows decimal representation of the reciprocals of the first ten natural numbers. 7 = 1. To simplify the notation.Chapter 2 Key Concept In the decimal expansion of Non-terminating and Recurring p when the remainder never becomes zero.16 11 6 22 = 3. 11 6 7 5 = 0.25 0. we can write the expansion of 5 .45 .5 0. Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Thus we see that. 7 and 22 as follows.4545g = 0. A rational number can be expressed by either a terminating or a non-terminating and recurring decimal expansion.16666g = 1. So. In this case.2 0.3 0. q we have a repeating (recurring) block of digits in the quotient. we place a bar over the first block of the repeating (recurring) part and omit the remaining blocks.142857 0. Obviously.1 Type of Decimal Terminating Terminating Non-terminating and recurring Terminating Terminating Non-terminating and recurring Non-terminating and recurring Terminating Non-terminating and recurring Terminating . the reciprocals n of natural numbers are rational numbers.1 0.16 0. We know that the reciprocal of a number n is 1 .142857 1452857 g = 3.125 0.0 0. the decimal expansion is called non-terminating and recurring. 38 Reciprocal 1.

3 Express the following in the form (i) 0.28 = 28 = 7 100 25 2.6 (vi) 1. where p and q are integers q (iv) 0.625 = 625 = 5 1000 8 (iii) 0.75 Solution (i) 0. q This method is explained in the following example example 2.2 Representing a non-terminating and Recurring decimal expansion in the form P q p The expression of non-terminating and recurring decimal expansions in the form q (p. 2. where p and q are integers and q ! 0. (i) 0.Real Number System The converse of this statement is also true.4 Solution (i) Let x = 0.1 Representing a Terminating decimal expansion in the form P q p Terminating decimal expansion can easily be expressed in the form (p. That is. if the decimal expansion of a number is terminating or non-terminating and recurring. Then x = 0.001 p .47 = 47 99 .5625 p .625 = 75 = 3 100 4 (iii) 0. example 2.2. We shall illustrate this with examples.2.474747g = 47 + 0. q ! Z and q ! 0) is not quite easy and the process is explained in the next example.47 .47 (ii) 0.5625 = 5625 = 45 = 9 10000 80 16 (iv) 0. then the number is a rational number.57 (iv) 0. q ! Z and q ! 0).75 (ii) 0.2 Express the following decimal expansion in the form and q ! 0.245 (v) 0. multiplying both sides by 100.474747g Since two digits are repeating.474747g = 47 + x 99 x = 47 x = 47 99 39 ` 0. q (iii) 0. we get 100 x = 47.28 (ii) 0.

2 + x 9 x = 5. Then x = 0. multiplying both sides by 1000.57777g Multiplying both sides by 10.6666g = 6 + x 9x = 6 x = 6 = 2 ` 0. Then x = 0.5 = 1 5 9 . we get 10 x = 6. Then x = 0.6 = 2 9 3 3 (vi) Let x = 1.245 .3 + 0.001001001g = 1 + 0.3 + x ` 1.5555g = 14 + 1.55555g Multiplying both sides by 10. we get 10 x = 5.3 x = 24.5 .2 x = 5. we get 10 x = 15. Then x = 1.57.6 .3 99 0.Chapter 2 (ii) Let x = 0.245 = 243 = 27 990 110 (v) Let x = 0.x = 1 999 x = 1 x = 1 999 (iii) Let x = 0.001 .001001001g = 1 + x 1000 x .57 = 52 = 26 90 90 45 (iv) Let x = 0.001 = 1 999 = 5.545454g = 24. we get 100 x = 24.2 + 0.2454545g 99 x = 24.001001001g Since three digits are repeating.5555g = 14 + x 9 x = 14 x = 14 9 40 = 24.7777g ` 0. Then x = 0. we get 1000 x = 1.2 9 52 x = ` 0.2454545g Multiplying both sides by 100.66666g Multiplying both sides by 10.66666g = 6 + 0.57777g = 5.

11 = . (i) 7 16 Solution (i) 16 = 24 7 . If a rational number p p can be expressed in the form m .11 has a non-terminating and recurring decimal 2 m # 5 n 75 17 = 17 = 17 . 7 has a terminating decimal expansion. n ! W .112 75 3#5 Since it is not in the form expansion. where p and q are integers and q not equal to zero q To determine whether the decimal form of a rational number will terminate or nonterminate we can make use of the following rule. 200 8 # 25 200 23 # 52 41 . where p ! Z and q 2 # 5n m. example 2. then the rational number will have a terminating decimal expansion. (iv) p . Otherwise. So. . 7 = 7 = 16 16 24 2 4 # 50 (ii) 150 = 2 # 3 # 52 13 = 13 150 2 # 3 # 52 Since it is not in the form expansion. 13 has a non-terminating and recurring decimal 2 # 5 n 150 m (ii) 13 150 (iii) .Real Number System So.11 75 (iv) 17 200 p . classify the decimal expansion of the following numbers as terminating or non-terminating and recurring. every number with a non-terminating and recurring decimal expansion can be p expressed in the form . the rational number will have a non-terminating and recurring decimal expansion. So 17 has a terminating decimal expansion. (iii) . This result is based on the fact that the decimal system uses ten as its base and the prime factors of 10 are 2 and 5.4 Without actually dividing.

999g .9 = 1 (a 1 is rational number) We have proved 0.416 2. Convert the following rational numbers into decimals and state the kind of decimal expansion. 4 . Also this result is consistent with the fact that 3 # 0. 0. 6 from the decimal 7 7 7 7 expansion of 1 . But this is not the case. Exercise 2.9 into a rational number. That is.9 = 1.9 . 13 Find the decimal expansions of 1 and 2 by division method. (i) 42 (ii) 8 2 (iii) 13 (iv) 459 100 55 500 7 (v) 1 (vi) . (i) 0.18 (iv) 1. (ii) 0.7 11 13 3 32 Without actual division.4999g .3 (iii) 0. it can be shown that any terminating decimal can be represented as a non-terminating and recurring decimal expansion with an endless blocks of 9s.3 (vii) 19 (viii) . Find the number of digits in the repeating block. Then x = 0. 3.Chapter 2 example 2. 2.2 1. Express 1 in decimal form. find which of the following rational numbers have terminating decimal expansion.9999g . Solution Let x = 0. For example 6 = 5.9999g = 9 + x ( ( For your Thought 9x = 9 x = 1.9 = 1. 5 . 3 Similarly. we get 10x = 9.99999g = 9 + 0.0001 (vi) 0.45 4.5 = 2.5 Convert 0. deduce the decimal expressions of 3 . 5.333g = 0. (i) 5 (ii) 11 (iii) 27 (iv) 8 64 12 40 35 Express the following decimal expansions into rational numbers.427 (v) 7. 7 42 . It is clear from the above argument that 0.9999g is less than 1. Isn’t it surprising? Most of us think that 0. while 3 # 1 = 1 .99999g Multiplying by 10 on both sides. Without using the long 7 7 division method.

Key concept Irrational Number A number having a non-terminating and non-recurring decimal expansion is called an irrational number.2020020002g are a few examples of irrational numbers. there is a need to extend the system of rational numbers. 5 . r. 2 . Note In fact. Thus. We usually take 22 ( a rational number) as an approximate value for r (an irrational 7 number). Is it recurring? It is true that there is a pattern in this decimal expansion. Thus. 43 . 3 . the pythagorians. it cannot be written in p the form . we can generate infinitely many non-terminating and non-recurring decimal expansions by replacing the digit 8 in (1) by any natural number as we like. In other words there are numbers whose decimal expansions are non-terminating and non-recurring. q For example. which are not rationals.Real Number System 2. followers of the famous Greek mathematician Pythagoras. were the first to discover the numbers which cannot be written in the form of a fraction. Numbers of this type are called irrational numbers. So it cannot represent a rational number. We have also seen that there are infinitely many rational numbers between any two given rational numbers. where p and q are integers and q ! 0 . These numbers are called irrational numbers. We have represented rational numbers on the number line. 0. but no block of digits repeats endlessly and so it is not recurring. know about r : In the late 18th centurary Lambert and Legendre proved that r is irrational. 17 . Pythagoras 569BC . this decimal expansion is non-terminating and non-repeating (non-recurring).808008000800008g (1) . In fact there are infinitely many more numbers left on the number line. Consider the following decimal expansion 0. Around 400 BC.3 Irrational numbers Let us have a look at the number line again. e. So.479 BC This is non-terminating.

The following diagram illustrates the relationships among the sets that make up the real numbers Real numbeRs R Rational Numbers Q Integers Z Whole Numbers W Natural Numbers N Irrational Numbers 44 . The set of all real numbers is denoted by R . George Cantor and R. In other words. each point corresponds to a unique real number. there is a unique point on the real number line and corresponding to every point on the number line there exists a unique real number. German mathematicians. And every real number can be represented by a unique point on the number line. if a real number is not a rational number. Thus. Thus. on the number line. every real number is either a rational number or an irrational number.4 Real numbers Key Concept Real Numbers The union of the set of all rational numbers and the set of all irrational numbers forms the set of all real numbers. Dedekind proved independently that corresponding to every real number.Chapter 2 Classification of Decimal Expansions decimal expansions Terminating (Rational) non-Terminating Repeating (Rational) non-Repeating (Irrational) 2. then it must be an irrational number.

4142135g 1 2. (i) The decimal expansions of 3. 9 .Real Number System Let us find the square root of 2 by long division method. For example. 6 . (iii) The square root of every positive but a not a perfect square number is an irrational number 2. 45 .. OA = 1 unit Draw AB=OA such that AB = 1unit.00 00 00 00 00 1 24 100 96 281 2824 28282 282841 2828423 28284265 400 281 11900 11296 60400 56564 383600 282841 10075900 8485269 159063100 141421325 17641775 h 2 = 1. 5. 9 = 3. 25 .1 Representation of Irrational numbers on the number line Let us now locate the irrational numbers (i) Locating 2 on the number line. Thus 4 . Mark points O and A such that O represents the number zero and A represents the number 1.e.g are non-terminating and non-recurring and hence they are irrational numbers. Draw a number line.4. (ii) The square root of every positive integer is not always irrational. Join OB. g are rational numbers. i. 2 and 3 on the number line. 25 = 5 g . 1. 4 = 2.4142135g ` If we continue this process. we observe that the decimal expansion has non-terminating and non-recurring digits and hence Note 2 is an irrational number.

(11is not a perfect square number) 81 = 9 = 9 . Clearly OC = OB = 2 . OD = OC + CD 2 2 2 3 D 1 C E 2 32 1 A = ^ 2h + 1 = 3 2 O -3 -2 -1 0 1 ` OD = 1 3 3 Fig. Draw a number line.83 = 0. C corresponds to 2 on the number line.505500555g is an irrational number.6 Classify the following numbers as rational or irrational. (iv) 0.505500555g . a rational number. by Pythagorean theorem.6 With O as centre and radius OB.83 is a rational number.83 (v) 1. ` 1. ` OC = 2 2 unit.0625 is a rational number. 1 (iii) 0.0625 (iv) 0. ` 0. example 2. Thus. 2. (i) 11 Solution (i) (ii) 11 is an irrational number. 2. (ii) Locating 3 on the number line. Draw CD= OC such that CD = 1 unit. draw an arc to intersect the number line at C on the right side of O.8333g The decimal expansion is non-terminating and recurring. E represents 3 on the number line. 46 (ii) 81 (iii) 0. Mark points O and C on the number line such that O represents the number zero and C represents the number 2 as we have seen just above. Clearly OE = OD = 3 . Join OD B 2 In right triangle OCD. ` 0.Chapter 2 In right triangle OAB. by Pythagorean theorem.7 With O as centre and radius OD. OB2 = OA2 + AB2 = 12 + 12 OB2 = 2 OB = 2 -3 -2 -1 B 2 1 A C 2 O 0 1 1 2 3 Fig. Thus.0625 is a terminating decimal. draw an arc to intersect the number line at E on the right side of O. (v) The decimal expression is non-terminating and non-recurring.

. and 7 11 0. z represent rational or irrational numbers. y.09 (i) x3 = 8 Solution (i) (ii) (8 is a perfect cube) x3 = 8 = 2 & x = 2 .714285. 7 11 0.e. an irrational number.714285g Solution 7 5. there are infinitely many such numbers. between 0.) We find three numbers whose decimal expansions are non-terminating and nonrecurring.8181g 49 11 9. x2 = 81 = 92 & y= (81 is a perfect square) 3 ...75055005550005g example 2..8181.000000 0.714285 9 = 0. a rational number. (iii) y2 = 3 2 (iv) z2 = 0. & x = 9.8181g = 0. (ii) x2 = 81 (iii) y2 = 3 (iv) z2 = 0.81 7 11 To find three irrational numbers between 5 and 9 (i.0000 88 10 7 20 30 11 28 90 20 88 14 20 60 j 56 40 35 50 j 5 = 0..72022002220002g 0.09 = 9 = ` 3 j 100 10 3 .Real Number System example 2.8 In the following equations determine whether x.73033003330003g 0. Three such numbers are 0. a rational number. & z= 10 3 47 . Infact. a rational number.7 Find any three irrational numbers between 5 and 9 .

2.72 3. the second 3.8. We know that 3.1011001110001g Find any two rational numbers between 0. Find any two irrational numbers between 0.74 3.4 3. 2.73 3.8. This will help us to represent a real number on the number line. 3 and 5. So. It will look like as shown in Fig.2 3.8 3.8 Divide the portion between 3 and 4 into 10 equal parts and mark each point of division as in Fig 2.5 3.6 3.8 Fig. 3.7 3. 2. let us focus on the portion between 3.5 3.75 3. 4.4.9 4 Fig.7 3.1011001110001g and 2. Let us look closely at the portion of the number line between 3 and 4.7 and 3.4 3.9 4 3.8. To view this clearly take a magnifying glass and look at the portion between 3 and 4. Locate 5 on the number line. 7.71 3.1 3. 2.8 (Fig. 6.7 and 3.12122122212222g and 0.776 on the number line. 2.3 3.8 3.5. and so on.2 Representation of Real numbers on the number line We have seen that any real number can be represented as a decimal expansion.6 3. Find a rational number and also an irrational number between 1.77 3.16.1 3.7 3. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 3 3. 8.9) 3 3.2 3.776 lies between 3.15 and 0.79 3.78 3. Find any three irrational numbers between Find any two irrational numbers between 3 and 3. Then the first mark to the right of 3 will represent 3. Now 3.776 lies between 3 and 4.1.9 48 .76 3.3 1. Let us locate 3. 7 7 Find any two irrational numbers between 3 and 2.3 3. 5. 2. Insert any two irrational numbers between 4 and 5 .2122122212222g 2.Chapter 2 Exercise 2.

example 2.10 The first mark represents 3. 2. and so on.263 into 10 equal parts and use a magnifying glass to visualise that 4. we magnify the portion between 3.774 3.776 3.771 3.778 3.77 and 3.26 and 4.776 lies between 3.771.3 Step 3: Divide the portion between 4. To view this portion clearly. This process of visualisation of representation of numbers on the number line.73 3.9 Visualise 4.772.8 as shown in Fig 2.Real Number System Again divide the portion between 3. The first mark will represent 3. let us consider a real number with a non-terminating recurring decimal expansion and try to visualise the position of it on the number line. the next mark 3.72. that is upto 4.777 3. upto 4 decimal places.26 on the number line. 3. 2. We magnify this portion.2 and 4. So.26 lies between 4. Now.71 3.78 Fig. we can visualise the position of a real number with a terminating decimal expansion on the number line.775 3.26 lies between 4 and 5 Step 2: Divide the portion between 4 and 5 into 10 equal parts and use a magnifying glass to visualise that 4.2 and 4.11 Step 1: First we note that 4.262 and 4.77 3.776 is the 6th mark in this sub division.3 into 10 equal parts and use a magnifying glass to visualise that 4.262 and 4.773 3.7 3. So. This has been illustrated in Fig.27 into 10 equal parts and use a magnifying glass to visualise that 4.75 3. So 3.7 and 3. 3.8 into 10 equal parts.772 3.27 Step 4: Divide the portion between 4.78.7 and 3. through a magnifying glass is known as the process of successive magnification. to see clearly as in Fig.26 lies between 4.2626 Solution We locate 4.2625 and 4.779 3.263 Step 5: Divide the portion between 4.26 lies between 4.8 3.72 3. 2. by sufficient successive magnifications.71. let us divide this portion into 10 equal parts.773. the next 3.9 Again.76 3.2627 49 .26 on the number line. by the process of successive magnification.10.79 3. and so on.26 and 4.26 lies between 4.78 3.74 3.

261 4. Using the process of successive magnification (i) Visualize 3.456 on the number line.27 4.262 4. The real numbers obey closure.2623 4.267 4. The same procedure can be used to visualize a real number with a non-terminating and non-recurring decimal expansion on the number line to a required accuracy.26 4.28 4.3 4.24 4. Further every point on the number line represents one and only one real number.2621 4.11 We note that 4. Every real number has its negative real number. The division of a real number by a non-zero real number is also a real number.9 5 4.4 4.Chapter 2 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 4.25 4.8 4.2625 4. product of two real numbers is also a real number. 2. 2.265 4. associative.29 4.2626 4.22 4.26 is visualized closer to 4.2622 4.3 Properties of Real numbers ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ For any two real numbers a and b .2627 4.4.262 4.27 4. difference. a = b or a > b or a < b The sum.26 4.264 4.23 4.266 4.6 4.263 4.4 1.269 4.3 4.7 4. The number zero is its own negative and zero is considered to be neither negative nor positive. upto 4 decimal places. Exercise 2.263 Fig.2629 4. commutative and distributive laws under addition and under multiplication that the rational numbers obey.73 on the number line.2628 4.5 4.2624 4.1 4.263 than to 4.262. (ii) Visualize 6. From the above discussions and visualizations we conclude again that every real number is represented by a unique point on the number line. 50 .21 4.2 4.268 4.2 4.

Key Concept 1.Real Number System Further the sum.2) # (. Then 1 2 3 4 5 6 ab = a = b a b a b ^ a + b h^ a .2) = 4 .3 is irrational (iv) 2 is irrational 3 a = b means b2 = a and b > 0 . will be rational number. difference. Then (ii) 2 . product and quotient of two irrational numbers may sometimes turnout to be a rational number. Let a and b be positive real numbers.b is irrational (iii) a b is irrational (iv) a is irrational (v) b is irrational a b For example.b ^a + b h^a . Let us now mention some useful identities relating to square roots. Let us state the following facts about rational numbers and irrational numbers. but . The sum or difference of a rational number and an irrational number is always an irrational number 2. difference. However. 3. To avoid confusion between these two we define the symbol the principal or positive square root. Remark If a is a rational number and (i) b is an irrational number then a + b is irrational (ii) a . The result may be rational or irrational.4 square Root of Real numbers Let a > 0 be a real number. product and quotient (except division by zero) of two rational numbers.b ^ a + b h^ c + d h = 2 ac + ad + bc + bd ^ a + b h = a + b + 2 ab 51 . the sum. product or quotient of two irrational numbers need not be irrational.4.b h = a2 . The product or quotient of non-zero rational number and an irrational number is also an irrational number. difference.2 is also a square root of 4 because . 2 is a square root of 4 because 2 # 2 = 4 .b h = a . to mean (. (i) 2 + 3 is irrational (iii) 2 3 is irrational 2. Sum.

(iv) difference is not an irrational number. (vii) quotient is an irrational number. 3 3 (viii) Consider the two irrational numbers 75 and 3 .2 . (iv) Consider the two irrational numbers 5 + 3 and Their difference = (5 + 3 ) .5. (vi) product is not an irrational number. Their quotient = 75 = 3 75 = 5 is a rational number. (iii) difference is an irrational number.5 ) = 10 is a rational number.10 Give two irrational numbers so that their (i) (ii) sum is an irrational number. sum is not an irrational number. 2 and . (v) Consider the irrational numbers Their product = 3 and 5. Solution (i) Consider the two irrational numbers 2 + 3 and Their sum = 2 + 3 + (ii) 3 -2 . 3 . 18 and 2. 15 and 3.2 = 2 3 is an irrational number. (viii) quotient is not an irrational number.2 is an irrational number. (iii) Consider the two irrational numbers Their difference = 3 . Consider the two irrational numbers Their sum = 2 + (. 3 52 .2 ) = 0 is a rational number. 3 . 3 # 5 = 15 is an irrational number. (v) product is an irrational number. (vii) Consider the two irrational numbers Their quotient = 15 = 15 = 5 is an irrational number. (vi) Consider the two irrational numbers Their product = 18 # 2 = 36 = 6 is a rational number.Chapter 2 example 2. 3 and 2.( 3 .

which cannot be expressed as squares of any rational number. the index form. 2.1 Index Form of a surd The index form of a surd n a is a n For example. Surd 5 3 Index Form 52 ^14h3 1 1 Order 2 3 4 Radicand 5 14 7 50 11 14 7 50 4 74 ^50h2 ^11h5 53 1 1 1 2 5 5 11 . a is called the radicand. This type of irrational numbers are called surds or radicals. 5 are irrational numbers.5. which cannot be expressed as cubes of any rational Surds If ‘ a ’ is a positive rational number and n is a positive integer such that n a is an irrational number.Real Number System 2. order and radicand of some surds are given. then n a is called a ‘surd’ or a ‘radical’. 3. notation The general form of a surd is n a is called the radical sign n is called the order of the radical. why? 1 8 = ^8 h 1 5 8 can be written in index form as In the following table. number. 3 3. 3 7 etc. These are square roots of rational 3 numbers.5 surds We know that 2. Key Concept 2. 5 5 order n Radical sign a Radicand 1 Think and answer ! a 3 and a3 differ. are the cube roots of rational numbers.

3 81 are unlike surds. 4 5. but it cannot be converted into a mixed surd.Chapter 2 Remark If n a is a surd.3 like and unlike surds Surds in their simplest form are called like surds if their order and radicand are the same. every surd is an irrational number. For example. 80 are pure surds. For example. (ii) 10 . 3 4 12 are mixed surds. Thus. 2 3 . (i) 5 . 2. 3. A 5 3 B 2+ 3 3 7 5+ 7 10 . 2 = 52 2 =5 2 Thus 5 2 is the simplest form of 2. 3 3. 3 5 . 2. (i) 80 = 16 # 5 = 4 5 (ii) 3 2 = 54 32 # 2 = 9 # 2 = 18 (iii) 17 is a pure surd.5 mixed surds A Surd is called a mixed if its rational coefficient is other than unity For example.5.5.5. consider the surd Now 50 = 50 25 # 2 = 25 50 . then n (i) a is a positive rational number.2 Reduction of a surd to its simplest Form We can reduce a surd to its simplest form.3 3 15 + 5 3 100 12 3 4 The numbers in Column A are surds and the numbers in Column B are irrationals. but every irrational number need not be a surd. .5. 4 5 . Otherwise the surds are called unlike surds. For example. .6 5 are like surds. A mixed surd can be converted into a pure surd and a pure surd may or may not be converted into a mixed surd. 5 3 5 .4 Pure surds A Surd is called a pure surd if its rational coefficient is unity For example. In the table given below both the columns A and B have irrational numbers. 4 12 . (ii) a is an irrational number. 2.

(i) 16 2 Solution (i) (ii) 16 2 = = = = = = 3 (ii) 3 3 2 162 # 2 256 # 2 = 33 # 2 3 (iii) 2 4 5 ^a 16 = 162 h (iv) 6 3 162 # 2 = 27 # 2 = 4 512 ^a 3 = 3 33 h 33 2 3 54 ^a 2 = 4 24 h (iii) 2 4 5 (iv) 6 3 = 24 # 5 4 = 4 16 # 5 = 80 ^a 6 = 62 h 62 # 3 36 # 3 = 108 55 . n and positive rational numbers a.Real Number System Laws of Radicals For positive integers m.13 Express the following mixed surds into pure surds. 3 a3 = ^ 3 a h = a ^n ah n (i) n =a= an (ii) n example 2. (i) (i) 7 7 =7 2 1 (ii) (ii) 4 8 8 = 84 1 (iii) (iii) 3 6 6 = 63 1 (iv) 8 12 (iv) 8 12 = ^12h8 1 Solution In index form we write the given surds as follows 4 3 example 2.11 Convert the following surds into index form.12 Express the following surds in its simplest form. b we have a # n b = n ab n (iii) m n a = mn a = n m a (iv) n a = n a b b 2 3 Using (i) we have ^ a h = a . (i) Solution (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 3 3 3 32 32 64 243 256 = = = = 3 3 (ii) 64 3 (iii) 8#3 4 = 3 243 (iv) 3 256 8#4 = 82 = 8 23 # 3 4 = 2 3 4 92 # 3 = 9 3 3 81 # 3 = 64 # 4 = 3 81 # 3 = 64 # 3 4 = 43 # 3 4 = 4 3 4 example 2.

= 4+ 2 -4+ 3 = (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 18 = 2 2 9#2 = 2 2 2 + 3 .19 = . 3 36 = 6.^2 + 19 h 3 is irrational.2 . 2 2 2 19 . is rational.2 .2 2 + 4 32 (ii) (iii) 3 48 .Chapter 2 example 2.3 h (vi) 12 # 3 (iii) 18 2 2 (iv) 19 . 9 # 2 = 3 .14 Identify whether Solution 32 is rational or irrational. Hence.6. 32 = 16 # 2 = 4 2 4 is a rational number and 2 is an irrational number.1 addition and subtraction of surds example 2.^2 + 19 h = 19 .3 128 56 .6 Four basic Operations on surds Like surds can be added and subtracted.16 Simplify (i) 10 2 . 2. ` 4 2 is an irrational number and hence example 2.^4 . is rational. (i) 3 + 3 (v) 2 3 Solution (i) 3+ 3 3 is a rational number and (ii) ^4 + 2 h .3 h (ii) ^4 + 2 h . 2 here 2 is rational and 3 12 # 3 = 12 # 3 = 3 is irrational. 32 is an irrational number. Hence.^4 . 3 + 3 is irrational.3 72 . 2 is irrational. is irrational. 2.27 + 5 18 16 + 8 3 54 . is rational.15 Identify whether the following numbers are rational or irrational.

27 + 5 18 = = 16 # 3 .4 3 2 = ^2 + 24 .3 3 + 15 2 = ^.3h 3 = .3 64 3 2 3 = 23 2 +8#3# 3 2 -43 2 = 2 3 2 + 24 3 2 .3 64 # 2 8 3 2 + 8 3 27 3 2 .2 2 + 4 32 = 10 2 .18 2 .2 2 + 4 16 # 2 = 10 2 .3 2 + 3 (iii) 3 16 + 8 3 54 .2 + 16h 2 = 24 2 (ii) 48 .18 + 15h 2 + ^4 .6.3 72 .3 36 # 2 .Real Number System Solution (i) 10 2 . n a#n b = n ab (ii) 4 example 2.3 division of surds Like surds can be divided using the law n n a = b n a b 57 .6.4h 3 2 = 22 3 2 2.3 36 2 .17 Multiply (i) 3 13 # 3 5 Solution (i) (ii) 3 32 # 4 8 13 # 3 5 = 3 13 # 5 = 32 # 4 8 = = 4 3 65 4 32 # 8 2 5 # 23 = 4 4 28 = 4 24 # 24 = 2 # 2 = 4 2.9 3 + 5 9 2 = 4 3 .2 multiplication of surds Product of two like surds can simplified using the following law.9 # 3 + 5 9 # 2 16 3 .3 128 = = 3 8 # 2 + 8 3 27 # 2 .2 2 + 4 # 4 # 2 = ^10 .

4 5 = 12 44 = 12 256 4 = 12 53 = 12 125 example 2. Result n a = 12 m a m n 8 For example.19 Convert the irrational numbers LCM of 2. example 2. 3 4.20 Which is greater ? 4 5 or 3 4 Solution The orders of the given irrational numbers are 3 and 4. the greatest irrational number is the one with the largest radicand. 4 5 to the same order. (i) 3 5 = 53 = 12 12 54 (ii) 4 11 = 11 4 = 8 8 112 2. We have to convert each of the irrational number to an irrational number of the same order. 3 and 4 is 12 3 = 12 36 = 12 729 3 3.6.Chapter 2 example 2. 3 and 4. Among the irrational numbers of same order.18 Simplify Solution (i) 15 54 ' 3 6 = 15 54 = 5 3 6 (ii) 3 (i) 15 54 ' 3 6 (ii) 3 128 ' 3 64 54 = 5 9 = 6 5 # 3 = 15 128 ' 3 64 = 3 3 128 = 64 3 128 = 64 3 2 Note When the order of the surds are different. Then. we just compare the radicands. we first convert them to the same order. 58 . we convert them to the same order and then multiplication or division is carried out. Solution The orders of the given irrational numbers are 2. If the order of the irrational numbers are not the same.4 Comparison of surds Irrational numbers of the same order can be compared.

3. Now.4 3 320 4. (i) 3 108 (ii) 98 (iii) 192 59 (iv) 4 625 . we convert each irrational number as of order 12.5 1. 4 and 2 respectively (ii) descending order 3 Solution The orders of the irrational numbers LCM of 2. 4 4.2 h^ 13 + 2 h (ii) ^ 5 + 3 h 2 (iv) ^8 + 3 h^8 . Identify which of the following are surds and which are not with reasons.21 Write the irrational numbers (i) ascending order 3 2. Now we convert each irrational number as of order 12.1 48 2 (iii) 4 72 .7 128 (ii) 7 3 2 + 6 3 16 . Express the following surds in its simplest form. 4 Exercise 2. Simplify the following. 4 5 4 12 = 12 53 = 12 125 = 12 44 = 256 > 12 12 3 256 & 3 ` 125 4 > 4 5 example 2. 3 in 2 . 4 4. and 4 is 12. 8# 6 (ii) 90 (iii) 180 # 5 (iv) 4 5 ' 8 (v) 3 4 # 3 16 Simplify (i) ^10 + 3 h^2 + 5 h (iii) ^ 13 .Real Number System LCM of 3 and 4 is 12. 3 3 2 . (i) 2.50 . (i) 5 75 + 8 108 . 4. 3. 3 2 4 3 = 12 24 = = 12 43 = = 12 36 = 12 16 64 729 3 4 12 12 ` Ascending order: Descending order: 2. 4 4 and 3 are 3.3 54 (iv) 2 3 40 + 3 3 625 .3 h 3.

(iii) x + y and x . we get .22 Rationalize the denominator of 2 3 Solution Multiplying the numerator and denominator of the given number by 2 = 2 # 3 = 2 3 3 3 3 3 60 3 . (v) For rationalizing the denominator of a number.b and a . example 2. the process of converting into an equivalent expression whose denominator is a rational number is called rationalizing the denominator. then each one is called the rationalizing factor of the other. y be positive integers.7 Rationalization of surds Rationalization of Surds When the denominator of an expression contains a term with a square root or a number under radical sign. 6 3.x h are rationalizing factors of each other. 3 4 (iii) 3 2. Let a and b be integers and x . 4 5. we multiply its numerator and denominator by its rationalizing factor. (i) 6 5 (ii) 5 3 4 (iii) 3 4 5 (iv) 3 8 4 (iv) 3 6. (i) 5 # 18 (ii) (vi) 3 7#3 8 48 ' 8 72 (iii) 4 8 # 4 12 3#6 5 (v) 3 35 ' 2 7 7. Then Remark (i) ^a + x h and ^a . 2 or 3 4 3 (ii) 3 3 or 4 4 (iii) 3 or 4 10 Arrange in descending and ascending order. Express the following as pure surds. (ii) ^a + b x h and ^a . 3 (ii) 3 2.Chapter 2 5. 9 4 2. Which is greater ? (i) 8. If the product of two irrational numbers is rational. (iv) a + b is also called the conjugate of a .b x h are rationalizing factors of each other.b is called the conjugate of a + b . (i) 3 4. 4 4. Simplify the following.y are rationalizing factors of each other.

Rationalize the denominator of 1 5+ 3 = = example 2.5 -2 = 7 + 1 = a + b 7 . 3+ 5 Solution Here the denominator is 3 + 5 . So.3 5+ 3 5.3 5. 8-2 5 1 #5.5 3.3 2 = 25 22 -3 5 -^ 3h 2 Solution Here the denominator is 8 . 7 -1 7 +1 7 -1 = 7 -1 # 7 +1 61 7 -1 + 7 +1 7 -1 + 7 -1 7 +1 # 7 -1 7 +1 7 +1 .3 or the rationalizing factor is 5 .2 5 .23 1 5+ 3 Solution The denominator is 5 + 3 .Real Number System example 2.26 If Solution 7 -1 + 7 +1 3.5 2 3.3 = 5.^2 5 h 2 = 8+2 5 64 .5 3-5 5.20 = 2^4 + 5 h 4 + 5 = 22 44 = 8+2 5 44 example 2. the rationalizing factor is 1 3+ 5 = 1 # 3+ 5 3.5 3.3 5. find the values of a and b .5 = 3.25 Simplify 1 by rationalizing the denominator.3 .24 Simplify 1 by rationalizing the denominator. The rationalizing factor is 8 + 2 5 1 8-2 5 = = 1 # 8+2 5 8-2 5 8+2 5 8+2 5 2 8 . Its conjugate is 5 .3 2 = ^ 3h -^ 5h 2 = example 2.

2 h -1 2 = a + b 7 ( a = 8 .1h ^ 7 + 1h + 2 2 ^ 7h .4 3 (ii) (vi) 7 2+ 3 62 (iii) (vii) 75 5. (i) 3 2 (v) 5 .1 = ^1 + 2 h .2 1+ 2 1. x =1+ 2 +1.2 = 2 Hence.2 = -^1 .1 2 2 = 7+1-2 7 + 7+1+2 7 7-1 7-1 = 8-2 7 + 8+2 7 6 6 = 8-2 7 +8+2 7 6 = 16 = 8 + 0 7 6 3 ` 8 +0 7 3 exmaple 2. Write the rationalizing factor of the following. 3 = 1. b = 0.2 1-2 ` x .2 (iv) 2 3 5 (viii) 2 + 3 .2 h.Chapter 2 = ^ 7 ."-^1 . x 2 Exercise 2.1 j = 22 = 4.27 If x = 1 + 2 .6 1.1 ^ 7h .2 = 1 .1 j x Solution x = 1 + 2 ( 1 1 = x 1+ 2 = 1 #1. ` x . find ` x .

6 If If ^ 3 + 1h 2 4-2 3 5 +1 + 5 -1 = a + b 3 find the values of a and b . Given that 3 . when we divide one integer by another non-zero integer. 1.3 3 3 (vi) 5+ 2 5.4 .1 = a + b 5 .236. 6. As we know from our earlier classes. Rationalize the denominator of the following (i) 3 5 (ii) 2 3 3 (iii) 1 12 (iv) 2 7 11 3 (v) 33 5 9 3. 8.5 3+2 5 5 . Find the values of the following upto 3 decimal places.8 division algorithm A series of well defined steps which gives a procedure for solving a problem is called an algorithm.3 2+5 3 2 .732. 5 .5 2 1 10 + 5 4. x 2 If x = 3 + 1 . Then we write Fraction = Quotient + remainder divisor 13 = 3 2 + 5 5 For example. (1) We can rephrase this division. find the values of ` x . find the values of a and b . 1.Real Number System 2.5 = a + b 5 . find the values of x2 + 12 . find the values of a and b . 10 .162. 9. Simplify by rationalizing the denominator. 10 .414. without reference to the division operation. In this section we state an important property of integers called the division algorithm. 7. 2. If 5 + 6 = a + b 6 find the values of a and b .2 (vii) 3 +1 3 -1 (iv) (viii) 5. x 2.5 4+ 5 If x = 2 + 3 . (ii) 6 (iii) 5 . 5 +1 If 4 + 5 . 10.2 j . (i) 1 11 + 3 (ii) 1 (iii) 9+3 5 1 11 + 13 (iv) 5 +1 5 -1 (v) 3 . (i) 1 2 (v) 3 . 4. 5. totally in terms of integers. 13 = 2(5) + 3 63 . 3. we get an integer quotient and a remainder (generally a rational number).

19 = 5(3) + 4 ` quotient = 3. p � In the decimal expansion of . If a and b are any two positive integers. 3 (ii) 5. the decimal � When the decimal expansion of expansion is called non-terminating and recurring. q ! 0 when the remainder is not zero.e. (iii) 30. the q decimal is called a terminating decimal. Using division algorithm. 6 in the form a = bq + r . comes to an end. q ! 0 terminates i.7 1.28 Using division algorithm find the quotient and remainder of the following pairs. 30 = 6(5) + 0 ` quotient = 5. (i) 10. 5 We write the given pair in the form a = bq + r . 12 (iii) 27.Chapter 2 We observe that this expression is obtained by multiplying (1) by the divisor 5. In the above statement q (or) r can be zero. We refer to this way of writing a division of integers as the division algorithm. 6 We write the given pair 30. 64 . 0 # r < b as follows. 3 Points to Remember p . 0 # r < b . we have q a repeating (recurring) block of digits in the quotient. (i) 19. 0 # r < b as follows. In this case. 0 # r < b as follows.. 6 Exercise 2. 13 We write the given pair in the form a = bq + r . 3 = 13(0) + 3 ` quotient = 0. (ii) 3. then there exist two non-negative integers q and r such that a = bq + r . 5 Solution (i) 19. [6 divides 30 five times and leaves the reaminder 0] remainder = 0 remainder = 3 [5 divides 19 three time and leaves the remainder 4] remainder = 4 (ii) 3. example 2. 13 (iii) 30. find the quotient and remainder of the following pairs.

then it must be an irrational number.. n and positive rational numbers a. If a and b are any two positive integers. difference. then n a is called a ‘surd’ or a ‘radical’. 0 # r < b . then each one is called the rationalizing factor of the other. The result may be rational or irrational. For positive integers m.Real Number System � If a rational number p p . product or quotient of two irrational numbers need not be irrational. q ! 0 can be expressed in the form m . An irrational number is a non-terminating and non-recurring decimal. where p ! Z and. The sum or difference of a rational number and an irrational number is always an irrational number The product or quotient of non-zero rational number and an irrational number is also an irrational number. (Division Algorithm) 65 . there exist two non-negative integers q and r such that a = bq + r . Every real number is either a rational number or an irrational number. where p and q are both integers and q ! 0 . it cannot be written in the form . q The union of all rational numbers and all irrational numbers is called the set of real numbers. If ‘a’ is a positive rational number and n is a positive integer such that n a is an irrational number. p i. the process of converting to an equivalent expression whose denominator is a rational number is called rationalizing the denominator. Otherwise. q 2 # 5n m. � � � � � � � � � � A rational number can be expressed by either a terminating or a non-terminating repeating decimal. � � � If the product of two irrational numbers is rational. Sum. the rational number will have a non-terminating repeating (recurring) decimal. n ! W then the rational number will have a terminating decimal. b we have n (i) ^ n a h = a = n a n (ii) n a # n b = n ab n (iii) m n a = mn a = n m a (iv) n a = n a b b When the denominator of an expression contains a term with a square root or a number under radical sign.e. If a real number is not a rational number.

29 # 107 0 $ 000549 = 549 = 5. For example.900.000. thus avoiding the writing of many zeros and transposition errors.1617) John Napier was born in the Tower of Merciston.900. I began therefore to consider in my mind by what certain and ready art I might remove those hindrances . JOHN NAPIER (1550 . engineers and technicians use scientific notations when working with very large or very small numbers..4 66 .000 = 299 # 108 = 2.000. Napier. It is easier to express these numbers in a shorter way called Scientific Notation. 29.99 # 1010 92.. only considered the study of mathematics as a hobby. divisions. Napier is placed within a short lineage of mathematical thinkers beginning with Archimedes and more recent geniuses. To understand the rules of logarithms. the distance of sun from earth is about 92.49 # 10.Chapter 3 SCIENTIFIC NOTATIONS OF REAL NUMBERS AND LOGARITHMS Seeing there is nothing that is so troublesome to mathematical practice. To convert exponential form to logarithmic form and vice-versa.1 Scientific Notation Scientists.JOHN NAPIER Main Targets ● ● ● ● To represent the number in Scientific Notation.000 centimeter per second..49 1000000 10000 Merchiston campus. Sir Issac Newton and Albert Einstein. which is now at the center of Napier University’s 3. with who the is credited of invention logarithms. nor that doth more molest and hinder calculators. in 1550. The speed of light is 29.900.000 mile. square and cubical extractions of great numbers. the mass of an electron is 0 $ 000549 atomic mass units. than the multiplications. = 5. To apply the rules and to use logarithmic table.900.000 = 929 # 105 = 9.

1. This gives n. N = a # 10 . ` 9781 = 9. Example 3.m = 1m . 9 7 8 1 . To transform numbers from decimal notation to scientific notation. the exponent n is positive. So the power of 10 is 3. Key Concept Scientific Notation A number N is in scientific notation when it is expressed as the product of a decimal number between 1 and 10 and some integral power of 10.Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms That is.781 # 103 67 . the very large or very small numbers are expressed as the product of a decimal number 1 # a 1 10 and some integral power of 10. and a0 = 1 . Step 3: If the decimal is shifted to the left. Solution In integers. we define a. the decimal point at the end is usually omitted. The laws of exponents are given below: (i) (ii) am # an = am + n (Product law) (Quotient law) (Power law) (Combination law) am = am-n an (iii) ^a mhn = a mn (iv) a m # b m = ^a # bhm n For a ! 0 . Step 2: Count the number of digits between the old and new decimal point. where 1 # a 1 10 and n is an integer. Let m and n be natural numbers and a is a real number. the exponent n is negative. 3 2 1 The decimal point is to be moved 3 places to the left of its original position. the laws of exponents form the basis for calculations using powers.1 Express 9781 in scientific notation. the power of 10. a 3.zero digit to its left. If the decimal is shifted to the right.1 Writing a Number in Scientific Notation The steps for converting a number to scientific notation are as follows: Step 1: Move the decimal point so that there is only one non .

05852 # 105 . n = 6 because 1 the decimal point is shifted six places to the left. (v) 0.3 # 10.000108 5 .0063 = 0 . (vi) 0. then this movement is compensated by the factor 10 p . then this movement is compensated by the factor 10. 68 . = 9.96 = 3 4 6 4 5 9 4 0 3 9 2 8 . and if the decimal point is moved r places to the right.4 Observe that while converting a given number into the scientific notation.96 (vi) 0. if the decimal point is moved p places to the left.5 .3 Write the following numbers in scientific notation. So the power of 10 is – 4 ` 0.32078 # 10. n = –4 because the decimal point is shifted four places to the right. .3 . (ii) 205852 = 2 0 5 5 4 8 5 3 2 2 .4 .0063 Solution (i) 9345 = 9 3 3 (ii) 205852 (v) 0. 0 1 0 2 0 3 1 4 0 8 = 1.345 # 10 .2 Express 0 $ 000432078 in scientific notation.r . 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 3 2 0 7 8 4 The decimal point is to be moved four places to the right of its original position. Remark Example 3.08 # 10. n = –5 because the decimal point is shifted five places to the right. (iv) 0.000108 = 0 . = 2. n = 5 because the decimal 1 point is shifted five places to the left . (i) 9345 (iv) 0. 0 1 1 2 3 0 2 0 3 0 4 8 5 0 3 5 =8.00008035 = 0 .00008035 4 2 3 (iii) 3449098. Solution 0 . 0 0 6 3 = 6. 9 6 = 3. n = –3 because the decimal point is shifted three places to the right.Chapter 3 Example 3.44909896 # 106 .000432078 = 4. (iii) 3449098.035 # 10. n = 3 because the decimal point is shifted 1 three places to the left.

7 1 2 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 (iii) 6. Example 3. to the left if negative.000006415 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 6 .415 # 10 (iv) 9. (i) 5.236 # 105 = 523600 1.36 # 10 -9 -6 0 = 0.2 1 3 2 6 3 0 4 0 5 1 .236 5. Example 3. 4 1 5 1 0 = 0. 3 1 6 3.236 # 105 Solution (i) (ii) 5. Step 2 : Move the decimal point the number of places specified by the power of ten: to the right if positive.4 Write the following numbers in decimal form. (i) ^4000000h3 (iii) ^0.0 # 106 Now. numbers in scientific notation need to be written in decimal form. To convert scientific notation to integers we have to follow these steps.415 # 10.2 Converting Scientific Notation to Decimal Form Often.72 1. raising to the power 3 on both sides we get.72 # 109 (iii) 6.6 (iv) 9.Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms 3.00003h5 Solution (i) First we write the number (within the brackets) in scientific notation.415 6.9 5.0001h4 . Step 3 : Rewrite the number in decimal form. 4000000 = 4.2. Add zeros if necessary.36 # 10.36 9.5 Write the following in scientific notation.1 Multiplication and Division in Scientific Notation One can find the product or quotient of very large(googolplex) or very small numbers easily in scientific notion. 69 (ii) ^5000h4 # ^200h3 (iv) ^2000h2 ' ^0. Step 1 : Write the decimal number.72 # 10 = 1720000000 9 (ii) 1.00000000936 9 0 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 9 .

25 = 2. Represent the following numbers in scientific notation.5h = ^3.43 # 102 # 10.0 # 103 and 0. 0.4 # 1019 = ^5.0h3 # ^102h 4 3 = 625 # 1012 # 8 # 106 = 5000 # 1018 = 5.0h4 # ^10.0 # 102 .16h = 4.0h3 # ^106h = 64 # 1018 (ii) In scientific notation.23 (iv) In scientific notation.0 # 103h 2 (1.0 # 106 -^.00003h5 = ^3.5h 5 5 = 243 # 10.4h 106 = 4 #.003) 2 ' ^30000h 70 (ii) ^1500h3 # ^0.0 # 103 and 200 = 2.0 # 103 # 1018 = 5.0h5 # ^10.0 # 102) 3 4 3 3 = 6.0 # 1021 (iii) In scientific notation. (i) 749300000000 (iv) 543600000000000 (vii) 0.0000013307 (viii) 0. 5000 = 5. (ii) 13000000 (v) 0.6 (iv) 1.25 = 2.0 # 10.0 # 103h # (2.86 # 107 (ii) 4.25 # 10.003h7 # ^0. (i) 3.00003 = 3.0 # 10.0h4 # ^103h # ^2.9 3.1 1. ` ^5000h4 # ^200h3 = ^5.0001h2 (iv) ^0.87 # 109 (iii) 4.134 # 10.001h3 .0h2 # (103) 2 4 ^1.432 # 10.0 # 106h = ^4.0 # 10.0000000000009 Write the following numbers in decimal form.0001= 1.16 = 4.0096 (iii) 105003 (vi) 0.4 ` ^2000h2 ' ^0. (i) ^1000h2 # ^20h6 (iii) ^16000h3 ' ^200h4 (v) ^11000h3 # (0. Represent the following numbers in the scientific notation.134 # 104 (vi) 1.0 # 10.4) 4 = ^2.4 (v) 9.0001h4 = ^2.0002h5 ' ^0.0000000022 2.5 ` ^0. 2000 = 2.0 # 1022 10 Exercise 3.43 # 10.4 # 101 # 1018 = 6.Chapter 3 ` ^4000000h3 = ^4.

Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms

3.3 Logarithms
Logarithms were originally developed to simplify complex arithmetic calculations. They were designed to transform multiplicative processes into additive ones. Before the advent of calculators, logarithms had great use in multiplying and dividing numbers with many digits since adding exponents was less work than multiplying numbers. Now they are important in nuclear work because many laws governing physical behavior are in exponential form. Examples are radioactive decay, gamma absorption, and reactor power changes on a stable period. To introduce the notation of logarithm, we shall first introduce the exponential notation for real numbers. 3.3.1 Exponential Notation Let a be a positive number. We have already introduced the notation a x , where x is an integer. We knowpthat a n is a positive number whose nth power is equal to a. Now we can see how to define a q , where p is an integer and q is a positive integer. Notice that
p 1

p = p # 1 , so if the power rule is to hold then q q
1 p p 1

a q = ` a q j = ^ a hq So, we define a q = ^ a h . For example, 8 5 = ^5 8 h and 5
q p 3 p 3 -7 3

= ^3 5 h

-7

Thus, if a > 0, we have been able to give suitable meaning to a x for all rational numbers x. Also for a > 0 it is possible to extend the definition of a x to irrational exponents x so that the laws of exponents remain valid. We will not show how a x may be defined for irrational x because the definition of a x requires some advanced topics in mathematics. So, we accept now that, for any a > 0 , a x is defined for all real numbers x and satifies the laws of exponents. 3.3.2 Logarithmic Notation If a > 0, b > 0 and a ! 1 , then the logarithm of b to the base a is the number to which a to be raised to obtain b. Key Concept Logarithmic Notation

Let a be a positive number other than 1 and let x be a real number (positive, negative, or zero). If a x = b , we say that the exponent x is the logarithm of b to the base a and we write x = log a b . x = log a b is the logarithmic form of the exponential form b = a x . In both the forms, the base is same.
71

Chapter 3

For example, Exponential Form 24 = 16 83 = 2 4 Example 3.6 Change the following from logarithmic form to exponential form. (i) log4 64 = 3 Solution (i) (ii) (ii) log16 2 = 1 4 (iii) log5 ` 1 j =- 2 iv) log10 0.1 =- 1 25
3 -2 1

Logarithmic Form log2 16 = 4 log8 2 = 1 3 log4 ` 1 j =- 3 8 2

=1 8

log4 64 = 3 ( 43 = 64
1

log16 2 = 1 ( (16) 4 = 2 4 (iii) log5 ` 1 j =- 2 ( ^5 h- 2 = 1 25 25 (iv) log10 0.1 =- 1 ( ^10h- 1 = 0.1 Example 3.7 Change the following from exponential form to logarithmic form. (i) 3 = 81 (iv) (216) 3 = 6 Solution (i) (ii) 3 = 81 ( log3 81 = 4 6- =
3 4 4 1 4

1 1296 (v) ^13h- 1 = 1 13 (ii) 6- =
4

(iii) ` 1 j4 = 1 81 27

3

1 ( log 1 =–4 6 ` 1296 j 1296

(iii) ` 1 j4 = 1 ( log 1 ` 1 j = 3 81 27 4 81 27 (vi) (216) 3 = 6 ( log216 6 = 1 3 (v)
^13h- 1 = 1 ( log13 ` 1 j = - 1
1

13

13

72

Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms

Example 3.8 Evaluate (i) log8 512 Solution (i) (ii) log27 9 (iii) log16 ` 1 j 32

Let x = log8 512 . Then 8 = 512
x

(exponential form)

8 x = 83 ( x = 3
` log8 512 = 3 (ii) Let x = log27 9 . Then 27 = 9
^33h = ^3 h2
x x

(exponential form) (convert both sides to base three)

(iii)

3x 2 3 = 3 ( 3x =2 ( x = 2 3 2 ` log27 9 = 3 Let x = log16 ` 1 j . Then 32 x (exponential form) 16 = 1 32 x ^24h = 1 (convert both sides to base two) ^2h5

2

4x

= 2- ( 4x = - 5 ( x = - 5
5

4

` log16 ` 1 j = - 5 4 32 Example 3.9 Solve the equations (i) log5 x =- 3 (ii) x = log 1 64
1 4

(iii) log x 8 = 2

(iv) x + 3 log8 4 = 0 (v) log x 7 6 = 1 3 Solution (i) log5 x =- 3 5- = x x = 13 ( x = 1 125 5 x = log 1 64 1 x (exponential form) ` 4 j = 64 1 = 43 ( 4- x = 43 ( x = - 3 x 4
73
4 3

(exponential form)

(ii)

Chapter 3

(iii) log x 8 = 2 x2 = 8 x = (iv) 8 =2 2

(exponential form)

x + 3 log8 4 = 0 ( ( - x = 3 log8 4 = log8 4 –x = log8 64
3

( ^8 h- x = 64 ( x = -2

(exponential form)

( ^8 h- x = 82 (v) log x 7 6 = 1 3
1 6 1 1

( x3 = 76
1 1 1 1

1

(exponential form)

1 3 3 We write 7 = `7 2 j . Then x 3 = `7 2 j

` x = 72 =

1

7

The Rules of Logarithms 1. Product Rule:The logarithm of the product of two positive numbers is equal to sum of their logarithms of the same base. That is, log a (M # N) = log a M + log a N 2. Quotient Rule: The logarithm of the quotient of two positive numbers is equal to the logarithm of the numerator minus the logarithm of the denominator to the same base. That is, log a ` M j = log a M - log a N N Power Rule: The logarithm of a number in exponential form is equal to the logarithm of the number multiplied by its exponent. That is, log a ^ M hn = n log a M 4. Change of Base Rule: If M, a and b are positive numbers and a ! 1 , b ! 1 , then log a M = ^log b M h # ^log a bh (i) (ii) If a is a positive number and a ! 1 , log a a = 1 If a is a positive number and a ! 1 , log a 1 = 0

3.

R

a em

qk r

(iii) If a and b are positive numbers a ! 1, b ! 1 ^log a bh # ^log b ah = 1 and log a b = 1 log b a (iv) If a and b are positive numbers and b ! 1 , blogb a = a .
74

Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms

(v)

If a > 0 , log a 0 is undefined.

(vi) If b ,x and y are positive numbers other than 1 then log b x = log b y if and only if x = y . (vii) We are avoiding 1 in the base of all logarithms because if we consider one such logarithm, say log1 9 with 1 in the base, then x = log1 9 would give 1 x = 9 . We know that there is no real number x , such that 1 x = 9 . Example 3.10 Simplify (i) log5 25 + log5 625 Solution (ii) log5 4 + log5 ` 1 j 100 [a log a ^ M # N h = log a M + log a N ]

(i) log5 25 + log5 625 = log5 ^25 # 625h

= log5 ^52 # 54h = log5 56 = 6 log5 5 [a log a ^ M hn = n log a M ] = 6^1 h = 6 (ii) log5 4 + log5 ` 1 j = log5 `4 # 1 j 100 100 [a log a a = 1] [a log a ^ M # N h = log a M + log a N ] [a log a ^ M hn = n log a M ]

= log5 ` 1 j = log5 c 12 m = log5 5- 2 = - 2 log5 5 25 5 = - 2^1 h = - 2 Example 3.11 Simplify log8 128 - log8 16 Solution log8 128 - log8 16 = log8 128 16 = log8 8 = 1 Example 3.12 Prove that log10 125 = 3 - 3 log10 2 [a log a a = 1]

[a log a ` M j = log a M - log a N ] N [a log a a = 1]

Solution 3 - 3 log10 2 = 3 log10 10 - 3 log10 2 = log10 103 - log10 23 = log10 1000 - log10 8 = log10 1000 8 = log10 125 ` log10 125 = 3 - 3 log10 2
75

Chapter 3

Example 3.13 Prove that log3 2 # log4 3 # log5 4 # log6 5 # log7 6 # log8 7 = 1 3 Solution log3 2 # log4 3 # log5 4 # log6 5 # log7 6 # log8 7 = ^log3 2 # log4 3h # ^log5 4 # log6 5h # ^log7 6 # log8 7h = log4 2 # log6 4 # log8 6 = ^log4 2 # log6 4h # log8 6 [a log a M = log b M # log a b ] = log6 2 # log8 6 = log8 2 = 1 1 = 3 log2 2 log2 23 =1 [a log2 2 = 1] 3 = Example 3.14 Find the value of 25- 2 log5 3 Solution 25- 2 log5 3 = ^52h- 2 log5 3 = 5- 4 log5 3 =5 Example 3.15 Solve log16 x + log4 x + log2 x = 7 Solution log16 x + log4 x + log2 x = 7 ( 1 =7 + 1 + 1 log x 16 log x 4 log x 2 1 + 1 + 1 =7 log x 24 log x 22 log x 2 1 =7 + 1 + 1 4 log x 2 2 log x 2 log x 2 [a n log a M = log a M n ] [a log a b = 1 ] log b a log 3-4
5

1 log2 8

[a log a b =

1 ] log b a

[a log a ^ M hn = n log a M ]

[a n log a M = log a M n ] [a blogb a = a]

= 3- 4 = 14 = 1 81 3

1 1 7 1 1 8 4 + 2 + 1 B log 2 = 7 ( 8 4 B log 2 = 7 x x 1 = 7# 4 log x 2 7 log2 x = 4 24 = x ` x = 16
76

[a log a b =

1 ] log b a

(exponential form)

1 ( 8x .16 Solve Solution 1 = 1 2 + log x 10 3 1 = 1 .18 Solve log2 ^3x .Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms Example 3.1h .log2 ^ x .16 8x . we get 2 + log x 10 3 2 + log x 10 = 3 ( log x 10 = 3 . log3 y = 1 31 = y ` y=3 Put y = 3 in (1).2 = 1 x1 = 10 ` x = 10 Example 3.1 + 16 ( 5x = 15 ` x=3 77 = 3x .17 Solve log3 ^log2 xh = 1 Solution Let log2 x = y Then.3x = .1 .log2 ^ x .1h . we get [ a log a ` M j = log a M .log a N ] N (exponential form) (exponential form) (exponential form) (exponential form) 8^ x . Then log2 x = 3 23 = x ` x=8 Example 3.2h = 3 Solution log2 ^3x . Cross multiplying.1 x-2 Cross multiplying.2h = 3x .1 x-2 8 = 3x .1 j = 3 x-2 2 3 = 3x .2h = 3 log2 ` 3x .

4 .Chapter 3 Example 3.19 Prove that log5 1125 = 2 log5 6 . State whether each of the following statements is true or false. ( 7x – 4 = 5(x + 2) 7x .5x = 10 + 4 2x = 14 ` x =7 1 2 1 2 [ a log a ` M j = log a M .4 j = 1 x+2 1 5 = 7x .log5 x + 2 = 1 2 log5 c 7x .4 m = 1 2 x+2 log5 ` 7x .1 = log5 x + 2 2 log5 7x .1 3 (ii) log 1 8 = 3 log2 25 (iv) log2 ` 25 j = log2 3 3 (vi) log a ^ M .1 = log5 x + 2 2 Solution log5 7x . (i) log5 125 = 3 (iii) log4 ^6 + 3h = log4 6 + log4 3 (v) log 1 3 = .4 .4 x+2 Cross multiplying.1 log5 16 + 6 log49 7 2 Example 3.20 Solve log5 7x .log5 (16) 2 + 3 # 2 log49 7 = log5 36 .1 log5 16 + 6 log49 7 2 1 log 16 + 6 log 7 Solution 2 log5 6 5 49 2 = log5 6 .4 = 1 2 2 8 5 ` x + 2 jB log5 ` 7x .log a N ] N [ a log a M = n log a M ] n (exponential form) Exercise 3.4 .log5 4 + 3 log49 7 = log5 ` 36 j + 3 log49 49 = log5 9 + 3^1 h 4 = log5 9 + 3 log5 5 = log5 9 + log5 ^5h3 = log5 9 + log5 125 = log5 ^9 # 125h = log5 1125 ` log5 1125 = 2 log5 6 .N h = log a M ' log a N 78 2 .2 1.4 j2 = 1 2 x+2 1 log 7x .4 = 5x + 10 ( 7x .

0001 Solve the following equations.1 = 0. y and z . 6.2 = 1 144 (iii) log5 1 = 0 (vi) log0.log2 5 = log2 125 (vii) log3 25 + log3 x = 3 log3 5 (iv) log4 ^8 log2 xh = 2 8.log10 4 7. Obtain the equivalent logarithmic form of the following. Solve the equation in each of the following.log6 ^ x .log7 121 . (i) 24 = 16 (iv) 8 -2 3 (ii) 35 = 243 1 3.2 h . (iii) log7 21 + log7 77 + log7 88 .1h =1 (iii) log2 x + log4 x + log8 x = 11 6 (v) log10 5 + log10 ^5x + 1h = log10 ^ x + 5h + 1 (vi) 4 log2 x .5 .log7 24 1 log13 8 (v) 5 log10 2 + 2 log10 3 . (i) log10 3 + log10 3 (ii) log25 35 . (i) log3 ` 1 j (ii) log7 343 81 (iv) log 1 8 (v) log10 0. (ii) log 1 x = 3 (i) log2 x = 1 2 5 (iv) log x 125 5 = 7 (v) log x 0.1 = log3 ^ x + 4 h 2 Given log a 2 = x .5 8 = .log25 10 2 (iii) 10.6 log64 4 (iv) log8 16 + log 52 8 (vi) log10 8 + log10 5 . (viii) log3 ^ 5x . = 1 (v) 25 2 = 5 4 Obtain the equivalent exponential form of the following. (i) log a 15 (iv) log a ` 27 j 125 (ii) log a 8 (v) log a `3 1 j 3 79 (iii) log a 30 (vi) log a 1. 4. (ii) log9 3 = 1 (i) log6 216 = 3 2 1 = -1 (v) log64 ` j (iv) log 3 9 = 4 2 8 Find the value of the following.Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms 2. Find the value in each of the following in terms of x .3 (iii) log6 6 5 (vi) log 3 9 3 (iii) log3 y = .1 (vi) 12.001 = –3 Simplify the following. (i) log4 ^ x + 4h + log4 8 = 2 (ii) log6 ^ x + 4h .2 (vi) x + 2 log27 9 = 0 5. log a 3 = y and log a 5 = z .

characteristic is 2 and mantissa is 0.2 10. the base of the decimal number system.4997 .001 0.1 –3 –2 –1 –4 So. characteristic is 1 and mantissa is 0.1 log5 8 + 20 log32 2 2 3 3.16 or 1.4997 2. we have log 316 = log (3.e. log 3.4 Common Logarithms For the purpose of calculations. the most logical number for a base is 10.4997 31.00125 = 3 . 3.6 or 316? For example. no base designation is used. characteristic is 0 and mantissa is 0.4997 .16 = 0. It is convenient to keep the mantissa positive even though the logarithm is negative.6 = 1.01 104 0.Chapter 3 9. Scientific notation provides a convenient method for determining the characteristic. log 31.2 log10 2 (v) log5 0. in the discussion which follows.4997 0.0001 0. Logarithms to the base 10 are called common logarithms.16 # 10 . log N means log10 N .16 = 0.5 log5 10 (iv) log10 0. In 2 scientific notation 316 = 3. Thus. 316 = 10 Therefore. 80 . i. Thus. Notice that logarithm of a number between 1 and 10 is a number between 0 and 1 .16 # 10 ) = log 3. (i) log10 1600 = 2 + 4 log10 2 (ii) log10 12500 = 2 + 3 log10 5 (iii) log10 2500 = 4 .4997 . log 3.6 = 10 . Every logarithm consists of an integral part called the characteristic and a fractional part called the mantissa.. For example. What about logarithm of 3.4997 .4997 log 31.6 = 1.4997 + 2 = 2.4997 The logarithm of a number less than 1 is negative.16 = 2 log10 4 .3 10. the power of 10 determines the characteristic of logarithm.4997 . logarithm of a number between 10 and 100 is a number between 1 and 2 and so on. log N is an integer if N is an integral power of 10. Therefore.4997 log 316 = 2. Consider the following table.2 (vi) log5 1875 = 1 log5 36 .4997 . Number N Exponential Form of N log N 0.16 + log 10 2 2 = 0.4997 .1 1 10 0 0 10 10 1 1 100 10 2 2 1000 10 3 3 10000 10 4 4 10. log 316 = 2.16 = 10 . 31. Prove the following equations.

1 + 0.02871 (iii) log 0.586 Solution The mantissa of log 4586 is 0. etc. (i) log 45.04586 (vi) log 4. Example 3.0316 is 2 .6615 = 1 .4586 3 4 2 1 (ii) log 0. (i) For a number greater than 1.000987 = 9.Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms Example 3.22 Given that log 4586 = 3. the characteristic is positive and is one less than the number of digits before the decimal point.6615 (iii) log 0.2 + 0.004586 = . 0.02871 = 2.004586 (v) log 0.6615 = 2 . (i) log 27. Hence.000987 (iv) log 2475. The negative sign of the characteristic is written above the characteristics as 1.91 = 2.04586 = .3 + 0.6615 81 .6615 (v) log 0. 2475 = 2. For example.871 # 10` The characteristic is –2 (iii) In scientific notation. the characteristic of 0.21 Write the characteristic of the following. (iv) log 0.6615.475 # 10 ` The characteristic is 3 The characteristic is also determined by inspection of the number itself according to the following rules.791 # 10 ` The characteristic is 1 In scientific notation. (ii) For a number less than 1.87 # 10` The characteristic is – 4 (iv) In scientific notation.86 (ii) log 45860 (iii) log 0. (iii) Mantissa is always positive.586 = 0. 0. the characteristic is negative and is one more than the number of zeros immediately following the decimal point.86 = 1.91 Solution (i) (ii) In scientific notation. 2.6615 (vi) log 4. 27.6615 (iv) log 0. find (i) log 45.6615 = 3.6615.4586 = .6615 (ii) log 45860 = 4.

85 = 4..4. Note that the mantissas of logarithms of all the numbers consisting of same digits in same order but differing only in the position of decimal point are the same. 2. A logarithmic table consists of three parts .6075 .. 4. 9 contain the mantissas.0. Therefore. the given number is 40. 6. 8.4. For finding antilogarithm. 82 . 7. The row in front of the number 4.6107 .6112.85 = 1.0005.4. Thus. upto 9. Next the mean difference corresponding to 5 is 0.3 Method of Finding Antilogarithm The antilogarithm of a number is found by using a table named ‘ANTILOGARITHMS’ given at the end of the book. The mantissas are given correct to four places of decimals. is called the antilogarithm of x and is written as antilog x . (i) (ii) First column contains numbers from 1.0.6117 We note the number in row beneath the digit 8 in front of N = 4. the characteristic is 1. Thus the required mantissa is 0.2 Antilogarithms The number whose logarithm is x.6112 . Hence. 1.085 # 10 . 3. if log y = x.0 . there are again nine columns under the head mean difference.2 .1 Method of Finding Logarithm Tables of logarithm usually contain only mantissas since the characteristic can be readily determined as explained above.85.0 in logarithmic table is given below..9 Next ten columns headed by 0. (iii) After these columns.1.6107. log 40. Suppose. These columns are marked with serial numbers 1 to 9. We shall explain how to find the mantissa of a given number in the following example. 1 Mean Difference 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 8 8 9 9 10 4.3. This table gives the value of the antilogarithm of a number correct to four places of decimal. The characteristic is used only to determine the number of digits in the integral part or the number of zeros immediately after the decimal point.0005 = 0.6096 . 3. The number is 0. Now 40. we take into consideration only the mantissa.6107 + 0. 5.Chapter 3 3.6021 . 3.6053 . then antilog x = y .6042 . 1.6031 .6085 .6064 .

304 (since 9 in the fourth decimal place is greater than 5) From the table.6243 Mean difference of 5 is 0. 0.215 = 0.8635 (iii) 0.9383 log 86.8633 Mean difference of 4 is ` log 730.3 + 0.676 = 0.9380 + 0.0005 log 4. From the table.391 = 2.0002 = 0.676. log 4.21 is 0. log 8.391 (iii) log 0. To find mantissa consider the number 4.0003 = 0.00421526 (scientific notation) From the table.215 (since 2 in the fourth decimal place is less than 5).67 is 0.21526 # 10.6248 = 3.676 # 10 1 (ii) log 730. log 7.6248 83 ` The characteristic is –3.9383 (scientific notation) (ii) 730.0003 log 8. To find mantissa consider the number 7.23 Find (i) log 86. in this section we approximated all logarithmic calculations to four digits Example 3.30 is 0.6243 + 0.391= 7.Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms The method of using the table of antilogarithms is the same as that of the table of logarithms discussed above.76= 8.3 (scientific notation) approximate it as 4.6248 ` log 0.8635 ` The characteristic is 2.304 = 0.0002 log 7.30391 and 0.21526 and .00421526 = .30391 # 102 approximate it as 7.76 = 1. To find mantissa consider the number 8.0005 = 0.76 Solution (i) 86. Note Since the logarithmic table given at the end of this text book can be applied only to four digit number.9380 Mean difference of 6 is ` ` The characteristic is 1.00421526 = 4.8633 + 0.

331 ` (ii) Characteristic is 0.3269 (iii) antilog 2.326 is 2.04687 0.328 Mean difference of 2 is antilog 1. Mantissa is 0. antilog of 0.003 antilog 0.3269 From the table.8652 = 7.677 + 0.3351 = 1. the number contains one zero immediately following the decimal point. So.163 Solution (i) Let x = 42.122 (iii) Characteristic is .17 # 0.163h = log 42.010 = 4. Mantissa is 0. Taking logarithm on both sides.670 is 4.31 0.8652.6709 From the table.6709 = 4.8652 = 73. antilog 0.328 + 0.118 Mean difference of 9 is 0.163 .9645 ` x = antilog 1. we get log x = log ^42.6 # 2.009321 . Mantissa is 0.677 Mean difference of 9 is ` antilog 2. antilog 0.004 = 2. the number contains two digits in its integral part.6 # 2.865 is 7.2 .6 + log 2.25 Find (i) 42.687 Example: 3. So.6709 = 0.118 + 0.004 ` antilog 0.010 antilog 0.9645 = 92.003 = 7.8652 (ii) antilog 0.3269 = 2. (i) antilog 1.24 Find Solution (i) Characteristic is 1.163 = 1.15 84 (ii) 23. the number contains one digit in its integral part.6 # 2.Chapter 3 Example 3.6709 From the table.6294 + 0. So.

Taking logarithm on both sides.17 # 0.3749h4 (iii) 5 0.4335 1 1 5 = .2956 = . we get log x = log ^36.8867 = 0.3343 = 1.009321h = log 23.2713 5 = 1 ^1.4 + 2 + 0.2956 = .5739h = 4^.2956 = .3749 = 4^1.3343 = 0. Taking logarithm on both sides.3 + 0. Taking logarithm on both sides.17 + log 0.2956 ` x = antilog 2.5739h = .9694 =.4335 5 5 5 =.7703 85 .2713 0.4 + 2.3570 = 2275000000 (ii) Let x = ^0. we get log x = log (0.1 + 0.1 + 0.Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms (ii) Let x = 23.2 + 1.009321 = 1. Taking logarithm on both sides.3343 =.3343 =.3649 + 3.2713) 5 = 1 log 0.2.27h6 .2 + 0.2713) 5 .4h + 4 + 0.8867 = 1.5595h = 9.3343 ` x = antilog 1.2 + 1 + 0.01975 (iii) Let x = 5 (i) ^36.2713 = (0.1 + 0.5 + 4.2956 = 2.4335 = .9694 = 1 + 0.1 + 0.2159 Example: 3.5 + 4. we get log x = log ^23.27h6 (ii) ^0.3649 .27h6 = 6 log 36.8867 ` x = antilog 1.4335h = .3749h4 = 4 log 0.1 .26 Find the value of Solution (i) Let x = ^36.2956 = 0. we get log x = log ^0.009321 .4335 5 5 = ^.3570 ` x = antilog 9.27 = 6^1.3749h4 .17 # 0.

5) # 3 0.2687 = 2+0.81) # 4.3584 = 228.81) 3 # (4.7) # 65.7 # (65.23 = log 46.log (72.6693 + 0.3584 = 2.27 Simplify Solution (i) (46.9269) + 1 (3.log 4.2 (1.5 + 1 log 0.3) 2 4 1 4 4 1 (ii) = log (84.3 + 0.2 log 72.7 + 1 log 65.7076 + 1 (.2) 2 .3) 2 = 4 log 84.log (2.5) # 62.6263 2 = 1.5) # (62.3) 2 Taking logarithm on both sides.7 # (65.0.3 3 2 = 4(1.3461 – 0.7945) 3 2 = 7. we get (84.2) 2 Let x = = 3 (2.9724 = 0.7 + log (65.0.0064) 3 log x = log > 1 H 2 (72.0064) 3 .5) # (62.5) .2) 2 (2.6040 ` x = antilog 0.0064 .8062) .0064 2 (72.23 3 1 1 (i) (46.0897–1+0.5) # 62.7) # 65.2687) = 3+0.018 (84.7206 .8062) .0897 + (–1+0.8142) .8973 3 = 3.2 (2.2 46.Chapter 3 Example : 3.5) # 3 0.log 4.9071 – 1.23) (2. we get log x = log > 46.23 2 = 1.5) + log (0.4487) .6263 = 2.5764 – 1.2 86 4 1 2 1 .1 (1.log (62.5) # (0.81) # 4.0064 (84.1 log 62.81) .3 (0.3584 ` x = antilog2.5) # (0.81) 3 # (4.23) (ii) (84.3.0064) 3 Let x = = 2 1 2 (72.2 .81 .3 log 2.3 4 H 1 3 = log 46.5 .3 (72.6693 + 1 (1.23 Taking logarithm on both sides.8603) .6040 = 4.

0503 + 1 .09243 (iv) 924300 2.2375 (ii) log 23. Find the value of the following. The mantissa of log 23750 is 0. Taking logarithm on both sides.2706 ` x = antilog 0. (i) log 23750 (iv) log 0.7797) = 0.(.1.26 # log4 10 = log10 13.5 (vi) log 6576 5.375 (vi) log 0.6021 = log 1.6037 (ii) antilog 1.0.001364 (ii) log 9.9876 (iii) log 329.17 (iv) log 0.9243 (v) 0.28 Find the value of log4 13.26 Solution log4 13.865 Exercise: 3.1225 j 0.26 # 1 log10 4 [a log a M = log b M # log a b ] [a log a b = 1 ] log b a = 1.0503 .0756 (ii) log 24.072 (iv) antilog 3.759 (v) antilog 0.6021 Then x = 1.009243 (iii) 9243 (vi) 0. Write the characteristic of each of the following (i) log 4576 (iv) log 0.1225 .1225 .3826 (vi) antilog 2.1225 = x (say) 0.3576. (i) antilog 3.56 (v) log 0.3 1. Write each of the following in scientific notation: (i) 92.75 (v) log 23750000 (iii) log 2.00257 (vi) log 6. Using antilogarithmic table find the value of the following.1798 .2798 (iii) log 0.log 0. Using logarithmic table find the value of the following.7797 = 0.00002375 4.321 (v) log 0.2706 = 1.0503 .0. (i) log 23.6021 = 0.1 + 0.26 = log10 13.0503 .43 (ii) 0.7797 = 1.2732 87 (iii) antilog 1 .Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms Example 3.453 3.6021 log x = log ` 1. we get 0.7797 = 0.

3 # 37.09782 (vii) 175.928 ^42.log a N N � Power rule : log a (M) = n log a M � Change of base rule : log a M = log b M # log a b.56 (x) 3 0.42 (v) ^50.7214 # 20. a ! 1.28 (xii) log3 7 Points to Remember � A number N is in scientific notation when it is expressed as the product of a decimal number 1 # a 1 10 and some integral power of 10. � If a = b (a > 0.23 # 22.37 69. Evaluate: (i) 816.04623 (xi) log9 63. where 1 # a 1 10 and n is an integer .75h5 # 0.49h5 (viii) 3 (iii) 0.159 1828. then x is said to be the logarithm of b to the base a. N = a # 10 n .8 (ii) 816.3 ' 37.3 (vi) (ix) 3 561. which is written x = log a b .42 (iv) 0.Chapter 3 6.35 ^76. b ! 1 n x 88 .25h3 # 3 1. a ! 1) . � Product rule : log a (M # N) = log a M + log a N � Quotient rule : log a ` M j = log a M .4 28 # 5 729 46.3421 ' 0.000645 # 82.

To use Factor Theorem. He is known for having written Arithmetica. instead of simple approximations 4. and it is different from Babylonian mathematics in that Diophantus is concerned primarily with exact solutions. both determinate and indeterminate. By the early decades of the twentieth century.Algebra ALGEBRA Mathematics is as much an aspect of culture as it is a collection of algorithms . The history of algebra began in ancient Egypt and Babylon. To use algebraic identities. To use Remainder Theorem. To solve linear equations in two variables. only by the middle of the 17th Century the representation of elementary algebraic problems and relations looked much as it is today.D. or 214 to 298 A. 4. Algebra has been developed over a period of 4000 years. where people learned to solve linear (ax = b) and quadratic (ax2 + bx = c) equations. as well as indeterminate equations such as x2 + y2 = z2. But.1 Introduction The language of algebra is a wonderful instrument for expressing shortly.2 Algebraic Expressions An algebraic expression is an expression formed from any combination of numbers and variables by using the 89 . Arithmetica has very little in common with traditional Greek mathematics since it is divorced from geometric methods. perspicuously. algebra had evolved into the study of axiomatic systems. suggestively and the exceedingly complicated relations in which abstract things stand to one another. but the uncertainty of this date is so great that it may be off by more than a century. Important new results have been discovered. DIophAntus (200 to 284 A. whereby several unknowns are involved. a treatise that was originally thirteen books but of which only the first six have survived.) Diophantus was a Hellenistic mathematician who lived circa 250 AD.D. and the subject has found applications in all branches of mathematics and in many of the sciences as well. To solve linear inequation in one variable. This axiomatic approach soon came to be called modern or abstract algebra.CARL BOYER Main Targets ● ● ● ● ● ● ● To classify polynomials. To factorize a polynomial.

the term . An algebraic expression such as 4rr can be considered as an algebraic expression consisting of just one term. A coefficient such as –4. Each part. For instance. . 90 7 3 2 1 . the trinomial 2 4 3x y + 2 xy . and all variables that do appear are powers of positive integers. one should regard a variable with no exponent as being power one. together with the sign preceding it is called a term. subtraction. For instance. If an algebraic expression consists of part connected by plus or minus signs.4xz and rx.12x yz + 3x .12x yz has degree 3 + 1 + 2 = 6.1 which 2 2 contains no variables. in the term . rr and rr r + h are algebraic expressions.4xz . 4xy + 1 By an algebraic expression in certain variables.+ 3 x .y .2xy. The coefficients of the polynomial above are 3. however. x . For instance.4x . we mean an algebraic expression that contains no variables at all. The numerical coefficients of the terms in a polynomial are called the coefficients of the polynomial.4 is a trinomial.4 is not a polynomial. is called a constant term of the polynomial.3 polynomials A polynomial is an algebraic expression. we mean an expression that contains only 3 those variables. 2 2 2 For instance. the trinomial . in the 2 2 2 2 1 1 algebraic sum 3x y . exponentiation (raising powers). the resulting number is called the value of the expression for these values of variables.4xz + rx. If numbers are substituted for the variables in an algebraic expression. are called like terms or similar terms. and an algebraic expression with three terms is called a trinomial. The constant term is always regarded as having degree zero. A term such as .+ 3 x .1 is a polynomial in the variables x and y . in the polynomial 9xy . whereas .2xy.1 . the terms are 3x y . 2x . the coefficient of z 2 y y is .2 .1 . the expression 3x + 2xy is a binomial. An algebraic expression with two terms is called a binomial. 7. in which no variables appear in denominators or under radical signs. A constant. For instance. Such a one-termed expression is called a monomial. 2 and . multiplication. or extraction of roots. is called a numerical coefficient. which differ only in their numerical coefficients. 5x . In adding exponents. 2 The degree of a term in a polynomial is the sum of the exponents of all the variables in that term. An algebraic expression with two or more terms is called a multinomial.12x y . 2 1 2 4. y y Any part of a term that is multiplied by the remaining part of the term is called the 2 2 coefficient of the remaining part. For instance. division. which involves no y 2 2 variables.3y + 1 . and the term 3x has degree one.Chapter 4 operations of addition. Terms such as 5x y and . whereas the coefficient of xz is –4.y . it is called an algebraic sum. the term 9xy 7 has degree 1 + 7 3 2 = 8.

are the n terms of the polynomial p^ xh . an ! 0 where a0.2 types of polynomials Key Concept Monomial Polynomials which have only one term are known as monomials. g.1. a0. a2. a1 x.Algebra The degree of the highest degree term that appears with nonzero coefficients in a polynomial is called the degree of the polynomial. an are the coefficients of x. an . the polynomial considered above has degree 8. Key Concept n n-1 Polynomial in One Variable 2 A polynomial in one variable x is an algebraic expression of the form p(x) = an x + an .1 polynomials in one Variable In this section we consider only polynomials in one variable. x respectively. A polynomial is a monomial or the sum of two or more monomials. an . 4. A binomial is the sum of two monomials of different degrees. For instance. the coefficient of x is 3 and –1 is the constant term. The three terms of the polynomial are 5x2. an . an are constants and n is a non negative integer.1 x + g + a2 x + a1 x + a0 . the coefficient of x2 is 5. Here n is the degree of the polynomial and a1. a1.3. A trinomial is the sum of three monomials of different degrees. 91 Types of Polynomials Based on Number of Terms Note .1. an x n.3. g. 3x and . 1. g x 2 n-1 . 4. Binomial Polynomials which have only two terms are called binomials. For example.1 .1. this particular polynomial is not assigned a degree.1 x n . 3. trinomial Polynomials which have only three terms are named as trinomials. in the polynomial 5x2 + 3x . g. x . Although the constant monomial 0 is regarded as a polynomial. a2. a2 x2. 2. a0 is the constant term.1 .

y + y + y and 2u + u + 3 are trinomials as they contain only three terms. where a. where a and b are real numbers and a ! 0 . x3 . x + 2.1 Classify the following polynomials based on number of terms. 3x . Linear polynomial A polynomial of degree one is called a linear polynomial. where c is a real number. General form : p (x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d . b and c are real numbers and a ! 0. b.u4 4 (iv) 4x3 (viii) y + y + y (xii) y 20 18 2 Example 4.3x + 2 (xi) p (x) = 3 x + 1 92 2 (ix) p (x) = 4x (xii) p (y) = y3 + 3y . y + 1 and u . 4 3 20 18 2 3 2 4x + 2x + 1. Cubic polynomial A polynomial of degree three is called a cubic polynomial. General form : p (x) = c. 4x .u are binomials as they contain only two terms. General form : p (x) = ax+b. Example 4.x2.Chapter 4 Key Concept Types of Polynomials Based on the Degree Constant polynomial A polynomial of degree zero is called a constant polynomial.x2 + 4x + 1 2 (vi) p (x) = –7 (v) p (x) = x + 3 (iv) p (x) = 3x (vii) p^ xh = x3 + 1 (x) p (x) = 3 2 (viii) p (x) = 5x .2 Classify the following polynomials based on their degree. 5 2 (i) p (x) = 3 (ii) p (y) = 2 y + 1 (iii) p^ xh = 2x3 . c and d are real numbers and a ! 0 . 4 23 4 2 3 3 2 (ii) 5x (vi) 3x2 (x) 2u3 + u2 + 3 (iii) 4x4 + 2x3 + 1 (vii) y + 1 (xi) u23 .x (v) x + 2 (ix) 6 Solution 5x. (i) x . 2 General form: p (x) =ax + bx + c where a. Quadratic polynomial A polynomial of degree two is called a quadratic polynomial. y and 6 are monomials because they have only one term.

4x2 + x3 (ii) 3x+1 (iii) x3 + 2 x2 + 4x .3x + 2. 3.1 1.2 = 1 + 1 . p (y) = 5 y + 1.1 (v) 4x3 (iii) y + 3 (vi) 2x 5. since the highest degree of the variable is three. Classify the following polynomials based on their degree. p (x) = 4x .6 (ii) 3x2 . –2 and 0 are the values of the polynomial p^ xh at x = –1. (i) 3x2 + 2x + 1 (iv) y2 .3 Zeros of a polynomial Consider the polynomial p^ xh = x2 .1 . p (x) = 3x are quadratic polynomials.1 . 4.Algebra Solution p (x) = 3. (i) 4 . Exercise: 4.1) = (.1) .2x + 1 (iii) y3 + 2 3 (iv) x . p (x) = –7.3. (ii) 5y + 2 (iii) 12 . (i) 2 + 3x . p (.2 = 0 That is.(. p (x) = 5x .1 (v) 3 t + 2t (vi) x3 + y3 + z6 x Write the coefficient of x2 and x in each of the following.2 = 4 . p (x) = 3 x + 1 are linear polynomials. 1 and 2 respectively. 0.3x2 4.1) . Give one example of a binomial of degree 27 and monomial of degree 49 and trinomial of degree 36. Let us find the values of p^ xh at x =.1 .1 (iv) 1 x2 + x + 6 3 Write the degree of each of the following polynomials. x = 1 and x = 2 .2 .2 .2 2 p (2) = (2) . p (x) = 3 are constant polynomials.x3 + x . since the 2 highest degree of the variable is two.2 = 1 .4 (ii) 4x3 .x + 4x3 (iv) 5 2.x . p (y) = y3 + 3y are cubic polynomials. since the highest degree of the variable x is one. (i) 2x5 . 2 2 2 p^ xh = 2x3 .2 =. p (x) = x3 + 1 . 2 p (x) = x + 3 .2 .x2 + 4x + 1 .2 = 0 2 p (1) = (1) . State whether the following expressions are polynomials in one variable or not. Give reasons for your answer. 93 2 .

3x2 + 7x .1h = .2 .1) .3 (2) + 7 (2) .3 = 2^0h = 0 p` j `2 2j 2 Hence x = 3 is the zero of p^ xh .1h = 0.3 If p^ xh = 5x3 . Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) had proven in his doctoral thesis of 1798 that the polynomial equations of any degree n must have exactly n solutions in a certain very specific sense.2 = 0 Hence x = 2 is the zero of p^ xh .9 = 40 . p^2h = 2 . Number of zeros of a polynomial # the degree of the polynomial.3x2 + 7x . p (2) = 0 at x = 2.3 Solution (i) Given that p^ xh = 2x .12 + 14 .9 (i) (ii) Example 4.24 p^2h = 5 (2) . Example 4.1) .7 .3 = 2` x . Key Concept Zeros of Polynomial Let p^ xh be a polynomial in x. Since p^.9 .x .We have 2 3 = 2 3 . then we say that a is a zero of the polynomial p^ xh . Similarly. x = –1 is a zero of the polynomial p^ xh = x2 .3 j .9 = . ( 2 is also a zero of p^ xh . find (i) p^. Now.4 Find the zeros of the following polynomials.3 .Chapter 4 If the value of a polynomial is zero for some value of the variable then that value is known as zero of the polynomial. If p^ah = 0.1h (ii) p^2h Solution Given that p^ xh = 5x3 .3 (.9 ` p^2h = 33 3 2 3 2 (ii) p^ xh = x . This result was so important that it became known as the fundamental theorem of algebra.2 (ii) .5 .9 ` p^.2 . The exact sense in which that theorem is true is the subject of the other part of the story of algebraic numbers.1h = 5 (. 94 Note p^. 2 Given that p^ xh = x .1) + 7 (. (i) p^ xh = 2x .

2 = 7 ! 0 ` x = 3 is not a root of 2x2 .2 = 18 . Clearly 1 is the zero of the polynomial p^ xh = x . p^2h = 2 (2) .6 = 0 ( x = 6 ` x = 6 is a root of x .Now.1 .6 = 0 Given that 2x + 1 = 0 ( 2x = . (i) 2x2 . x .1 ( x = .9 .3.3 (3) .6 = 0 Solution (i) (ii) Given that x .1 .14 = 0. Now.2 = 0 2 2 But p^3 h = 2 (3) . then x = a is called a root of the polynomial equation p^ xh = 0 .3x . 2 Solution (i) Let p^ xh = 2x2 .6 Verify whether the following are roots of the polynomial equations indicated against them.2 = 8 .6 . Key Concept Root of a Polynomial Equation If x = a satisfies the polynomial equation p^ xh = 0.2 = 0 ` x = 2 is a root of 2x2 . consider the polynomial equation p^ xh = 0. that is.2 . x = 2. The value x = 1 is called the root of the polynomial equation p^ x h = 0 .Algebra 4.3 (2) .3x . x = 1.2 = 0 95 .1 = 0 implies x = 1 .3x . then p^ xh = 0 is called a polynomial equation in x.1 = 0. 3 (ii) x3 + 8x2 + 5x .1 2 ` x = . Hence zeros of a polynomial are the roots of the corresponding polynomial equation. Example 4. x . Consider the polynomial p^ xh = x .5 Find the roots of the following polynomial equations (i) x .1 is a root of 2x + 1 = 0 2 (ii) 2x + 1 = 0 Example 4.3x .4 Roots of a polynomial Equations Let p^ xh be a polynomial expression in x.2 = 0.

bh .1 . (ii) x2 + 4x + 3 = 0.1h the remainder is p^1 h . If p^ xh is divided by ^ x + ah . 2 (iv) x3 . then the remainder is p^.1 .14 = 0 ` ` x = 1 is a root of x3 + 8x2 + 5x . Find the zeros of the following polynomials (i) p (x) = 4x .2 . then the remainder is p`. a 3.14 = 0 Exercise 4.5x + 6 = 0.2x2 . 3 (iii) p (x) = 2x (iii) 11x + 1 = 0 (iv) p (x) = x + 9 (iv) . a a ax + b respectively.14 = 8 + 32 + 10 .x + 2 = 0. a b and .a .5x + 6 = 0.b are the zeros of the divisors x + a .5x2 + 6x . .2 = 4-5+6-2 = 3 `The remainder is 3. (ii) p (x) = 3x + 5 (ii) 5x . 2.1 (i) x . 2. Note 1.2 .14 = 0 3 2 3 2 But p^2h = (2) + 8 (2) + 5 (2) . x = . If p^ xh is divided by ^ax . Verify Whether the following are roots of the polynomial equations indicated against them.ah .a .14 = 1 + 8 + 5 .b j .5x2 + 6x . 3 (iii) x3 .4 Remainder theorem Remainder Theorem Let p^ xh be any polynomial and a be any real number. Example 4.7 Find the remainder when 4x3 .14 = 36 ! 0 x = 2 is not a root of x3 + 8x2 + 5x .6 = 0 x = 2. x = .2 1. Solution Let p^ xh = 4x3 .2x2 .1 is 1. 3. then the remainder is p` b j . If p^ xh is divided by ^ax + bh .9x = 0 Find the roots of the following polynomial equations. 96 3 2 .2 is divided by x . The zero of x . p^1 h = 4 (1) .1 . then the remainder is p^ah . When p^ xh is divided by ^ x . If p^ xh is divided by the linear polynomial x .5 (1) + 6 (1) .14 p^1 h = (1) + 8 (1) + 5 (1) .3 = 0 (i) x2 . ax . Now. 3 4.Chapter 4 (ii) Let p^ xh = x3 + 8x2 + 5x . x = 1.b and 4 Here . 2.

When p^ xh is divided by ^ x + ah the remainder is p^.9 leaves the remainder 13 when it is divided by x . 97 3 2 3 2 3 2 a =3 .ah = (.7x2 .17 = 13 10a = 30 ` Example 4.9 = 13 10a .8 Find the remainder when x3 .x + 6 . Solution Let p^ xh = 2x3 .2h = (.2) + 6 = .a) + a (.a3 + a3 + 4a = 4a ` The remainder is 4a .24 + 10a .9 Find the value of a if 2x3 .6^4h + 10a .3x + a .8 . When p^ xh is divided by x + 2 .2 .8 .10 Find the remainder when x3 + ax2 . p^. When p^ xh is divided by ^ x . p^. Solution Let p^ xh = x3 + ax2 .2h . The zero of x + 2 is .28 ` The remainder is .3x + a is divided by x + a .Algebra Example 4.9 .6x2 + 5ax .a) .6x2 + 5ax . Now.3 (.2) . Given that p^2h = 13 ( 2 (2) . the remainder is p^.6 (2) + 5a (2) .7x2 .a) + a = .7^4h + 2 + 6 = .2h the remainder is p^2h .ah .9 = 13 16 .9 = 13 2^8 h .(.2) .2 .x + 6 is divided by ^ x + 2h .28 Example 4.28 + 2 + 6 = . Solution Let p^ xh = x3 .7 (.

52 + 10 + 7 = 9 = 1 9 9 3 9 ` The remainder is 1.2 j = 12`.3 in p^3 h .2 (3) + a = 27 + 9 .5x + 7 is divided by ^3x + 2h .2x + a When p^ xh is divided by ^ x .24 ` a = .24 = .3h the remainder is p^3 h . p^3 h = 2 (3) + a (3) + 4 (3) .2 j + 7 3 3 3 3 = 12`.3h . Solution Let p^ xh = 2x3 + ax2 + 4x . Example 4. find the value of a .3h = 54 .3 8 Substituting a = . Now.8 j . Also find the remainder.5`. q ^ x h = x 3 + x 2 . Now.12 = 2^27h + a^9h + 12 .2 j .13`.2x + a leave the same remainder when divided by ^ x .12 and x3 + x2 .12 .5x + 7 .11 Find the remainder when f^ xh = 12x3 .a = 30 . Now.3h the remainder is q^3 h . q^3 h = (3) + (3) .12 = 54 + 9a When q^ xh is divided by ^ x .32 .2 j .13x2 .6 + a = 30 + a Given that p^3 h = q^3 h . Solution f^ xh = 12x3 . 3 3 2 f`. we get p^3 h = 54 + 9^. 98 3 2 3 2 (1) (2) .13x2 .13` 4 j + 10 + 7 27 9 3 = .54 8a = .2 j . 54 + 9a = 30 + a ( By (1) and (2) ) 9a .12 If the polynomials 2x3 + ax2 + 4x .27 = 27 ` The remainder is 27. When f^ xh is divided by ^3x + 2h the remainder is f`. That is.Chapter 4 Example 4.

28 (5) + 15 = 2^125h .6x + 12 is divided by x + 2 (iii) 2x3 .ax2 + 9x . Find the remainder using remainder theorem.26 without remainder find the value of m .a 2.28x + 15 .1 5x3 + 2x2 .1h divides mx3 .140 + 15 = 250 . 4.8 is divided by x . then ^ x .13 Determine whether ^ x . then ( x–a) is a factor of p^ xh .3 1. 4.5h is a factor of p^ xh . then p^ah = 0 Example 4.28x + 15 .5x + 8 is divided by x . Now. when (i) (ii) 3x3 + 4x2 . If p^ah = 0.1 (vi) 8x4 + 12x3 .5^25h . if p^5h = 0.5 Factor theorem Factor Theorem Let p^ xh be a polynomial and a be any real number.Algebra Exercise 4. Solution By factor theorem.5 is divided by 2x . 3.ax2 .5x + 2a is divided by x .2h . 5. Find the value of a . When the polynomial 2x3 .5h is a factor of p^ xh = 2x3 . Note If ( x–a) is a factor of p^ xh .5x2 .125 . Find the value of m if x3 .2x2 .2x2 + 25x .18x + 14 is divided by x + 1 (vii) x3 .140 + 15 = 0 ` ^ x .mx + 9 leave the same remainder when they are divided by ^ x .5h is a factor of the polynomial p^ xh = 2x3 .5x2 . find the value of m . If the polynomials x3 + 3x2 .6x2 + mx + 60 leaves the remainder 2 when divided by ^ x + 2h .4 is divided by x + 3 (v) 4x3 . Also find the remainder.3x2 + 2x .m and 2x3 . If ^ x .2 (iv) 4x3 .12x2 + 11x .5 (5) .3 the remainder is 28.4x2 + 7x + 6 is divided by x . 99 3 2 . p^5h = 2 (5) .

6x2 + 5x + 4 . By factor theorem.6x2 + 9x .3h is a factor of 2x3 .2h is a factor of the polynomial 2x3 .1 ) is a factor of x3 + 5x2 + mx + 4 . Solution Let p^ xh = 2x3 .5x .6x2 + 5x + 4 . Now.px + 24 .6x2 + 5x + 5 . 100 .3x2 .6x . By factor theorem.3h is a factor of p^ xh if p` 3 j = 0.1h is a factor of 4x3 . Solution Let p^ xh = x3 + 5x2 + mx + 4 . Solution Let p^ xh = 2x3 .9x2 + x + 12 .2h is a factor of p^ xh if p^2h = 0.3h is a factor of 2x3 . p^1 h = 0 ( (1) + 5 (1) + m (1) + 4 = 0 (1 + 5 + m + 4 = 0 m + 10 = 0 ` m = .81 + 6 + 48 = 0 4 4 2 4 ` ^2x . 5.14x2 + 3x + 12 Determine whether ^ x + 4h is a factor of x3 + 3x2 . p^2h = 2 (2) . Determine whether ^2x + 1h is a factor of 4x3 + 4x2 .15 Determine whether ^2x . Determine the value of p if ^ x + 3h is a factor of x3 . ^2x .2h is not a factor of 2x3 .9` 9 j + 3 + 12 2 2 2 2 8 4 2 = 27 . the remainder p^1 h = 0.81 + 3 + 12 = 27 .6 (2) + 5 (2) + 4 = 2^8 h . 2 3 2 p` 3 j = 2` 3 j . Using factor theorem show that ^ x . 3.14 Determine whether ^ x .^ x .9x2 + x + 12 .7 . Now.6^4h + 10 + 4 = 16 .4 1.10 3 2 3 2 Exercise 4. Example 4.9x2 + x + 12 . (ii) 2x4 + 9x3 + 2x2 + 10x + 15 (iv) x3 . Determine whether ^ x + 1h is a factor of the following polynomials (i) 6x4 + 7x3 .5 2.9` 3 j + 3 + 12 = 2` 27 j .1 .16 Determine the value of m if ( x . Example 4.24 + 10 + 4 = 6 ! 0 ` ^ x . Since ^ x . 4.5x + 36 .1h is a factor of p^ xh .4 (iii) 3x3 + 8x2 .Chapter 4 Example 4.x . Now.

6 Algebraic Identities Key Concept Algebraic Identities An identity is an equality that remains true regardless of the values of any variables that appear within it.24xy + 16y 2 2 2 2 (iii) ^4x + 5yh^4x .25y (iv) 2 2 2 ^ y + 7h^ y + 5h = y + ^7 + 5h y + ^7h^5h = y + 12y + 35 4.b) / a .4y) 2 (iii) ^4x + 5yh^4x .b 2 2 ^ x + ah^ x + bh / x2 + ^a + bh x + ab (ii) (3x .2ab + b Example 4.5yh = (4x) . We have learnt the following identities in class VIII.5yh (iv) ^ y + 7h^ y + 5h (3x .Algebra 4.(5y) = 16x .2^3xh^4yh + (4y) = 9x . Using these identities let us solve some problems and extend the identities to trinomials and third degree expansions. (a + b) / a + 2ab + b (a .1 Expansion of the trinomial (x ! y ! z) 2 (x + y + z) = (x + y + z) (x + y + z) = x (x + y + z) + y (x + y + z) + z (x + y + z) = x2 + xy + xz + yx + y2 + yz + zx + zy + z2 = x2 + y2 + z2 + 2xy + 2yz + 2zx (x + y + z) / x + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2zx 101 2 2 2 2 2 2 .6.4y) = (3x) .b) / a .17 Expand the following using identities (i) (2a + 3b) Solution (i) (2a + 3b) = (2a) + 2^2ah^3bh + (3b) = 4a + 12ab + 9b (ii) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a + b) (a .

z) / x2 + y2 + z2 + 2xy .2xy + 2yz .9mh^.7b + 4c) 2 (iii) (3p + 5q .7b + 4c) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = (3a) + (.9mh + 2^.z) (x .2yz .6n) 2 (2x + 3y + 5z) = (2x) + (3y) + (5z) + 2^2xh^3yh + 2^3yh^5zh + 2^5zh^2xh = 4x + 9y + 25z + 12xy + 30yz + 20zx (3a .6nh + 2^.2zx 2 2 2 Expand (i) (2x + 3y + 5z) Solution (i) (ii) 2 2 (ii) (3a .y + z) 2 = 6 x + (.20qr .6nh^7lh = 49l + 81m + 36n .2xy .2yz + 2zx 2 (x .7bh^4ch + 2^4ch^3ah = 9a + 49b + 16c .6n) + 2^7lh^.y) (z) + 2 (z) (x) = x2 + y2 + z2 .7bh + 2^.18 2 / x2 + y2 + z2 .6n) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = (7l) + (.9m .2 Identities Involving product of Binomials ^ x + ah^ x + bh^ x + ch ^ x + ah^ x + bh^ x + ch = 6^ x + ah^ x + bh@^ x + ch 2 2 = 6 x2 + ^a + bh x + ab @^ x + ch = x3 + (a + b) x2 + abx + cx2 + c (a + b) x + abc = x3 + (a + b + c) x2 + (ab + bc + ca) x + abc ^ x + ah^ x + bh^ x + ch / x3 + ^a + b + ch x2 + ^ab + bc + cah x + abc 102 .2xy .y + z) (iii) (iv) Example 4.2r) + 2 (3p)^5qh + 2^5qh^.84nl 4.42ab .2r h^3ph = 9p + 25q + 4r + 30pq .y) + z + 2 (x) (.7b) + (4c) + 2^3ah^.126lm + 108mn .6.2r) 2 (iv) (7l .9m) + (.2yz + 2zx 2 2 In the same manner we get the expansion for the following (x + y .12rp (iv) (7l .2r) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = (3p) + (5q) + (.y .y) + 2 (.2zx / x + y + z .2r h + 2^.Chapter 4 (ii) (x .9m .y) + z @2 2 2 = x + (.56bc + 24ca (iii) (3p + 5q .

19 Find the product of (i) ^ x + 2h^ x + 5h^ x + 7h (ii) ^a .3xy (x .5h@^2ah + ^.5 .105 (iii) = (2a) + (.Algebra 4.4.3h + ^.15a + 71a .3) (2a) + 6^.7h^.y) Using these identities of 4. we get ^ x + yh^ x + yh^ x + yh = x3 + ^ y + y + yh x2 + 6^ yh^ yh + ^ yh^ yh + ^ yh^ yh@ x + ^ yh^ yh^ yh (x + y) 3 = x3 + ^3yh x2 + ^3y2h x + y3 = x3 + 3x2 y + 3xy2 + y3 (x + y) 3 / x3 + 3x2 y + 3xy2 + y3 (x + y) 3 / x3 + y3 + 3xy (x + y) (or) Replacing y by .3h@6 a + ^.3h^.5h^5h^.5h^.3 .5h^2a + 5h^2a .3h = 62a + ^.15 + 15) 2a + 75 = 8a .y) 3 / x3 .5h^a .5h@62a + 5 @62a + ^.2 and 4.5h^.7) a + 6^.6.3x2 y + 3xy2 .5h + ^.4.7h = 6 a + ^. Example 4.15a + (15 + 35 + 21) a .3h 3 2 3 2 ^2a .25 .3h^.50a + 75 103 2 .5h^2a + 5h^2a .3h^.7h + ^.3) 4a + (.y3 (x .12a .3h@ 3 3 2 = 8a + (.y) 3 / x3 .3h^a .7h 3 3 2 ^a .7h@ 2 = a .5h^a .3.105 = a .y in the above identity.y3 .3h Solution (i) = x + ^2 + 5 + 7h x + 6^2h^5h + ^5h^7h + ^7h^2h@ x + ^2h^5h^7h 3 3 3 2 ^ x + 2h^ x + 5h^ x + 7h 2 2 = x + 14x + (10 + 35 + 14) x + 70 = x + 14x + 59x + 70 (ii) = a + (.3h^a .5h^5h + ^5h^.5h@6 a + ^.3 Expansion of (x ! y) 3 In the above identity by substituting a = b = c = y.5 + 5 .3h@ a + ^.7h (iii) ^2a . let us solve the following problems. we get (or) (x .

1h3 3 3 =^1000h3 . ab +bc +ca =25 find a + b + c .3^1000h^1 h^1000 .36x y + 54xy .yh Let us solve some problems involving above identities.3y) = (2x) .yh) = 1000000000 .y / ^ x .1h 3 3 (a^ x .y .2997000 = 997002999 Some Useful Identities involving sum .1 .3 (2x) ^3yh + 3 (2x) (3y) .22 Evaluate each of the following using suitable identities.(3y) = 8x .27y Example 4.3xy^ x .yh3 + 3xy^ x .3y) 3 (2x .Chapter 4 Example 4. Solution We have (a + b + c) = a + b + c + 2^ab + bc + cah . So.3000 (999) = 1000000000 .20 If a + b + c = 15.difference and product of x and y x + y / ^ x + yh3 .21 Expand (i) (3a + 4b) Solution (i) (ii) (3a + 4b) = (3a) + 3 (3a) ^4bh + 3^3ah (4b) + (4b) = 27a + 108a b + 144ab + 64b 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 (ii) (2x .3xy^ x + yh x . 15 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = a + b + c + 2^25h 2 2 2 2 2 2 225 = a + b + c + 50 ` a + b + c = 225 . 104 3 3 3 3 . (i) ^105h3 Solution (i) ^105h3 = ^100 + 5h3 (ii) ^999h3 = ^100h3 + ^5h3 + 3^100h^5h^100 + 5h (a^ x + yh3 = x + y + 3xy^ x + yh) = 1000000 + 125 + 1500^105h = 1000000 + 125 + 157500 = 1157625 (ii) ^999h3 = ^1000 .yh3 = x .1 .^1 h3 .50 = 175 Example 4.

^ xh^2yh .y = ^ x .1 = 9 .25 3 If x + 1 = 5.24 Find x .1 m y y y 3 (9) + 3 (9) = 729 + 27 = 756 = The following identity is frequently used in higher studies x3 + y3 + z3 .15 = 110 Example 4. find the value of x + 13 x x 3 3 Solution We know that x + y = ^ x + yh3 .yz . (x + y + z) (x + y + z .3xyz / (x + y + z) (x2 + y2 + z2 .2xy .13 = c y .yh3 + 3xy^ x .^3zh^ xh@ = x + 8y + 27z .3 (x) (2y) (3z) 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 = ^ x + 2y + 3zh 6 x + ^2yh2 + ^3zh2 .Algebra Example 4.y = ^ x .6yz .60 = 4 = ^5h3 + 3^16h^5h = 125 + 240 = 365 Example 4.3 (5) = 125 .^2yh^3zh . x . find the value of y3 .2xy .xy .zx) Note If x + y + z = 0 then x3 + y3 + z3 = 3xyz Example 4.13 y y 3 3 3 Solution We know that.y = 5 and xy = 16 Solution We know that x .18xyz 105 .3zxh Solution We know that.yh + 3xy^ x .23 Find x + y if x + y = 4 and xy = 5 Solution We know that x + y = ^ x + yh3 .27 Simplify ^ x + 2y + 3zh^ x + 4y + 9z .6yz .zx) = x + y + z .y if x .3xy^ x + yh 3 3 x + 13 = ` x + 1 j .3zx) = (x) + (2y) + (3z) .yh ` x -y 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 x +y 3 3 = ^4h3 .3xy^ x + yh ` Example 4.3^5h^4h = 64 .3xyz ` (x + 2y + 3z)(x + 4y + 9z .yz .3` x + 1 j ` x x x 3 = (5) .yh 3 3 ` y .xy .1 m + 3 c y .26 If y .

ch2 (iii) ^ x . x x ^4x2 + y2 + 16z2 .7h (ii) ^2a + 3b . 1 + 1 + 1 and a b c 2 2 2 a +b +c .5h^ x . If x .3h^ x .1h (v) ^3x + 1h^3x + 2h^3x + 5h 3.8zxh Simplify : (i) ^2x + y + 4zh 2 2 2 (ii) ^ x .11700 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Exercise 4. y = 13 . then x + y + z = 3xyz . Evaluate using identities : (i) 6 . 10.25h = . Expand the following (i) ^5x + 2y + 3zh2 2. 6.4h^ p + 6h (iv) ^ x . z =. 8.25 = 0 If x + y + z = 0 .4yz . 11.2ah^ x .2q + r h2 Using algebraic identities find the coefficients of x2 term.9 + 3 106 3 3 3 (ii) 16 .2y . find the value of x . Expand : (i) ^3a + 5bh3 Evaluate : (i) 99 3 3 3 (ii) ^4x .3yh3 3 (ii) 101 (iii) 98 3 (iv) 102 3 3 (iii) c2y .5zh^ x + 9y + 25z + 3xy .3y .25 .1 = 3.13 . find the value of x . 3 If x + 1 = 4.28 3 3 3 Evaluate 12 + 13 .y .y =. 4.5xh^5x + 3h 3 2 If ^ x + ah^ x + bh^ x + ch / x .25 = 12 + 13 + ^. Find the expansion of (i) ^ x + 1h^ x + 4h^ x + 7h (iii) ^ x + 5h^ x .3 m y 3 (v) 1002 Find 8x + 27y if 2x + 3y = 13 and xy = 6 . x x 3 If x .10x + 45x .4zh2 (iv) ^ p .Chapter 4 Example 4. x term and constant term. find the value of x + 13 .5h^2x . 7.15yz + 5zxh 3 3 12. Then x + y + z = 12 + 13 .15 find a + b + c . ` 12 + 13 .4h^ x + 2h (iii) ^2x + 3h^2x + 5h^2x + 7h (iv) ^5x + 2h^1 .10 3 3 3 .6 .4ah (vi) ^2x + 3h^2x . (ii) ^ p + 2h^ p . (i) ^ x + 7h^ x + 3h^ x + 9h (ii) ^ x .ah^ x .25h3 = 3^12h (13)^.6 and xy = 4 . 5.5 1.2xy . 9.25 Solution Let x = 12 .

18a + 42a = 6a (a . consider ab + ac. Similarly.5h + g^b .xz 2 3 2 2 (iii) a (a .bh (iv) a + b + c + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca / (a + b + c) 107 2 2 2 2 .zh = xy .2b) (4 + 5x) 3 2 (iii) 2a + 4a Highest common factor is 2a ` 2a + 4a = 2a ^a + 2h .This process of expressing ab + ac into a (b + c) is known as factorization.3ps (ii) 4a .7 Factorization of polynomials We have seen how the distributive property may be used to expand a product of algebraic expressions into sum or difference of expressions.29 Factorize the following (i) pq + pr . (i) (ii) x^ x + yh = x + xy x^ y .10bx) = 4 (a .2ab + b / (a .18a + 42a 5 3 2 (or) a .3s) 4a .2a + 1) = a . ab and ac ‘a’ is the common factor.b) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 3 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 (iv) 6a .2a + a Now. In b ( b – 5) + g (b – 5) clearly ( b – 5) is a common factor.3ps = p (q + r . In both the terms.8b + 5ax . we will learn how to convert a sum or difference of expressions into a product of expressions.10bx (iii) 2a + 4a Solution (i) (ii) pq + pr .2b) = (a .10bx = ^4a . 5m +15 = 5^mh + 5^3 h = 5(m +3).a + b) 2 2 2 (iii) a .1 Factorization using Identities (i) a + 2ab + b / (a + b) (ii) a .b / ^a + bh^a . by writing in the reverse direction ab + ac is a (b + c) . a (b + c) = ab + ac .3a + 7) 4.5h^b + gh Example 4.5h = ^b . For example.8bh + (5ax . b^b .18a + 42a 2 Highest common factor is 6a 5 3 2 2 3 ` 6a .2b) + 5x (a . Now. Using the distributive law.2ab + b / (.Algebra 4. (iv) 6a .7.8b + 5ax .

18ch^.ch@ 65^a + 2b .6) 2 = (.c) 2 2 (vi) x .a) (2b) + 2 (2b)^.8a + 1 2 2 (iii) 9a .12ch 5 4 2 2 2 ( v i ) x .b) (a + b .y) + (.4ah 2 = (a + b + a .6) + 2 (.3ch + 3^2a .ch@2 = x^ x + 1h^ x + 1h^ x .3z) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (.3c) .6) 2 Example 4.6h^.3ch@2 .9 (2a .3^2a .2b)^6h + 2^6h^ah = (a .b .x = x^ x .9 (2a .12zx = (2x) + (.3ch^5a + 10b .(a .2 (4a)^1 h + (1) = (4a .4ab .3ch .1h = x 6(x ) .16b = (3a) .Chapter 4 Example 4.16b 2 5 2 2 (v) 25 (a + 2b .yh + 2^.6a + 3b + 3ch = ^11a + 7b .8a + 1 = (4a) .2b) + 2 (.1h2 (.yh^.2b) + (6) + 2 (a) (.(4b) = ^3a + 4bh^3a .a + b) = ^2ah^2bh = ^4h^ah^ bh = 65^a + 2b .2x + y + 3z) 2 108 .ah = (.a + 2b .12zx Solution 4x + y + 9z .4ab .y .1) ( i i i ) 9a .x 2 4x + 12xy + 9y = (2x) + 2 (2x) (3y) + (3y) = (2x + 3y) 2 2 2 2 2 ( i i ) 16a .b .a + 2b .24b + 12a can be written as (a) + (.6) or (.1h 4.3c) .15c + 6a .3zh^2xh = (2x .30 Factorize (i) 4x + 12xy + 9y (iv) (a + b) .b .3zh + 2^.b) (v) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 o r ^1 .7.(1) @ 2 2 2 2 2 = x^ x + 1h^ x .6) 2 @ = ^.15c .3b .(a .3z) + 2^2xh^.1h = x^ x + 1h6(x) .a + 2b .4xy + 6yz .4bh ( i v ) (a + b) .ch@ = ^5a + 10b .63^2a .2b + 6) 2 = 6^.c) = 65^a + 2b .b .a + 2b .(1) @ = 6^a + bh + ^a .4xy + 6yz .2 Factorization using the Identity 2 2 2 2 a + b + c + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca / (a + b + c) Example 4.1h (.24b + 12a 2 2 2 Solution a + 4b + 36 .b) Solution (i) 2 2 2 2 2 (ii) 16a .bh@ 2 25 (a + 2b .bh@6^a + bh .32 Factorize 4x + y + 9z .6h + 2^.a) + (2b) + (.b .2b + 6) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 or 2 That is (a .a + 13b .^a .31 Factorize a + 4b + 36 .

4yh^9x + 12xy + 16y h 109 .33 Factorize (i) 8x + 125y Solution (i) 8x + 125y 3 3 3 3 (ii) 27x .y) (x2 .(2x) (5y) + (5y) @ = (2x + 5y)(4x .7. So.xy + y2) x3 + y3 / (x + y) (x2 . So.y) = (x .y) 6(x .y We have x3 + 3x2 y + 3xy2 + y3 = (x + y) 3 .3 Factorization of x3 + y3 and x .64y 3 3 2 2 = (3x) .y) + 3xy (x .y) (x2 + xy + y2) Using the above identities let us factorize the following expressions.3x2 y + 3xy2 .3xy (x + y) = (x + y) 6(x + y) .Algebra 3 3 4.10xy + 25y ) (ii) 27x .y3 = (x .y3 = (x .y) + 3xy @ 2 = (x . x3 + y3 + 3xy (x + y) = (x + y) 3 ( x3 + y3 = (x + y) 3 .4y)6(3x) + ^3xh^4yh + (4y) @ 2 2 = ^3x .y) 3 3 ( x3 .y) = (x .3xy (x .64y 3 3 = (2x) + (5y) 3 3 2 2 = (2x + 5y)6(2x) .xy + y2) We have x3 .y) (x2 + xy + y2) x3 .3xy) = (x + y) (x2 .2xy + y2 + 3xy) = (x .y3 / (x . Example 4.3xy @ 2 = (x + y) (x2 + 2xy + y2 .y) 3 .(4y) 3 3 2 2 = (3x . x3 .y3 .

30zx 4.25x y 3 4 Factorize the following expressions: (i) x + 2x + 1 (iii) b . to get x2 + bx + c = ^ x + ph^ x + qh We use this basic idea to factorize the following problems 110 . suppose ^ x + ph and ^ x + qh are the two factors of x2 + bx + c .az 2. Factorize the following expressions: (i) p + q + r + 2pq + 2qr + 2rp (ii) a + 4b + 36 . In this section we will learn. Factorize the following expressions: (i) 27x + 64y (iv) 8x .Then we have x2 + bx + c = ^ x + ph^ x + qh = x^ x + ph + q^ x + ph = x2 + px + qx + pq = x2 + (p + q) x + pq This implies that the two numbers p and q are chosen in such way that c = pq and b = p + q.4ab .4 Factorization of the Quadratic polynomials of the type ax2 + bx + c .2y 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (iv) 4a + b + 9c .24xy + 16y (iv) 1 .20xy + 12yz .6xy + 6x .Chapter 4 Exercise 4. 3 2 2 (ii) 16x + 64x y (v) p + pq + pr + qr 2 2 (iii) 10x . without identities how to resolve quadratic polynomials into two linear polynomials when (i) a = 1 and (ii) a ! 1 (i) Factorizing the quadratic polynomials of the type x2 + bx + c .12a (iii) 9x + y + 1 . Factorize the following expressions: (i) 2a .7.36x 2 2 2 3.3a b + 2a c (iv) xy .6 1.6bc + 12ca 2 2 2 (v) 25x + 4y + 9z .4 2 2 (ii) 9x .xz + ay .27y 3 3 3 (ii) m + 8 (v) x . a ! 0 So far we have used the identities to factorize certain types of polynomials.8y 3 3 3 (iii) a + 125 3 3 4.4ab + 24b .

4 = b In the above examples the constant term is split into two factors such that their sum is equal to the coefficients of x .2h + ^.2h .2x .5 = b (3) x2 + x .2 = ^+ 2h # ^.7h ` x2 .2x .9x + 14 (iii) x2 + 2x . x2 + 9x + 14 = x2 + 2x + 7x + 14 = x^ x + 2h + 7^ x + 2h = ^ x + 2h^ x + 7h ` x2 + 9x + 14 = ^ x + 7h^ x + 2h (ii) x2 .6h^ x + 2h here c = . –14 –15 –2.3h and ^.9x + 14 = x2 . (i) x2 + 9x + 14 Solution (i) x2 + 9x + 14 To factorize we have to find p and q .12 = ^ x .1h here c = .1h and ^+ 2h + ^. –7 .1h = 1 = b (4) x2 .3h = .4x .2h^ x .15 (iv) x2 .2h^ x . 7 Factors of 14 Sum of factors –1.9 x2 .7^ x .5x + 6 = ^ x .3h here c = 6 = ^. 14 15 2.6h # ^+ 2h and ^.Algebra For example. (1) x2 + 8x + 15 = ^ x + 3h^ x + 5h here c = 15 = 3 # 5 and 3 + 5 = 8 = b (2) x2 .15 Factors of 14 Sum of factors 1.34 Factorize the following.12 = ^. 7 9 The required factors are 2. Example 4. –7 –9 The required factors are –2.6h + ^+ 2h = .9x + 14 = ^ x .2h # ^.2h = ^ x .2 = ^ x + 2h^ x . such that pq = 14 and p + q = 9.7h 111 (ii) x2 .9x + 14 To factorize we have to find p and q such that pq = 14 and p + q = .2h^ x .7x + 14 = x^ x .

comparing the coefficients of x . Similarly.15 = x2 .15 = ^ x .Chapter 4 (iii) x2 + 2x . such that pq = .2x . 5 (iv) x2 .3h^ x + 5h Factors of –15 Sum of factors –1. –15 –14 3. 112 . 5 2 The required factors are –3.15 = x^ x . 15 14 –3. ax2 + bx + c = ^rx + ph ^ sx + qh = rsx2 + (ps + qr) x + pq Comparing the coefficients of x2 .15 To factorize we have to find p and q . such that pq = .15 To factorize we have to find p and q .2x . –5 –2 The required factors are 3. Step3 : The terms are grouped into two pairs and factorize.5h ` x . to factorize ax2 + bx + c .2x .15 and p + q = .5x .15 = x^ x + 3h . Step2 : Split this product into two factors such that their sum is equal to the coefficient of x . whose product is ^ psh # ^qr h = ^ pr h # ^ sqh = ac Therefore. –5 (ii) Factorizing the quadratic polynomials of the type ax2 + bx + c .3h + 5^ x .3h = ^ x .3x + 5x . we get c = pq .5h 2 Factors of –15 Sum of factors 1. we get a = rs . And.15 = x2 + 3x . Then. This shows us that b is the sum of two numbers ps and qr . we have to write b as the sum of two numbers whose product is ac (= b) The following steps to be followed to factorize ax2 + bx + c Step1 : Multiply the coefficient of x2 and constant term ( = ac) . Since a is different from 1. on comparing the constant terms. we get b = ps + qr .15 and p + q = 2 x2 + 2x .5^ x + 3h = ^ x + 3h^ x . the linear factors of ax2 + bx + c will be of the form ^rx + ph and ^ sx + qh .15 = ^ x + 3h^ x .2 x2 .3h^ x + 5h ` x2 + 2x .

54 55 ` product = 54. constant term = 27 Factors of 54 Sum of factors Their product= 2 # 27 = 54 –1. 54 53 –2. 18 21 2 2 6.27 Their product = 2 #.15 –2.15x .27 Solution (i) 2x2 + 15x + 27 2 Coefficient of x = 2 .9h (iii) 2x2 + 15x . sum = 15 2.9h ` 2x .15 –3.54 Coefficient of x = 15 ` product = –54.9^ x .27 = . 9 15 2x + 15x + 27 = 2x + 6x + 9x + 27 The required factors are 6.15x + 27 = ^ x . 27 25 –3. –9 –15 2 2 The required factors are –6.15x + 27 Coefficient of x2 = 2 .15x + 27 (iv) 2x2 . 27 29 3. constant term = .15x + 27 = 2x . sum = 15 2 2 (ii) 2x2 . –18 –21 –6.35 Factorize the following (i) 2x2 + 15x + 27 (iii) 2x2 + 15x . constant term = 27 Their product = 2 # 27 = 54 Factors of 54 Sum of factors Coefficient of x = 15 1.3h^2x . –27 –29 ` product= 54 . –9 2x .3h^2x . sum = .27 2 Coefficient of x = 2 . 18 15 The required factors are –3.3h . 18 113 . 9 = 2x ^ x + 3 h + 9 ^ x + 3 h = ^ x + 3h^2x + 9h ` 2x + 15x + 27 = ^ x + 3h^2x + 9h (ii) 2x2 .Algebra Example 4.6x .9x + 27 = 2x^ x .27 Factors of –54 Sum of factors –1. –54 –55 Coefficient of x = .3h = ^ x .

36 Factorize ^ x + yh2 + 9^ x + yh + 8 Solution Let x + y = p Then the equation is p + 9p + 8 Coefficient of p = 1 .9h Example 4. –54 –53 2.15x .3x + 18x . –27 –25 3. sum = 9 p + 9p + 8 = p + p + 8p + 8 = p^ p + 1h + 8^ p + 1h = ^ p + 1h^ p + 8h substituting.9^2x + 3h = ^2x + 3h^ x .27 = x^2x + 3h .27 = .3h^ x + 9h ` 2x + 15x .27 = 2x + 3x .3h^ x + 9h (iv) 2x2 .54 Coefficient of x = –15 ` product = –54.27 Coefficient of x = 2 .3h + 9^2x .Chapter 4 2x + 15x . constant term = 8 Their product= 1 # 8 = 8 Coefficient of p= 9 ` product = 8.9h ` 2x . 8 114 . p = x + y ` ^ x + yh2 + 9^ x + yh + 8 = ^ x + y + 1h^ x + y + 8h 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Factors of –54 Sum of factors 1.18x .27 = x^2x .27 = ^2x + 3h^ x .27 Their product = 2 #. 8 Sum of factors 9 The required factors are 1. –18 –15 The required factors are 3.15x .3h = ^2x . constant term = . sum = –15 2x . –18 Factors of 8 1.27 = 2x .15x .27 = ^2x .

2 .1 + 3 + 1 .1 .1 + 2 = 0 ` (x .2) ` x .1) (x .8 + 2 + 2 =.3 p (x) is a cubic polynomial.2)(x + 1) (x .x + 2 Solution (i) Let p (x) = x . p (.8 .1) is a factor of p (x) .1 . p^1 h = (1) .1) . (x .1 .x .1) .27 + 27 + 3 .x + 2 3 2 (ii) x + 3x .2x . p (. The three factors of p (x) are (x + 1). The factors of 2 are –1.2)(x . p (.x .2 (. 1.2) + 2 =.3 =.2x .3 = 0 ` (x + 1) is a factor of p (x) .2 + 1 + 2 = 0 ` (x + 1) is a factor of p (x) .1) is a factor of p (x) .1 (x .3) = (. The constant term is 2.1 + 2 = 1 .1) .2h = (.2 (.(.1) = (.1) + 2 =. Another method x . so it may have three linear factors. (x .12 ! 0 ` (x + 2) is not a factor of p (x) .3 =(x + 1) (x .2 + 2 = 0 ` (x .1) (x + 3) . The constant term is –3.Algebra Example 4.1) and (x .2) .3) . –2 and 2.1) + 3 (.1) = (.1) (ii) Let p (x) = x + 3x .3 =. p^.1) .3 = 0 ` (x + 3) is a factor of p (x) .–3 and 3.3 = 1 + 3 .2) . The three factors of p (x) are (x + 1).(.2) .b = (a + b) (a .x + 2 = x (x .3 3 2 p (x) is a cubic polynomial. so it may have three linear factors.(.2) .2) is a factor of p (x) . p (1) = (1) + 3 (1) .2x .1) = (x .2 + 2 = 8 .37 3 2 Factorize : (i) x . The factors of –3 are –1. p (2) = (2) .x . 1.3 = 0 ` (x .2x .2 (1) .2 (2) .b) ] 2 2 .3) + 3 (.1) and (x + 3) 3 2 ` x + 3x .(.x + 2 =(x + 1) (x . 115 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 [(a a .2) = (x .3) .8 .

16y + 7 (ix) 3x + 5x . b1.4 3.5x + 1 (x) 2a + 17a .10m .7^ p . For example.10x + 8 (xi) 11 + 5x . c1 and c2 are constants and a1 ! 0 .7 1.x .2 ( 3x = 6 ( x = 6 ( x = 2 3 In fact a linear equation in one variable has a unique solution.x .3x .4 3 2 3 2 (ii) x .22 (xi) m . b and c are constants and a ! 0 . a2 ! 0 and b2 ! 0 . Factorize the following (i) ^a + bh2 + 9^a + bh + 14 (ii) ^ p .16y + 60 (viii) x + 9x .7x . Let us consider a pair of linear equations in two variables x and y. 4.8.20 2 2 2 2 Factorize each of the following. a2. b1 ! 0 . solving 3x + 2 = 8 ( 3x = 8 . 116 .2 (iii) x + x .30 (xiii) 2x . 2 2 2 2 (ii) x + 13x + 30 (v) y .144 2 2 2 2 (iii) y + 7y + 12 (vi) t . b2.qh2 .5 3 2 3 2 4.qh .3x 2 2 2 2 2 (xiv) 18x .3x .15 (x) x . b ! 0 . where a.4x .99 2.Chapter 4 Exercise 4.29y + 20 (viii) 3x .17t + 72 (ix) y + 5y .2 (xii) 8x + 29x .6x 2 2 2 2 2 (iii) 2x + 9x + 10 (vi) 9y . Factorize the following (i) x + 2x .1 pair of Linear Equations in two Variables In general linear equation in two variables x and y is of the form ax + by = c where a.18 4.12 (xv) 10 .14x + 24 (vii) x + 14x . (i) 3x + 19x + 6 (iv) 14x + 31x + 6 (vii) 6x .y .2x .x + 3 (iv) x + 5x .36 (xii) y .8 Linear Equations Recall the linear equations in one variable is of the form ax + b = 0 . Factorize each of the following. b are constants and a ! 0 . a1 x + b1 y a2 x + b2 y = = c1 c2 (1) (2) Where a1. (i) x + 15x + 14 (iv) x .x .14 2 2 2 2 2 (ii) 5x + 22x + 8 (v) 5y .

Solution We have x + 3y = 16 2x . 2x + 5y = 2 and x + 2y = 3 Solution We have 2x + 5y = 2 x + 2y = 3 (1) (2) Equation (2) becomes. 2^3 .3y (3) Substituting x in (2) we get. Hence.4h = 3 + 8 = 11 ` The solution is x = 11 and y =.y = 4 ( 32 .y = 4 by using substitution method. substitution method In this method. y0) is called a solution of these equations.6y .7y = . 2^16 . x = 3 . y0h satisfies both the equations. then (x0.y = 4 . one of the two variables is expressed interms of the other.28 = 4 -7 117 . the elimination method and the cross-multiplication method are some of the methods commonly used to solve the system of equations. y0h that satisfies both the equations.4 in (3). using either of the equations. we get.2^.2yh + 5y = 2 ( 6 . In this chapter we consider only the substitution method to solve the linear equations in two variables.4 Example 4.39 Solve x + 3y = 16. x = 16 .2y (3) Substituting x in (1) we get. solving these equations involves the method of finding the ordered pair ^ x0.38 Solve the following pair of equations by substitution method.y = 4 (1) (2) Equation (1) becomes.Algebra If an ordered pair ^ x0.32 .3yh . 2x .28 y = .y = 4 . Example 4. The substitution method.6y . x = 3 .6 ` y = -4 Substituting y =.4y + 5y = 2 . It is then substituted in the other equation and solved.4y + 5y = 2 .

2a + 3^4 . Example 4. Find the cost of each.12 -a = -5 ( a = 5 Substituting a = 5 in (3) we get.3a = 7 2a . The cost of a pen is ` 10 less than that of a notebook.Chapter 4 Substituting y = 4 in (3) we get.1 5 Example 4. y ! 0 x y x y Solution Let 1 = a and 1 = b x y The given equations become a+b = 4 2a + 3b = 7 Equation (1) becomes b = 4 . b = 4 .3^4h = 16 .40 Solve by substitution method 1 + 1 = 4 and 2 + 3 = 7.3a = 7 .ah = 7 ( 2a + 12 .10 (1) (2) 118 . y =.41 The cost of a pen and a note book is ` 60.12 = 4 ` The solution is x = 4 and y = 4 .5 = .a (1) (2) (3) Substituting b in (2) we get.1 y b -1 ` The solution is x = 1 . Solution Let the cost of a pen = ` x Let the cost of a note book = ` y From given data we have x + y = 60 x = y .1 But 1 = a & x = 1 = 1 x a 5 1 = b & y = 1 = 1 =. x ! 0. x = 16 .

x = The cost of one science book = ` 27. Solution Let the fare from Dharmapuri to Palacode be ` x and to Karimangalam be ` y . x = 35 .43 4^27h = 36 3 ` The cost of one mathematics book = ` 36. Solution Let the cost of a mathematics book be ` x and cost of a science book be ` y . 3x + 4y = 216 3x = 4y 4y 3 (1) (2) (3) = 216 The equation (2) becomes. The cost of a note book is ` 35. Example 4. Find the fares from Dharmapuri to Palacode and to Karimangalam. y . 3 c ( 4y + 4y = 216 ( 8y ` y = 4y m + 4y 3 = 216 216 = 27 8 substituting y =27 in (3) we get. Find the cost of each book. but if we buy 3 tickets to Palacode and one ticket to Karimangalam the total cost is Rs 27. x = Substituting x in (1) we get. 119 . From Dharmapuri bus stand if we buy 2 tickets to Palacode and 3 tickets to Karimangalam the total cost is Rs 32.Algebra Substituting x in (1) we get.10 + y = 60 ( y + y = 60 + 10 ( 2y = 70 ` y = 70 = 35 2 Substituting y = 35 in (2) we get.42 The cost of three mathematics books and four science books is ` 216. The cost of three mathematics books is the same as that of four science books. By given data. Example 4.10 = 25 ` The cost of a pen is ` 25.

` The required two numbers are 31 and 24. Find the numbers .Chapter 4 From the given data.21 = 6 ` The fare from Dharmapuri to Palacode is ` 7 and to Karimangalam is ` 6.49 ` x = . The number formed by reversing the digits is 9 less than the original number. y = 27 . x = 7 + 24 = 31 .3x (3) Substituting y in (1) we get. Example 4. y = 27 .45 A number consist of two digits whose sum is 11.44 The sum of two numbers is 55 and their difference is 7.7x = . Find the number. Solution Let the tens digit be x and the units digit be y. Sum of the digits is x + y = 11 The number formed by reversing the digits is 10y + x . Example 4. Then the number is 10x + y .81 . 7 + y + y = 55 (1) . 2x + 3^27 .3^7h = 27 .3xh = 32 ( 2x + 81 . x + y = 55 x-y = 7 x = 7+y ( 2y = 55 .49 = 7 -7 Substituting x = 7 in (3) we get.9x = 32 . 120 (1) (2) (3) Substituting x in (1) we get. Equation (2) becomes.9x = 32 2x . we have 2x + 3y = 32 3x + y = 27 (1) (2) Equation (2) becomes. Solution Let the two numbers be x and y.7 = 48 ` y = 48 = 24 2 Substituting y = 24 in (3) we get. where x > y By the given data.

1h # 8 Dividing by 4 on both sides. x+4 > 6 ie x > 6 .46 Solve 4^ x . We represent those real numbers in the number line. There is only one such value for x in a linear equation in one variable.9 = 10y + x ( 10x + y .1 = 10 ` y = 10 = 5 2 Substituting y = 5 in (3) we get. 121 . Unshaded circle indicates that point is not included in the solution set. Solving we get x = 2 .9 Linear Inequations in one Variable We know that x + 4 = 6 is a linear equation in one variable.1 #2 ( x # 2+1 ( x # 3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 The real numbers less than or equal to 3 are solutions of given inequation. (10x + y) .4 x >2 So any real number greater than 2 will satisfy this inequation.Algebra Given data. Shaded circle indicates that point is included in the solution set. x .9y = 9 Dividing by 9 on both sides.1h # 8 Solution 4 ^ x .10y . Example 4.x = 9 9x .y = 1 Equation (2) becomes x = 1 + y Substituting x in (1) we get. x . x = 1 + 5 = 6 ` The number is 10x + y = 10 (6) + 5 = 65 (2) (3) 4. Let us consider. 1 + y + y = 11 ( 2y + 1 = 11 2y = 11 .

6 ( x $ .48 Solve 3 . 3^5 . 5 .1. y ! 0) (v) x y x y Find two numbers whose sum is 24 and difference is 8. (i) 2x + 7 > 15 (ii) 2^ x .5x # 9 Solution We have. 4 5.5 (-x > . (i) x + 3y = 10 .2h 1 3 (iii) 2^ x + 7h # 9 122 2. y ! 0) x y x y 3 + 1 = 7 . 2 + 1 = 12 (x ! 0. Solve the following inequations.5x # 9 .4 = 6 (x ! 0.xh > 6 Dividing by 3 on both sides. How many did each have with them?.b ( a < b (iii) a < b ( ka < kb for k > 0 (ii) a < b ( 1 > 1 where a ! 0 . 3 .5x # 9 ( . Solve the following equations by substitution method.8 1. my number will be thrice yours”.4y = 18 (iv) 1 + 2 = 9 .y = 4 (ii) 2x + y = 1 .xh > 6 Solution We have. Kavi said to Kural “If you give me 4 of your apples. 2x + y = 5 (iii) 5x + 3y = 21 . (iv) 3x + 14 $ 8 . 3x . A number consists of two digits whose sum is 9. Kural replied “If you give me 26. my number will be twice yours”. The number formed by reversing the digits exceeds twice the original number by 18.x > 2 (-x > 2 .2 -1 0 1 2 Exercise 4. 2x .2 5 The real numbers greater than or equal to . -2 -1.a > . 3. Find the original number. Kavi and Kural each had a number of apples .1. 5 .2 are solutions of given inequation.6 ( x $ . Remark (i) .3 ` x<3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 (See remark given below) The real numbers less than 3 are solutions of given inequation. b ! 0 a b (iv) a < b ( ka > kb for k < 0 Example 4.Chapter 4 Example 4.5x # 6 ( 5x $ .3 ( .47 Solve 3^5 .

› n n 1 2 where Let p^ xh be a polynomial. If p^ah = 0 then we say that a is a zero of the polynomial p^ x h If x = a satisfies the polynomial equation p^ xh = 0 then x = a is called a root of the polynomial equation p^ xh = 0 .Algebra points to Remember › A polynomial in one variable x is an algebraic expression of the form p(x) = an x + an . g.y) 3 / x3 .1. Factor Theorem : Let p^ xh be a polynomial and a be any real number. an . If p^ xh is divided by the linear polynomial x .y) x3 + y3 / (x + y) (x2 .yz . then the remainder is p^ah . an ! 0 a0.a .3xyz / (x + y + z) (x2 + y2 + z2 .y3 .+ g + a2 x + a1 x + a0 . a2.1 x .y3 / (x .xy + y2) x3 .xy . › › › › › (x + y + z) / x + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2zx (x + y) 3 / x3 + y3 + 3xy (x + y) (x . If p (a) = 0. a1.zx) t ^ x + ah^ x + bh^ x + ch / x3 + ^a + b + ch x2 + ^ab + bc + cah x + abc 123 .3xy (x . Remainder Theorem : Let p^ xh be any polynomial and a be any real number.y) (x2 + xy + y2) 2 2 2 2 › › › x3 + y3 + z3 . then ( x–a) is a factor of p^ xh . an are constants and n is a non negative integer .

This method of describing the location of points was introduced by the French mathematician René Descartes (Pronounced “day CART”). 5. In honour of his work. The invention of analytical geometry was the beginning of modern mathematics.coordinates giving its distance from two lines perpendicular to each other.Rene DesCARTes Main Targets ● ● ● ● To understand Cartesian coordinate system To identify abscissa. 124 . emphasized the use of logic and scientific method. the coordinates of a point are often referred to as its Cartesian coordinates.” Descartes went far past Fermat in the use of symbols. not only as to the things which I have explained. perhaps because he attempted to build a new system of thought from the ground up. in extending it to equations of higher degree. but also as to those which I have intentionally omitted so as to leave to others the pleasure of discovery . and was “profoundly affected in his outlook by the new physics and astronomy. thus being the first to link algebra and geometry. The fixing of a point position in the plane by assigning two numbers . He proposed further that curves and lines could be described by equations using this technique. ordinate and coordinates of a point To plot the points on the plane To find the distance between two points Descartes (1596-1650) D e s c a r t e s (1596-1650) has been called the father of modern philosophy. was entirely Descartes’ invention.Chapter 5 COORDINATE GEOMETRY I hope that posterity will judge me kindly. and the coordinate plane as the Cartesian Coordinate Plane. in ‘Arithmetizing’ analytic geometry. In this chapter we learn how to represent points using cartesian coordinate system and derive formula to find distance between two points in terms of their coordinates.1 Introduction Coordinate Geometry or Analytical Geometry is a system of geometry where the position of points on the plane is described using an ordered pair of numbers called coordinates.

every real number. 5.1 Coordinates of a Point In Cartesian system. has a unique location on the number line. 5. 5. 125 . or irrational. y) 5. the same unit Y 8 distance) on both the axes. To obtain these number. 7 y 6 5 4 3 2 1 (x. We use the same scale (that is. by using a Cartesian coordinate system we can specify a point P in the plane with two real numbers. we draw two lines through the point P parallel (and hence perpendicular) to the axes.2 Cartesian Coordinate System Y 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 In the chapter on Real Number System. They are usually written as (x. a point P on a number line can be specified by a real number x called its coordinate. any point P in the plane is associated with an ordered pair of real numbers.Coordinate Geometry 5. Conversely.1 the vertical number line is called the y-axis. the Y Fig.2. These two numbers associated with the point P are called coordinates of P. similarly. X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 O 1 2 3 4 5 6X -2 A Cartesian coordinate system or -3 rectangle coordinate system consists of two -4 perpendicular number lines. similarly. Generally the Y horizontal number line is called the x-axis and Fig. We are interested in the coordinates of the X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 O 1 2 3 4 x 5 6X points of intersection of the two lines with the axes. the ordinate second. There are two coordinates: x-coordinate on the x-axis and y-coordinate on the y-axis. the y coordinate of a point above the x-axis is positive and below the x-axis is negative. y). The x-coordinate is called the abscissa and the y-coordinate is called the ordinate of the point at hand. called coordinate -5 axes. The two number lines intersect at the -6 zero point of each as shown in the Fig. whether rational.1 and -7 this point is called origin ‘O’. called its coordinates.2 abscissa coming first. The x coordinate of a point to the right of the y-axis is positive and to the left of y-axis is negative. you have learnt` how to represent real numbers on the number line.

Y 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 -6 -7 Y P Fig.3.2. 2. a) are not equal. 5. Also (a1. 5.. b).Chapter 5 Remarks 1. To find the x-coordinate of a point P: (i) Drop a perpendicular from the point P to the x-axis. or ordinate.4 .2 Identifying the x-coordinate The x-coordinate or abscissa. a) . 126 X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 O 1 2 3 4 5 6X Y Fig.3 5.4 . i. b) and (b. 5. To find the y-coordinate of a point P: (i) Drop a perpendicular from the point P to the y-axis. The terms point and coordinates of a point are used interchangeably. (ii) The number where the line meets the y-axis is the value of the y-coordinate.3 Identifying the y-coordinate The y-coordinate. the y-coordinate of P is 6 and the y-coordinate of Q is 2. the two elements a and b are listed in a specific order. 5. (ii) The number where the line meets the x-axis is the value of the x-coordinate. the x-coordinate of P is 1 and the x-coordinate of Q is 5. of a Q point is the value which indicates the distance and direction of the point above or below the x-axis. (a. b1) = (a2. b) ! (b.e. b2) is equivalent to a1 = a2 and b1 = b2 3. X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 Y 8 7 6 5 4 P Q 3 2 1 O 1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 2 3 4 5 6X In Fig. In an ordered pair (a. So the ordered pairs (a. of a point is the value which indicates the distance and direction of the point to the right or left of the y-axis. 5..2.. In Fig.

we follow the y-axis until we reach 6 and draw a horizontal line at y =6. (ii) For any point on the y-axis.2. 127 Y Fig. The y coordinate is positive in I and II quadrants and negative in III and IV quadrants. 5. −) O IV Quadrant (+. To plot the point (5. 6) X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 O 1 2 3 4 5 6X Let us now illustrate through an example how to plot a point in Cartesian coordinate system. This point is at a distance of 5 units from the y-axis and 6 units from the x-axis. The signs of the coordinates are shown in parentheses in Fig. 6) in cartesian coordinate system we follow the x-axis until we reach 5 and draw a vertical line at x = 5. The intersection of these two lines is the position of (5. the value of y-coordinate (ordinate) is zero. 5. + -. - Yl Fig. +) Xl III Quadrant (−. y x > 0.5. y > 0 x < 0. 6) is located in the cartesian plane. + -. 5. region XOY Xl OY Xl OYl XOYl Quadrant I II III IV Y 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Y II Quadrant (−. y > 0 x < 0. 5.5 Plotting Points in Cartesian Coordinate System P(5. 6) in the cartesian plane. y < 0 signs of the coordinates +. 5. Thus the position of (5. +) I Quadrant (+. similarly.2.4 Quadrants A plane with the rectangular coordinate system is called the cartesian plane. y < 0 x > 0. the value of x-coordinate (abscissa) is zero. The x coordinate is positive in the I and IV quadrants and negative in II and III quadrants.5 5. +. That is we count from the origin 5 units along the positive direction of x-axis and move along the positive direction of y-axis through 6 units and mark the corresponding point. −) X Nature of x. The coordinate axes divide the plane into four parts called quadrants.Coordinate Geometry Note (i) For any point on the x-axis.6 . numbered counter-clockwise for reference as shown in Fig.5.

The intersection of these two lines is the position of (.2.Chapter 5 Example 5. The intersection of these two lines is the position of (3.2. 128 . (i) A (5. Y 8 7 6 5 A(5.2) Solution (i) To plot (5.2) is located in the Cartesian plane. draw a vertical line at x = . .2 and draw a horizontal line at y = . .2).4. The intersection of these two lines is the position of (. 4) (ii) B (.4. 3 ) is located in the Cartesian plane.3 ). 4) in the Cartesian plane. 3) (iii) C (. -2) C(-2.2.3 ) is located in the Cartesian plane. the point B(. The intersection of these two lines is the position of (5. .3) (iv) D (3. .4. Thus. (iv) To plot (3. the point D (3.7 (ii) To plot (. draw a vertical line at x = 5 and draw a horizontal line at y = 4. . Thus.4). . 4) 4 B(-4. . -3) -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 Y Fig. . (iii) To plot (.2) in the Cartesian plane Thus. 3 ) in the Cartesian plane.2.1 Plot the following points in the rectangular coordinate system. 3 ). Thus.4. the point C(. 5.2. the point A (5.3 ) in the Cartesian plane. draw a vertical line at x = 3 and draw a horizontal line at y = .3.4 and draw a horizontal line at y = 3. 3) 3 2 1 X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 O 1 2 3 4 5 6X D(3. draw a vertical line at x = . 4) is located in the Cartesian plane.

(.8 Remark Observe that if we interchange the abscissa and ordinate of a point. Y 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 (–5. 5) and (5. 0) (–1.5. 0).2.2) in the rectangular coordinate system. .Coordinate Geometry Example 5.–2) -3 -4 -5 D(–2. (2.2 Locate the points (i) (3.5) and (. then it may represent a different point in the Cartesian plane. Example 5. 0) in the cartesian plane.3 Plot the points (.–5) -6 -7 Y Fig. 0) (2.9 129 .1. 0) and (4. 3) X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 O 1 2 3 4 5 6X C(–5. 5.5. 5) 5 4 3 2 1 A(5. 0) 1 O 1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 2 3 (4. 0) 4 5 6X Y Fig. 3) (ii) (. . Y 8 7 6 B(3. 0). 5.

. 5. 2) (–1. 2).4 Plot the points (0.10 Plot the points (i) (.. 4). 2) (4. 5) 5 (0. 2). 130 .5 Fig. 2). 5) and (0.4) in the cartesian plane. you see that they lie on a line which is parallel to x-axis. (iii) (4. 2) and (iv) (0. Y 8 7 6 (0. –4) -4 -5 -6 -7 Y Example 5. –2) -2 -3 (0.Chapter 5 Example 5.1. (0.11 When you join these points. What can you say about the position of these points? Y 8 7 6 5 4 3 (–4.2). (0. 2) 2 1 (0. 4) 4 3 2 1 X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 O 1 2 3 4 5 6X (0. 5.4. 2) X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 O 1 2 3 4 5 6X Y Fig. (ii) (.

F is (3. –3) -4 -5 -6 -7 Y 8 7 6 5 Y Fig. Example 5.3.3. 5. B (. similarly. A is at a 4 3 B 2 A G X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 O 1 -1 2 3 4 5 6X distance of 3 units from the origin along the positive direction of x-axis and 2 units distance from the origin along the positive direction of y-axis. –3) (2. Solution Consider the point A.2). 3). B is (. 5. breath and area of the rectangle? (–2. 3). E is (5. 3) 3 2 1 Y 8 7 6 5 4 (2.2.2. 2).13.1). C (.3) and D (2. Hence the coordinates of A are (3. –3).3).6 Identify the quadrants of the points A (2. the y coordinates are equal. 1) 131 D C -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 E Y Fig. Discuss the type of the diagram by joining all the points. D is (2. .2.Coordinate Geometry Remark For points on a line parallel to x-axis.12 Example 5. 3) ABCD is a rectangle X -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 O 1 -1 -2 -3 2 3 4 5 6X Can you find the length. 4) and G is (. where each square is a unit square.13 . C is (. 2). .7 F Find the coordinates of the points shown in the Fig. Solution Point Quadrant A I B II C III D IV (–2. 5. .. .

2) 6. (ix) (.5. the coordinates of A.5. Write down the ordinate of the following points. How is the line joining them situated? The ordinates of two points are each . 2) and (. 9. . 5) (ii) (2.1 1. .5. 9) (ii) (4. (viii) (. (x) 2. 0).3. C and D . 7) Plot the following points in the coordinate system and specify their quadrant. Write down the abscissa for the following points. 4). . 4.8. 8) (iii) (4. A (5.10.7. . (i) (5.and D and A. 5. (ii) (. . State the figure obtained by joining A and B. 0) (viii) (0. 2) lies to the left of y-axis. For any point on the x-axis its y coordinate is zero.1) in the cartesian plane. (. state whether the following statements are true / false .4) lies above x-axis. 0) is a point on x-axis.4) (iv) (4. 10. 2) (vi) (0. . 0). B (5. (v) (. . With rectangular axes plot the points O (0. In a rectangle ABCD.2. 2) are points on the line parallel to y-axis.1.7. B and D are (0. (iv) (5. 3) is a point on x-axis.2. . 0) (0.3.5) (iii) (7. 4) (iv) (. 3). 0) (4. 8. How is the line joining them related with reference to x-axis? The abscissa of two points is 0. Plot the following points in the coordinate plane.1) and D (2. . (vii) (. . 3) lies in the II quadrant. (i) (ii) (5.5. How is the line joining situated? Mark the points A (.5) (x) (.1) (vii) (4. . What are the coordinates of C? 132 .7) is a point in the III quadrant.6 . 7. B (2. (iii) (8. . 0) (iv) (. 7) is a point in the IV quadrant. (vi) (0.7) lies below the x-axis. (i) (.2.1) (ix) (1. 5) (i) (4. . 3) 3. . C (.5) (ii) (3.Chapter 5 exercise 5. 4). Find the coordinate of point C such that OABC forms a rectangle.7) (iii) (. 2) (i) (7. 4).3) (iv) (7.2) (v) (0. B and C. 0) (iii) (8.

16 .1 Distance between two points on coordinate axes If two points lie on the x-axis. These two points lie on the y axis. The distance of B from A = AB = OB .y1 if y2 2 y1 if y1 2 y2 xl y B y2 y1 O A { y2−y1 x yl Fig. 0) on the x-axis. 5. y1) x-axis. 5. The distance of B from A = AB = OB . then it is easy to find the distance between them because the distance is equal to the difference between x coordinates.OA = x2 .2 Distance between two points on a line parallel to coordinate axes Consider the points A (x1. Consider two points A (0. Hence Distance AB = Distance PQ = x1 .3.OA = y2 . Distance xl Q between A and B is equal to distance between P and Q. then the distance between them is equal to the difference between the y coordinates. Consider the two points A (x1. since the y ordinates are equal.Coordinate Geometry 5. y1) and B (x2.x1 if x2 2 x1 yl Fig.x2 if x1 2 x2 ` AB = x2 .x2 133 O P yl Fig.15 y A(x1. y2) .x1 similarly. 5. y1) . 5.3. The distance between two points A and B is usually denoted by AB. the two points lie on a line parallel to B(x2. if two points lie on y axis. y1) x 5.y1 = y1 .14 y xl O A x1 x2 − x1 B x2 x { = x1 . y1) and B (0.3 Distance between any Two Points One of the simplest things that can be done with analytical geometry is to calculate the distance between two points.y2 ` AB = y2 . 0) and B (x2. Draw AP and BQ perpendicular to x-axis.

17 Remark The distance between two points on a line parallel to the coordinate axes is the absolute value of the difference between respective coordinates. y2) y2−y1 A(x1.18 Hence the distance between the points A and B is AB = (x2 .3. 5.x1) + (y2 .y1) 2 2 Key Concept Distance Between two Points Given the two points (x1.x1 and BR = BQ . y2) that lie on a line parallel to y-axis. 5. y1) and B (x1.x1) + (y2 .x1) + (y2 . We shall now find the distance between these two points.RQ = y2 . e.3 Distance between two points: Let A^ x1. Hence Distance AB = Distance PQ = y1 . y1) O x B(x1. AR = PQ = OQ . y2) .y1) 2 2 2 2 (By Pythagoras theorem) i. y2) Q yl Fig.y1 From right triangle ARB AB 2 B(x2. y1) R xl 2 O P x2 − x1 Q x { = AR + RB AB = 2 = (x2 . y1h and B^ x2 y2h be any two points in the plane.y1) yl Fig.x1) + (y2 . y1) and (x2. The distance between A and B is equal to the distance between P and Q.y2 xl y P A(x1. the distance between these points is given by the formula: d= (x2 . y Let P and Q be the foot of the perpendiculars from A and B to the x-axis respectively. Draw AP and BQ perpendicular to y-axis. AR is drawn perpendicular to BQ.OP = x2 ..y1) 134 2 2 .Chapter 5 now consider the points A (x1. (x2 . 5. From the diagram.

8) and (6. now OA = 6 and OB = 8.y1) 2 2 = (3 + 4) + 0 = 2 2 49 = 7 Example 5. 0) and (3. Hence.4.12 = 12 Aliter : d= (x2 . 2) Solution Using the distance formula d = d= (. 2) Solution The line joining (5.0) + (0 . 5.x1) + (y2 . 8) and (6.8 Find the distance between the points (. using Pythagorean Theorem AB = OA + OB = 36 + 64 = 100. 8) and let O be the origin.7. 8) 8 units Aliter : Let A and B denote the points (6. 0) and (0.x1) + (y2 .x2 = .6) and (. 0) is d= = (x2 . 0) and (3. since the angle between coordinate axes is right angle.(. 0) xl O 6 units x yl Fig.4.5 = .4 + 5) + (2 + 6) = 2 2 2 (x2 . 2) and (.Coordinate Geometry Remark (i) This formula holds good for all the above cases.5. we find 2 2 2 1 + 8 = 1 + 64 = 65 Example 5.19 .y1) = 2 2 (5 + 7) + (2 .10 Find the distance between the points (. Hence Aliter : d = x1 . 2) is parallel to x axis. 8) lies on the y-axis. (ii) The distance of the point P (x1. the distance d = x1 .4.y1) 2 2 2 2 (6 .x1) + (y2 . 0) Solution The points (.x2 = 3 . The point (6. 0) lies on the x-axis and the point (0. y1) from the origin O is OP = x1 + y1 2 2 Example 5. ` AB = 100 = 10 135 2 2 2 A(6.9 Find the distance between the points (. 0) Solution The distance between the points (0. 2) and (5. the points A.7.8) = 36 + 64 = 100 = 10 y B(0.x1) + (y2 . .11 Find the distance between the points (0.4) = 3 + 4 = 7 d= (x2 .7 .y1) . Hence.2) = 122 = 144 = 12 2 2 Example 5. 0) lie on the x-axis. O and B form a right triangle.

Solution Let the points be represented by A (a.6 . This gives AB + BC = 3 2 + 2 2 = 5 2 = AC.14 Determine whether the points are vertices of a right triangle A (.a. .4).y1) .7 + 4) = 2 8 + 3 = 64 + 9 = 2 2 73 25 # 2 = 5 2 .4).x1) + (y2 . AB + BC = 125 + 80 = 205 = CA 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Hence ABC is a right angled triangle since the square of one side is equal to sum of the squares of the other two sides. 10) Solution Using the distance formula d = 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (x2 . By the distance formula AB = (4 .3) + (14) = 9 + 196 = 205 i. .13 Show that the three points (4.x1) + (y2 . e. . 7). . B. AB = 18 = CA = 50 = 9#2 = 3 2.3) = 9 + 9 = 18 BC = (9 . we get 2 2 2 2 2 AB = (2 + 3) + (6 + 4) = 5 + 10 = 25 + 100 = 125 BC =(. . (7. a) .Chapter 5 Example 5. BC = 8 = 4#2 = 2 2. 2). 5) and C (9.y1) 2 2 2 (5 + 3) + (.8) + 4 = 64 + 16 = 80 CA = (.7) + (7 .x1) + (y2 .4) + (7 .5) = (.a) and C (. B (.a 3 .6 + 3) + (10 + 4) = (. Example 5. Solution Let the points be A (4.7) is d= = Example 5. a). and C are collinear.. a 3 ) .a.3) + (. 5) and (9. 2). .6) = (.a) and (. a 3 ) form an equilateral triangle. Using the distance formula d = (x2 . we have 136 2 2 . (5.a 3 .4) B (2.7) Solution The distance between the points (–3. B (7.3. Example 5.y1) . . (.2) = 5 + 5 = 25 + 25 = 50 so.6.15 show that the points (a. (5. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (x2 .2) + (10 . 7) lie on a straight line.7) + (2 .12 Find the distance between the points (–3. 6) and C (.5) = 2 + 2 = 4 + 4 = 8 CA = (9 . Hence the points A.

.10) 2 2 CD = (3 .2) = 100 + 4 = 104 = DA = 104 313 and BC i.7. Hence ABCD is a parallelogram. Solution Let the vertices be taken as A (3.1 + 1) + (2 + 2) = 4 =16 DA = (.2a 2 2 2 3 + 3a 2 ` AB = BC = CA = 2 2 a . B (3.1. (3.7. C (.y1) . (.5 .2).3) + (.1.2 + 2) = (. .13) DA = (3 + 7) + (..5) respectively. 2). (5. (15.2) = 4 = 16 CD = (.5 + 3) so. C and D represent the points (.x1) + (y2 .2) AB = (3 . 2) and D (. 8) and (3. 10). The opposite sides are equal. since all the sides are equal the points form an equilateral triangle.16 Prove that the points (. .a 3 + ah + ^a 3 + ah = 3 + 3a + a + 2 a 2 2 2 3 8a = 2 4 # 2a = 2 2 a 2 2 2 CA = = (a + a 3 ) + (a . . . Solution Let A.1. Example 5.e.2) taken in order are vertices of a square. . AB = CD = 2 2 2 2 2 = 144 + 169 = 313 = 10 + (.2).2) = 100 + 4 = 104 2 2 BC = (15 .8) = (.Coordinate Geometry AB = = (a + a) + (a + a) (2a) + (2a) = 2 2 2 2 2 4a + 4a = 2 2 2 8a = 2 2 a 3a + a . B. (15.3).17 show that the following points (3.5) + (8 .12) + (.15) + (. (5.4) = 16 137 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 . .5) taken in order are the corners of a parallelogram. 2). we find 2 2 2 2 2 2 = 12 + 13 = 144 + 169 = 313 = 10 + (.1 .3) + (2 + 2) = 4 = 16 BC = (3 + 1) + (2 . –3).2a 2 2 2 2 BC = = ^. Example 5.a 3 ) = 8a = 2 2 a 2 a + 2a 2 2 3 + 3a + a . 10). 8) and (3. 2) and (.1. Using the distance formula d = AB = (5 + 7) + (10 + 3) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (x2 .

Solution Let the point be P (x. Solution suppose C represents the point (4.1 .e. x).22x + 61 22x . Q and R denote the points (9.12x + 36 + x .) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Hence the points A. squaring on both sides. we get 2 2 PA = PB . . 3) and (6.6) + (x . 2 (x .1) respectively.x1) + (y2 . (That is. Find also its radius.2) = 4 + (. (That is. 3)..13 12x = 48 x = 48 = 4 12 Therefore. 4) Example 5. i. Let A and B denote the points (2. B.3) 2 2 2 2 = (x . 3). y) . 3) is the centre of the circle which passes through the points (9. Let P.1) and (1. If the abscissa and the ordinate of P are equal. Example 5.3) = 5 = 25 CQ = (7 . find the coordinates of P.3) = 3 + (. (7.1) and (1. (7.10x = 61.Chapter 5 AC = (3 + 1) + (. we have y = x . we get PA = PB . .y1) . C and D form a square.18 Let P be a point on the perpendicular bisector of the segment joining (2.4) + (3 .) AC = BD = 32 = 4 2 . the coordinates of P are (4.19 Show that (4. Therefore.5) 2 2 2 2 2 x . 3) and (6. .4) = 16 + 16 = 32 BD = (3 + 1) + (2 + 2) = 4 + 4 = 16 + 16 = 32 AB = BC = CD = DA = 16 = 4.4x + 4 + x . . . the diagonals are equal. since the abscissa of P is equal to its ordinate.2) + (x . since P is equidistant from A and B. the coordinates of P are (x.6x + 9 = x .4) = 9 + 16 = 25 CR = (4 .2 . 5). 3).10x + 13 = 2x .10x + 25 2x . all the sides are equal. Using the distance formula d = we get CP = (9 .1).4) + (. 5).1) + (3 + 1) = 3 + 4 = 9 + 16 = 25 138 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (x2 .

3) and its radius is 5 units.2.2 1. exercise 5.16a + 64 + b2 + 10b + 25 .32 = 0 Example 5. Solution Let P deonte the point (a. 0) and (.10b .Coordinate Geometry so. Hence the points P.6a + 8b + 25 + 16a . .1 . .4. b) . .3) 2 = ` SA = SB = SC . CP = CQ = CR = 25 or CP = CQ = CR = 5.3) + (b + 4) 2 2 2 2 2 2 (x2 . since S is equidistant from all the three vertices.20 If the point (a. . R are on the circle with centre at (4. 8) and (.4) and (8. 4) (iv) (. Using the distance formula d = (a .32 = 0 .64 = 0 Dividing throughout by 2.4) and (8.6a + 9 + b2 + 8b + 16 = a2 .8) and (.3. B (7.1) Solution SA = SB = SC = (9 .5) respectively. Let A and B represent the points (3. 2) 139 (ii) (6. .6) (vi) (2. since P is equidistant from A and B. .4) 2 + (. 2) and (3. 3) is the circum-centre of the triangle joining the points A (9.4) 2 + (3 . Q. Example 5.3) 2 = 25 = 5 25 = 5 25 = 5 (7 . 2) and (2. It is known that the circum-center is equidistant from all the vertices of a triangle. b) is equidistant from (3. we have PA = PB and hence PA = PB .y1) .b . . .1 .2b .8) 2 + (b + 5) 2 a2 .89 = 0 10a . . 0) (v) (. we have 2 2 2 = (a .3) 2 = (1 . 3). .b . we get 5a .1) and C (1.3) (iii) (. Find the distance between the following pairs of points.2. it is the circum-centre of the triangle ABC.21 show that S (4.2. show that 5a .5).x1) + (y2 .4) 2 + (. 2) .3) and (3. (i) (7.2.

6) and (2.2).3 . Show that the following points taken in order form the vertices of a parallelogram. 0) and (1. 1) (v) (2. 0).8.2) and (.11.5) and (.2). 4) (iii) (1. .3). . (2. (2. (viii) (7. (i) (0. 4) (iv) (1.3. 0) and (0.4) and (7.2. . . (i) (. 3) 6. (5.3. (2. (6. (7. 13). . (i) (3. Show that the following points form a right angled triangle.5) (ii) (3. (i) (2.2. (7. . 0) (x) (5. (.3) and (1.2. 15) 5. . 5).Chapter 5 (vii) (.5). 17) and (0. (8. .3) and (.2. 1).6) and (7.1) (iii) (1.7) (v) (15. (6. (0.4. 2).5. (.7). (. 3). 0). (10. .3. 3). Show that the following points taken in order form the vertices of a rhombus. (i) (0. (. (5.7) and (.1) and (. 0). show that the following points are collinear. . 0). (6. (.1) and (4.1) and (0. (i) (.2. (a.4) (iv) (2. 3) (iii) (. (.3) (iii) (0. 20). 0) 4. 9) (ii) (9. . 2).8) 3. 0) and (5. (3. a 3 ) (iv) ( 3 . 5) and (15.2. . .4). 2) and (3.1. (18. . .2) and (2 3 . 4). 7) and (. (5. show that the following points form an isosceles triangle.3. 16) and (29. 0). (. (. 0). (.7.1). (5. 9) (ii) (. .1.1. (. 5) and (5. (. 6) and (3. .5).2) and (6. 4) (ii) (a. (. 7) and (1. 8) and (. 8) and (0. 2) (ix) (0. 4) (iv) (6. (.2. 3). 5).2) and (. 9).5.1. 0). . (. .a.4. 12).3. 0) and (. 2). b) (v) (5. 2). . . (5. 3) (v) (3. 10) (v) (4.6. 4) (ii) (.11. 4) (ii) (1. –2) (iii) (0. (2 3 . show that the following points form an equilateral triangle. . 3).3). 0). (0.2. 2 3 ) (v) (. 1). (. 5 3 ) (iii) (2. (3.2. (7. (4. . 7) and the origin. 4). 0) 7. 5). .6. 0) and (0.8. 3) (iv) (10. .2. 1) and (. 2) (iv) (.1) 2. 0) and (10. . 0). (10. 7). . . 1) and (1. 10) and (15.3). 2) 140 . 3).2 3 .

3) 18. .1). 11. If origin is the centre of a circle with radius 17 units. . . 2). A(4. . . 15) is 10. 14)? Give reason. 2) and (9. (1. 1) 9. (1.6) and (2. 3). (2. . Examine whether the following points taken in order form a rectangle.14) and (. 7) (iii) (. 1). 1) is equidistant from the points (. (i) (0. find the coordinates of any four points on the circle which are not on the axes. (3.5.5) (4. 0).1). 1) (iii) (3. (. (20. . 8) (ii) (. .1. Show that (4. 1) and (2. Find the area of the rhombus ABCD with vertices A (2. (6. If PA = PB then find the coordinates of B. (0. (ii) (9. 13. . 3). 2). 2) and passes through ( . (0.2). y) . find y. (5.1) (v) (. 8) and (13. 15. . 2) and (0. 1). (1. (0.4. . (.1. 9). 5) [Hint: Area of the rhombus ABCD = 1 d1 d2 ] 2 Can you draw a triangle with vertices (1. 7) and (1.3. (. xl O P B x yl Fig.6). 2) and (1.5) are equidistant from the point (x.6.2) (iv) (12.5. B (5. If two points (2. 5). 3) and (2.13).Coordinate Geometry 8. 16. 4) 10.2.20 19. 0) and origin . Prove that the points (0.2) (Hint: A point on the y-axis will have its x coordinate as zero). (5. Find the radius of the circle whose centre is (3. .20. 0) and D (5. . 3) and (.3). If the distance between two points (x. . 0). 5). show that x + y + 3 = 0.3) lie on the circle centred at the origin y with radius 5. 6) and (9. . 12. 3) and (6. find x. 5) (5. Examine whether the following points taken in order form a square. 2).3. 5. (i) (8. 6) and (1. 21. (Use the Pythagorean triplets) 141 20.2.3) and origin Find the point on the y-axis equidistant from (. In the Fig. 6). (0. (3. 3) and (. 4) (ii) (5. C (8. (1. 17. 5.10. 0). 3) and (.2. Find the perimeter of the triangle with vertices (i) (0. 8). . If the length of the line segment with end points (2. PB is perpendicular segment from the point A (4. y) is 4.5). 14.3. 0).

Chapter 5 22. then the distance between the point is y1 . find the value of p using distance formula. Points to Remember � Two perpendicular lines are needed to locate the position of a point in a plane. . Find the distance between any two of such points. 1).1 . 3) taken in order are the vertices of a parallelogram. The radius of the circle with centre at the origin is 10 units. � y coordinate of the points on the horizontal lines are equal. 24. 2). � y coordinate of the points on x-axis is zero. 1) is the circum-centre of the triangle formed by the vertices (3. 3 m 2 2 If the points A(6.y2 � Distance between (x1. y2) is 142 . 25. 1). B(8. show that (2. � In rectangular coordinate systems one of them is horizontal and the other is vertical. 2) and (1. � x coordinate of the points on the vertical lines are equal. � These two horizontal and vertical lines are called the coordinate axes (x-axis and y-axis) � The point of intersection of x-axis and y-axis is called the origin with coordinates (0. Write the coordinates of the point where the circle intersects the axes.1) and c . � x coordinate of the points on y-axis is zero. C(9. 0) � The distance of a point from y-axis is x coordinate or abscissa and the distance of the point from x-axis is called y coordinate or ordinate. 1) show that the origin is the circum-centre of the triangle formed by the vertices (1. y1) and the origin is x12 + y12 (x2 . � If x1 and x2 are the x coordinates of two points on the x-axis.x1) 2 + (y2 . 0). y1) and (x2. 23. (0. 4) and D(p.y1) 2 � Distance between the two points (x1. then the distance between them is x1 .x2 � If y1 and y2 are the y coordinates of two points on the y-axis. (2.

D. Trigonometry can be applied in the fields of navigation. 500.Trigonometry TRIGONOMETRY There is perhaps nothing which so occupies the middle position of mathematics as trigonometry. Aryabhatta was the first of great Indian Mathematicians. HERBART Main Targets ● ● ● To understand Trigonometric Ratios To understand Trigonometric Ratios of Complementary Angles Method of Using Trigonometric Table AryAbhAttA (A. guitar strings). At the age of 23 years Aryabhatta wrote at least two books on astronomy (1) Aryabhatta (2) Aryabhatta-Siddhanta.D. which will involve several terms and their definitions.1 Introduction idea of ‘sine’ in the way we use it today was in the work Aryabhatiyam by Aryabhatta.2. – J. a Greek astronomer and mathematician developed the subject trigonometry and the first trigonometric table was compiled by him.D 476. and vibrations (sound waves.F. A. He is now known as “the Father of Trigonometry”. Hipparchus. 6. The Aryabhatta deals with both mathematics and astronomy.2 Trigonometric Ratios 6.1 Angle We begin this section with the definition of an angle. to name a few. Trigonometry is an ancient mathematical tool with many applications. 476 – 550) The first use of the 6. This is because trigonometry was initially used to study relationships between different sides of a given triangle. 143 . planetary motion. Ancient civilizations used right triangle trigonometry for the purpose of measuring angles and distances in surveying land and astronomy. The time of birth of Aryabhatta may be fixed at Mesa-Sankranti on March 21. even in our modern world. in A. The word trigonometry is a derivation from the Greek language and means measurement of triangles. He lived at Kusumapura or Pataliputra in ancient Magadha or modern Patna in Bihar State.

1 below for a visual example of an angle. Vertex O i B m Ter lS ina ide Initial Side A Fig.2 Pythagoras Theorem The Pythagoras theorem is a tool to solve for unknown values on right triangle.1 A more common unit of measurement for an angle is the degree. etc.3 Trigonometric Ratios Consider the right triangle in the Fig. 6. a .2 Opposite side B ¾ The side that is opposite to the right angle is called the C . 144 A Hy p us e en ot i Adjacent side Fig. Hypotenuse. OB is the terminal side and O is the vertex of the angle.C. Pythagoras Theorem: The square of the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.Chapter 6 Key Concept Angle An angle is a portion of the 2-dimensional plane which resides between two different directed line segments. See the Fig.2. ¾ The side that is opposite to the angle i is called the Opposite side. This relationship is useful in solving many problems and in developing trigonometric concepts. 6. we refer to the lengths of the three sides according to how they are placed in relation to the angle i.. We will often use Greek letters to denote angles. 6. This is the longest side in a right triangle.2. This unit was used by the Babylonians as early as 1000 B.2. One degree (written 1c) is the measure of an angle generated by 1 of one revolution. 6. In the right triangle. The starting position of the angle is known as the initial side and the ending position of the angle is known as the terminal side. such as i . OA is the initial side. 360 6. Here the ray OA is rotated about the point O to the position OB to generate the angle AOB denoted by +AOB . b . The point from which both of the directed line segments originate is known as the vertex of the angle. 6. ¾ The side that runs alongside the angle i and which is not the Hypotenuse is called the Adjacent side.

AD = BE = CF . We can form six ratios with the sides of a right triangle. for a given acute angle i . For example. Long ago these ratios were given names. the ratios of the corresponding sides are equal. Then the six trigonometric ratios of i are as follows Opposite side Hypotenuse Adjacent side cos i = Hypotenuse Opposite side tan i = Adjacent side sin i = cosec i = sec i cot i 145 Hypotenuse Opposite side Hypotenuse = Adjacent side Adjacent side = Opposite side . the ratios depend only on the size of i and not on the particular right triangle used to compute the ratios. All right triangles that have a common acute angle are similar.Trigonometry When trigonometry was first developed it was based on similar right triangles. The ratio The ratio The ratio The ratio The ratio The ratio Opposite side is called sine of angle i and is denoted by sin i Hypotenuse Adjacent side is called cosine of angle i and is denoted by cos i Hypotenuse Opposite side is called tangent of angle i and is denoted by tan i Adjacent side Hypotenuse is called cosecant of angle i and is denoted by cosec i Opposite side Hypotenuse is called secant of angle i and is denoted by sec i Adjacent side Adjacent side is called cotangent of angle i and is denoted by cot i Opposite side trigonometric ratios Key Concept Let i be an acute angle of a right triangle. we have many right triangles. A i O D O i B C E O i F For each triangle above. So. OA OB OC OD = OE = OF OA OB OC That is.

you may use any right triangle which has i as one of the angles. Since we defined the trigonometric ratios in terms of ratios of sides. sin i = BC = 3 cosec i = AC = 5 AC BC 5 3 cos i = AB = 4 sec i = AC = 5 AC AB 5 4 tan i = BC = 3 AB 4 Example 6.4 the opposite side = 5. 6. PQ = 5 sin i = RQ 13 cos i = PR = RQ PQ = tan i = PR 12 13 5 12 cosec i = sec i cot i 146 Q 4 Fig. the adjacent side = 4 A and the hypotenuse = 5.3. cos i and tan i are connected by the relation tan i = sin i cos i 2. 3.1 Find the six trigonometric ratios of the angle i in the right triangle ABC. Solution From the Fig. sec i and cot i are receprocals of sin i . 6. as shown at right.Chapter 6 Reciprocal Relations The trigonometric ratios cosec i . 6. the adjacent side = 12 and the hypotenuse = 13.4 i R RQ 13 = PQ 5 RQ 13 = = PR 12 = PR = 12 PQ 5 . find the six trigonometric ratios of the angle i . This means that the values of the trigonometric functions are unitless numbers. sin i = 1 cosec i 1 sin i cos i = sec i = 1 sec i 1 cos i tan i = cot i = 1 cot i 1 tan i cosec i = Remark 1. The basic trigonometric ratios sin i . Solution From the Fig. When calculating the trigonometric ratios of an acute angle i .2 In the right triangle PQR as shown at right. cos i and tan i respectively. you can think of the units of measurement for those sides as cancelling out in those ratios.3 cot i = AB = 4 BC 3 P 5 12 13 Fig. 6. the opposite side = 3. C 5 i 3 B Example 6.

6 2 12 B We now use the three sides to find the six trigonometric ratios of cos A tan A = AB = 9 AC 15 = BC = 12 AB 9 sin C cos C tan C = AB = 9 AC 15 = BC = 12 AC 15 = AB = 9 BC 12 angle A and angle C.144 = 81 ` AB = 81 = 9 A Fig. so sin A = 12 . Let us consider D ABC (see Fig. 6. 6.6). 15 sin A = 12.Trigonometry Example 6.4 In T ABC. AC = 24 and BC = 7. find the six trigonometric ratios of the angle i 24 i A Solution From the Fig. By Pythagoras theorem AB = BC + CA = 7 + 24 = 49 + 576 = 625 ` AB = 625 = 25 7 25 24 25 7 24 cosec i = AB = BC sec i = AB = AC cot i = AC = BC 25 7 25 24 24 7 C 2 2 2 2 2 We now use the three sides find the six trigonometric ratios of angle i 7 Fig.5. By Pythagoras theorem AC = AB + BC 15 2 2 2 2 2 2 C = AB + 12 2 2 15 AB = 15 . with BC = 12 and AC = 15. 6. 6. Find the other five trigonometric ratios of the angle A.3 From the Fig.12 = 225 .5. 15 right angled at B. right angled at B. cosec A = AC = 15 BC 12 sec A cot A = AC = 15 AB 9 = AB = 9 BC 12 cosec C = AC = 15 AB 9 sec C cot C 147 = AC = 15 BC 12 = BC = 12 AB 9 . Also find the six ratios of the angle C Solution Given that 15 sin A = 12.5 B sin i = BC = AB cos i = AC = AB tan i = BC = AC Example 6. 6.

8 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 17 = 289 .12 = 25 35 35 35 35 35 35 49 sec A + tan A = 35 = 49 # 35 = 49 ` sec A .5 In 3 PQR . with 37 AB = 35 and AC = 37.tan A 25 35 25 25 35 148 . 6. PQ=8 and PR=17. AB AB 35 35 Now.Chapter 6 Example 6.tan A = 37 .7). (see Fig. By Pythagoras theorem.8). PQ=8 and R PR=17.7 8 Q We now use the lengths of the three sides to find the six trigonometric RQ 15 = PR 17 PQ = 8 cos P = PR 17 RQ 15 = tan P = PQ 8 sin P = cosec P = PR = 17 RQ 15 sec P = PR = PQ PQ = cot P = RQ 17 8 8 15 ratios of angle P Example 6. sec A .64 = 225 ` QR = 225 = 15 P Fig. find sec A + tan A .6 If cos A = 35 .352 = 1369 . +B = 90c. we have C AC = AB + BC 372 = 352 + BC2 BC2 = 372 .1225 = 144 ` BC = 144 = 12 2 2 2 37 A 35 Fig. 6. right angled at Q. Let us consider 3 ABC (see Fig.8 B tan A = BC = 12 sec A = AC = 37 . right angled at Q. sec A . PR = PQ + QR 17 = 8 + QR QR = 17 . 6.tan A 37 Solution Given that cos A = 35 . sec A + tan A = 37 + 12 = 49 . 6. Find the six trigonometric ratios of the angle P Solution Given that PQR is a right triangle. By Pythagoras theorem.

Trigonometry

Example 6.7 If tan i = 20 , show that 1 - sin i + cos i = 3 . 21 1 + sin i + cos i 7 Solution Given that tan i = 20 . Let us consider the right triangle ABC (see Fig. 6.9), with 21 AB = 21 and BC = 20. By Pythagoras theorem, we have
C

AC2 = AB2 + BC2 = 202 + 212 = 400 + 441 = 841. ` AC = 841 = 29. cos i = AB = 21 AC 29
A i 21
Fig. 6.9

20 B

sin i = BC = 20 , AC 29

1 - sin i + cos i = 1 - 20 + 21 = 29 - 20 + 21 = 30 29 29 29 29 1 + sin i + cos i = 1 + 20 + 21 = 29 + 20 + 21 = 70 29 29 29 29 1 - sin i + cos i = 1 + sin i + cos i 30 29 70 29 = 30 # 29 = 30 = 3 29 70 70 7

6.3

Trigonometric Ratios of Some Special Angles
For certain special angles such as 30c, 45c and 60c, which are frequently seen in

applications, we can use geometry to determine the trigonometric ratios. 6.3.1 Trigonometric Ratios of 30c and 60c Let 3 ABC be an equilateral triangle whose sides have length a (see Fig. 6.10). Draw AD = BC , then D bisects the side BC. So, BD = DC = a and +BAD = +DAC = 30c. Now, 2 a . So, A in right triangle ADB, +BAD = 30c and BD = 2 AB = AD + BD
2 2 2 2 2

30c a a

2 a = AD + 8 a B 2 2 2 AD = a - a 4 2

= 3a 4

2

B

60c a 2 D a 2
Fig. 6.10

60c

C

` AD =

3a 2
149

Chapter 6

Hence, we can find the trigonometric ratios of angle 30c from the right triangle BAD a BD = 2 = 1 sin 30c = AB a 2 3a AD = 2 cos 30c = = 3 AB a 2 tan 30c = BD = AD a 2 = 1 3a 3 2 1 =2 sin 30c 1 = 2 cos 30c 3 1 = 3 tan 30c

cosec 30c =

sec 30c

=

cot 30c

=

In 3 ABD , +ABD = 60c. So, we can determine the trigonometric ratios of angle 60c 3a AD = 2 sin 60c = = 3 AB a 2 a BD = 2 = 1 cos 60c = AB a 2 3a AD = 2 tan 60c = = 3 BD a 2

cosec 60c =

1 = 2 sin 60c 3 1 =2 cos 60c 1 = 1 tan 60c 3

sec 60c

=

cot 60c

=

6.3.2 Trigonometric Ratio of 45c If an acute angle of a right triangle is 45c, then the other acute angle is also 45c. Thus the triangle is isosceles. Let us consider the triangle ABC with +B = 90c, +A = +C = 45c. Then AB = BC. Let AB = BC = a . By Pythagoras theorem, AC = AB + BC
2 2 2 2 2 2

C 45c

a = a + a = 2a
45c A

` AC = a 2 From Fig. 6.11, we can easily determine the trigonometric ratios of 45c
150

Fig. 6.11

a

B

Trigonometry

sin 45c = BC = a = 1 AC a 2 2 cos 45c = AB = a = 1 AC a 2 2 tan 45c = BC = a = 1 AB a 6.3.3 Trigonometric Ratios of 0cand 90c

cosec 45c = sec 45c = cot 45c =

1 = 2 sin 45c

1 = 2 cos 45c 1 =1 tan 45c

Consider Fig. 6.12 which shows a circle of radius 1 unit centered at the orgin. Let P be a point on the circle in the first quadrant with coordinates (x, y). We drop a perpendicular PQ from P to the x-axis in order to form the right triangle OPQ. Let +POQ = i , then sin i = cos i = tan i = y PQ = = y (y coordinate of P) 1 OP OQ x = = x (x coordinate of P) OP 1 PQ y = OQ x
Fig. 6.12
1 O
i x

Y B(0, 1) P(x, y) y Q A(1, 0)

X

If OP coincides with OA, then angle i = 0c. Since the coordinates of A are (1, 0), we have sin 0c = 0 ( y coordinate of A) cos 0c= 1 (x coordinate of A) tan 0c = sin 0c = 0 = 0. cos 0c 1
o

cosec 0c is not defined sec 0c = 1 cot 0c is not defined

If OP coincides with OB, then angle i =90 . Since the coordinates of B are (0, 1), we have sin 90c = 1 ( y coordinate of B) cos 90c = 0 (x coordinate of B) tan 90c = sin 90c = 1 is not defined. cos 90c 0 cosec 90c = 1 sec 90c is not defined cot 90c = 0

151

Chapter 6

The six trigonometric ratios of angles 0c, 30c, 45c, 60c and 90c are provided in the following table. angle i ratio sin i cos i tan i cosec i sec i cot i Example 6.8 Evaluate sin2 45c + tan2 45c + cos2 45c. Solution We know, sin 45c = 1 , tan 45c = 1 and cos 45c = 1 2 2
2 2 ` sin2 45c + tan2 45c + cos2 45c= c 1 m + (1) 2 + c 1 m 2 2

0c 0 1 0 not defined 1 not defined

30c 1 2 3 2 1 3 2 2 3 3

45c 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1

60c 3 2 1 2 3 2 3 2 1 3

90c 1 0 not defined 1 not defined 0

= 1 +1+ 1 = 2 2 2
Note

We write (sin i) as sin i

2

2

Example 6.9 2 2 Evaluate 12 cos 30c - 2 tan 60c . 2 4 sec 45c Solution We know, cos 30c = 3 , tan 60c = 3 and sec 45c = 2 2
2 2 ` 12 cos 30c - 2 tan 60c 4 sec2 45c 2 c12 # c 3 m m - ^2 # ^ 3 h h 2 = 4 # ( 2 )2 2

3 `12 # 4 j - ^2 # 3h = 4#2 = 9- 6 = 3 8 8
152

Trigonometry

Exercise 6.1
1. From the following diagrams, find the trigonometric ratios of the angle i
A 10 i 8 6 B A 7 C 24 25
i

B

C

(i)
37

(ii)
A 40 C
i

B 12
i

A 35

9 41 B

C

(iii)

(iv)

2.

Find the other trigonometric ratios of the following (i) sin A = 9 15 (iv) sec i = 17 8 (ii) cos A = 15 17 (v) cosec i = 61 60 (iii) tan P = 5 12 (vi) sin i = x . y

3.

Find the value of i , if (iii) tan i = 3 (i) sin i = 1 (ii) sin i = 0 (iv) cos i = 3 . 2 2 In 3 ABC , right angled at B, AB = 10 and AC = 26. Find the six trigonometric ratios of the angles A and C. If 5 cos i - 12 sin i = 0 , find sin i + cos i . 2 cos i - sin i If 29 cos i = 20 , find sec2 i - tan2 i . If sec i = 26 , find 3 cos i + 4 sin i . 10 4 cos i - 2 sin i If tan i = a , find sin2 i + cos2 i . b (1 + sin i)(1 - sin i) If cot i = 15 , evaluate . 8 (1 + cos i)(1 - cos i) In triangle PQR, right angled at Q, if tan P = 1 find the value of 3 (i) sin P cos R + cos P sin R (ii) cos P cos R - sin P sin R.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

11.

If sec i = 13 , show that 2 sin i - 3 cos i = 3 . 5 4 sin i - 9 cos i
153

Chapter 6

12. 13.

If sec A = 17 , prove that 8 Evaluate. (i) (iii) (v) sin 45c + cos 45c tan 45c tan 30c + tan 60c

1 - 2 sin2 A = 2 cos2 A - 1 .

(ii)

sin 60c tan 30c

(iv) cos2 60c sin2 30c + tan2 30c cot2 60c (vi) 4 cot2 60c + sec2 30c - 2 sin2 45c sin2 60c + cos2 45c

6 cos2 90c + 3 sin2 90c + 4 tan2 45c

2 2 2 2 + (vii) tan 60c + 4 cos 45c + 3 sec 30c 2 5 cos 90c cosec 30c + sec 60c - cot 30c

(viii) 4 (sin4 30c + cos4 60c) - 3 (cos2 45c - sin2 90c) . 14. Verify the following equalities. (i) (ii) sin2 30c + cos2 30c = 1 1 + tan2 45c = sec2 45c

(iii) cos 60c = 1 - 2 sin2 30c = 2 cos2 30c - 1 (iv) cos 90c = 1 - 2 sin2 45c = 2 cos2 45c - 1 (v) (vi) cos 60c = 1 1 + sin 60c sec 60c + tan 60c 1 - tan2 60c = 2 cos2 60c - 1 1 + tan2 60c

(vii) sec 30c + tan 30c = 1 + sin 30c sec 30c - tan 30c 1 - sin 30c (viii) tan2 60c - 2 tan2 45c - cot2 30c + 2 sin2 30c + 3 cosec2 45c = 0 4 (ix) 4 cot2 45c - sec2 60c + sin2 60c + cos2 60c = 1 (x) sin 30c cos 60c + cos 30c sin 60c = sin 90c.

6.4

Trigonometric Ratios for Complementary Angles
Two acute angles are complementary to each other if their sums are equal to 90c. In

a right triangle the sum of the two acute angles is equal to 90c. So, the two acute angles of a right triangle are always complementary to each other. Let ABC be a right triangle, right angled at B (see Fig. 6.13). If +ACB = i, then +BAC = 90c - i and hence the angles +BAC and +ACB are complementary.
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11 Evaluate tan 25c cot 65c Solution We write tan 25c = tan (90c . we have AC AB AC BC BC AB i C (1) 90c .i) sec i = BC cot i = BC = tan (90c .i) AB AC = cosec (90c .i) cos i = sin (90c . sin i = cos (90c . tan 25c = cot 65c = 1 cot 65c cot 65c 155 cosec i = sec (90c . Hence cos 56c = sin 34c = 1 sin 34c sin 34c Example 6.i Fig.65c) = cot 65c.i) Example 6.i) . Hence.13 A B sin (90c .10 Evaluate cos 56c .i) Solution .34c) = sin 34c. for the angle (90c .i) AB trigonometric ratios of Complementary Angles Let i be an acute angle of a right triangle. So.i) tan i = cot (90c .i) = AC cos (90c .i) cos i = AC tan i = AB = cot (90c .i) BC Key Concept AC BC AC AB AB BC (2) cosec i = AC = sec (90c . using trigonometric ratios of complementary angles cos 56c = cos (90c .i) = AC tan (90c . sin 34c The angles 56c and 34care complementary. Then we have the following identities for trigonometric ratios of complementary angles.i) = tan (90c .i) sec i cot i = cosec (90c .i) = AB sec (90c .i) AC BC = sin (90c .i) = BC cot (90c . sin i = AB = cos (90c .Trigonometry We have sin i = AB cosec i = AC = cos i = BC sec i AC = tan i = AB cot i BC Similarly. 6.i) = BC cosec (90c .i) = AB Comparing the equations in (1) and (2) we get.

12 Evaluate cos 65c sin 18c cos 58c . we get cos 65c = cos (90c .14.A = 33c ` A = 90c .13 Show that tan 35c tan 60c tan 55c tan 30c = 1 . sin a = sin b ( a = b cos a = cos b ( a = b . if aand b are acute angles. cos (90c . So.25c) = sin 25c.14 If cosec A = sec 25c. the value of A is obtained not by cancelling sec on both sides but using uniqueness of trigonometric ratios for acute angles. etc. That is. cos 72c sin 25c sin 32c Solution Using trigonometric ratios of complementary angles. Example 6.Chapter 6 Example 6. sin 18c = sin (90c .A = 25c ` A = 90c . ` cos 65c sin 18c cos 58c = sin 25c cos 72c sin 32c = 1 cos 72c sinc 25c sin 32c cos 72c sin 25c sin 32c Example 6.25c = 65c Note 1 # 1 # tan 55c # tan 30c = 1 tan 55c tan 30c In Example 6.15 If sin A = cos 33c find A Solution We have sin A = cos (90 .55c) = cot 55c tan 60c = tan (90c .A) = cos 33c ( 90c .72c) = cos 72c cos 58c = cos (90c .A) = sec 25c ( 90c . Solution We have tan 35c = tan (90c .A) .30c) = cot 30c ` tan 35c tan 60c tan 55c tan 30c = cot 55c cot 30c tan 55c tan 30c = Example 6. Solution We have cosec A = sec (90c . find A. sec (90c .A) .32c) = sin 32c. So.33c = 57c 156 .

60c and 90c.i) tan i = sin i (ii) cos 20c cos 70c . One degree is divided into 60 minutes and One minute is divided into 60 seconds. To express fractions of degrees.i) cos (90c . A trigonometric table consists of three parts.Trigonometry Exercise 6. correct to four places of decimals of all the three tirgonometric ratios for angles from 0c to 90c spaced at intervals of 6l . Trigonometrical tables indicating approximate values of sines.sin 70c sin 20c = 0 (iv) cos (90c .sin 38c sin 52c (iii) sin 36c .sec i (viii) sin 35c + cos 55c . Therefore. we come across situations. wherein we need to solve right triangles which have angles different from 0c. 60c and 90c. 45c.2 1. 45c. 30c.sin 42c = 0 (iii) sin (90c . cosines and tangents of all the acute angles have been provided at the end of the book.i) +7 cosec i sin i (ii) cosec 10c sec 80c (v) sin 17c cos 73c (iii) sin i sec (90c .2 cos2 60c c . 157 .i) cos 55c sin 35c sin (90 (ix) cot 12c cot 38c cot 52c cot 60c cot 78c. 1c = 60l and 1l = 60m The trigonometrical tables give the values.5 Method of Using Trigonometric Table We have computed the trigonometric ratios for angles 0c.i) tan (90c .tan 54c cos 54c cot 36c (v) cos 37c # sin 18c sin 53c cos 72c (vii) (ii) cos 80c + cos 59c cosec 31c sin 10c (iv) 3 tan 67c + 1 sin 42c + 5 cosec 61c cot 23c 2 cos 48c 2 sec 29c (vi) 2 sec (90c . Show that (i) cos 48c . 3. In our daily life. 6. 30c. Simplify (i) cos 38c cos 52c .i) = 1. To apply the results of trigonometric ratios to these situations.i) tan (90c .i) (vi) tan 46c . Evaluate (i) sin 36c cos 54c (iv) sec 20c cosec 70c 2. we need to know the values of trigonometric ratios of all the acute angles.i) cos i # . cos i (ii) tan 49c = cot A (v) cosec A cos 43c = 1 (iii) tan A tan 35c = 1 (vi) sin 20c tan A sec 70c = 3 . cot 44c sec (90c . Find A if (i) sin A = cos 30c (iv) sec 35c = cosec A 4. One minute is denoted by 1l and One second is denoted by 1m .

0c 46c Write 46c51l = 46c48l + 3l . 3l .17 Find the value of cos 37c16l Solution 0l 0. Example 6.0006 = 0. cosine and tangent of angles in multiple of 6l . the appropriate adjustment is obtained from the mean difference columns.0.Chapter 6 (i) (ii) A column on the extreme left which contains degrees from 0c to 90c Ten columns headed by 0l .6c 42l 0.4c 30l 0.0c 37c 6l 0.7290 + 0.8c 54l 0.7296 Example 6. From the table cos 37c12l = 0. ` cos 37c16l = 0. 42l .2c 0.7688 158 6l 0. From the table we have sin 46c48l = 0. 4l and 5l The ten columns mentioned in (ii) provide the values for sine.7290 54l 0.7695 Write 37c16l = 37c12l + 4l .18l . 48l and 54l respectively (iii) Five columns under the head Mean difference and these five columns are headed by 1l .2c 18l 0.6c 42l 0. we must subtract the Mean Difference. 0l 0.16 Find the value of sin 46c51l Solution The relevant part of the sine table is given below. 2l .5c 36l 0. 30l . while it is to be subtracted in the case of cosine. 1 2 3 4 5 6 18l 0.9c Mean Diff. The mean difference is to be added in the case of sine and tangent.0007 Since cos i decreases from 1 to 0 as i increases from 0c to 90c.4c 30l 0.3c 24l 0.3c 24l 0. For angles containing other numbers of minutes. 1 2 3 4 5 7 .7695 .12l .1c 12l 0.1c 12l 0.0007 = 0.7c 48l 0. 24l .8c 0.7695 Mean Difference for 4l = 0.9c Mean Diff.5c 36l 0.7290 Mean Difference for 3l = 0.0006 ` sin 46c51l = 0. 6l . 36l .7c 48l 0.

0958 ` i = 5c30l Example 6. sin 5c40l = sin 5c42l . 1 2 3 4 5 11 .0958 is corresponding to sin 5c30l .0011 ` tan 25c15l = 0.0958.6c 42l 0. we find 0.4040 is corresponding to tan 22c0l . find the angle i .21 Find the angle i if tan i = 0.1c 12l 0. From the table tan 25c12l = 0.0c 25c 6l 0. Solution From the sine table. Solution From the sine table.4040 Solution From the tangent table. find the angle i . ( tan 22c = 0.20 If sin i = 0.Mean Difference for 2l = 0.4706 Write 25c15l = 25c12l + 3l . we find the value 0.7c 48l 0.3c 24l 0.0.4717 Example 6.5c 36l 0. we find the value 0.0987 .0006 = 0.18 Find the value of tan 25c15l Solution 0l 0.4c 30l 0.011 = 0.8c 54l 0. ( sin 5c30l = 0.Trigonometry Example 6.4706 Mean Difference for 3l = 0.0987 ` i = 5c40l Example 6. So.0993 is corresponding to sin 5c42l and 0.19 If sin i = 0.0006 is corresponding to 2l .2c 0.4706 + 0.0993 .9c Mean Diff.4040 ` i = 22c 159 18l 0.

6.1771 and Mean Difference for 2l = 0.5075.3387 + 1.24 Find the area of the right triangle given in Fig.0. C 3c 10c 14l m A Fig.5028 Example 6.1777 = AB 3 ` AB = 0.0006 B ` sin 10c14l = 0.9954 .9953 ` sin 30c30l + cos 5c33l = 0.786935565 ` Area of the triangle is 0.1463 ` cos 70c12l + tan 48c54l = 0.7869 cm2 (approximately) 160 .0001 ` cos 10c14l = 0. 6.9523 # 0.9842 .9523 cm Area of the right rriangle = 1 bh = 1 # 2.22 Simplify sin 30c30l + cos 5c33l .9954 and Mean Difference for 3l = 0.5331 2 2 = 0.14.3387.0001 = 0.14. we find cos 70c12l = 0. And from the cosine table cos 5c30l = 0.9841 0.23 Simplify cos 70c12l + tan 48c54l . cos 5c33l = 0. sin 10c12l = 0.Chapter 6 Example 6. So.0001.1463 = 1.1777 ( 0.14 Solution From the Fig. cos 10c12l = 0.5331 cm cos i = BC ( cos 10c14l = BC 3 AC From the cosine table.9841 = BC 3 ` BC = 0.9841 # 3 = 2. tan 48c54l = 1.0001 = 0.4850 Example 6. sin i = AB & sin 10c14l = AB 3 AC From the sine table.0. Solution From the sine table sin 30c30l = 0.1777 # 3 = 0. 6..5075 + 0.9842 and Mean Difference for 2l = 0.9953 = 1. Solution From the cosine and tangent tables.

0. 6.472 units Example 6. sin 82c30l = AC ( AC = sin 82c30l # OA OA AC = 0.3420 # 8 = 2. If O is a centre of the circle. 6. So.15 Find the length of the side of a regular polygon of 9 sides inscribed in a circle of radius 8 units.8968 cm Example 6.9484 # 2 = 11.9914 # 6 = 5.e. Solution Let AB be the side of the regular hexagon and let O be the centre of the incircle.9484 cm ` Length of the chord is 5. Draw OC = AB then 9 40c = 20c +AOC = 2 sin 20c = AC = AC OA 8 i. then +AOB = 360c = 40c.736 ` Length of the side AB = 2 # AC = 2 # 2.26 A 6 O 82c3 0l C B Fig.736 = 5. Solution Let AB be a side of the regular polygon with 9 sides in the circle of radius 8 units. Solution Let AB be the chord of a circle of radius 6 cm with O as centre. Draw OC = AB ..27 Find the radius of the incircle of a regular hexagon of side 6 cm. Therefore C is the mid point of AB and +AOB = 165c. 161 A 8 O c 20 C Fig.16 B . then OC = r.25 Find the length of the chord of a circle of radius 6 cm subtending an angle of 165c at the centre. If r is the radius of the circle. Then +AOC = 165c = 82c30l 2 In the right triangle OCA.3420 = AC 8 AC = 0.Trigonometry Example 6. Draw OC = AB .

6.3679 (ii) cos 72c (vi) cos 12c35l (x) cot 40c20l (iii) tan 35c (vii) cos 40c20l (iv) sin 75c15l (viii) tan 10c26l Simplify. Find the angle made by a ladder of length 4 m with the ground if its one end is 2 m away from the wall and the other end is on the wall. 9.17 Exercise 6.196 cm A O 30o r B 3 C 3 Fig.196 cm Hence. 6.3 1.732 = 5. radius of incircle is 5.e. 7. 162 . Find the length of the ladder..6567 (ii) tan 45c27l + sin 20c (iv) sin 50c26l + cos 18c + tan 70c12l (iii) tan i = 0. (i) sin 26c (v) sin 12c12l (ix) cot 20c 2.7009 (iv) cot i = 0. 5. Find the value of i .2334 3. 1 = 3 r 3 ` r = 3 # 1. (ii) cos i = 0. Find the value of the following. Find the area of the right triangle with hypotenuse 20 cm and one of the acute angle is 48c Find the area of the right triangle with hypotenuse 8 cm and one of the acute angle is 57c Find the area of the isosceles triangle with base 16 cm and vertical angle 60c40l Find the area of the isosceles triangle with base 15 cm and vertical angle 80c A ladder makes an angle 30cwith the floor and its lower end is 12 m away from the wall. using trigonometric tables (i) sin 30c30l + cos 40c20l (iii) tan 63c12l .cos 12c42l (v) tan 72c + cot 30c 4.9664 (v) tan i = 63. 8. if (i) sin i = 0.Chapter 6 +AOB = 360c = 60c 6 ` +AOC = 60c = 30c 2 ` tan 30c = AC r i.

Then the six trigonometric ratios of i are as follows. Then we have the following identities for trigonometric ratios of complementary angles.Trigonometry 10. sin i = cos (90c . 12.i) cosec i = sec (90c .i) cot i = tan (90c .i) sec i = cosec (90c .i) tan i = cot (90c . Points to Remember � Pythagoras Theorem: The square of the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. � Trigonometric Ratios: Let i be an acute angle of a right triangle. Find the length of the side of regular polygon of 12 sides inscribed in a circle of radius 6 cm Find the radius of the incircle of a regular hexagon of side 24 cm.i) 163 . 11. Find the length of the chord of a circle of radius 5 cm subtending an angle of 108c at the centre.i) cos i = sin (90c . Opposite side Hypotenuse sin i = cosec i = Hypotenuse Opposite side Hypotenuse Adjacent side cos i = sec i = Hypotenuse Adjacent side Opposite side Adjacent side tan i = cot i = Adjacent side Opposite side � Reciprocal Relations: sin i = 1 cosec i 1 sin i cos i = sec i = 1 sec i 1 cos i tan i = cot i = 1 cot i 1 tan i cosec i = � Trigonometric Ratios of Complementary Angles: Let i be an acute angle of a right triangle.

but easy to visualize. To understand theorems on parallelograms.1 Introduction The very name Geometry is derived from two greek words meaning measurement of earth.Chapter 7 7 GEOMETRY Truth can never be told so as to be understood. Thales used geometry to solve problems such as calculating the height of pyramids and the distance of ships from the shore. As a result. The geometrical theorem of which a particular case involved in the method just described in the first book of Euclid’s Elements. experimental space stations. these lead to theorems and constructions. planes and figures. He is credited with the first use of deductive reasoning applied to geometry. Geometry has long been important for its role in the surveying of land and more recently. The earliest records of geometry can be traced to ancient Egypt and the Indus Valley from around 3000 B. and not to be believed . Over time geometry has evolved into a beautifully arranged and logically organized body of knowledge. just to mention a few examples. whereby if a triangle is drawn within a circle with the long side as a diameter of the circle then the opposite angle will always be a right angle. and large athletic and entertainment arenas. and many regard him as the first philosopher in the Western tradition. It is an abstract subject. thales (640 . He was one of the so-called Seven Sages or Seven Wise Men of Greece. He was known for his theoretical and practical understanding of geometry.546 BC) Thales (pronounced THAYlees) was born in the Greek city of Miletus. He established what has become known as Thales’ Theorem. 7. and it has many concrete practical applications. 164 . especially triangles. he has been hailed as the first true mathematician and is the first known individual to whom a mathematical discovery has been attributed.C. Geometry begins with undefined terms. lines. definitions. by deriving four corollaries to Thales’ Theorem. and assumptions. It is concerned with the properties of and relationships between points. our knowledge of geometry has been applied to help build structurally sound bridges.William Blake Main Targets ● ● ● To recall the basic concepts of geometry. To understand theorems on circles.

Otherwise they are called non-collinear points. Term Diagram Description Parallel lines l1 l2 Lines in the same plane that do not intersect are called parallel lines. B Intersecting lines C O A l1 Concurrent lines l2 l3 O Three or more lines passing through the same point are said to be concurrent. Two lines having a common point are called intersecting lines.2. l2.2 Geometry Basics The purpose of this section is to recall some of the ideas that you have learnt in the earlier classes. The distance between two parallel lines always remains the same. l3 pass through the same point O and therefore they are concurrent. 165 O . then angles +A and +B are complementary to each other.Geometry 7. If three or more points lie on the same straight line. if +A = 52c and +B = 38c. the lines AB and CD intersect at a point D O. Collinear points A B C 7.1 Kinds of Angle Angles are classified and named with reference to their degree of measure. then the points are called collinear points. lines l1. In the figure. Name Acute Angle Right Angle Obtuse Angle Reflex Angle B B B B A Diagram O A O A O A Measure +AOB 1 90c +AOB = 90c 90c 1 +AOB 1 180c180c 1 +AOB 1 360c Complementary Angles Two angles are said to be complementary to each other if sum of their measures is 90c For example. In the figure. The point common to the two given lines is called their point of intersection.

so as to cover it exactly.2. the angles whose measures are 112c and 68c are supplementary to each other..1. the angle opposite to the largest side has the D greatest angle. +2 = +4.2. +ACD = +BAC + +ABC (ii) An exterior angle of a triangle is greater than either of the interior opposite angles.1 C Diagram l1 4 1 3 m 2 l2 8 5 6 7 A Remarks A (i) If a side of a triangle is produced . +A + +B ++C = 180c B Fig.2 C Congruent Triangles Two triangles are congruent if and only if one of them can be made to superpose on the other. then the exterior angle so formed is equal to the sum of its interior opposite angles. For example. 7. equal. +6 = +8 Corresponding angles are +1 = +5. +2 = +8 equal. +4 = +6 equal. +3 = +7. +4 + +5 = 180c 7. Suppose a transversal intersects two parallel lines. 7.Chapter 7 Supplementary Angles Two angles are said to be supplementary to each other if sum of their measures is 180c. 7. are supplementary. In the Fig. we use the symbol ‘/’ 166 . equal +5 = +7. Then: Name Angle Vertically opposite angles are +1 = +3. B Fig. Alternate exterior angles are +1 = +7. Consecutive interior angles +3 + +6 = 180c. (iii) In any triangle. For congruence. +2 = +6. +4 = +8 Alternate interior angles are +3 = +5. 7.2 Transversal A line that intersects two or more lines at distinct points is called a transversal.3 Triangles The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180c.

If two sides and the included angle of a triangle are equal to two sides and the included angle of another triangle. then the two triangles are congruent. If one side and the hypotenuse of a right triangle are equal to a side and the hypotenuse of another right triangle. (i) 58c (ii) 148c (iii) 120c (iv) 40c 167 (v) 100c . If two angles and any side of a triangle are equal to two angles and a side of another triangle. then the two triangles are congruent. then the two triangles are congruent B A C Q P R TABC / TPQR SAS B A C R P TABC / TPQR ASA B A C Q R TABC / TPQR P AAS B C A Q R P TABC / TPQR RHS B TABC / TPQR C Q R exercise 7. then the two triangles are congruent. (iv) 35c (v) 20c Find the supplement of each of the following angles. (i) 63c (ii) 24c (iii) 48c 2. If two angles and the included side of a triangle are equal to two angles and the included side of another triangle.1 1. then the two triangles are congruent.Geometry Description A Diagram P SSS If the three sides of a triangle are equal to three sides of another triangle. Find the complement of each of the following angles.

+A+ +B = 70c and +B + +C = 135c. B 40c 3ABC is produced to D. (i) l1 l2 (2x+20) c (3x–10) c l1 l2 7. The angles whose supplement is four times its complement. The angle whose complement is one sixth of its supplement. Find the values of x. The angle which is four times its supplement. In 3 ABC. t (ii) l1 l2 2x c 8.20)c A xc D (ii) C (x + 30)c (115 . side BC of Find +A and +C. Let l1 || l2 and m1 is a transversal . Find the angles in each of the following. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) The angle which is two times its complement. Supplementary angles are in the ratio 4:5 Two complementary angles are in the ratio3:2 C 3x 2x D 5. The angles of a triangle are in the ratio of 1:2:3. y in the following figures. Find the value of x in the following figures. Find the measure of each angle of the triangle. A 120c C D 168 . (i) A (ii) B A D C (iii) B (3x+5)c (2x–25)c C y c 90cxc O A 3xc 60c B E m1 B A C D F E G H t (3x+20) c D 6. (i) C (x . find the measure of each of the remaining angles. In the given figure at right. If +F = 65c .x)c xc D 40c B A B 4. 9. 10. For what value of x will l1 and l2 be parallel lines. Find the measure of each angle of the triangle.Chapter 7 3.

Geometry 7.1 Properties of Parallelogram. All sides are equal and opposite sides are parallel. The sum of all the four angles of a quadrilateral is 360c.3. Sides Angles One pair of opposite sides is parallel. Sides trapezium Angles The angles at the ends of each non-parallel side are supplementary Diagonals Diagonals need not be equal. Sides Rhombus Angles Diagonals Diagonals bisect each other at right angles. 169 . The angles at the ends of each parallel side are equal. Opposite angles are equal and sum of any two adjacent angles is 180c. Quadrilateral Parallelogram Trapezium Rectangle Rhombus Isosceles Trapezium Square 7. the other pair of sides is equal in length. Opposite angles are equal and sum of any two adjacent angles is 180c. Rhombus and Trapezium Sides Parallelogram Angles Opposite sides are parallel and equal. Isosceles trapezium Diagonals Diagonals are equal in length.3 Quadrilateral A closed geometric figure with four sides and four vertices is called a quadrilateral. One pair of opposite sides is parallel Diagonals Diagonals bisect each other.

) (By ASA property) (iii) BD is common side ` T ABD / T BCD Thus. alternate interior angles are equal.4 Parallelogram A quadrilateral in which the opposites sides are parallel is called a parallelogram. AD || BC To prove : +ABC = +ADC and +DAB = +BCD A Fig. a rhombus and a parallelogram. 7. where AB || DC. alternate interior angles are equal.1 Properties of Parallelogram Property 1 Given To prove : In a parallelogram.Chapter 7 Note (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) A rectangle is an equiangular parallelogram A rhombus is an equilateral parallelogram A square is an equilateral and equiangular parallelogram. Given : ABCD is a parallelogram. Thus a square is a rectangle.3 B (AB || DC and BD is a transversal.4. AB = DC and AD = BC (Corresponding sides are equal) Converse of Property 1: If the opposite sides of a quadrilateral are equal. Property 2 : In a parallelogram. 7. (i) (ii) +ABD = +BDC +BDA =+DBC A Fig. AB || DC and AD || BC : AB = CD and AD = BC D C Construction : Join BD Proof : Consider the T ABD and the T BCD. the opposite angles are equal. : ABCD is a parallelogram. then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram. 7. So. So. the opposite sides are equal.) (AD || BC and BD is a transversal. 7. So.4 B D C Construction : Join BD 170 .

) (iii) + ABD + + DBC = + BDC + + BDA ` +ABC = +ADC Similarly. alternate interior angles are equal..Geometry Proof : (i) (ii) +ABD = +BDC +DBC = +BDA (AB || DC and BD is a transversal. +BAD = +BCD Converse of Property 2: If the opposite angles in a quadrilateral are equal.) (AD || BC and BD is a transversal. D C (i) (ii) AB = DC +MAB = +MCD +ABM = +CDM ` AM = CM and BM = DM Opposite sides of the parallelogram are equal Alternate interior angles (a AB || DC) Alternate interior angles (a AB || DC) (By ASA property) (iii) T AMB / T CMD i. Note (i) A diagonal of a parallelogram divides it into two triangles of equal area. M is the mid point of AC and BD ` The diagonals bisect each other Converse of Property 3: If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other.e.5 B : ABCD is a parallelogram. alternate interior angles are equal. 171 . then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram. So. then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram. Given To prove Proof : Consider the T AMB and T CMD A M Fig. 7. So. in which AB || DC and AD || BC : M is the midpoint of diagonals AC and BD . (ii) A parallelogram is a rhombus if its diagonals are perpendicular. (iii) Parallelograms on the same base and between the same parallels are equal in area. Property 3 : The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other.

Solution The diagonals of a rectangle are equal and bisect each other. 65c+ B = 180c +B = 180c . +C and +D. 76c. +B = 115c. +C = 65c and +D = 115c Example 7. 100c+84c+76c+ x c = 360c 260c+ x c = 360c i. find +B.1 If the measures of three angles of a quadrilateral are 100c. 7.7 . So. 7. If +OAB = 62c .Chapter 7 Example 7. Solution Let the measure of the fourth angle be x c . the measure of the fourth angle is 100c.2 In the parallelogram ABCD if +A = 65c. Example 7. OA = OB and +OBA = +OAB = 62c Since the measure of each angle of rectangle is 90c D +ABC = 90c +ABO + +OBC = 90c 62c + +OBC = 90c +OBC = 90c . x c = 100c Hence. Solution Let ABCD be a parallelogram in which +A = 65c. So. The sum of the angles of a quadrilateral is 360c. find +OBC. 84c.6 > B >> C B +A+ +B = 180c 62c Fig.e.find the meausre of fourth angle. So. we have +C =+A = 65c and +D = +B = 115c Hence.65c +B = 115c Since the opposite angles of a parallelogram are equal.3 Suppose ABCD is a rectangle whose diagonals AC and BD intersect at O..62c = 28c 172 A O D C > >> 65o A Fig. Since AD || BC we can treat AB as a transversal.

Calculate (i) +ABO (ii) +ODC (iii) +ACB (iv) +CBD A D 105o O 45o 30o B C 4. Calculate +B. ABCD is a rhombus. 2. 7. if larger angle is 30c less than twice the smaller angle. Suppose ABCD is a parallelogram in which AB = 9 cm and its perimeter is 30 cm. +C and +D. find +CDB.8 B D C Let +CDB = xc .4 If ABCD is a rhombus and if +A = 76c. Find the values of x and y . (i) D yc C (ii) D xc C (iii) D xc yc C A 40c xc B A 62c yc B A 120c B 173 . 3. Find the length of each side of the rhombus. ABCD is a parallelogram +BAO = 30c. CD = CB +CDB = +CBD = xc +CDB+ +CBD + +DCB = 180c (Angles of a triangle) 2xc + 76c =180c ( 2x = 104c xc = 52c ` +CDB = 52c exercise 7.Geometry Example 7. In 3 CDB. +C and +D are in the ratio 2:3:4:6. Find the measure of each angle of the quadrilateral. the angles +A. 6. +B. In a quadrilateral ABCD. 5. Find the length of each side of the parallelogram. Solution +A = +C = 76c ( Opposite angles of a rhombus ) 76c A Fig. In the following figures. Find the measure of each angle of a parallelogram.2 1. In the figure at right. Suppose ABCD is a parallelogram in which +A = 108c. The length of the diagonals of a rhombus are 24 cm and 18 cm. 7. +DAO = 45c and +COD= 105c.

Majo r arc Ra diu s Q Fig.10 The point at which the tangent meets the circle is its point of contact. Secant A line which intersects a circle in two distinct points is called a secant of the circle. 7. major arc. ABCD is a parallelogram in which the bisectors of +A and +B intersect at the point P.9 Ch ord O Diameter Secan t M ra ino Segment O Sector Diameter is the longest chord of the circle. For example. Arc of a Circle rc Fig. Prove that +APB = 90c. 174 . In the figure at the right. A P B E 7. Circles The locus of a point which moves in such that the distance Tangent from a fixed point is always a constant is a circle. Chord A chord of a circle is a line segment joining any two points on its circumference. The boundary of a circle is called its circumference. The fixed point is called its centre and the constant distance is called its radius. the locus of a point equidistant from two P fixed points is the perpendicular bisector of the line segment joining the two points. A continuous piece of a circle is called an arc of the circle. Tangent A line that touches the circle at only one point is called a tangent to the circle. 9.5 Locus Circles Locus is a path traced out by a moving point which satisfies certain geometrical conditions. Diameter A diameter is a chord of the circle passing through the centre of the circle. 7. Find C D the length of the other diagonal. The whole circle has been divided into two pieces. namely. minor arc. The side of a rhombus is 10 cm and the length of one of the diagonals is 12 cm.Chapter 7 8.

O C Fig.12 D D C B Fig.since OC = AB.13. chord AB = chord CD ( +AOB = +COD Converse of the result If the angles subtended by two chords at the centre of a circle are equal. So. In the Fig.14 B (iii) + OCA = + OCB (iv) T OAC / T OBC ` AC = BC 175 . 7. mAB = mCD . the two circles are concentric circles having the same centre O but different radii r and R respectively. In the given figure.13 Given : A circle with centre O and AB is a chord of the circle other than the diameter and OC= AB To prove: AC = BC Construction: Join OA and OB Proof: In T s OAC and OBC (i) (ii) OA = OB OC is common (Each 90c ..1 Properties of Chords of a Circle Result Equal chords of a circle subtend equal angles at the centre. A +AOB = +COD (chord AB = chord CD Theorem 1 Perpendicular from the centre of a circle to a chord bisects the chord. 7.Geometry Concentric Circles Circles which have the same centre but different radii are called concentric circles.) (Radii of the same circle. Congruent Arcs ! ! Two arcs AB and CD of a circle are said to be congruent if they substend same angle at the centre and we write ! ! AB / CD . +AOB= +COD 7. 7.5.11 A B R O r B O Fig.) (RHS congruency. 7.) A O C Fig. then the chords are equal. 7. ! ! ! ! AB / CD .

176 2 2 2 The chords of a circle which are equidistant from the centre are equal. Theorem 2 Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the centre.AC ` OC = 6 cm Hence. To prove: OL = OM Construction: Draw OL = AB and OM = CD.64 = 36 cm . Solution AB is a chord of length 16 cm C is the midpoint of AB. Find the distance of the chord from the centre of the circle. OC = OA .) 1 AB = 1 CD ( AL = CM AB = CD ( 2 2 OA = OC (radii) + OMC= + OLA T OLA / T OMC (Each 90c ) (RHS congruence. Join OA and OC Proof: (i) AL = 1 AB and CM = 1 CD 2 2 D M O L B Fig.15 (ii) (iii) (iii) (Perpendicular from the centre of a circle to the chord bisects the chord.82 = 100 . Converse of Theorem 2 : Example 7. OA is the radius of length 10 cm = 16 cm AC = 1 # 16 = 8 cm 2 OC = 10 cm In a right triangle OAC.16 B = 102 .5 A chord of length 16 cm is drawn in a circle of radius 10 cm. C Given: A cirle with centre O and radius r such that A chord AB = chord CD.) ` OL = OM Hence AB and CD are equidistant from O . the distance of the chord from the centre is 6 cm. AB O 10 c A m C 16cm Fig.Chapter 7 Converse of Theorem 1 : The line joining the centre of the circle and the midpoint of a chord is perpendicular to the chord. 7. 7.

we get AM .5. chord AB of the outer circle cuts the inner circle at C and D. 7. Prove that AC = BD. + ACB is the angle subtended by the arc AXB at a point on the remaining part of the circle. C C C A B O B A X Fig. Solution Given: Chord AB of the outer circle cuts the inner circle at C and D. 177 .DM AC = BD 7.19 D X D Fig.Geometry Example 7. + AOB is the angle subtended by ! ! the arc AXB at the centre. 7. 7.6 In two concentric circles. AXB is the arc.2 Angles Subtended by Arcs Theorem 3 Fig. 7. To prove: AC = BD A C O M D B Construction: Draw OM = AB Proof : Since OM = AB (by construction) OM also = CD (ACDB is a line) In the outer circle AM = BM (1) (a OM bisects the chord AB) In the inner circle CM = DM (2) (a OM bisects the chord CD) From (1) and (2).CM = BM .18 D A O B O X Fig.20 Given : O is the centre of the circle.17 The angle subtended by an arc of a circle at the centre is double the angle subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle.

) (exterior angles of a triangle = sum of interior opposite angles. : + BAD + + BCD = 180c. 7.) (substituting + OAC by + OCA) (by addition) (iii) In TAOC +AOD = +OCA + +OAC (iv) + AOD = + OCA + + OCA (v) + AOD = 2 + OCA + BOD = 2 + OCB (vi) similarly in T BOC (vii) + AOD + + BOD = 2 + OCA + 2+ OCB = 2(+ OCA + + OCB) (viii) + AOB = 2 + ACB Note (a +AOD + + BOD = +AOB + OCA + + OCB = +ACB) (i) An angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle.21 + BCD = 1 reflex + BOD 2 (iii) ` + BAD + + BCD = 1 + BOD + 1 reflex + BOD 2 2 (add (i) and (ii)) 178 .3 Cyclic Quadrilaterals Theorem 4 Opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are supplementary (or) The sum of opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180c Given To prove Proof: (i) (ii) : O is the centre of circle. (ii) Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal.Chapter 7 To prove Proof : (i) (ii) : +AOB = 2 +ACB Construction : Join CO and produce it to D OA= OC + OCA = + OAC (radii) (angles opposite to equal sides are equal. +ABC + +ADC = 180c A Construction : Join OB and OD + BAD = 1 + BOD (The angle substended by an arc at 2 the centre is double the angle on the circle. ABCD is the cyclic quadrilateral. 7.5.) B O D C Fig.

7. 7.24 B (iii) A xc O 56c B (iv) O 20c c A xc 25 A Fig. + BAD + + BCD = 180c (iv) Similarly +ABC + +ADC = 180c Converse of Theorem 4 : If a pair of opposite angles of a quadrilateral is supplementary. 7. + BAD + + BCD = 1 (+ BOD + reflex + BOD) 2 1 ( 360c) (Complete angle at the centre is 360c) i. whose side AB is produced to E.e...25 Fig. + BAD + + BCD = 2 i. To prove : + CBE = +ADC Proof : A (i) + ABC + + CBE = 180c (linear pair) (ii) + ABC + +ADC = 180c (Opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral) from (i)and (ii) (iii) + ABC + + CBE = +ABC + +ADC (iv) ` + CBE = +ADC Find the value of x in the following figure. Given : A cyclic quadrilateral ABCD.Geometry i.7 C C (i) xc O 80c A Fig.e. C D C B Fig. then the quadrilateral is cyclic. 7.angle property of a cyclic quadrilateral ) If one side of a cyclic quadrilateral is produced then the exterior angle is equal to the interior opposite angle.e. 7. xc (i) +AOB = 1 +ACB 2 O +ACB = 1 +AOB 2 80c = 1 # 80c = 40c B A 2 179 . Theorem 5 ( Exterior .26 B Solution Using the theorem the angle subtended by an arc of a circle at the centre is double C the angle subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle.23 B (ii) xc O 100c C Fig..22 E Example: 7.

120c = 60c Also +ACB = 90c ( angle on a semi circle ) In 3ABC we have +BAC + +ACB + +ABC= 180c +BAC + 90c + 60c = 180c +BAC = 180c .7.150c = 30c 180 A xc D A A 56c B C O 20c B C B c xc 25 120c O Fig.146c x = 34c (iv) OA = OB = OC ( radius ) +OCA = +OAC = 25c +OBC = +OCB = 20c +ACB = +OCA + +OCB = 25c + 20c = 45c AOB = 2 +ACB x = 2 # 45c= 90c Example 7.27 . Find the value of x .27.Chapter 7 (ii) reflex+AOB = 2 +ACB x = 2 # 100c = 200c A xc O 100c C C xc O B (iii) +ABC + +BCA + +CAB = 180c 56c + 90c + +CAB = 180c ( a +BCA = angle on a semicircle = 90c) +CAB =180c . 7. O is the centre of a circle and + ADC = 120c . we have +ABC + +ADC = 180c +ABC = 180c . Solution ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral.8 In the Fig.

Find the radius if the distance between AB and CD is 17 cm. A P O C Q D B 8. 3. The radius of a circles 17 cm and the length of one of its chord is 16 cm. OP = AB and CD = OQ determine the length C A O Q P D B AB and CD are two parallel chords of a circle which are on either sides of the centre. Find the length of a chord which is at a distance of 15 cm from the centre of a circle of radius 25 cm. 5. The radius of a circle is 15 cm and the length of one of its chord is 18 cm. Such that AB = 10 cm and CD = 24 cm. 6. 9.3 1. A chord of length 20 cm is drawn at a distance of 24 cm from the centre of a circle. 4. Find the value of x in the following figures. A chord is 8 cm away from the centre of a circle of radius 17 cm. 2. In the figure at right. Find the distance of the chord from the centre. AB and CD are two parallel chords of a circle with centre O and radius 5 cm. Find the length of the chord. Find the distance of the chord from the centre. 7. Such that AB = 8 cm and CD = 6 cm. If of PQ. In the figure at right. Find the radius of the circle.Geometry exercise 7. AB and CD are two parallel chords of a circle with centre O and radius 5 cm such that AB = 6 cm and CD = 8 cm. If OP = AB and OQ = CD determine the length PQ. (i) A xc (ii) C (iii) A c 0 90c 12 O B c A C x O 35c B O B 25 xc 30c C 181 .

Find (i) + BCD (ii) + CAD A P 50c 30c B 13. In the figure at right. In the figure at right. AB and CD are straight lines through the centre O of a circle. If + BAD =100c find (i) + BCD 100 c A B (ii) + ADC (iii) + ABC. ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral D whose diagonals intersect at P such that + DBC = 30c and + BAC = 50c . 182 . If + PQR = 55c. If +AOC = 98c and + CDE = 35c find (i) + DCE S R A 98c O 35c D E B (ii) + ABC 11. P 25c O 55c 50c Q In the figure at left. D In the figure at left . Find (i) + QPR. C M 12. (ii) + QPM and (iii) + PRS. + SPR = 25c and + PQM = 50c. PQ is a diameter of a circle with centre O. ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral in which C AB || DC.Chapter 7 (iv) (v) C xc (vi) C 48c O 130c A xc B C A O D 50c B O A xc B C 10.

� If two arcs of a circle are congruent then the corresponding chords are equal. a rhombus and a parallelogram. � Each diagonal divides the parallelogram into two congruent triangles. � A parallelogram is rhombus if its diagonals are perpendicular. � The angle in a semi circle is a right angle. � In a parallelogram. 183 . + AOC = 100c and side AB is produced to D. In the figure at right. O 100c A B D C In the figure at left. � Angle in the same segment of a circle are equal. � Equal chords of a circle subtend equal angles at the centre. the opposite angles are equal.Geometry 14. � Perpendicular from the centre of a circle to a chord bisects the chord. Find (i) + CBD (ii) + ABC B Points to remember � In a parallelogram the opposite sides are equal. � The angle substended by an are of a circle at the centre is double the angel subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle. ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral in which + BCD = 100c and + ABD = 50c find + ADB D 100c A C 50c 15. � The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. � A diagonal of a parallelogram divides it into two triangles of equal area. � The sum of either pair of opposite angle of quadrilateral is 180c opposite angles of a cyclic � If one side of a cyclic quadrilateral is produced then the exterior angle is equal to the interior opposite angle. � Parallelograms on the same base and between the same parallels are equal in area. O is the centre of the circle. Thus a square is a rectangle. � Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the centre. � A rectangle is an equiangular parallelogram � A rhombus is an equilateral parallelogram � A square is an equilateral and equiangular parallelogram.

we see various shapes like triangles. spheres and so on all around us. In a number of his works he laid foundations of mathematical physics. area and perimeter of sectors of circles. 184 r by the use of regular polygons inscribed in and circumscribed about a circle.C. Area and volume can be used to analyze real-world situations. One of the very great mathematicians of all time was Archimedes.PYTHAGORAS Main Targets ● To find the length of arc. ● ● To find the surface area and volume of cubes.Chapter 8 MENSURATION The most beautiful plane figure is – the circle and the most beautiful solid figure – the sphere . It is considered very important because there are various fields of life where geometry is considered as an important field of study. The part of Mathematics that deals with measurements of geometrical shapes is known as Mensuration. a native of the Greek city of Syracus on the island of Sicily. To find the surface area and volume of cuboids. circles.C.areas of two-dimensional figures and the surface areas and volumes of three dimensional figures for day. such as that of a parabolic segment and of a sector of the now so called Archimedean spiral. He calculated a number of interesting curvilinear areas. Perimeter. rectangles. It was Archimedes who inaugurated the classical method of computing 8. It is necessary for everyone to learn formulas used to find the perimeter . Archimedes 287 .to-day life. In this chapter we deal with arc length and area of sectors of circles and area and volume of cubes and cuboids. and we are already familiar with some of their properties: like area and perimeter. squares. Area and Volume plays a vital role in architecture and carpentry. He is responsible for the correct formulas for the area and volume of a sphere.212 B. He was born about 287 B. .1 Introduction Every day. Perimeter.

2 Length of Arc (Arc Length) of a Sector In fig. ! In fig. 8. P q r Q Fig.3. As ! ! Fig. 8.2.8.8. The arc starts at P and goes counterclockwise to Q along the circle.2 8. 185 P O q Q Fig.circle is a sector whose central angle is 180c. an angle + POQ and a sector POQ.2.Mensuration 8.2. So the central angle of the sector POQ is i . the angle subtended by the arc PQ at the centre is i . arc length of a sector POQ is the length of the portion on the circumference of the circle intercepted between the bounding radii (OP and OQ) and is denoted by l. O For example.1 A sector is the part of a circle enclosed by any two radii of the circle and Central Angle is the angle subtended by the arc of the sector at the centre of the circle in which the sector forms a part.1 Central Angle or Sector Angle of a Sector Key Concept Central Angle Sector ! Arc PQ Sector POQ Arc QP Sector QOP ! Fig. 8. 8. A semi. 2. A quadrant of a circle is a sector whose central angle is 90c .2 Sectors Two points P and Q on a circle with centre O determine an arc PQ ! denoted by PQ . Key Concept their intercepted arc.1 shows. the arcs PQ and QP are different.3 l . 1. The sector POQ is the region bounded by ! the arc PQ and the radii OP and OQ.8.

e. then its arc length is given by l = i # 2rr units 360 8. 2 2 3.. 2. where r is 2 360 the radius and the central angle is 90c. Length of arc of a semicircle is l = 2rr # 180 = rr units. Area of a circle is rr2 square units. 360 Let us find the relationship between area of a sector. Key Concept Length of Arc If i is the central angle and r is the radius of a sector. Area of a semicircle is rr square units. i. Length of arc of a quadrant of a circle is l = 2rr # 90 = rr units. 1. l=2r r units.Chapter 8 For example. its arc length l and radius r. Length of arc of a circle is its circumference. 1. 3. 4 O q P Q Key Concept Area of a Sector If i is the central angle and r is the radius of a sector. 2 186 . where r is the radius 360 and the central angle is 180c.3 Area of a Sector Area of a sector is the region bounded by the bounding radii and the arc of the sector. For Example. Area = i # rr2 360 = i # 2r r # r 360 2 = 1 # c i # 2rr m # r 2 360 = 1 # lr 2 Area of sector = lr square units. Area of a quadrant of a circle is rr square units. then the area of the sector is i # rr2 square units. where r is the radius. 2 2.2.

2. 360 7 Area of the sector = lr = 44 # 42 = 924 cm2.. O Solution Given that radius r = 42 cm and i = 60c. Length of an arc and area of a sector are proportional to the central angle. 2 2 Perimeter = l + 2r = 44 + 2(42) = 128 cm. Perimeter of a semicircle is ^r + 2h r units. 2. Example 8.14 in 7 our calculations. we use its approximate value 22 or 3. Key Concept Perimeter of a Sector If l is the arc length and r is the radius of a sector. 30 # 2 # 22 # r = 66 360 7 ` r = 66 # 360 # 1 # 7 = 126 cm 30 2 22 187 O 30o r A 60o 42cm B A 66cm B .4 Perimeter of a Sector The perimeter of a sector is the sum of the lengths of all its boundaries. length of arc l = i # 2rr 360 = 60 # 2 # 22 # 42 = 44 cm. Find its arc length. Therefore. As r is an irrational number. Solution Given that i = 30c and l = 66 cm. Perimeter of a quadrant of a circle is ` r + 2j r units. Thus. Find its radius. 2 Note 1. perimeter of a sector is l + 2r units. For example.2 The arc length of a sector is 66 cm and the central angle is 30c .Mensuration 8. e. Example 8. 1. i # 2rr = l 360 i.2. area and perimeter. So.1 The radius of a sector is 42 cm and its sector angle is 60c . then its perimeter P is given by the formula P = l + 2r units.

i = 210c . e. we have = 11 A 11cm B O r is the length of the pendulum.5cm Q 22cm Example 8. l = 15 cm Perimeter = l + 2r = 15 + 2 (10) = 15 + 20 = 35 cm Example 8. l = 11 cm Using the formula i # 2rr 360 30 # 2 # 22 # r 360 7 = l. Solution Given that r = 10.. Solution Given that r = 10 cm.5 O q P 10.4 A pendulum swings through an angle of 30c and describes an arc length of 11 cm. Find its central angle.5 The radius and length of arc of a sector are 10 cm and 15 cm respectively. i # 2rr = l 360 i. Solution Given that r = 18 cm.3 The length of arc of a sector is 22 cm and its radius is 10. ` r = 11 # 360 # 1 # 7 = 21 cm 30 2 22 Example 8. So.Find its perimeter. Hence. i # 2 # 22 # 10. Find the length of the pendulum.5 cm.5 cm and l = 22 cm.5 = 22 360 7 ` i = 22 # 360 # 1 # 7 # 1 =120c 2 22 10. Solution If the pendulum swings once.Chapter 8 Example 8.6 P 15cm O q 10cm Q Find the perimeter of a sector whose radius and central angle are 18 cm and 210c respectively. then it forms a sector and the radius of the sector i = 30c . l = i # 2rr 360 = 210 # 2 # 22 # 18 = 66 cm 360 7 ` Perimeter = l + 2r = 66 + 2(18) = 66 + 36 = 102 cm 188 A O 210o 18cm B .

8 Calculate the area of a sector whose radius and arc length are 6 cm and 20 cm respectively. area = 77 cm2 i # rr2 = Area of the sector 360 i # 22 # 14 # 14 = 77 360 7 ` i = 77 # 360 # 7 22 # 14 # 14 Example 8.. Solution Given that r = 6 cm. l + 18 = 38 l = 38 –18 = 20 cm ` Area = lr = 20 # 9 = 90 cm2 2 2 Example 8. l = 20 cm Area = lr square units 2 = 20 # 6 = 60 cm2 2 Example 8. Find its central angle. Solution Given.e. Solution Perimeter = ( r + 2 ) r = ( 22 + 2 ) 28 = 144 cm 7 2 Area = rr = 22 # 28 # 28 = 1232 cm2 2 7 2 O 14cm 77cm 2 = 45c B O q P 12cm Q 25cm 34cm P θ O 7cm Q 28cm 189 .7 The area of a sector of a circle of radius 14 cm is 77 cm2. Solution Given that r = 14 cm.9 If the perimeter and radius of a sector are 38 cm and 9 cm respectively. r = 9 cm.10 Find the perimeter and area of a semicircle of radius 28 cm. find its area. perimeter = 38 cm Perimeter = l + 2r = 38 i.Mensuration Example 8.

e.75 = 45 cm Area = lr 2 i.5 cm and 618. So. Find the amount he has (i) spent for food (ii) in Food Sa his savings vi Solution (i) Let ` 9.75 cm2.5 i.5cm Now.75 cm2 = 618.12 Calculate the area and perimeter of a quadrant of a circle of radius 21 cm.000 be represented by the area of the circle. perimeter is l + 2r = 27. central angle and perimeter of a sector whose arc length and area are 27.250. i = 90c Perimeter = ` r + 2j r = ( 22 + 2 ) # 21= 75 cm 2 7#2 2 Area = rr = 22 # 21 # 21 = 346.13 21cm Monthly expenditure of a person whose monthly salary is ` 9. e.5 + 2(45) = 117.000 is shown in the B adjoining figure.75 cm2 respectively. 360 7 ` i = 35c Example 8. 190 C ng s 21cm 120o O A Other Expenses (ii) .. i.5 cm2 4 7#4 Example 8. 000 = 750 360 Amount saved in savings is ` 750.5 cm and Area = 618.Chapter 8 Example 8.11 Find the radius.e.250 360 Amount spent for food is ` 5. 27. Solution Given that r = 21 cm. rr2 = 9000 2 i Area of sector AOB = 360 # rr = 210 # 9000 = 5. Area of sector BOC = i # rr2 360 = 30 # 9.5 # r 2 `r Hence. arc length is given by i # 2rr = l 360 i # 2 # 22 # 45 = 27. Solution Given that l = 27. = 618.

1 1. Solution Since the radius of the circles are equal and the circles touch one another.14 Three equal circles of radius 3 cm touch one another. Find its central angle.14 = 1. (i) (ii) radius 21 cm and central angle 60c radius 21 dm and sector angle 240c C D (ii) radius 4. 3.Mensuration Example 8.59 .14 # 15 # 15 .3 # 60 # 22 # 3 # 3 4 360 7 3cm A 3cm D 3cm = 9 3 . (iii) Find the radius of a sector of a circle having a central angle 70c and an arc length of 44 cm. Area enclosed = area of the equilateral triangle ABC .45 cm2 Example 8. Hence.14.747 = 42. area and perimeter of the sector with (i) (v) 2.i # rr2 360 360 15c Area of the shaded portion = Area of sector COD . Find the area and perimeter of the sector with 191 .14 # 8 # 8 360 360 = 58.99 = 15. ABC is an equilateral triangle and the area of the sectors DAF.875 – 16.14 ] Solution Let R and r denote the radius of sector COD and sector AOB respectively. DBE and ECF are equal.30 # 3. in the figure.3 # i # rr2 4 360 = 3 # 6 # 6 .15 F E B 3cm 3cm C 3cm Find the area of the shaded portion in the following figure [ r = 3.Area of sector AOB O 8cm = 30 # 3. Find the arc length.128 cm 2 m A B Exercise: 8. Find the area enclosed by them.45 cm2 7 ` Area = 1.9 cm and central angle 30c (iv) radius 15 cm and sector angle 63c (iii) radius 14 cm and sector angle 45c Find the angle subtended by an arc 88 cm long at the centre of a circle of radius 42 cm. The arc length of a sector of a circle of radius 14 cm is 22 cm. = i # rR2 .3 times area of the sector = 3 a2 .

Calculate the perimeter and area of a quadrant circle of radius 7 cm. Other Activities Four horses are tethered with ropes measuring 7 m each to the four corners of a rectangular grass land 21 m # 24 m in dimension. 12. Calculate the arc length of a sector whose perimeter and radius are 35 cm and 8 cm respectively. Find the area if its diameter is 9 cm. 4. ay Pl und o Gr 225o School 105o A O 10. Find the area enclosed by them. Find the arc length of the sector of radius 14 cm and area 70 cm2 Find the radius of the sector of area 225 cm2 and having an arc length of 15 cm The perimeter of a sector of a circle is 58 cm. Find the area of card board wasted if a sector of maximum possible size is cut out from a square card board of size 24 cm. Find (i) (ii) the maximum area that can be grazed by the horses and the area that remains ungrazed. (i) (ii) 6. Find the radius of a sector whose perimeter and arc length are 24 cm and 7 cm respectively. Find how much time is spent in (i) school (ii) play ground (iii) other activities Three coins each 2 cm in diameter are placed touching one another. Time spent by a student in a day is shown in the figure. radius 55 cm and arc length 80 cm. Find the central angle of a sector of a circle having (i) (ii) 7. (i) (ii) 5. (iv) radius 20 cm and arc length 25 cm. (iii) radius 12 cm and arc length 15.Chapter 8 (i) (ii) radius 10 cm and arc length 33 cm. area 352 cm2 and radius 12 cm area 462 cm2 and radius 21 cm Calculate the perimeter and area of the semicircle whose radius is 14 cm.25 cm. (i) (ii) (i) (ii) 9. Find the area of a sector whose radius and perimeter are 20 cm and 110 cm respectively. 8. 192 . B C (iii) Find the radius of the sector whose central angle is 140c and area 44 cm2. 11.

Find the area of the shaded portion in the adjoining figure 42c m A B C D 14.2 Volume of a Cube Key Concept V = a3 cubic units Note Volume of Cube If the side of a cube is a units. 193 .A) = 4a2 square units.S. then its volume V is given by the formula Volume can also be defined as the number of unit cubes required to fill the entire cube. central angle and perimeter of a sector whose length of arc and area are 4.S.A). 8. (ii) The Lateral Surface Area (L. 2 a a a Key Concept Surface Area of Cube Let the side of a cube be a units.A) of the cube.1 Surface Area of a Cube The sum of the areas of all the six equal faces is called the Total Surface Area (T. the lateral surface area of the cube is 4a square units. In a cube.4 m and 9. In the adjoining figure.S.3 Cubes You have learnt that a cube is a solid having six square faces.3. Hence. Example: Die. 8.3. the total surface area is 6a2 square units. 8. Find the radius.S. Then the area of each face of the cube is a2 square units. Hence. Then: (i) The Total Surface Area (T.Mensuration O 21c m 13.A) = 6a2 square units. let the side of the cube measure a units. the remaining area is called the Lateral Surface Area (L. if we don’t consider the top and bottom faces. In this section you will learn about surface area and volume of a cube.24 m2 respectively.

(ii) 6 dm (iii) 2.17 Find the length of the side of a cube whose total surface area is 216 square cm. (iii) The volume of the cube is 125 dm3. 000 3 V = a3 = ` a = 3 27 = 3 m m = 27 m3 1.000 litres of water.000 litres.A T.S.S.A = 4a2 = 4 (52 ) = 100 sq. So. find the length of its side. 000 Exercise 8. e. Given that T. 6a2 = 216 ( a2 = 216 = 36 6 ` a = 36 = 6 cm Example 8.A and volume of a cube of side 5 cm. T. Find the Lateral Surface Area (LSA). Solution Let a be the side of the cube. Volume of the tank is 27. cm 5cm 5cm a a a a 3 = 6a2 = 6 (52 ) = 150 sq. 194 m Volume = a3 = 53 = 125 cm3 a . Total Surface Area (TSA) and volume of the cubes having their sides as (i) 5.A = 384 sq.2 1. cm.5 m (iv) 24 cm (v) 31 cm (i) If the Lateral Surface Area of a cube is 900 cm2..6 cm 2.19 3 = 8 = 512 cm 3 5c a A cubical tank can hold 27. 27. find the length of its side. Given that T. cm i. Find the dimension of its side.A. Find its volume. Solution Let a be the side of the cube.S. cm Example: 8.18 A cube has a total surface area of 384 sq.Chapter 8 Example 8.A = 216 sq. cm 6a2 = 384 ( a2 = 384 = 64 6 ` a = 64 = 8 cm Hence.S.S. (ii) If the Total Surface Area of a cube is 1014 cm2.S. Solution L. Volume = a Example 8. Solution Let a be the side of the cubical tank.16 Find the L. Find its side.

4 cm and 5 cm respectively are melted and are recast into a single cube. 8. 195 . To find the total surface area. Find the area to be painted and the total cost of painting it at the rate of ` 75 per square meter. The Lateral Surface Area (L.Mensuration 3..S.000 litres of water. Then (i) The Lateral Surface Area (L.S.A. 7. (i ) The total area of the front and back faces is lh + lh = 2lh square units. breadth and height of a cuboid respectively. Also find the volume of the box. units Note l h b (ii ) The total area of the side faces is L. The Total Surface Area (T.4. 9. is also equal to the product of the perimeter of the base and the height. we split the faces into three pairs.A) = 2( l + b)h square units. b and h be the length. What is the total cost of oil in a cubical container of side 2 m if it is measured and sold using a cubical vessel of height 10 cm and the cost is ` 50 per measure. 6. 8.S. A container of side 3. Find the total surface area of the new cube. b and h be the length. 8. How much sugar can it hold? A cubical tank can hold 64. Example: Bricks. 5. How many cubes of side 3 cm are required to build a cube of side 15 cm? Find the area of card board required to make an open cubical box of side 40 cm.4 Cuboids A cuboid is a three dimensional solid having six rectangular faces. Key Concept Surface Area of a Cuboid Let l.A) = 2( l + b)h square units (ii) The Total Surface Area (T.S. Find the length of the side of the tank.5m is to be painted both inside and outside.A) = 2( lb + bh + lh ) sq. bh + bh =2bh square units.S. Books etc.A) = 2( lb + bh + lh ) square units.1 Surface Area of a Cuboid Let l. breadth and height of a cuboid respectively. Three metallic cubes of side 3 cm. A container is in the shape of a cube of side 20 cm. (iii ) The total area of the top and bottom faces is lb + lb =2lb square units. 4.

units Example: 8. 12 cm and 9 cm respectively. then the volume V of the cuboid is given by the formula V = l # b # h cu.cm 196 11m 5m 10 m . b = 5 m.A = 2(l +b)h 4m 9cm h = 9 cm 20cm 12 cm = 2 # (3+5) # 4 = 2#8#4 = 64 sq. b = 10 m.A of a cuboid whose dimensions are given by 3m # 5m # 4m . 10 cm and 7 cm.22 3m Find the volume of a cuboid whose dimensions are given by 11 cm.21 Find the L. b and h respectively. breadth and height are 20 cm.2 Volume of a Cuboid Key Concept Volume of a Cuboid If the length.Chapter 8 8.S. h = 4 m L. m Example: 8. breadth and height of a cuboid are l. Solution Given that l = 20 cm.4. Solution Given that l = 11 m.S.A = 2 (lb + bh + lh) = 2[(20 # 12 ) + (12 # 9 ) + (20 # 9 )] = 2(240 + 108 + 180) = 2 # 528 = 1056 cm2 Example: 8. b = 12 cm. h = 7 m volume = lbh 7m =11 # 10 # 7 =770 cu.S.20 Find the total surface area of a cuboid whose length. Solution Given that l = 3 m. ` T.

h = 6 cm ` T.65 # 0.09 = 0. Find the T.45) 0.24 Johny wants to stitch a cover for his C. Then a3 = 216 3 ` a= 216 = 6 cm Now the two cubes of side 6 cm are joined to form a cuboid. 197 20cm 50cm 45c m .S.P.5 + 0.m Given that cost of 1 sq.23 Two cubes each of volume 216 cm3 are joined to form a cuboid as shown in the figure. Find the amount he has to pay if it costs ` 50/sq.09 = 0.2 +0.S.A of the resulting cuboid.S.2 # 0.2 m. Solution Let the side of each cube be a.A + area of the top = 2 (l + b) h + lb = 2 (0. h = 50 cm = 0.65 + 0. b = 45 cm =0.45) = 2 # 0. l = 20 cm = 0. breadth and height are 20 cm. m of cloth is ` 50 ` cost of 0. ` l = 6 + 6 = 12 cm.Mensuration Example: 8. 45 cm and 50 cm respectively.m of cloth is 50 # 0.5 m ` Area of cloth required = L. b = 6 cm.45 m.74 = ` 37.74 sq. So.A = 2 (lb + bh + lh) = 2 [(12 # 6 ) + (6 # 6 ) + (12 # 6 )] = 2 [72 + 36 + 72] = 2 # 180 = 360 cm2 Example 8.U whose length. m Solution The cover is in the shape of a one face open cuboidal box.5 + (0.74 sq.

10 dm. m. Find the cost of the cloth he has to buy if it costs ` 75 per sq.S. m Solution The pit is in the shape of a cuboid having l = 5m. 4.A of the resulting solid. Mohan wanted to paint the walls and ceiling of a hall. Find the cost of renovating the walls and the floor of a hall that measures 10m # 45m # 6m if the cost is ` 48 per square meter. How many hollow blocks of size 30cm # 15cm # 20cm are needed to construct a wall 60m in length. 8 m Find the height of the cuboid whose length. 6.S. m is 270 # 10 = ` 2700 Exercise 8. 30 cm and 55 cm respectively. 3. Find the L. b = 2m and h = 1m. 15 cm and 14175 cm3 respectively. T. The dimensions of the hall is 20m # 15m # 6m .S. Raju planned to stitch a cover for his two speaker boxes whose length. ` volume of the pit = volume of the cuboid = lbh =5# 2# 1 = 10 cu. 11cm (iii) 2 m.m Given that cost for filling 1 cu. 198 . 12 m.m. m is ` 270 ` cost for filling 10 cu. Find the L. 5.S. breadth and height are 35 cm.Chapter 8 Example: 8. 7 m 2.A and T.A and volume of the cuboids having the length. Find the area of surface to be painted and the cost of painting it at ` 78 per sq.3 1. Two cubes each of volume 64 cm3 are joined to form a cuboid.3m in breadth and 2m in height. (ii) 15 dm.A. breadth and volume are 35 cm. 7. 8 dm (iv) 20 m. breadth and height respectively as (i) 5 cm. 2 cm . 3 m. 0.25 Find the cost for filling a pit of dimensions 5 m # 2 m # 1 m with soil if the rate of filling is ` 270 per cu.

breadth and height of a cuboid respectively. then its volume V is given by the formula.A) = 6a2 square units.S. V = a3 cubic units Let l. then the volume V of the cuboid is given by the formula V = l # b # h cu. b and h be the length. then the area of the sector is i # rr2 square units. If i is the central angle and r is the radius of a sector.S. b and h respectively.S. � If the side of a cube is a units. Central Angle is the angle subtended by the arc of the sector at the centre of the circle in which the sector forms a part. breadth and height of a cuboid are l. 360 If l is the arc length and r is the radius of a sector. Then: (i) The Total Surface Area (T. � Let the side of a cube be a units. units � If the length.A) = 2( lb + bh + lh ) sq. Then: (i) The Lateral Surface Area (L. then its perimeter P is given by the formula P = l + 2r units.S. then its arc length is given by l= i # 2rr units 360 If i is the central angle and r is the radius of a sector.Mensuration Points to Remember � � � A sector is the part of a circle enclosed by any two radii of the circle and their intercepted arc. units � � � 199 .A) = 4a2 square units. (ii) The Lateral Surface Area (L.A) = 2( l + b)h squre units (ii) The Total Surface Area (T.

Ramanujan gave a geometrical construction for 355 113 = r . For Euler. hundreds of feet aloft! For this. Point E in the middle of the line between H and M is the center of a circle on which are all the intersections of the altitudes and the perpendicular bisectors with the triangle. This circle known as 9 points circle. and other figures.e. and more. ruler). All geometric constructions are based on those two concepts.1 Introduction The fundamental principles of geometry deal with the properties of points. a field which had been looked at as completed. and the three perpendicular bisectors in point M.1783 The Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler lived during the 18th century. With every new discovery. starting at the corner of a perfect square. is what is meant by the building of a pyramid: 200 E B Ma C . angles or lines accurately. lines. Euler wrote more scientific papers than any mathematician before or after him. A Hc Mc M Mb H Hb Ha 9. Here’s a short explanation of this theorem: The three altitudes of a triangle meet in point H. Today with all our accumulated skill in exact measurements. These constructions use only a compass and a straightedge (i. Euler even found a new theorem in Euclidean geometry. In 1913 the Indian Mathematical Genius. The geometric constructions have been discussed in detail in Euclid’s book ‘Elements’. How much more wonderful is it that lines. he felt a step nearer to understanding nature and by this understanding God. mathematics was a tool to decipher God’s design of our world. should be raised at a certain angle and successfully brought to a point.Chapter 9 PRACTICAL GEOMETRY Main Targets ● ● ● ● To construct the Circumcentre To construct the Orthocentre To construct the Incentre To construct the Centroid Leonhard euLer 1707 . it is a noteworthy feature when lines driven through a mountain meet and make a tunnel. It is possible to construct rational and irrational numbers using a straightedge and a compass as seen in chapter II. “Construction” in Geometry means to draw shapes. The compass establishes equidistance and the straightedge establishes collinearity. Hence these constructions are also known as Euclidean constructions. Practical Geometry is the method of applying the rules of geometry to construct geometric figures.

in-centre and circum-centre of a triangle. 9.2. ortho-centre. A M D B Key Concept Perpendicular Bisector The line drawn perpendicular through the midpoint of a given line segment is called the perpendicular bisector of the line segment.2 Special line segments within Triangles (i) (ii) Perpendicular bisector to a given line segment Perpendicular from an external point to a given line First let us learn to identify and to construct (iii) Bisector of a given angle and (iv) Line joining a given external point and the midpoint of a given line segment. A B Step 2 : With the two end points A and B of the line segment as centres and more than half the length of the line segment as radius draw arcs to intersect on both sides of the line segment at C and D A C B D C Step 3 : Join C and D to get the perpendicular bisector of the given line segment AB. 9. In this chapter we learn to construct centroid.1 Construction of the Perpendicular Bisector of a given line segment Step1 : Draw the given line segment AB.Practical Geometry In class VIII we have learnt the construction of triangles with the given measurements. 201 .

A P D Q B E Key Concept In a triangle. an altitude is the line segment drawn from a vertex of the triangle perpendicular to its opposite side.Chapter 9 9.2 Construction of Perpendicular from an External Point to a given line C Step 1 : Draw the given line AB and mark the given external point C. A P C Q B Step 3 : With P and Q as centres and more than half the distance between these points as radius draw two arcs to intersect each other at E. A P Q B E C Step 4 : Join C and E to get the required perpendicular line. A B C Step 2 : With C as centre and any convenient radius draw arcs to cut the given line at two points P and Q. A Altitude altitude C P D Q B E 202 .2.

3 Construction of Angle Bisector C Step 1 : Draw the given angle + CAB with the given measurement. A E C D F Step 4 : Join A and F to get the angle bisector AF of + CAB. A angle Bisector Angle Bisector C F D E B 203 .2.Practical Geometry 9. A B C Step 2 : With A as centre and a convenient radius draw arcs to cut the two arms of the angle at D and E. A E B Key Concept The line which divides a given angle into two equal angles is called the angle bisector of the given angle. A D E B C D F B Step 3 : With D and E as centres and a suitable radius draw arcs to intersect each other at F.

A M B Median 204 . A B C Step 2 : Draw the perpendicular bisector of AB and mark the point of intersection M which is the mid point of line segment. A M B C Step 3 : Join C and M to get the required line. A M B Key Concept Median C In a triangle.4 Construction of Line Joining a External Point and the Midpoint of a Line Segment C Step 1 : Draw a line segment AB with the given measurement and mark the given point C (external point).2. a median is the line segment that joins a vertex of the triangle and the midpoint of its opposite side.Chapter 9 9.

1 Construction of the Circumcentre of a Triangle Key Concept Circumcentre C The point of concurrency of the perpendicular bisectors of the sides of a triangle is called the circumcentre and is usually denoted by S. Angle Bisector and Median. 205 . the distance between the circumcentre S and any vertex of the triangle is the circumradius. Incentre and Centroid of a given triangle.3. A B S Circumcircle The circle drawn with S (circumcentre) as centre and passing through all the three vertices of the triangle is called the circumcircle.Practical Geometry 9. Altitude. Othocentre.3 The Points of Concurrency of a Triangle As we have already learnt how to draw the Perpendicular Bisector. now let us learn to locate the Circumcentre. 9. In other words. cle cir Circ um circumcentre S Circumradius Circumradius The radius of a circumcircle is called circumradius of the triangle.

Also draw the circumcircle and find the circumradius of the DABC . 70o A 3. C Solution C 70c A 5cm 60c B Rough Diagram Step 1 : Draw the DABC with the given measurements. 2cm 206 .1 Construct the circumcentre of the DABC with AB = 5cm. A C 70 o S 60o 5cm B SA = SB = SC as radius draw the circumcircle to pass through A.Chapter 9 Example 9.2cm S Step 3 : With S as centre and 60 o 5cm B Circumradius = 3. +A = 70c and +B = 60c. B and C. 70 A o 60o 5cm C B \ Step2 : Construct the perpendicular bisectors of any two sides (AC and BC) and let them meet at S which is the circumcentre.

B C A orthocentre H Example 9.2 Construct DABC whose sides are AB = 6cm. 3. Draw DABC . 2. BC = 4cm and AC = 5. Draw the circumcircle for (i) an equilateral triangle of side 6cm (ii) an isosceles right triangle having 5cm as the length of the equal sides. Construct DPQR with PQ = 5cm.5cm and locate its orthocentre. 2.3.2 Construction of the Orthocentre of a Triangle Key Concept The point of concurrency of the altitudes of a triangle is called the orthocentre of the triangle and is usually denoted by H.1 1.Practical Geometry Remark 1. Construct the right triangle whose sides are 4. The circumcentre of an acute angled triangle lies inside the triangle. 9. +P = 100c and PR = 5cm and draw its circumcircle. 5. 4. exercise 9.5 cm 4c m B A 6cm 207 . BC = 8cm and +B = 60c and locate its circumcentre.5cm. The circumcentre of a right triangle is at the midpoint of its hypotenuse. 5 C Solution A m 4cm 6cm B Rough Diagram C Step 1 : Draw the DABC with the given measurements. where AB = 7cm. The circumcentre of an obtuse angled triangle lies outside the triangle. 6cm and 7. Also locate its circumcentre. 5. 3.5cm.

Draw and locate the orthocentre of a right triangle PQR right angle at Q. 3. 5.5 m H C 4c m The point of intersection of the altitudes H is the orthocentre of the given DABC A 6cm B Remark 1. 4. The orthocentre of an obtuse angled triangle lies outside the triangle. RS = 6cm Construct an isosceles triangle ABC with AB = BC and +B = 80c of sides 6cm and locate its orthocentre.5cm.2 1. 9. where LM = 7cm. Three altitudes can be drawn in a triangle. The orthocentre of an acute angled triangle lies inside the triangle. exercise 9.3 Construction of the Incentre of a Triangle Key Concept The point of concurrency of the internal angle bisectors of a triangle is called the incentre of the triangle and is denoted by I. 4. 3. +M = 130c and MN = 6cm Construct an equilateral triangle of sides 6cm and locate its orthocentre. The orthocentre of a right triangle is the vertex of the right angle. Construct the orthocentre of DLMN. BC = 7cm and AC = 5cm and construct its orthocentre. Draw DABC with sides AB = 8cm.Chapter 9 Step 2 : Construct altitudes from any two vertices (A and C) to their opposite sides (BC and AB respectively) c 5. 2. 2. A I Incentre C B 208 . with PQ = 4.3.

Solution 6cm 50c A C 7cm B Rough Diagram Step 1 : Draw the DABC with the given measurments. Example 9. Also draw C the incircle and measure its inradius.Practical Geometry Incircle The circle drawn with the incentre (I) as centre and touching all the three IN A sides of a triangle is the incircle of the given triangle. 6c m 50o A 7cm B Step 2 : Construct the angle bisectors of any two angles (A and B) and let them meet at I. Then I is the incentre of DABC C 6c I m 50 A 209 7cm o B . +B = 50 o and BC = 6cm.3 B C IR C LE I INRADIUS C Construct the incentre of DABC with AB = 7cm. (or) It is the shortest distance of any side of the triangle from the incentre I. Inradius The radius of the incircle is called the inradius of the triangle.

Construct an equilateral triangle of side 6cm and draw its incircle.8 cm 50o D 7cm B A Remark The incentre of any triangle always lies inside the triangle. This circle touches all the sides of the triangle.Chapter 9 C Step 3 : With I as an external point drop a perpendicular to any one of the sides to meet at D.8cm I 6c m Inradius = 1. 210 . 1. 1.8cm I 6c m 50o D 7cm B A C Step 4 : With I as centre and ID as radius draw the circle. and AC = 6cm. 2. AC = 5 cm and +A = 110c. Locate its incentre and draw the incircle. Construct DABC in which AB = 6 cm. Also find its inradius. Draw the incircle of DABC in which AB = 6 cm. exercise 9. BC = 7cm.3 1. 4. Draw the incircle of DABC . AC = 7 cm and +A = 40c. 3. where AB = 9 cm.

A 5cm Step 1 : Draw DABC using the given 7c m 6cm B C Step 2 : Construct the perpendicular bisectors of any two sides (AC and BC) to find the mid points D and E of AC and BC respectively .4 Construction of the Centroid of a Triangle. 7c D m E 5cm A 211 6cm B .4 Construct the centroid of DABC whose sides are AB = 6cm.Practical Geometry 9. Example 9. Key Concept The point of concurrency of the medians of a triangle is called the Centroid of the triangle and is usually denoted by G. BC = 7cm. and AC = 5cm.3. Solution 5cm Centroid C Mb A G Mc Ma B C 7cm 6cm A B Rough Diagram C measurements.

Draw and locate the centroid of of triangle LMN with LM = 5. Draw the DPQR .4 1. exercise 9. 3. 2. 4cm and 5cm and construct its centroid. +M = 100c MN = 6. Draw the right triangle whose sides are 3cm. 5. 212 .5cm and locate the centriod. 4. 7c D m E G The point G is the centroid of the given DABC Remark A 6cm B (i) Three medians can be drawn in a triangle. (iii) The centroid of any triangle always lie inside the triangle.5cm. (ii) The centroid divides a median in the ratio 2:1 from the vertex. Construct the DABC such that AB = 6cm. +P = 110 o and QR = 8cm and construct its centroid. where PQ = 6cm . Draw a equilateral triangle of side 7.5cm. BC = 5cm and AC = 4cm and locate its centroid.Chapter 9 C 5cm Step 3 : Draw the medians AE and BD and let them meet at G.

(0. To solve linear equations in two variables. 2) 1 (0. –1) can plot as many points of the graph as we –2 (–5. Almost everyday you see diagrams and graphs in newspapers.1 Introduction This chapter covers the basic ideas of graphs. the collection of all the points (x0. (2. Relative to a pair of coordinate axes in the 4 plane.−1. –1. 4). (−2.HIlberT Main Targets ● ● ● To understand the concept of graph. 10.2 Linear Graph An equation such as x − 2y = −2 is an example of a linear equation in the two variables x and y. To graph linear equations. we xl –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1–1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 (–4. 0). easily and clearly. going from left to right: (−5. –6 yl (−4.5). 0) plane. The purpose of the graph is to show numerical facts in visual form so that they can be understood quickly. We observe that in this situation. (6.Graphs 10 GRAPHS A mathematical theory can be regarded as perfect only if you are prepared to present its contents to the first man in the street – D. books etc. it x axis 1 cm = 1 unit 7 is easy to find all the solutions with a prescribed y axis 1 cm = 1 unit 6 first number x0 or a prescribed second number 5 y0 . in the sense that y x0 − 2 y0 = −2. 1). 4) 3 the coordinate plane so that each pair (x0. For –3 example. y0) in (6. (4. 3) 2 is a solution of the equation x − 2y = −2 (2. 213 .5) please to get a good idea of the graph. Using the above method of getting all x the solutions of the equation x − 2y = −2. 1) is called the graph of x − 2y = −2 in the (–2. y0) so that x0 and y0 satisfy the equation x − 2y = −2. 3). the adjacent picture contains the –4 following points (given by the dots) on the –5 graph. A solution of this equation is an ordered pair of numbers (x0. y0) (4. 10. magazines.−1). In this chapter you will learn how to use graphs to give a visual representation of the relationship between two variables and find solutions of equations in two variables. 2).

Step 2: Draw x-axis and y-axis on the graph paper. We plot the two given points (3.2. Note The general equation of a straight line is ax + by + c = 0 (i) If c = 0. a first degree equation in two variables always represents a straight line. Step 4: Plot the points Step 5: Join the points and extend it to get the line.Chapter 10 These points strongly suggest that the graph of x − 2y = −2 is a straight line. 4. 1) x axis 1 cm = 1 unit y axis 1 cm = 1 unit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 y (3. Step 3: Select a suitable scale on the coordinate axes. 2. 5). the equation y = mx + c gives a value of y and we can obtain an ordered pair (x. 1) on the graph sheet.5. Step 1: Using the given equation construct a table of with x and y values. Draw the x-axis and y-axis on a graph sheet with 1 cm = 1 unit on both axes. For each value of x. 5) and (. y). 214 (–5. we usually begin by creating a table of x and y values. 1) Solution 1. then the equation becomes by + c = 0 and the line is parallel to x-axis (iii) If b = 0.2 Draw Straight Lines Example 10. with at least one of a or b not equal to zero. We join the points by a line segment and extend it on either direction.1 Draw the graph of the line joining the points (3. 3. Although two points are sufficient to sketch the graph of a line. then the equation becomes ax + by = 0 and the line passes through the origin (ii) If a = 0.5. we usually choose three points so that we can check our work. Thus. We get the required linear graph. Hence we can take general equation of a straight line as ax + by + c = 0 . then the equation becomes ax + c = 0 and the line is parallel to y-axis 10. We do this by choosing three x values and computing the corresponding y values. 10. (.1 Procedure to Draw a Linear Graph When graphing an equation. For the sake of simplicity to draw lines in graphs we consider y = mx + c as another simple form of the equation of straight line.2. 5) xl–6 0 1 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 2 3 4 5 6 x yl .

0. 7) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 y= 5 x+ .5 x + 2 . This is the required linear graph. 2) (5. 2).2. we find the values of y as follows y =.1. . Example 10. 0) and (5. 0) y = 6x 4 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 2 3 4 5 6 x In a graph. a constant.3.5 x + 2 3 -3 5 7 0 0 2 3 -5 -3 215 yl y x axis 1 cm = 1 unit y axis 1 cm = 1 unit (–3. 2) xl–6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 1 2 3 4 5 6 x (3. 3 in the equation of the line.2). So. Example 10. y).Graphs Example 10. 0. (5.4 Draw the graph of the line y =. –3) yl . (0. plot these points and draw a line passing through the points.5 x + 2 3 x -5 x 3 y =.1. Taking the values y =. 0) 2 3 4 5 6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 x (5.3 2 (0. 3 Solution Substituting x = . 0. x=5 x y 5 −2 5 0 5 2 xl –6 x axis 1 cm = 1 unit y axis 1 cm = 1 unit (–1. 2 we get the points (5.1 in the equation of the line. –2) In a graph sheet. On this line x = 5. any point on this line is of the form (5.2 Draw the graph of y = 6x Solution Substituting the values x =. –6) –6 yl y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 x=5 (5. . Thus we get the required linear graph. 6) 3 2 1 (0.6). 0) and (1. we find the values of y as follows y = 6x x y -1 -6 0 0 1 6 xl–6 x axis 1 cm = 1 unit y axis 1 cm = 1 unit 7 6 5 y (1. 6) and draw a line passing through the plotted points. plot the points (.3 Draw the graph of x = 5 Solution The line x = 5 is parallel to y-axis.

7).6 Draw the graph of 2x + 3y = 12 Solution First.1.3) and draw a line passing through the plotted points. we find the values of y as follows x 4x y = 4x.2 x + 4 3 -3 2 6 0 0 4 3 -2 2 xl –6 2x (–1. . 3) in a graph sheet and draw a line passing through the plotted points. 0.5). Now we get the required graph.1 . This is the required graph of the equation y = . 3 Example 10.Chapter 10 Plot the points (. 216 .1. 2) and (3.1 y = 4x . we rewrite the equation 2x + 3y = 12 in the form of y = mx + c . 2x + 3y = 12 implies y = .1 0 -1 -4 -5 0 -1 1 4 3 x axis 1 cm = 1 unit y axis 1 cm = 1 unit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 y y=4 x-1 (1.3.5 x + 2 .3. 3 in the above equation. 3) xl–6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 –1 (0. We now get the required linear graph. 4) and (3. 0. Solution Substituting the values x =. (0.2 x + 4 3 Substituting x =. 6). 6) 3y 6 5 4 3 2 1 x axis 1 cm = 1 unit y axis 1 cm = 1 unit = 12 (0. 2) and draw a line passing through these points.3. 4) (3. . (0. . (0. –5) –5 –6 yl y 7 + (–3.1 in the given equation of line.5 Draw the graph of y = 4x . -1) –2 –3 –4 3 4 5 6 x Plot the points (.1) and (1. 2) –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 2 3 4 5 6 x yl Plot the points (. we find the values of y as follows y = -2 x+4 3 x -2 x 3 y=. Example 10.

1. . . 10) Draw the graph of the following (i) y = 5 (iv) x = .6. the graphs are one and the same.1. Here three cases arise: (i) (ii) The two graphs coincide. .4 and c = 1 (vi) m = . .2y 4. .6 = 0 (iii) y . So.3x = 0 (ii) 3x + y = 0 (v) 9y . In this case the equations have a unique solution. 6) (iv) (. The two graphs do not coincide but they are parallel. where (i) m = 2 and c = 3 (iv) m = 3 and c =.Graphs Exercise 10.2 (v) m = 1 and c = 3 2 (iii) m =.4) and (.4x + 3 = 0 (vi) x .2 and c = 2 3 10. That is.7) and (.6 (v) 2x + 7 = 0 (iii) x = 3 (vi) 6 + 3y = 0 3. Draw the graph of the following (i) y = 4x (iv) y .2. there is no common point and hence there is no solution.4 (ii) m =. 3) and (.1 1. 217 . 9) and (5.3.3x = 0 (iii) x =. Draw the linear graph joining the points (i) (2.2y + 1 = 0 5.5) and (6. 5) 2.5) (iii) (5. (ii) (.6) (v) (4. In this case there are infinitely many solutions.3 Application of Graphs by a system of linear equations in two variables we mean a collection of more than one linear equations in two variables. The solutions of system of linear equations is the set of ordered pairs that satisfy all the equations in that system.2 and c =. In this section you will learn to solve graphically a pair of two linear equations in two variables. (iii) The two graphs intersect exactly at one point.5 (ii) y = . Draw the graph of the equation y = mx + c . that is. do not meet at all. Draw the linear graph of the following equations (i) y = 3x + 1 (iv) x = 3y + 3 (vii) 3x + 2y = 12 (ii) 4y = 8x + 2 (v) x + 2y .

Then we find that both the lines coincide.3y + 9 = 0 Solution let us find three points for each equation. 2) 1 (2. we get the corresponding y values as y = -x +2 2 0 -2 1 3 0 2 x 2 -1 1 x+ 2y =4 y 7 6 5 4 -x 2 y= .8 Solve graphically x .x + 2 2 Substituting x =.7 Solve graphically the pair of equations x + 2y = 4 .x + 2 2 Line 2: 2x + 4y = 8 x axis 1 cm = 1 unit y axis 1 cm = 1 unit (–4.x + 2 2 Substituting x =. by choosing three x values and computing the corresponding y values. we get y values as y = -x +2 2 0 -4 2 4 0 2 xl–6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 x 2x + 4y = 8 x 4 -2 0 –6 yl -x 2 y =.Hence there are infinitely many solution Example 10. x .2.2. 3) 3 2 (0.2x + 8 ( y = . Solution We find three points for each equation. 0. We present our results in the tables. 2 in the above equation. We show our results in tables.x + 4 ( y= . 2 in the above equation. 218 . by choosing three valuesof x and computing the corresponding y values. Therefore each point on the line is a solution. 2x + 4y = 8 . Any point on one line is also a point on the other. Line 1: x + 2y = 4 2 y= .3y = 6 . 0. That is all points on the line are common points. 0) 2 3 4 5 6 4 y = .Chapter 10 Example 10. 4) (–2.x + 2 2 We plot these points in a graph paper and draw the lines. 1) (4.

9 Solve graphically the equations 2x . the system of equations has no solution. Example 10. 3) and (3. by choosing three values of x and computing the corresponding y values. .3) (0.3.3y + 9 = 0 3y = x + 9 y = x +3 3 Substituting x = .3y –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 (3. We find that the two graphs are parallel. So. 2) (0. we get y= x +3 3 x x 3 y = x +3 3 -3 -1 2 0 0 3 3 1 4 xl –6 -3 -1 -3 0 0 -2 3 1 -1 x + . 219 .y = 1. 0. 0. –2) (–3.3. 4) (0. . 4) in the same graph sheet and draw the line through them. 3) (–3. 2) –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 –1 1 2 3 4 5 6 x x =6 .3. x + 2y = 8 Solution We find three points for each equation. Next.1) in the graph sheet and draw the line through them. –3) yl We plot the points (. we plot the points (.3. 3 in the above equation. –1) (0.3y 0 9= x axis 1 cm = 1 unit y axis 1 cm = 1 unit y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 (3. we get the values of y as follows y= x -2 3 x x 3 y = x -2 3 Line 2: x .Graphs Line 1: x .2) and (3.3y = 6 3y = x -6 ( y = x -2 3 Substituting x = . 3 in above equation. We’ll put our results in tables. . That is no point is common to both lines.

x + 4 2 Substituting x =.4 = 0 .1 in the above equation.1 x 2x y = 2x . We find that the two graphs are intersecting at the point (2.5 = 0 . 2x + y = 4 . x + y = 5 . . y + 3 = 0 y y 12. x .12 = 0 9. 3) Exercise 10. . y = 2x + 1 .5 = 0 8.2 = 0 3. 4) (2.2.2x + 2 = 0 . x .y = 0 . x + y . 3) (1. x .y = 0 .8 = 0 5. 4x + 2y = 8 4. x . x + = 1 . 4x . (0.1. 3x + 2y = 4 . 1.6 7.2 Solve Graphically the following pairs of equations.2.2y =. –1) –2 x (–1.y . we find y = 2x .1 Substituting x =. Next. the system of equations has only one solution (unique solution) and the solution is x=2.y = 1 6. y . 3). 2x = y + 1 . y=3 Therefore the solution is (2.4 11. x .1) and (1. 5). 2 in above equation.1. x + = 2 2 4 2 4 -y .6 = 0 10. 9x + 6y . 3x . y = 4x . we get 2x -1 -2 -3 0 0 -1 1 2 1 x+ 2y =8 7 6 y (–2. x + 2y . y + 3x . Hence.1 Line 2: x + 2y = 8 2 y = -x + 8 ( y = . 3) in the same graph sheet and draw the line through them. 2x .3). 0. 1) 3 4 5 6 xl–6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 –1 (0. 5) 5 4 3 2 1 (0.2y = 6 . 0. 1) in a graph sheet and draw the line through them. –3) –3 –4 –5 –6 y = -x +4 2 x -x 2 y=-x +4 2 -2 1 5 0 0 4 2 -1 3 = 1 yl x axis 1 cm = 1 unit y axis 1 cm = 1 unit We plot the points (. (0. 4) and (2.Chapter 10 Line 1: 2x . we plot the points (.y = 1 y = 2x . 4x + y + 4 = 0 220 2.

One of the most convincing and appealing ways. In the earlier classes you have studied about the collection of statistical data through primary sources and secondary sources. Median and Mode 11. A frequency distribution is organizing of raw data in tabular form. However. 11. or percentage distributions.2 Graphical Representation of Frequency Distribution It is often said that “one picture is worth a thousand words. histograms and polygons are used to describe quantitative data that have been grouped into frequency. In case of some investigations. these forms of presentation do not always prove to be interesting to the common man. in which statistical results may be presented is through diagrams and graphs.1 Introduction The subject statistics comprises the collection.” Indeed. presentation. using classes and frequencies. These numerical facts must be arranged and presented in a tabular form in an orderly way before analysis and interpretation. assists in decision making. the classification and tabulation will give a clear picture of the significance of the data arranged so that no further analysis is required. Frequency Polygon To find Measures of Central Tendency : Mean. In particular. statisticians have employed graphical techniques to more vividly describe the data.Statistics STATISTICS “Statistical thinking today is as necessary for efficient citizenship as the ability to read and write” Herbert. analysis and interpretation of data. . A frequency distribution can be represented graphically by (i) Histogram (iii) Smoothened frequency curve and 221 (ii) Frequency polygon (iv) Ogive or Cumulative frequency curve. organization. G. The data collected through these sources may contain a large number of numerical facts. Wells Main Targets ● ● To draw Histogram.

Thus a rectangle is constructed on each class interval.2. other two will be discussed in higher classes. Histograms are used only for continuous data that is grouped. It is constructed by taking mid-points of class intervals on the horizontal axis and the frequencies on the vertical axis and joining these points. A histogram is a two dimensional graphical representation of continuous frequency distribution. 4. To draw a histogram with equal class intervals 1. If the intervals are in inclusive form.Chapter 11 In this chapter we see the first two types of graphs. The scales for both the axes need not be the same. Mark the intervals on the horizontal axis and the frequencies on the vertical axis. 11. a histogram utilizes classes (intervals) and frequencies while a bar graph utilizes categories and frequencies .2. histogram is the most popular and widely used method. so that a frequency polygon can be drawn over the top. 3. Draw rectangles with class intervals as bases and the corresponding frequencies as lengths.1 Histogram Out of several methods of graphical representation of a frequency distribution. Class intervals must be exclusive. first draw the histogram and then join the mid-points of the tops of all the rectangles and finally the extreme points with the points outside the extreme rectangles. convert them to the exclusive form. 222 . Remark 11. Remark A histogram is often drawn as a guide. The two extremes are joined with the base in such a way that they touch the horizontal axis at half the distance of class interval outside the extreme points. The class limits are marked on the horizontal axis and the frequency is marked on the vertical axis. 2. However. In a histogram. If we have to construct histogram and frequency polygon both.2 Frequency Polygon A frequency polygon uses the mid-point of a class interval to represent all the data in that interval. A histogram is similar to a bar graph. rectangles are drawn such that the areas of the rectangles are proportional to the corresponding frequencies.

Marks No.Statistics Example 11. of Students 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 X 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Marks In the above example. Now. 223 .1 Draw a histogram and frequency polygon to represent the following data. let us consider an example with inclusive intervals. of Students Solution 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 12 22 35 40 50-60 60 60-70 52 70-80 40 80-90 30 90-100 5 First we draw the histogram and then by joining the midpoints of the tops of the rectangles we draw the frequency polygon. the intervals are exclusive. Histogram and Frequency Polygon Y 70 65 60 55 50 45 Scale on x-axis 1cm = 10 units on y-axis 1cm = 5 units No.

5-29.5 39.5-49.5-59.5-19. Represent it by a histogram and frequency polygon. Commuted Distance (km) No. of Workers 50-59 4 40-49 5 30-39 9 20-29 18 10-19 14 Solution In the given table the class intervals are inclusive.5 Commuted distance (in km) 224 .2 A survey was conducted in a small industrial plant having 50 workers to find the number of km each person commuted to work and the details are given below. So we convert them to the exclusive form and arrange the class intervals in ascending order.5 5 49. Commuted Distance (km) No.5 99.Chapter 11 Example 11.5 59.5-39.5 9 39.5 89.5 18 29.5 29.5 14 19.5 69. of Workers 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 X O 9.5 49.5 79. of Workers 9.5 4 Histogram and Frequency Polygon Y 20 18 16 Scale on x-axis 1cm = 10 units on y-axis 1cm = 2 units No.5 19.

We do this by calculating the frequency density and modifying length of the rectangle.Statistics Note (i) The class intervals are made continuous and then the histogram is constructed. Although the class interval 80-85 has only a frequency of 70. then the length of the rectangle is given by frequency Length of the rectangle = #C Class width Time (Seconds) Frequency Class Width Length of the rectangle 40-60 100 20 60-70 60 10 70-80 90 10 80-85 70 5 85-90 60 5 90-120 90 30 90 # 5 30 = 15 100 # 5 60 # 5 90 # 5 70 # 5 60 # 5 20 10 10 5 5 = 30 = 45 = 70 = 60 = 25 225 .2. this frequency is spread across a time of only 5 seconds. Key Concept Frequency Density Frequency density = Frequency ' class width If C denotes the minimum class width of the data set.3 Histogram with Varying Base Width Consider the following frequency distribution: Time (seconds) Frequency 40-60 100 60-70 60 70-80 90 80-85 70 85-90 60 90-120 90 The class interval 40-60 appears to be most popular. we need to take into account the width of each class interval. as it has the highest frequency. otherwise the histogram would not represent the data set correctly. before we draw the histogram. Note that this frequency 100 is spread across a time of 20 seconds. So. (ii) If the scale along the horizontal axis does not start at the origin. 11. a zig - zag curve is shown near the origin.

So. Marks No. Marks No. the histogram can be drawn as follows. of students Class width Length of the rectangle 0-10 4 10 10-20 6 10 20-40 14 20 40-50 16 10 50-60 14 10 60-70 8 10 70-90 16 20 90-100 5 10 4 # 10 6 # 10 14 # 10 16 # 10 14 # 10 8 # 10 16 # 10 5 # 10 10 10 20 10 10 10 20 10 =4 =6 =7 = 16 = 14 =8 =5 =8 226 . we draw rectangles with class intervals as bases and the lengths of the rectangles given by frequency length of rectanlge = # 10 .Chapter 11 30 70 65 60 55 50 70 Scale on x-axis 1cm = 5 units on y-axis 1cm = 5 units 60 Frequency 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 45 30 25 15 O 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 Time (in Seconds) Example 11. of students Solution 0-10 4 10-20 6 20-40 14 40-50 16 50-60 14 60-70 8 70-90 16 90-100 5 The minimum of the class widths of the data set is 10. class width Thus.3 Draw a histogram to represent the following data set.

Statistics Histogram with Varying Base Length Y 20 18 16 Scale on x-axis 1cm = 10 units on y-axis 1cm = 2 units 16 14 No. 0-10 8 10-30 28 30-45 18 45-50 6 50-60 10 Draw a histogram for the monthly wages of the workers in a factory as per data given below.1 1. of Students 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 8 7 6 8 5 4 O 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 X Marks Exercise 11. Mass in (gms) No. of objects 10-19 6 20-24 4 25-34 12 227 35-49 18 50-54 8 . Monthly wages 2000-2200 2200-2400 2400-2800 2800-3000 3000-3200 3200-3600 (`) No. The following distribution gives the mass of 48 objects measured to the nearest gram. Draw a histogram to illustrate the data. Draw a histogram for the following distribution. of workers 25 30 50 60 15 10 3. Class Interval Frequency 2.

x2. If we have n real numbers x1. denoted by x . 74 obtained by a student in 5 subjects in an annual examination.1 Arithmetic Mean .3 Mean 11.3. Class interval Frequency 10-14 5 14-20 20-32 32-52 6 9 25 52-80 21 5. 75. Median and Mode.Chapter 11 4. Such a value is called the central value and the most commonly used measures of central tendencies are Arithmetic Mean. then their arithmetic mean. x3 . That is.4 Find the arithmetic mean of the marks 72. Draw a histogram to represent the following data. xn .. Measures of Central Tendency One of the main objectives of statistical analysis is to get a single value that describes the characteristic of the entire data. negative or zero. of patients 10-20 80 20-30 50 30-50 80 50-60 120 60-70 30 Draw a histogram for the above data.Raw Data The arithmetic mean is the sum of a set of observations. 11.. Solution Here n = 5 228 Think and Answer ! . positive. The age (in years) of 360 patients treated in the hospital on a particular day are given below. 73. 82. is given by /x x = x1 + x2 + g + xn or x = 1 / xi or x = n i=1 n n n Remark x= /x n ( nx = / x . divided by the number of observations.. Total number of observations # Mean = Sum of all observations Can a person of height 5 feet. Age in years No. who does not know swimming wade through a river which has an average depth of 4 feet to the other bank? Example 11..

x3 .2 Arithmetic Mean .2 n 5 ` Mean = 75..Statistics x = Example 11. Sum of these numbers = 32 # 5 = 160 Mean of 4 numbers = 32 . x2. is written as x = Example 11. then the mean is reduced by 4.4 = 28 Sum of these 4 numbers = 28 # 4 = 112 Excluded number = 160 .(Sum of the 4 numbers) 11..1 / f 50 Mean = 15. Find the excluded number.Ungrouped Frequency Distribution The mean (or average ) of the observations x1.xn with frequencies f1. If one of the numbers is excluded. f2.. x f Solution x 5 10 15 20 25 Total f 3 10 25 7 5 fx 15 100 375 140 125 5 3 10 10 / fx /f 20 7 25 5 15 25 Mean = / fx = 755 = 15. more briefly.3. f3 .6 Obtain the mean of the following data..1 / f = 50 / fx = 755 229 .2 5 The mean of the 5 numbers is 32.fn respectively is given by x = f1 x1 + f2 x2 + g + fn xn = i = 1 n f1 + f2 + g + fn / fi i=1 / fx i n i The above formula. Solution Mean of 5 numbers = 32.5 / x = 72 + 73 + 75 + 82 + 74 = 376 = 75. 112 = 48 ( a nx = / x ) = (Sum of the 5 given numbers) .

Now.Grouped Frequency Distribution Consider the following frequency table. it is assumed that the frequency of each class interval is centered around its mid-point. we assume it as 5. the formula for finding the arithmetic mean is x = / fx . In the interval 0-10. of students) 0-10 3 10-20 4 20-30 3 30-40 7 40-50 8 The first entry of the table says that 3 children got less than 10 marks but does not say anything about the marks got by the individuals. x = /f In grouped frequency distribution.3 Arithmetic Mean . arithmetic mean may be computed by applying any one of the following methods: (i) Direct Method (ii) Assumed Mean Method (iii) Step Deviation Method Direct Method When direct method is used. /f where x is the midpoint of the class interval and f is the frequency. That is.3. Class mark = UCL + LCL (UCL= Upper Class Limit. Steps : (i) Obtain the midpoint of each class and denote it by x. Class interval (Marks) Frequency (No. (ii) Divide / fx by the sum / f of the frequencies to obtain Mean. Thus the mid-point or the class mark of each class can be chosen to represent the observations falling in that class. for each class interval we require a point which could serve as the representative of the class interval.Chapter 11 11. LCL = Lower Class Limit) 2 Using the above formula the class marks for each of the class intervals are found out and are represented as x / fx can be used to find the mean of the grouped data. (ii) Multiply these midpoints by the respective frequency of each class and obtain the total of fx. 230 .

Steps: (i) Choose A as the assumed mean. d = x – A for each class (iii) Multiply the respective frequencies of each class by their deviations and obtain / fd .A is the deviation of midpoint x from assumed mean A. (iv) Apply the formula x = A + / fd /f 231 . / fd . of students Solution Marks 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 Midpoint (x) No. /f where A is the assumed mean and d = x . arithmetic mean is computed by applying the x = A+ following formula. Marks No.7 From the following table compute arithmetic mean by direct method.Statistics Example 11. of students (f) 5 15 25 35 45 55 5 10 25 30 20 10 fx 25 150 625 1050 900 550 0-10 5 10-20 10 20-30 25 30-40 30 40-50 20 50-60 10 / f = 100 x = / fx = 3300 ` Mean = 33 Assumed Mean Method / fx = 3300 = 33 / f 100 When assumed mean method is used. (ii) Find the deviation.

/ fd # c x = A+ /f Solution: Marks 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 Width of the class interval is c = 10 Mid-value 5 15 25 35 45 55 No of students f 5 10 25 30 20 10 d = x .A and then multiply by c in the formula for getting the mean of c the data.Chapter 11 Example 11.e calculate x .2 = 33 ` 100 j /f ` Mean = 33 232 / f = 100 / fd = -20 .35 10 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 fd -15 -20 -25 0 20 20 x = A+ / fd # c = 35 .20 # 10 = 35 .8 Calculate the arithmetic mean by assumed mean method for the data given in the above example. we divide the deviation by the width of the class intervals. i.200 j = 35 . Solution Let the assumed mean be A = 35 Marks 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 Mid-value (x) 5 15 25 35 45 55 No of students (f) 5 10 25 30 20 10 d = x - 35 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 fd -150 -200 -250 0 200 200 / f = 100 x = A+ / fd = -200 / fd /f Step Deviation Method = 35 + ` . 2 = 33 100 In order to simplify the calculation.

Each observation is increased by k. from the above example. Sum of the deviations from arithmetic mean is (6 . x3 . x4 + 5 and x5 + 5 Mean of these new numbers is x1 + 5 + x2 + 5 + x3 + 5 + x4 + 5 + x5 + 5 5 = x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 + 25 5 = x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 + 25 = 20 + 5 5 5 = original mean + the increased value.. x3 + 5..10) + (14 . we observe that sum of the deviations from the arithmetic mean is zero. x4 and x5 whose mean is 20. Property 2 If each observation is increased by k then the mean of the new observations is the original mean increased by k.xn is x .3. then the new numbers are x1 + 5.. Property 3 If each observation is decreased by k. x3 . 8. i. x = x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 = 20 5 If each of the number is increased by 5. then the mean of the new observation is ( x + k ).2) + ( . the original mean is increased by 5. x2 + 5.x h = 0 For example. then the mean of the new observations is original mean decreased by k. + ^ xn . 13 is 10..10) + (9 .. suppose the mean of n observations x1. 9.. consider five numbers x1. x2.. Consider the deviation of each observation from arithmetic mean.4 Properties of Mean Property 1 Sum of the deviations taken from the arithmetic mean is zero.e. i.10) + (8 . x2.4 + ( . 14. the mean of 6. If x1.. Hence. For example.Statistics 11.10) = .10) + (13 .7 + 7 = 0 Hence. x3.1) + 4 + 3 = . 233 .e. x2.x h + .x h + ^ x2 .xn are n observations with mean x then ^ x1 .

5 + x3 . i.5. 5x3. New mean = x1 . x5 .k .5. Mean of these numbers = x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 = 20 5 New mean = 5x1 + 5x2 + 5x3 + 5x4 + 5x5 5 5^ x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5h = = 5 (20) 5 = Five times the original mean. suppose the mean of n observations is x . then the mean of the new observations is kx .. Property 5 If each observation is divided by k. 5 = original mean - the decreased value. x2.xn is x . the original mean is decreased by 5. then the new observations are 5x1. x3 . 5x2.e.. x3 . x4 . consider five numbers x1.5 5 = x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 . 5x5 . x2. Hence. Hence. If each observation is multiplied by k.e. For example..5 + x4 . Property 4 If each observation is multiplied by k.e. then the mean of the new observation is x . the new mean is 5 times its original mean. x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 = 20 5 If each of the number is decreased by 5. k ! 0 . then the mean of new observations is the original mean divided by k.Chapter 11 i. x3.5 + x2 .5. consider five numbers x1. x4 and x5 whose mean is 20. If each observation is decreased by k.5. If each data is multiplied by 5.5 + x5 . 5x4. x2. 234 . then the new numbers are x1 . then the mean of the new observation is the original mean multiplied by k i..25 5 5 = 20 . x4 and x5 whose mean is 20. x3. k ! 0 . k ! 0 . x2 . suppose the mean of n observations x1.. For example.5 .

where k ! 0 . / x = x # n = 40 # 100 = 4000 Correct / x = Incorrect / x . 4. If each observation is divided by k.7. x4.Statistics i. x3. y2 = x2 . consider five numbers x1. Solution Given that the total number of students n = 100.e. 4. Find the correct mean corresponding to the correct score. = 4000 . 5.. Exercise 11. 4.. suppose the mean of the n observations x1. Later on.xn is x . x5 . y4 = x4 and 5 5 5 5 y5 = x5 . x2. x = x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 = 20 5 Now we divide each number by 5. x3. x. So. 5.9 The mean mark of 100 students was found to be 40. k For example. Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday 55 32 30 25 Friday 10 Saturday 20 The number of children in 10 families in a locality are 2. x2. x = 40. Then x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 5 5 5 5 5 y = 5 5 = 1 ` x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 j = 1 ^20h 5 5 5 = 1 ( x ) 5 New mean is the original mean divided by 5. So. 3. 1. y3 = x3 . x4 and x5 whose mean is 20. Obtain the mean number of bags sold by a shopkeeper on 6 consecutive days from the following table Days No. Let y1 = x1 . Example 11. of bags sold 2. 83 + 53 = 3970 correct/ x Correct x = n 3970 = 39. then the mean of the new observation is x .2 1.. it was found that a score of 53 was misread as 83. 6.7 = 100 Hence the correct mean is 39. wrong item + correct item. Find x if the mean number of children in a family is 4 235 .

If each number is divided by 9 what will be the new mean? The mean weight of 6 boys in a group is 48 kg. 12. The mean of 20 numbers is 59. No. 42kg and 40kg. of days attending hospital 0-10 10-20 2 6 20-30 22 30-40 20 30-39 1 20-30 30-40 40-50 9 7 4 40-50 10 40-49 10 50-60 5 50-59 13 450 - 500 3 50-60 2 10. It was later found that one observation was wrongly read as 43 instead of the correct value 53. 8. The individual weights of 5 of them are 50kg. If 7 is subtracted from each number what will be the new mean? The mean of 12 numbers is 48. Age (in yrs) No. Marks 0-10 No. 6. of patients 10-19 1 20-29 0 14. Find the arithmetic mean. The data on number of patients attending a hospital in a month are given below.Chapter 11 3. The total marks obtained by 40 students in the Annual examination are given below Marks Students 150 - 200 200 - 250 250 - 300 300 - 350 350 - 400 400 - 450 2 3 12 10 4 6 Using step deviation method to find the mean of the above data. of students 50 10 52 15 53 5 55 6 57 4 9. 11. Using assumed mean method find the mean weight of 40 students using the data given below. 50kg. In a study on patients. 236 . the following data were obtained. of students 8 10-20 15 13. If each numbers is multiplied by 4 what will be the new mean? The mean of 16 numbers is 54. 7. The arithmetic mean of a group of 75 observations was calculated as 27. No. Find the weight of the sixth boy. At the time of computation two items were wrongly taken as 30 and 27 instead of 3 and 72. If 3 is added to each number what will be the new mean? The mean of 15 numbers is 44. Find the average number of patients attending the hospital in a day. Obtain the correct arithmetic mean of the data. weights in kg. of patients No. Calculate the arithmetic mean for the following data using step deviation method. 45kg. 4. Find the correct mean. 5. Mean of 100 observations is found to be 40.

th (ii) When n is odd. 12.10 Find the median of the following numbers (i) 24. 42. Number of items n = 10 th th Median is the mean of ` n j and ` n + 1j observations. 32. 10. 7. 15. 7. 17. 23. 9.4 Median Median is defined as the middle item of the given observations arranged in order. 32. i. 21. 23.e. 21. 11. 9. 2 (iii) When n is even the median is the arithmetic mean of the two middle values. 24 Number of items n = 7 th Median = ` n + 1 j observation 2 = ` 7 + 1 j observation 2 = 4th observation = 21 th ( a n is odd) Let us arrange the numbers in ascending order 7. 13. ` n + 1 j observation is the median.Raw Data Steps: (i) Arrange the n given numbers in ascending or descending order of magnitude. 14. 21. 22.4. 15. ( a n is even) 2 2 th n th 10 th ` 2 j observation = ` 2 j observation = 5 observation = 13 237 . Class Interval Frequency 0 - 19 3 20 - 39 4 40 - 59 15 60 - 79 14 80 - 99 4 11. 15. Solution (i) (ii) Let us arrange the numbers in ascending order as below.Statistics 15. 15. th th Median = Mean of ` n j and ` n + 1j observations. 10. 12.. Compute the arithmetic mean of the following distribution. 7. 21 (ii) 17. 22. 42. 2 2 Example 11.1 Median . 14. 13. when n is even.

Chapter 11
th n = th ` 2 + 1j observation 6 observation = 15.

` Median = 13 + 15 = 14 2 11.4.2 Median - Ungrouped Frequency Distribution (i) Arrange the data in ascending or descending order of magnitude. (ii) Construct the cumulative frequency distribution. th (iii) If n is odd, then Median = ` n + 1j term. 2
th n th n $` 2 j term + ` 2 + 1j term . (iv) If n is even, then Median = 2

Example 11.11 Calculate the median for the following data. Marks No. of students Solution 20 6 9 4 25 16 50 7 40 8 80 2

Let us arrange marks in ascending order. Marks 9 20 25 40 50 80 f 4 6 16 8 7 2 n = 43 Here, n = 43, which is odd cf 4 10 26 34 41 43

Position of median

= ` n + 1 j observation . 2 = ` 43 + 1 j observation. 2 = 22nd observation.
th

th

The above table shows that all items from 11 to 26 have their value 25. So, the value nd of 22 item is 25.

` Median = 25.
238

Statistics

Example 11.12 Find the median for the following distribution. Value f Solution Value 1 2 3 4 5 6 f 1 3 2 4 8 2 n = 20 n = 20 (even) Position of the median = ` 20 + 1 j th observation 2 = ` 21 j th observation = (10.5)th observation 2
th th

1 1

2 3

3 2

4 4

5 8

6 2 cf 1 4 6 10 18 20

The median then, is the average of the tenth and the eleventh items. The tenth item is 4, the eleventh item is 5. Hence median = 4 + 5 = 9 = 4.5. 2 2

11.4.3 Median - Grouped Frequency Distribution In a grouped frequency distribution, computation of median involves the following steps. (i) Construct the cumulative frequency distribution.
th

(ii) Find N term. 2 (iii) The class that contains the cumulative frequency N is called the median class. 2 (iv) Find the median by using the formula: N -m Median = l + 2 # c, f where l = Lower limit of the median class, f = Frequency of the median class c = Width of the median class, N = The total frequency

m = cumulative frequency of the class preceeding the median class
239

Chapter 11

Example 11.13 Find the median for the following distribution. Wages (Rupees in hundreds) No of workers Solution Wages 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 f 22 38 46 35 20 N = 161 Here, N = 161 = 80.5. Median class is 20-30. 2 2 Lower limit of the median class l 20 = Frequency of the median class f 46 = Cumulative frequency of the class preceeding the median class m = 60 Width of the class c = 10 N -m Median= l + 2 #c f = 20 + 80.5 - 60 # 10 = 20 + 10 # 20.5 46 46 = 20 + 205 = 20 + 4.46 = 24.46 46 cf 22 60 106 141 161 0-10 22 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 38 46 35 20

` Median = 24.46
Example 11.14 Find the median for the following data. Marks Frequency Solution Since the table is given in terms of inclusive type we convert it into exclusive type. 11-15 7 16-20 21-25 10 13 26-30 26 31-35 9 36-40 5

240

Statistics

Marks 10.5- 15.5 15.5-20.5 20.5-25.5 25.5-30.5 30.5-35.5 35.5-40.5

f 7 10 13 26 9 5 N = 70

cf 7 17 30 56 65 70

N = 70, N = 70 = 35 2 2

Median class is 25.5-30.5 Lower limit of the median class l Frequency of the median class f = 25.5 = 26 = 30

Cumulative frequency of the preceding median class m Width of the median class c = 30.5 - 25.5 = 5 N -m Median = l + 2 #c f

= 25.5 + 35 - 30 # 5 = 25.5 + 25 = 26.46 26 26

Exercise 11.3
1. 2. Find the median of the following data. (i) 18,12,51,32,106,92,58

(ii) 28,7,15,3,14,18,46,59,1,2,9,21 Find the median for the following frequency table. Value Frequency 12 4 13 2 15 4 19 4 22 1 23 5

3.

Find the median for the following data. Height (ft) No of trees 5-10 4 10-15 3 15-20 10
241

20-25 8

25-30 5

Chapter 11

4.

Find the median for the following data. Age group No. of persons 0-9 4 10-19 6 20-29 10 30-39 11 40-49 12 50-59 6 60-69 1

5.

Calculate the median for the following data Class interval Frequency 1 - 5 1 6 - 10 18 11 - 15 25 16 - 20 26 21 - 25 7 26 - 30 2 31 - 35 1

6.

The following table gives the distribution of the average weekly wages of 800 workers in a factory. Calculate the median for the data given below. Wages 20 - 25 25 - 30 30 - 35 35 - 40 40 - 45 45 - 50 50 - 55 55 - 60 (` in hundres) No. of persons 50 70 100 180 150 120 70 60

11.5 Mode
The Mode of a distribution is the value at the point around which the items tend to be most heavily concentrated.

11.5.1 Mode - Raw Data
In a raw data, mode can be easily obtained by arranging the observations in an array and then counting the number of times each observation occurs. For example, consider a set of observations consisting of values 20,25,21,15,14,15. Here, 15 occurs twice where as all other values occur only once. Hence mode of this data = 15.
Remark

Mode can be used to measure quantitative as well as qualitative data. If a printing press turns out 5 impressions which we rate very sharp, sharp, sharp, sharp and Blurred, then the model value is sharp.

Example 11.15 The marks of ten students in a mathematics talent examination are 75,72,59,62, 72,75,71,70,70,70. Obtain the mode. Solution other.
Note

Here the mode is 70, since this score was obtained by more students than any A distribution having only one mode is called unimodal.
242

Statistics

Example 11.16 Find the mode for the set of values 482,485,483,485,487,487,489. Solution In this example both 485 and 487 occur twice. This list is said to have two modes or to be bimodal. (i) A distribution having two modes is called bimodal. Note (ii) A distribution having three modes is called trimodal. (iii) A distribution having more than three modes is called multimodal. 11.5.2 Mode - Ungrouped Frequency Distribution In a ungrouped frequency distribution data the mode is the value of the variable having maximum frequency. Example 11.17 A shoe shop in Chennai sold hundred pairs of shoes of a particular brand in a certain day with the following distribution. Size of shoe No of pairs sold 4 2 5 5 6 3 7 23 8 39 9 27 10 1

Find the mode of the following distribution. Since 8 has the maximum frequency with 39 pairs being sold the mode of the distribution is 8.

Solution

11.5.3 Mode - Grouped Frequency Distribution In case of a grouped frequency distribution, the exact values of the variables are not known and as such it is very difficult to locate mode accurately. In such cases, if the class intervals are of equal width an appropriate value of the mode may be determined by using the formula Mode = l + c f - f1 m # c, 2f - f1 - f2

where l = lower limit of the modal class f = frequency of modal class c = class width of the modal class f1 = frequency of the class just preceeding the modal class. f2 = frequency of the class succeeding the modal class.

243

f1 h# c 2f . of Pairs sold 4 15 5 17 244 6 13 7 21 8 18 9 16 10 11 .65.4 1. 30 .72.20 j = 25 + 60 = 25 + 2.45.f1 .65.73 = 27.f2 f 4 8 18 30 20 10 5 2 4 15-20 8 20-25 18 25-30 30 30-35 20 35-40 10 40-45 5 45-50 2 Modal class is 25-30 since it has the maximum frequency. Size of shoe No.49.18 # 5 = 25 + 12 # 5 22 60 .Chapter 11 Example 11.72. The marks obtained by 15 students of a class are given below.71.18 Calculate the mode of the following data.71.18 . 2. Find the modal marks.82.73 Exercise 11.47.72 Calculate the mode of the following data. 42. Size of item 10-15 No of items Solution Size of the item 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 45-50 Lower limit of the modal class l = 25 Frequency of the modal class f = 30 Frequency of the preceding the modal class f1 = 18 Frequency of the class reducing the modal class f2 = 20 Class width c = 5 Mode = l + ^ =25 + ` f .52.75.47.73 22 Mode = 27.

Age (yrs) No of patients 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 12 14 36 50 20 18 4. of plants 2 14 3 21 4 28 5 20 6 17 6. median and mode of the above data. 13. 15 years. 15. 8. The marks are given below.Statistics 3. Marks No. 15. The ages of children in a scout camp are 13. 14. of branches No. For the following data obtain the mode. 13. of cases 5 - 14 6 15 - 24 11 25 - 34 12 35 - 44 10 45 - 54 7 55 - 64 4 Obtain the mean. Age in year No. 13. No. of students 0 - 10 1 10 - 20 4 20 - 30 5 30 - 40 8 40 - 50 2 245 . median and mode of the data. mode and median of marks obtained by 20 students in an examination. The following table shows the age distribution of cases of a certain disease reported during a year in a particular city. median and mode of the above data. The age (in years) of 150 patients getting medical treatment in a hospital in a month are given below. 7. Weight (in kg) No of students 21-25 5 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 4 3 18 20 14 8 3 5. Find the mean. Obtain its mode. Calculate the mean. Find the mean. 15. The following table gives the numbers of branches and number plants in a garden of a school. 14.

* * * * Add 10 to each value and find the mean. Points to Remember The mean for grouped data  The direct method x= / fx /f / fd /f / fd #C /f  The assumed mean method x = A+  The step deviation method x = A+  The cumulative frequency of a class is the frequency obtained by adding the frequencies of all up to the classes preceeding the given class. Find the mean of 10.40 and 50.30. (iii) Median is preferred to mode. Make a general statement about each situation and compare it with the properties of mean. 2.f1 m#c 2f . (i) (ii) The median is preferred to arithmetic mean. Subtract 10 from each value and find the mean.f1 . Divide each value by 10 and find the mean. Give specific examples of your own in which. Mode is preferred to median.  The median for grouped date can be found by using the formula N -m median = l + 2 #c f  The mode for the grouped data can be found by using the formula mode = l + c f .f2 246 . Multiply each value by 10 and find the mean.20.Chapter 11 ACTIVITY 1.

“Likely”. The notion of Von Mises. Commerce. and “Should I buy a new brand of laptop?”. Medical Sciences. The words “Probably”. Few examples are: “Should I carry an umbrella to work today?”. Consider the statements: ™ Probably Kuzhalisai will stand first in the forth coming annual examination. or empirical.CHARLES ELIOT Main Targets ● ● To understand repeated experiments and observed frequency approach of Probability To understand Empirical Probability Richard Von Mises (1883-1953) 12.Probability PROBABILITY All business proceeds on beliefs. in the fields of Physical Sciences. ™ There is a chance that Leela will win today’s Tennis match. This notion made it possible to build up a strictly mathematical theory of probability based on measure theory. an approach Such emerged gradually in the last century under the influence of many authors. sample space comes from R. will mean “the lack of certainty” about the 247 The statistical. Though probability started with gambling..Von Mises. ™ The prices of essential commodities are likely to be stable. Kolmogorov.F. attitude toward probability has been developed mainly by R. An axiomatic treatment representing the modern development was given by A. etc. “Will my cellphone battery last until tonight?”. it has been used extensively. Fisher and R. quantities or actions involved in the decision. Probability provides a way to make decisions when the person is uncertain about the things. Weather Forecasting and in various other emerging areas. or judgments of probabilities. Investments. . and not on certainty . Biological Sciences.1 Introduction From dawn to dusk any individual makes decisions regarding the possible events that are governed at least in part by chance. ™ Possibly Thamizhisai will catch the train today. “Chance” . “Possibly” . Insurance.

2 Basic Concepts and Definitions Before we start the theory on Probability. Probability would be effective and useful even if it is not a single numerical value. there is no perfect yardstick. To measure “the lack of certainty or uncertainty”.. i.Chapter 12 events mentioned above. It is a purposeful technique used in decision making depending on.e. and changing with. uncertainty is not perfectly quantifiable one. But based on some assumptions uncertainty can be measured mathematically. Experiment Random Experiment Trial Sample Space Sample Point Events Key Concept Experiment An experiment is defined as a process whose result is well defined Experiments are classified broadly into two ways: EXPERIMENT DETERMINISTIC RANDOM 248 . experience. let us define some of the basic terms required for it. 12. This numerical measure is referred to as probability.

5. possible events are {1. Random Experiment : It is an experiment whose all possible outcomes are known. 2. {2. Key Concept Trial For example. 3. A Trial is an action which results “ Flipping” a coin and “Rolling” a in one or several outcomes. 3}. 5. While rolling a die. 4. consider the following experiments: (i) A coin is flipped (tossed) (ii) A die is rolled.Probability 1. since we cannot predict the outcome of these experiments. For example. {1. in the cases-when we heat water it evaporates. Tail} possible outcomes of a random experiment. 6} Sample Space Sample Point Event 249 . 2. 2. Deterministic Experiment : It is an experiment whose outcomes can be predicted with certainty. While rolling a die each outcome. under identical conditions. 6} While flipping a coin each outcome {Head}. sample space S = { 1. {Tail} are the sample Each outcome of an experiment is points. {1} {2} {3} {4} {5} and {6} are are corresponding sample points For example. Any subset of a sample space is When a die is rolled some of the called an event. S = { Head. when we keep a tray of water into the refrigerator it freezes into ice and while flipping an unusual coin with heads on both sides getting head . 3}. called a sample point. die are trials For example. but it is not possible to predict the exact outcome in advance. A sample space S is the set of all While flipping a coin the sample space. For example. Hence these experiments are deterministic. 3.the outcomes of the experiments can be predicted well in advance. These are random experiments.

3.3. The remaining two approaches would be discussed in higher classes. we shall discuss only about empirical probability. 250 . 12. 12.4 Probability . educated guesses and perhaps intuition and other subjective factors to calculate probability . 12.2 Classical Probability Classical probability concept is originated in connection with games of chance.3.1 Subjective Probability Subjective probabilities express the strength of one’s belief with regard to the uncertainties.3 Empirical Probability It relies on actual experience to determine the likelihood of outcomes.3 Classification of Probability According to various concepts of probability. If there are n equally likely possibilities of which one must occur and s of them are regarded as favorable or as a success then the probability of a success is given by ^ s nh .An Empirical Approach In this chapter. It can be applied especially when there is a little or no direct evidence about the event desired. Empirical or experimental or Relative frequency Probability relies on actual experience to determine the likelihood of outcomes. it can be classified mainly in to three types as given below: (1) Subjective Probability (2) Classical Probability (3) Empirical Probability 12. It applies when all possible outcomes are equally likely.Chapter 12 PROBABILITY Objective Subjective Empirical Probability Classical Probability 12. there is no choice but to consider indirect evidence.

5 denotes that the event is a equally likely to happen or not and one of 0 means that it certainly will not. hence 0 # P (E) # 1 . A probability of 0. The more data we collect the better the estimate is. If the probability is 1. n 0 # P (E) # 1 i. Key Concept Empirical Probability Let m be the number of trials in which the event E happened (number of observations favourable to the event E) and n be the total number of trials (total number of observations) of an experiment.the probability of happening of an event always lies from 0 to 1. we know the thing happen certainly. Remark If P(E) = 1 then E is called Certain event or Sure event. If P(E) = 0 then E is known is an Impossible event.e. we can perform an experiment such as you already have or conduct a survey.9. This is called collecting experimental data. and if probability is high say 0.0. is given by P (E) = Number of trials in which the event happened Total number of trials (or) Number of favourable observations P(E) = Total number of observations (or) P (E) = m n Clearly 0 # m # n ( 0 # m # 1 . To find the probability for such an event. Empirical probability is the most accurate scientific ‘guess’ based on the results of experiments about an event. For example. we feel that the event is likely to happen.Probability Empirical approach can be used whenever the experiment can be repeated many times and the results observed. This interpretation applied to statistical probabilities calculated from frequencies is the only way of expecting what we know of the individual from our knowledge of the populations. The empirical probability of happening of an event E. Probability is its most general use is a measure of our degree of confidence that a thing will happen. denoted by P(E). the decision about people buying a certain brand of a soap. 251 . cannot be calculated using classical probability since the outcomes are not equally likely.

Chapter 12

If P (E) is the probability of an event, then the probability of not happening of E is denoted by P (El ) or P (E ) We know, P(E ) + P (El ) = 1; & P (El ) = 1 - P (E) P (El ) = 1 - P (E) We shall calculate a few typical probabilities, but it should be kept in mind that numerical probabilities are not the principal object of the theory. Our aim is to learn axioms, laws, concepts and to understand the theory of probability easily in higher classes. Illustration A coin is flipped several times. The number of times head and tail appeared and their ratios to the number of flips are noted below. Number of Tosses (n) 50 60 70 80 90 100 Number of Heads (m1) 29 34 41 44 48 52 P(H) = m1 n 29 50 34 60 41 70 44 80 48 90 52 100 Number of Tails (m2) 21 26 29 36 42 48 P(T) = m2 n 21 50 26 60 29 70 36 80 42 90 48 100

From the above table we observe that as we increase the number of flips more and more, the probability of getting of heads and the probability of getting of tails come closer and closer to each other. Activity (1) Flipping a coin: Each student is asked to flip a coin for 10 times and tabulate the number of heads and tails obtained in the following table. Outcome Head Tail
252

Tally Marks

Number of heads or tails for 10 flips.

Probability

Repeat the experiment for 20, 30, 40, 50 times and tabulate the results in the same manner as shown in the above example. Write down the values of the following fractions. Number of times head turn up = d Total number of times the coin is flipped d Number of times tail turn up = d Total number of times the coin is flipped d Activity (2) Rolling a die: Roll a die 20 times and calculate the probability of obtaining each of six outcomes. Outcome 1 2 3 4 5 6 Repeat the experiment for 50, 100 times and tabulate the results in the same manner. Activity (3) Flipping two coins: Flip two coins simultaneously 10 times and record your observations in the table. Outcome Two Heads One head and one tail No head In Activity (1) each flip of a coin is called a trial. Similarly in Activity (2) each roll of a die is called a trial and each simultaneous flip of two coins in Activity (3) is also a trial. In Activity (1) the getting a head in a particular flip is an event with outcome “head”. Similarly, getting a tail is an event with outcome tail. In Activity (2) the getting of a particular number say “ 5” is an event with outcome 5.
253

Tally Marks

Number of outcome for 20 rolls.

No. of times corresponding outcomes come up Total no. of times the die is rolled

Tally

Number of outcomes No. of times corresponding outcomes comes up Total no. of times the two coins are flipped for 10 times

Chapter 12

Number of heads comes up Total number of times the coins fliped empirical probability. The value Example 12.1

is called an experimental or

A manufacturer tested 1000 cell phones at random and found that 25 of them were defective. If a cell phone is selected at random, what is the probability that the selected cellphone is a defective one. Solution Total number of cell phones tested = 1000 i.e., n = 1000 Let E be the event of selecting a defective cell phone. n(E) = 25 i.e., m = 25 Number of defective cellphones P(E) = Total number of cellphones tested = m = 25 = 1 n 1000 40

Example 12.2 In T-20 cricket match, Raju hit a “Six” 10 times out of 50 balls he played. If a ball was selected at random find the probability that he would not have hit a “Six”. Solution Total Number of balls Raju faced = 50 i.e., n = 50 Let E be the event of hit a “Six” by Raju n(E) P(E) = 10 = i.e., m=10 Number of times Raju hits a "Six" Total number of balls faced = m = 10 = 1 n 50 5 P (Raju does not hit a Six) = P (El ) = 1 - P (E) =1- 1 = 4 5 5 Example 12.3 The selection committee of a cricket team has to select a team of players. If the selection is made by using the past records scoring more than 40 runs in a match, then find the probability of selecting these two players whose performance are given below? The performance of their last 30 matches are Name of the player Kumar Kiruba
254

More than 40 runs 20 times 12 times

Probability

Solution

Total number of matches observed = 30 n( E1 ) = 20 n( E2 ) = 12 m1 = 20 n 30 m2 12 P( E2 ) = = n 30 P( E1 ) =

i.e., n = 30

Let E1 be the event of Kumar scoring more than 40 runs. i.e., m1 = 20 i.e., m2 = 12 Let E2 be the event of Kiruba scoring more than 40 runs.

The probability of Kumar being selected is = 20 = 30 The probability of Kiruba being selected is = 12 = 30 Example 12.4

2 3 2 5

On a particular day a policeman observed vehicles for speed check. The frequency table shows the speed of 160 vehicles that pass a radar speed check on dual carriage way. Speed (Km/h) No. of Vehicles 20-29 14 30-39 23 40-49 28 50-59 35 60-69 52 70 & above 8

Find the probability that the speed of a vehicle selected at random is (i) faster than 70 km/h. (iii) less than 60 km/h. Solution (i) Let E1 be the event of a vehicle travelling faster than 70 km/h. n( E1 ) = 8 i.e. m1 = 8 Total number of vehicles = 160. i.e. n = 160 m1 = 8 = 1 P( E1 ) = n 160 20 Let E2 be the event of a vehicle travelling the speed between 20 - 39 km/h. (ii) between 20 - 39 km/h. (iv) between 40 - 69 km/h.

(ii)

i.e. m2 = 37 n( E2 ) = 14+23 = 37 m2 = 37 P( E2 ) = n 160 (iii) Let E3 be the event of a vehicle travelling the speed less than 60 km/h. n( E3 ) = 14+23+28+35 = 100 m P( E3 ) = 3 = 100 = 5 n 160 8
255

i.e. m3 = 100

Chapter 12

(iv)

Let E4 be the event of a vehicle travelling the speed between 40-69 km/h. n( E4 ) = 28+35+52 = 115 m P( E4 ) = 4 = 115 = 23 n 160 32 i.e. m4 = 115

Example 12.5 A researcher would like to determine whether there is a relationship between a student’s interest in statistics and his or her ability in mathematics. A random sample of 200 students is selected and they are asked whether their ability in mathematics and interest in statistics is low, average or high. The results were as follows: Ability in mathematics Low Average High 60 15 15 15 45 10 5 10 25

Interest in statistics

Low Average High

If a student is selected at random, what is the probability that he / she (i) has a high ability in mathematics (ii) has an average interest in statistics (iii) has a high interest in statistics statistics. Solution Total number of students = 80+70+50=200. (i) i.e. n = 200 Let E1 be the event that he/she has a high ability in mathematics . n( E1 ) = 15+10+25= 50 P( E1 ) = i.e. m1 = 50 m1 = 50 = 1 n 200 4 Let E2 be the event that he/she has an average interest in statistics. n( E2 ) = 15+45+10 = 70 P( E2 ) = m2 = 70 = 7 n 200 20 i.e. m2 = 70 (iv) has high ability in mathematics and high interest in statistics and (v) has average ability in mathematics and low interest in

(ii)

(iii) Let E3 be the event that he/she has a high interest in statistics. n( E3 ) = 5+10+25 = 40 P( E3 ) = m3 = 40 = 1 n 200 5
256

i.e. m3 = 40

Probability

(iv)

Let E4 be the event has high ability in mathematics and high interest in statistics. n( E4 ) = 25 i.e. m4 = 25 m P( E4 ) = 4 = 25 = 1 n 200 8 Let E5 be the event has has average ability in mathematics and low interest in statistics. n( E5 ) = 15 i.e. m5 = 15 m P( E5 ) = 5 = 15 = 3 n 200 40

(v)

Example 12.6 A Hospital records indicated that maternity patients stayed in the hospital for the number of days as shown in the following. No. of days stayed No. of patients 3 15 4 32 5 56 6 19 more than 6 5

If a patient was selected at random find the probability that the patient stayed (i) exactly 5 days (ii) less than 6 days (iii) at most 4 days (iv) at least 5 days Solution Total number of patients of observed = 127 (i) i.e., n = 127 Let E1 be the event of patients stayed exactly 5 days. n( E1 ) = 56 m P( E1 ) = 1 = 56 n 127 (ii) i.e., m1 = 56

Let E2 be the event of patients stayed less than 6 days. n( E2 ) = 15 + 32 + 56 = 103 i.e., m2 = 103 m P( E2 ) = 2 = 103 n 127 Let E3 be the event of patients stayed atmost 4 days (3 and 4 days only). n( E3 ) = 15 + 32 = 47 i.e., m3 = 47 m3 = 47 P( E2 ) = n 127 Let E4 be the event of patients stayed atleast 5 days (5, 6 and 7 days only). n( E4 ) = 56 + 19 + 5 = 80 i.e., m4 = 80 m P( E4 ) = 4 = 80 n 127
257

(iii)

(iv)

22 has type “A” blood. 5 has type “B” blood and 2 has type “AB” blood. During the last 20 basket ball games. A probability experiment was conducted. 4.80 vii) 1 vi) trial iv) .45 2.78 viii) 33% v) 0 ix) 112% Define: i) experiment ii) deterministic experiment iii) random experiment iv) sample space v) event Define empirical probability. of people Like 15 Dislike 8 Undecided 2 Find the probability that a person selected at random (i) likes the taste (ii) dislikes the taste (iii) undecided about the taste 7.1/5 vi) 1. 3. Which of these cannot be considered as a probability of an outcome? i) 1/3 ii) . What is the empirical probability if a ball was selected at random that Sangeeth make a foul shot? The record of a weather station shows that out of the past 300 consecutive days.Chapter 12 Exercise 12. (i) it was correct (ii) it was not correct. Outcomes Frequencies 1 80 2 75 3 90 4 75 5 85 6 95 Find the probability of getting an outcome (i) less than 4 (ii) less than 2 (iii) greater than 2 (iv) getting 6 (v) not getting 6. 258 . A die is rolled 500 times. Gowri asked 25 people if they liked the taste of a new health drink. its weather was forecasted correctly 195 times.0. If a person is selected at random find the probability that (i) the person has type “O” blood 8. 21 has type “O” blood. In the sample of 50 people. iii) 0. What is the probability that on a given day selected at random. Sangeeth has made 65 and missed 35 free throws. 5. The following table shows that the outcomes of the die. Responses No. (ii) the person does not have type “B” blood (iii) the person has type “A” blood (iv) the person does not have type “AB” blood. 6.1 1. The responses are.

Number of girls in a family Number of families 2 624 1 900 0 476 Find the probability of a family. Life time (months) Number of Lamps (i) less than 12 months (iii) at most 12 months 11. No. having (i) 2 girls (ii) 1 girl (iii) no girl 10. chosen at random. of persons in the car No. and the following data were recorded. Find the probability that it has (ii) less than 3 persons in it (iv) at least 4 persons in it 12. The table below shows the status of twenty residents in an apartment Gender Male Female Status College Students 5 4 Employees 3 8 If one of the residents is chosen at random. Find the probability that the life time of the selected bulb is (ii) more than 14 months (iv) at least 13 months On a busy road in a city the number of persons sitting in the cars passing by were observed during a particular interval of time. 9 26 10 71 11 82 12 102 13 89 14 77 more than 14 53 A bulb is selected at random. The follwing table gives the lifetime of 500 CFL lamps. Marks obtained by Insuvai in Mathematics in ten unit tests are listed below. Unit Test Marks obtained (%) I 89 II 93 III 98 IV 99 V 98 VI 97 VII VIII 96 90 IX 98 X 99 Based on this data find the probability that in a unit test Insuvai get (i) more than 95% (ii) less than 95% (iii) more than 98% 13.Probability 9. Data of 60 such cars is given in the following table. of Cars (i) only 2 persons sitting in it (iii) more than 2 persons in it 1 22 2 16 3 12 4 6 5 4 Suppose another car passes by after this time interval. find the probability that the chosen resident will be (i) a female (ii) a college student (iii) a female student (iv) a male employee 259 . 2000 families with 2 children were selected randomly.

(iv) lives in large city and owns a foreign car. what is the probability that the customer (i) bought a new car (ii) was satisfied (iii) bought an used car but not satisfied 15. (iii) lives in a large city and does not own a foreign car. A random sample of car owners. A year later the same persons were interviewed again to find out whether they actually bought a new cellphone. what is the probability that he/she (i) owns a foreign car. 16. The survey has been undertaken to determine whether there is a relationship between the place of residence and ownership of an automobile.000 individuals were asked whether they were planning to buy a new cellphone in the next 12 months. 200 from large cities. 150 from suburbs and 150 from rural areas were selected and tabulated as follow Type of Area Large city Car ownership Own a foreign car 90 Do not own a foreign car 110 Suburb 60 90 Rural 25 125 If a car owner was selected at random. (ii) owns a foreign car and lives in a suburb. A randomly selected sample of 1. what is the probability that he/she (i) had a plan to buy (ii) had a plan to buy but a non-buyer (iii) had no plan to buy but a buyer. 260 .Chapter 12 14. (v) neither lives in a rural area nor owns a foreign car. The following table shows the results of a survey of thousand customers who bought a new or used cars of a certain model Type Satisfaction level Satisfied 300 450 Not Satisfied 100 150 New Used If a customer is selected at random. The response of both interviews is given below Buyers Plan to buy No plan to buy 200 100 Non-buyers 50 650 If a person was selected at random.

to 7 p. what is the probability that he prefers Volleyball he is between 20 .m. to 7 p. 261 .m. 300 200 500 11 a. to 7 pm.Phil and age above 40 18. (iii) a bus at the time interval 7 a. (v) he is at most 49 of age and prefers Football.m. On one Sunday Muhil observed the vehicles at a Tollgate in the NH-45 for his science project about air pollution from 7 am.m. Find the probability that the vehicle chosen is a (i) a bus at the time interval 7 a. to 3 p. A random sample of 1.49 50 and above (i) Sports Volleyball 26 38 72 96 134 (ii) Basket ball 47 84 68 48 44 Hockey 41 80 38 30 18 Football 36 48 22 26 4 If a respondent is selected at random.m.Phil 5 15 5 Master Degree Only 10 20 5 Bachelor Degree Only 10 15 15 If a teacher is selected at random what is the probability that the chosen teacher has (i) master degree only (ii) M. The number of vehicles crossed are tabulated below. Age Below 20 20 .000 men was selected and each individual was asked to indicate his age and his favorite sport.m. 120 130 250 3 p.m.Probability 17.m.29 30 .40 above 40 M.m. to 3 p. The educational qualifications of 100 teachers of a Government higher secondary school are tabulated below Education Age below 30 30 .m. Time interval Vehicles Bus Car Two Wheeler 7 a. (ii) a car at the time interval 11 a. to 7 p.m. (v) not a two wheeler at the time interval 7 a.Phil and age below 30 (iii) only a bachelor degree and age above 40 (iv) only a master degree and in age 30-40 (v) M.39 40 .m.m. m. 400 250 350 A vehicle is selected at random. to 7 p.m. to 11 a. The results were as follows.m. (iv) a car at the time interval 7 a. to 11 a.29 years old (iii) he is between 20 and 29 years old and prefers Basketball (iv) he doesn’t prefer Hockey 19.

Deterministic Experiment : It is an experiment whose outcomes can be predicted with certainty. Random Experiment is an experiment whose all possible outcomes are known. under identical conditions. is given by Number of trials in which the event happened Total number of trials Number of favourable observations (or) P (E) = m (or) P(E) = Total number of observations n P (E) = › › 0 # P^ E h # 1 P^ Elh = 1 . 262 . Each outcome of an experiment is called a sample point. denoted by P(E). A trial is an action which results in one or several outcomes. but it is not possible to predict the exact outcome in advance. Experiment is defined as a process whose result is well defined.Chapter 12 Points to remember › › › › › › › › › › Uncertainty or probability can be measured numerically. Classification of probability (1) Subjective probability (2) Classical probability (3) Empirical probability The empirical probability of happening of an event E. Any subset of a sample space is called an event. where El is the complementary event of E.P^ Eh . A sample space S is a set of all possible outcomes of a random experiment.

! A (D) " a. then the number of non-empty proper subsets of A is . A is a subset of A (A) (i) and (ii) 4.1 (B) 8 m (C) (i) and (iii) (C) 2 (C) 6 (B) Q = 0 (D) Q = "Q . Q and the set itself 8.8 . c . (D) a 3 " a. ! A (A) " a. " b. . . 5. d . which of the following is a subset of X? Which of the following statements are true? For any set A. 9. (C) "7 . "5. 6 . is a singleton set (C) Every set has a proper subset (D) Every non . 3. Theory of Sets 1.1. x ! Z . b . Which one of the following is a finite set? (B) " x : x d W. A is a proper subset of A (ii) For any set A. (C) " a . = Q (C) Q = "0 . ! " a. 2.8 =. b . is Which one of the following is correct? 2 (A) " x : x =. Which of the following is a correct statement? (A) Q 3 " a. 12 . b . c .empty set has at least two subsets.MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. If X = " a. x > 10 . (A) 2 (A) 3 m (B) (ii) and (iii) (B) 2 . m-1 (D) (i) (ii) and (iii) (D) 2 (2 (D) 7 m-1 If a finite set A has m elements. b . (C) " x : x d N. 11. (D) "6 . If A = "5. ! A (C) "c. x < 5 . x $ 5 . 7.. (D) " x : x is an even prime number . ! A (B) " b. 6. .1) The number of subsets of the set "10. Which one of the following is incorrect? (A) Every subset of a finite set is finite (B) P = " x : x . (A) " x : x d Z. d . 7 . b . (i) (B) "5 . Q is a subset of A (iii) For any set A. d . 6 . 263 (B) Q d " a. which of the following is correct? (A) "5..

f. c . (B) 2 (B) m + n . andB = "1. then A + B = If A is a proper subset of B. Which one of the following is incorrect? (A) Q 3 A (A) "1. Real Numbers 21. then A . 5. 2.p (C) "1. b. x = 1 . 6. Y h = If U = "1. 6 . 11. 6 . 3. 7. 3. 9. 10 . f A (D) "3. 264 . Given A = "5. 7. 15. 20. B = 2 The number of elements of the set " x : x d Z. (D) B – A (D) A .. 2. 14. 3. 8 . B U A B The shaded region in the adjoining diagram represents (C) A 3 B (D) Al 2. 5. 10 . . (B) a rational number (D) a whole number If a number has a non-terminating and non-recurring decimal expansion. 5. 4. . 5. 8. A number having non terminating and recurring decimal expansion is (A) an integer (C) an irrational number 22.n + p (D) "1.10. 17. B (D) A + B A U B If A = "3. and A = "2. 3. 4. 6 . 5. 6. 4. then A + B = (D) A . then it is (A) a rational number (C) an irrational number (B) a natural number (D) an integer. 3. 2. 6 . 9. 10 . 18. 19. 13. 6. 16. 9 . then Al is If A 3 B . (A) B (A) A (A) A (A) A – B (A) Q (A) A – B (B) A (B) A 3 A (B) "1. 7. 5. 6 . (C) Q (C) Q (C) B (D) B – A (D) "5 . is If n^ X h = m.p (B) Q (B) A (B) B (B) Q (B) Al (C) Bl (C) B (B) B – A (C) "7. B = "e. 6 . . 4. 9. then A . (A) 3 (A) m + n + p (A) "2. (D) 0 (D) m . then A – B is If A is a proper subset of B. 5. 8. 6. 8 . 4. (C) 1 (C) m . B The shaded region in the adjoint diagram represents If A = " a. 5. 3 A (C) "1. 2. 4. g . n^Y h = n and n^ X + Y h = p then n^ X . 12. 5. 2. 10 .

(A) 1 7 25.3 8 28.50 The p form of 0.3 is 4 (A) – 0. Which one of the following has a terminating decimal expansion? (B) 7 (C) 8 (D) 1 (A) 5 32 9 15 12 Which one of the following is an irrational number? (B) 9 (A) r (C) 1 4 Which of the following are irrational numbers? (i) 2+ 3 (ii) 4 + 25 (iii) 3 27.23. 4 11 is equal to (B) 8 114 (C) 8 118 (D) 8 116 (A) 8 112 32.3 is q (B) 2 7 (C) – 0.(iii) and (iv) (B) (C) (D) 8 3 30 5 4 8 3 The simplest form of (A) 5 10 50 is (B) 5 2 (C) 10 5 (D) 25 2 31. 2 is equal to 2 (A) 2 2 (B) 2 (C) 2 2 (D) 2 265 .75 (B) – 0. (D) 1 5 (iv) 8.(ii) and (iii) 29.25 (D) – 0. 3 (B) (i).125 24. (C) 1 3 (D) 2 3 Which one of the following is not true? (A) Every natural number is a rational number (B) Every real number is a rational number (C) Every whole number is a rational number (D) Every integer is a rational number.(iii) and (iv) (C) (i). Decimal form of . Which one of the following is not a surd? (A) 30. 5+ 7 (A) (ii). 26.(ii) and (iv) (D) (i).

^ 5 . (D) The square root of every positive integer is always irrational 39.8 (C) 16. The order and radicand of the surd 8 12 are respectively (A) 8. Which one of the following is not true? (A) When x is not a perfect square.12 (D) 12.33. 5 3 3 represents the pure surd (A) 3 15 (B) 3 375 (C) 3 75 (D) 3 45 38.16 36.2h^ 5 + 2h is equal to (A) 1 (B) 3 (C) 23 (D) 21 266 .10110011100011110g is an irrational number (D) 4 16 is an irrational number 35. Which one of the following is not true? (A) (B) (C) 2 is an irrational number If a is a rational number and b is an irrational number then a b is irrational number Every surd is an irrational number.12 (B) 12. The surd having radicand 9 and order 3 is (A) 9 3 (B) 3 27 (C) 3 9 (D) 3 81 37. (B) The index form of m x is an irrational number x n is x 1 1 n m mn m (C) The radical form of ` x n j is x (D) Every real number is an irrational number 40. Which one of the following is not true? (A) 2 is an irrational number (B) 17 is a irrational number (C) 0. The ratioanlising factor of 3 5 is 3 (A) 3 6 (B) 3 3 (C) 3 9 (D) 3 27 34.

Scientific Notations of Real Numbers and Logarithms 41.6 # 10 3 3 (C) 3.00036 is (A) 3. The coefficients of x and x in 2x .is (A) 0.57 # 10 is (A) 257 (B) 2570 2 (C) 25700 (D) 257000 44.06 (D) 350. The value of log 1 4 is (A) – 2 (B) 0 (D) 2 50. The logarithmic form of 5 = 25 is (A) log5 2 = 25 (B) log2 5 = 25 (B) 4 = 16 2 (C) log5 25 = 2 (C) 2 = 4 16 (D) log25 5 = 2 (D) 4 = 2 16 46.234 # 10- 3 The scientific notation of 0.–3 (D) 2.6 # 103 (B) 3.7x + 6x + 1 is (A) 2 (B) 1 267 (C) 3 (D) 0 .–2 2 3 2 3 2 (C) –2. The exponential form of log2 16 = 4 is (A) 2 = 16 4 47.3.3 52.log10 4 = (A) log10 9 (B) log10 36 (D) –1 4.234 # 1042. The decimal form of 2. The scientific notation of 923. (C) 1 7 (C) 1 2 (C) 1 (D) 1 49.234 # 10 2 (C) 9. (B) –3. log10 8 + log10 5 .506 # 10. Algebra 51. The decimal form of 3.3x .4 is (A) 9. 2 (B) 9.6 # 10- 4 (D) 3. The value of log 3 ` 4 j is 3 4 (A) – 2 (B) 1 The value of log49 7 is (A) 2 (B) 1 2 2 (C) 2 (D) –1 48.6 # 10 4 43.234 # 10 3 (D) 9.03506 (B) 0.003506 2 (C) 35.2x + 3 are respectively (A) 2.6 45.–3 The degree of the polynomial 4x .

53. The roots of the polynomial equation x + 2x = 0 are (A) x = 0. The zero of the polynomial 2x . The polynomial 3x .5x .1 (B) x + 1 (C) x .2 2 (D) x .10 is (A) x .1 3 57.2x + 5x .1 = 0 is (A) x =. One of the factors of x .6 (C) x + 2x + 5x .2 2 (B) x + x + 2 2 (C) x + x . The expansion of ^ x + 1h^ x .2 (D) x = 0.5 2 (B) x = 1 3 2 (C) 2 5 (C) x = 1 (D). If the polynomial x .x . then remainder is (A) a 3 (B) a 2 60.a j b (D) – a 59. then the remainder is (A) p` b j a (B) p`.2 5 (D) x = 3 56.2 is a (A) linear polynomial (C) cubic polynomial (B) quadratic polynomial (D) constant polynomial 2 55.1h is (A) x .b j a 3 2 (C) p` a j b (C) a (D) p`. 2 (B) x = 1. One of the factors of x . The root of the polynomial equation 3x .5 is (A) 5 2 (B).x + 2 2 64.a is divided ^ x . The expansion of ^ x + 2h^ x .3x . If ^ax .ax + 2x . The polynomial 4x + 2x .2 58.2h^ x + 3h is (A) x + 2x . . If a polynomial p^ xh is divided by ^ax + bh .2 (D) x + 2 63.2 (B) x +5 3 2 (C) x – 5 62.b j = 0 a 2 (C) p^ah = 0 (D) p` b j = 0 a (D) x – 3 61.1 is (A) x . then (A) p^ bh = 0 (B) p`.2 is a (A) linear polynomial (C) cubic polynomial (B) quadratic polynomial (D) constant polynomial 54.bh is a factor of p^ xh . .6 268 3 2 3 2 (B) x .2x + 2x . 2 (C) x = 1.ah .6 (D) x + 2x + 5x + 6 3 2 3 2 .

b < 0 C) a > 0. b > 0 D) a < 0.6x .16 is ^ x + 2h then other factor is (A) x + 5 (B) x . 3 3 2 (B) x + y 2 2 (C) x .y 3 3 Factorization of x + 2x . If one of the factors of x .4h^ x .6) is A) an isosceles triangle C) scalene triangle B) right triangle D) an equilateral triangle B) 100 269 76.–1) is A) 2 B) 4 C) 2 D) 8 75.y = 2 . If ^2x + 1h and ^ x . then the values of a and c are respectively (A) 2.65.–3 (D) 1.0) where x < 0 lies on For a point A (a.2h 67.1) (–1.3 (B) x < .3h are the factors of ax . The point (–2.5 (C) x + 8 2 (D) x – 8 68.7) lies is the quadrant (A) I 72.2h (B)^ x .3 (C) x > 3 (D) x < 3 5.5x + c . Coordinate Geometry 71.x < 5 is (A) x > .b) lying in quadrant III A) a > 0.4h^ x + 2h 2 (C)^ x + 4h^ x + 2h (D)^ x .3 (B) –2. The distance between the points (0.8) and (0. (A) ox (B) II (B) oy (C) III (C) OX l (D) IV (D) OY l The point (x. The diagonal of a square formed by the points (1. If x + y = 10 and x . The triangle obtained by joining the points A (–5. The solution of 2 . 2 2 ^ x .–2) is A) 6 C) 36 D) 10 .–3 69. then value of x is (A) 4 (B) –6 (C) –4 (D) 6 70.0) and (0.0) (0. 73. b > 0 74. b < 0 (B) a < 0.8 is (A) ^ x + 4h^ x .0) B (5.0) and C (0.yh^ x + xy + y h is equal to (A) x + y 66.y 2 2 (D) x .3 (C) 2.

0) is (A) p = 0 (B) q = 0 (C) p + q = 0 (D) p + q = 8 80. The relation between p and q such that the point (p. The value of sec2 45c . b) and (–a.1).1) and (10.77.tan2 30c (B) tan 30c (A) tan 45c (B) tan2 45c + cot2 45c (D) 0 (C) tan 60c (D) tan 90c 83. Trigonometry 81.q) is equidistant from (–4.tan2 60c (B) sin2 45c + cos2 60c (D) 0 84. then the value of x is 1 . –5) (B) (–5. –b) is (A) 2a (B) 2b (C) 2a + 2b (D) 2 a2 + b2 79.cos2 60c (C)sec2 60c . 0) (D) (0. The value of sin2 60c + cos2 60c is equal to (A) sin2 45c + cos2 45c (C) sec2 90c 82.1). 0) (C) (5. If x = 2 tan 30c . The distance between the points (a. The value of cosec2 60c . 5) 6. 0) and (4. (–2. The value of 2 sin 30c cos 30c is equal to (A) tan 30c (B) cos 60c (C) sin 60c (D) cot 60c 85. cos 60c cos 30c . The point which is on y axis with ordinate –5 is (A) (0.sin 60c sin 30c is equal to (A) cos 90c (B) cosec 90c 270 (C) sin 30c + cos 30c (D) tan 90c .tan2 45c is equal to (A) sin2 60c .1) are points (A) on x axis (C) on aline paralled to y axis (B) on a line parallel to x axis (D) on y axis 78. (4. (7.1 is equal to (A) cos2 60c (B) cot2 60c (C) sec2 60c (D) tan2 60c 86.

cos 30cis (A) 0 (B) 1 2 The value of cos2 30c . then the measure of A is 4 (B) 60c (C) 45c (D) 30c 93. If cos A cos 30c = (A) 90c 3 . The value of sin 27c is cos 63c (A) 0 (B) 1 If cos x = sin 43c. The value of sin 60c . The value of sec 29c .sin2 30c is (A) cos 60c (B) sin 60c (C) 3 2 (D) 1 95. (D) sin 90c 92. oP bisect +BOC and oQ bisect +AoC. (C) 47c (D) 90c 89. then the value of x is (A) 57c (B) 43c (C) tan 27c (D) cot 63c 88. Geometry 96. (B) 50c (C) 45c (D) Q A 271 55c C In the given figure. If 3x cosec 36c = sec 54c. An angle is equal to one third of its supplement its measure is equal to (A) 40c 97. (C) 0 (D) 1 7.cosec 61c is (A) 1 (B) 0 (C) sec 60c (D) cosec 29c 90. then the value of x is (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 1 3 The value of sin 60c cos 30c + cos 60c sin 30c is equal to (A) sec 90c (B) tan 90c (C) cos 60c (D) 3 4 91. The value of tan 26c cot 64c is (A) 1 2 (B) 3 2 (C) 0 (D) 1 94.87. Then +PoQ is equal to (A) 90c (C) 60c (B) 120c (D) 100c P B o .

what is the radius of the circle (A) 10cm (C) 15cm (B) 12cm (D) 18cm 102. 99. Then the angle is equal to (A ) 25c (B) 30c (C) 15c angle. (B) 49 (D) 154 o ABCD is a parllellogram.98. + B:+ C = 2:3. In the given figure. o is the centre of the circle. E is the mid-point of AB and CE bisects + BCD. AB is a diameter of the circle and points C and D are on the circumference such that + CAD = 30c and + CBA = 70c what is the measure of ACD? (A) 40c (C) 30c (B) 50c (D) 90c 272 D A C B . In the given figure. If the length of CD is 2cm and the length of chord is12 cm. ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral. Find + B C C B D o 101.5 (C) 98 104. then what is the area of the circle in cm2 (A) 24. Find the value of +CDB (A) 75c ( C) 35c (B) 115c (D) 45c B A D C A B C 103. Given that+ADB + +DAB = 120c and +ABC + +BDA = 145c. AB is the chord and D is mid-point of AB. If AC is 7 2 cm. if six times its (D) 35c complement (D) 58c A 130c is 12c less Find the measure of an than twice its supplement. In the given figure. The complement of an angle exceeds the angle by 60c. AB is one of the diameters of the circle and oC is perpendicular to it through the center o. (A) 48c (A) 120c (C) 78c (B) 96c (B) 52c (D) 130c B A (C) 24c 100. Then + DEC is (A) 60c (B) 90c (C) 100c (D) 120c 105.

Mensuration 111.106. 108. (B) 44 cm (C) 11 cm (D) 33 cm If the radius and arc length of a sector are 17 cm and 27 cm respectively. Angle in a major segment is (A) an acute angle (B) an obtuse angle (D) a reflexive angle 110. If the angle subtended by the arc of a sector at the center is 90c. The length of the arc of a sector having central angle 90c and radius 7 cm is (A) 22 cm 112. +C = 4x the value of x is (A) 12c (B) 20c (C) 48c (D) 36c 109. Angle in a minor segment is (A) an acute angle (B) an obtuse angle (C) a right angle (D)a reflexive angle In a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD. then the area of the sector in square units is (A) 2rr2 (B) 4rr2 2 (C) rr 4 2 (D) rr 2 114. (C) a right triangle If one angle of a cyclic quadrilateral is 70c. Area of a sector having radius 12 cm and arc length 21 cm is (A) 126 cm2 (B) 252 cm2 (C) 33 cm2 (D) 45 cm2 115. The area of a sector with radius 4 cm and central angle 60c is (A) 2r cm2 3 (B) 4r cm2 3 (C) 8r cm2 3 (D) 16r cm2 3 116. +A = 5x. then the diameter of the circle is (A) 6 cm (B) 12 cm 273 (C) 24 cm (D) 36 cm . then the perimeter is (A) 16 cm (B) 61 cm (C) 32 cm (D) 80 cm 113. If the area and arc length of the sector of a circle are 60 cm2 and 20 cm respectively. then the angle opposite to it is (A) 20c (B) 110c (C) 140c (D) 160c 8. Angle in a semi circle is (A) obtuse angle (B) right angle (C) an acute angle (D) supplementary 107.

The mode of the data 5. 5. The mean of first 5 whole number is (A) 2 128. then the new Arithmetic mean is (A) –2 (B) 12 274 (C) –7 (D) 17 . 3. 1 is (A) 4 (B) 6 (C) 5. 3. 2.5 (D) 7 127. 3. The LSA of a cube of side 1dm is (A) 16 dm2 (B) 4 dm2 (C) 2 dm2 (D) 1 dm2 11. (B) 55 (C) 5.5 (D) 2. The median of 14. 4. x + 8 is 20 then x is (A) 32 (B) 16 (C) 8 (D) 4 124. 4 is (A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 5 125.5 (D) 10. If 5 is added to every number. 9. x + 2. 12. The perimeter of a sector of a circle is 37cm.5 (C) 3 (D) 0 The Arithmetic mean of 10 number is –7.5 The Arithmetic mean of integers from –5 to 5 is (A) 3 (B) 0 (C) 25 (D) 10 123. 11 is (A) 11 (B) 10 (C) 9. 4. 8. If the mean of x. 4. x + 4.117.S. x + 6. 2. 5. 9. 10. 5. 5. A solid having six equal square faces is called a (A) cube (B) cuboid (C) square (D) rectangle 119. The mean of the first 10 natural numbers is (A) 25 122. The median of 2. 7. The quantity of space occupied by a body is its (A) area (B) length (C) volume (D) T. then its arc length is (A) 23 cm (B) 5. 1.5 126.29 cm (C) 32 cm (D) 259 cm 118. Statistics 121. (B) 2.A 120. 4. If its radius is 7cm.

The mean of 5 numbers is 20. Probability 131. Probability of any event x lies (A) 0 1 x 1 1 (B) 0 # x 1 1 (D) 1 1 x 1 2 135. If one number is excluded their mean is 15. Then the excluded number is (A) 5 (B) 40 (C) 20 (D) 10.5 (B) 5. the Arithmetic mean of all the factors of 24 is (A) 8. Probability of sure event is (C) 1 2 Which one can represent a probability of an event (A) 1 (B) 0 (B) – 1 (A) 7 4 Probability of impossible event is (A) 1 134.67 (C) 7 (D) 7. 133.1 (C) 1 (D) 0 275 .129. P (El ) is (A) 1 .5 130. (B) 0 (C) – 2 3 (C) 1 2 (C) 0 # x # 1 (D) 2 (D) 2 3 (D) – 1 132.P (E) (B) P (E) . 12.

It is not a set "0 .. 7. " b. b . 0.7}. 12.7}. (i) (a) 1 (b) 8 (ii) 9 (iii) 10 19. 5. i. {5.8}. 1.6}.. 8. " a.7.. 0 is an integer. (i) A = The set of all vowels in the English alphabet (ii) B = The set of all odd natural numbers less than or equal to 11 (iii) C = The set of all square numbers less than 26. 4. 3. 2. " x. {6. (i) A = "3. 5. Each one is different from others. (i)64... . {5. 1 18. {5. b. (i) X is not a subset of Y (ii) Y is a subset of X . 16. {6}.. . 8. " x . (ii) B = "0. {5. 63 (ii) 128. {6.6. 4. {6.6. " a. 6. {7. c . (i) P^ Ah = "Q. (iv) " x : x is an odd natural number and x < 15 . 3 .. (iii) P(A) = { Q.. 10 . (ii) " x : x is a whole number and x < 20 . the null set (iv) M 14.1. 4. 3. 13. (ii) P^ Ah = "Q. {5. 4.8}.2. (v) " x : x is a letter in the word 'TAMILNADU' .8}.7. {8}. " y . 0.1 1. " a . " a. 1. A is not a subset of B 16. B = D and E = G 11. 9 .4. (i) M (ii) 3 (iii) 3 15. contains one element.7.. (vi) P = ". 32 . 3. (i) infinite (ii) finite (iii) infinite (iv) infinite (v) finite (i) equivalent (i) equal (ii) not equivalent (iii) equivalent (ii) not equal (iii) equal (iv) not equal 10. Q contains no element but "Q .1. 127 (iii) 2. . {5. c . 3. 5 .. 2. y . No. {5}. contains one element i.ANSWERS Exercise 1. (iii) C = "2. " c . {7}. contains one element. 1. (i) 4 (ii) 21 (iii) 1 (iv) 0 (v) 9 7. " b .8}. 2.. c .8}} 17.8}. A is the empty set 276 Q contains no element "Q .e.6. (iii) " x : x is a multiple of 3 . 8. 7.7}. 4 .e.3.. (v) M = ". 9. 9. (iv) P = The set of all letters in the word ‘SET THEORY’ (v) Q = The set of all prime numbers between 10 and 20 6.8}. {5. (iv) X = "2. 5. (i) Not a set (i) 0 d A (ii) Set (ii) 6 g A (iii) Not a set (iii) 3 d A (iv) Set (iv) 4 d A (v) Set (v) 7 g A (i) " x : x is a positive even number .

4. 12. 11. 1. (b) A + B = "16. (d) n^ A + Bh = 2 12. 7. 6. h .4. f. 12. 16. 9. 48 . e. 18. 8. 20. 20 . 7. 10. (c) n^ E + F h = 2 (c) F = "4. 2. 18. 6 . 4. 7. 10 . 4. 5} (iv) A . (v) n^ A . 8 . 10. 11 . 20. (d) n^G + H hl = 7 (b) E = "1. c. B = " a. . (b) H l = "1. 6. 5. 20. 24. 3g49 . 1. (iii) A 3 B = ". 8. 11 . 8. 9. 3. F = "1.N h = "3. 9. 5. 40. (ii) N . (ii) (a) A . (i) A . 4. 20. 6. (i) X . 7} . 7. Y = "4. 8. (d) E . (ii) A + B = "10. 6. A + B = "3. 8 . 2. 2. 2. . (ii) A . 15.1. 3. 4 . b. 4. 10 .3. B = "2. 3. (ii) (a) n^. (i) A . (i) (a) U = "1. (i) A . 2. 4. 4. 9. 10. 30. (ii) B . 7 . 10 . (iv) M l . 6. 9 . g . 25 . Y = "0. X .C h = 4 (iii) C . B = "1. 8 . 12. A + B = {2. 18. (b) A = "4. 12 . 10 .M = "15. . 4. 6. (iii) N l . . 3. . 5. . 13. 2. 4. 6. 1012. 6. 2. 22.N h = 2 (v) M + ^ M . k . 32.B = "3. 15. 18 . 5. 12. Bl = "1. 8. (ii) Ais the set of all prime numbers (i) A . 25 . ^ N .C = "16. 17. (i) X 3 Y = " a. 36. (i) M – N= "3. A + B = "0. 3.20. 16. H hl = 3 . 8 . 4. c) C = "15. 2. 3. 4. 7. c.1. 23. d. 28. (iv) ^ A + Bhl = " a. 8. (e) G l + H l = "3. . 5. 4. 2. e. Bhl = "e.2 1. 10 . . 20 . B = "4. B = ". 15. 4. 32. 4. 5 . 15. 7. (c) n^ A . Bh = 13 . 20 . (e) E + F = "4. 7 . 2. 10 . 6. 2. 10 . 2. 28. 8. 14. d . 24. 9 . 44. 16.N = "18 . 20 . 5. 17 . h . 8 . 5. b. 11. 8. 5. (iv) D . (ii) P 3 Q = "0. 6. (i) (a) U = "1. (ii) Bl = "1. d. (c) B = "16. 2. 4. . 12. 7. 10. (iii) A . 9.h = 8 . 1. 20. 7. f. 5. (vi) N . 4. (iv) Al + Bl = "4. 2. 48 . 1. 9. 5. 3. (b) G = "1. 10. . 40. 277 (c) n^G . 16. 21. 6.D = "2. 3. 4. (i) "7 . 5.M = "18 . 5. 2. 8. 6. 4. 6. 2. 16. . 14. . B = "0. (ii) a) n^ Ah = 10 b) n^ Bh = 10 c) n^C h = 11 (iii) a) F b) T c) T d) T Exercise 1. 0. (vii) n^ M . 19. (ii) ^ A . 24. 5. 8. 30. (b) n^ E . 8. 44 . (i) Al = "2. 7. 9. 36. 6. 4. F h = 6 . (iii) A + B = " b. B = {1.A = "5. g. (i) (a) U = "1. 8. 6. (ii) (a) G l = "3. 9 . 4.M h = "7. 18. 30 . 3. . (c) H = "2. 25 .2. b) B = "2. 3. 9. 8. 44 . 44. 6. f. (iii) Al . 11 . 17 . 14. . 16. 9 . 25. 7 . (i) a) A = "1. 6 . (ii) X and Y are disjoint sets (i) Al = "0.

0. . . (vi) 206 4.3 1. 5. (ii) 8. correct 5. 29 7. n^. nonterminating and recurring (iii) 0.3 . n^ A + Bh = 6. n^ Bh = 27 8.230769 . 3 = 0. terminating Exercise 2.0. For 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = g 1 2 3 -1 (i) 0.h = 43 9. 4 = 0.236 . 6 = 0.1 1.2 1.285714 .142857.42. 2 = 0. B) = 88 16. 2. 3 2 4 5 2 3 5 278 . 1400 13. (v) 22 . 7 7 7 7 5 = 0. (i) 180 (ii) 150 (iii) 450 6. (i) True (ii) False (iii) True (iv) False (v) False (vi) False 3. (i) 35 (ii) 25 (iii) 20 17. 12 8 11 5 10 6 7 9 2. Yes. (ii) 427 . (i) terminating (ii) non-terminating (viii) . (i) x = 8 (ii) n (A . 6 11 999 9999 11 3 495 1 = 0.Exercise 1. 16% Exercise 2. n^ A + Bh = 15 13 3. 16.09.918.076923 . n^ A .3 7 7 Yes.714285.non-terminating and recurring (vii) 6. (iv) 16 .non-terminating and recurring (iv) 0. 3.4 .21875 .0. (iii) 1 .857142 7 7 Exercise 2.428571.3 1. non-terminating and recurring 2. 35 11. 12 15. 12 4. Bh = 22 10. terminatting (v) 0. 150 12. 47 14.285714 .non-terminating and recurring (vi) .571428 . terminating (iii) terminating (iv) non-terminating (i) 2 .

102. 3.655 (v) 0. 1. 2.3 3.58088008880g . 3 3 4 2 4.20 [Note: Questions from 2 to 8 will have infinitely many solutions] Exercise 2.5 12 (ii) 3.21 71 2 (iv) 0. 6.93205g . (i) 2 (ii) 7 (iii) 3 (iv) 3 25 (v) 5 + 4 3 (vi) (iii) 3 6 2 . 2. a = 31 .83205g . 3 32 4.9199119991119g 8. 2. b = 0 2. One rational number : 1.3 118 (i) 0. 4. (i) 11 . (i) 3 10 (ii) 2 3 7 (iii) 2 4 6 3 180 (ii) 500 (iii) 4 405 8 (iv) 7.37 2 (iv) 3 3 5 3 4. ascending order : 2 . 3 4 10 2 3 (i) descending order : (ii) descending order : (iii) descending order : 3 5 . 4. a = 7. 9. 1. 3 2 2 (ii) 3 2 4 4 (iii) 5. 5.441 6.3 (vii) 5+ 2 (viii) 2 .2.03205g 0. 0. (i) Surd (ii) Surd (iii) not a surd (iv) Surd (iii) 11 (v) not a surd (iv) 61 (i) 20 + 10 5 + 2 3 + 15 (ii) 8 + 2 15 (i) 71 3 (i) (iv) 8.10110011100011110g .7 1. (i) 3 3 4 (ii) 7 2 (iii) 8 3 (iv) 5 9 2 6. 3. ascending order : 4 . a = 3. 6 (ii) 16 3 2 (iii). 0. 4. 4 3 3 2. 0. 3. 3. 4. 3.102 (vi) 4. 4.707 (vii) 3. 0. (i) 4 3 45 (v) 3 5 2 (vi) 3.11 2 (iii) 1.59099009990g 1. 0. 1. 5.732 7. ascending order : 4 4. a = 0.83205g . 4 5. An irrational number : 1.13. b = 10 19 19 8.6 1. 0 279 . 1 2. 5 3. 4 3 6 9 9 6 3 Exercise 2.1510100110001110g .2022002220002222g 7. b = 4 10.5 1. (i) 3 5 (ii) 2 3 5 9 (ii) 3 .185 (iii) (iv) 2 77 11 (v) 3 15 13 .93205g 3. 3. 14 11 Exercise 2.1530300330003330g 0.887 (iv) 3 + 5 (v) 17 3 . b = 16 9.464 (viii) 0.

888 (xii) 1.3 (ii) 9.0 # 10- 2. (i) 3 (ii) 1 (iii) –3 (iv) –2 (v) –1 (vi) 0 3.01513 1 1 3 5 3 4.243 # 101. (i) .4 (vi) 5 (vi) x =.243 # 10.0004134 1 (viii) 9.3576 (iv) 1.3 (v) .243 # 10 (iv) 9.122 (viii) 1.08366 (v) 328100000 (vi) 8. (i) Polynomial in one variable (iii) Polynomial in one variable (iv) Since the exponent of x is not a whole number is not a polynomial.772 Exercise 4.2413 6.2. (i) x =.3 # 10 7 6 (iii) 1.9694 (iii) 2. (i) 0.3576 (iv) 3.x Exercise 3.3576 (ii) 1. (i) True 13 (v) 9870000000 (vi) 0. (i) 7.493 # 10 (v) 9. (i) 9. (v) Since the exponent of t is not a whole number is not a polynomial. (i) x = 2 (ii) x = 1 (iii) y = 1 (iv) x = 5 (v) x = 10 125 9 3 6.1 (iv) log8 ` 1 j =.9946 (iv) 0.2 # 10(iii) 41340 3 9 5 (iv) 5.56 # 10 (iv) 6.000000001432 (ii) 3. (vi) Polynomial in three variable 280 (ii) Polynomial in one variable.1 1.243 # 10. (i) 1180 (ii) 57.3649 (ii) 0. (i) 1.05003 # 10 (vii) 2.2 (ii) False (iii) False (ii) log3 243 = 5 (iv) False (v) True (vi) False (iii) log10 0. (i) log10 9 (ii) log25 ` 7 j (iii) 2 (iv) 2 (v) log10 ` 72 j (vi) 1 2 25 7. (i) 6 = 216 (ii) 9 = 3 (iii) 5 = 1 (iv) ^ 3 h = 9 (v) (64) 2 = 1 (vi) (.876 (iv) 3.1 1.375 # 10 (iii) 2.4 (ii) 3 (iii) 5 (iv) .Exercise 3.436 # 10 (iv) 18600000 28 14 13 3 (vi) 1. (i) 6. (i) log2 16 = 4 (v) log25 5 = 1 (vi) log12 ` 1 j =.2 2 144 1 -1 4 3 0 3 2 3.y + z (vi) y .3576 (v) 7. (i) 30550 (ii) 21.243 # 10 2 (vi) 9.zh (v) x .2 4 3 2.993 # 10 2 Exercise 3.5) .243 # 10 (v) 9.249 (xi) 1.4 # 10 1.00000325 3.9984 # 10(v) 3.3576 (iii) 0.4 5.3307 # 10(ii) 0.004015(v) 1. (i) 4.1 =. .497 (x) 0.666 (ix) 0.= 8 8 4.6 # 1011 (ii) 1.2 (ii) x = 2 (iii) x = 2 (iv) x = 4 (v) x = 3 (vi) x = 5 (vii) x = 5 (viii) x = 7 8.41 (iii) 0. (i) y + z (ii) 3x (iii) x + y + z (iv) 3^ y .3576 (vi) 3.(iii) 9.5179 5.82 (iii) 0.1348 (v) 1.8180 (vi) 0.5948 (vi) 5.05309 (vii) 2.

6 1. –10.8a3 (v) 27x + 72x + 51x + 10 (vi) 8x .9 (ii) x =. m = 5 .3 1. (i) 970299 (ii) 1030301 (iii) 941192 (iv) 1061208 3 y y (v) 1006012008 7. m = 13 (iii) 20 (iv) –145 (v) –2 (vi) 26 (vii) –3a 2. 2. 36 3 3 3 11. x = 2 is not a root (i) x = 2 is a root. 1. p = 10 (iv) Not a factor 2.24xyz (ii) x . m = 3 5. 105 (iv) –100. 5. 3 (ii) 0. Factor 2 2 (iii) Not a factor 5. 3. 142. 52 10.5 (i) 25x + 4y + 9y + 20xy + 12yz + 30zx (iii) x + 4y + 16z . x = 2 is a root.zh^ x + ah 2 (ii) 16x^1 + 4xyh (v) ^ p + qh^ p + r h 281 (iii) 5x ^2 . x = 3 is a root (iii) x = 1 is a root.144x y + 108xy . –288 9. cx . (i) a ^2a .5 (iii) x = 0 3 (ii) x = 6 (iii) x =.4qr + 2rp (iii) x + x . x = 3 is a root (iv) x =. 10 2 3 (ii) 64x . –3. 2.6bc .1 is a root.27 6.125z . 4 (iv) 1 . 5. remainder is 15.2x + 105 (i) 19. 189 (ii) –7. 2 Exercise 4. Not a factor 1. lx + mx + nx (i) x = 1 4 (i) x = 3 Exercise 4.3b + 2ch (iv) ^ y . (i) Factor (ii) Factor 4. (i) 8x + y + 64z . (i) 10 (ii) –8 3. (i) –486 (ii) 2880 Exercise 4.2 (iv) x =.17x + 15 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (ii) p + 4p . (i) 2 (ii) 1 (iii) 3 (iv) 0 3 (i) quadratic polynomial (ii) cubic polynomial (iii) linear polynomial (iv) quadratic polynomial 27 49 36 35 (v) cubic polynomial 2 (vi) linear polynomial ax + b.27y . 793 8.36y + 54 . 111. a = 5 4.1 (iv) x = 0 5 11 (ii) x =.27y (i) 27a + 135a b + 225ab + 125b 3 (iii) 8y .1 is a root. 1 3. 6 3 2 2 3 3 2 4.4xy + 16yz . 40 (iii) 60.4 1. 2.20p .2 is a root.5xyh 3 .36x . 4. x =.4pq .48 (iv) x3 .4ca (iv) p + 4q + r . x = 3 is not a root Exercise 4. 3 (iii) 2 . –5. (i) –4.45xyz 3 3 3 12. 3.7ax2 + 14a2 x . Exercise 4.2.8zx (i) x + 12x + 39x + 28 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 (ii) 4a + 9b + c + 12ab .

(i) ^3x + 1h^ x + 6h (iv) ^14x + 3h^ x + 2h (vii) ^3x .2h 1.10h (viii) ^ x .7 1.6) (iii) (3x . y = 1 5 2 4.6xh 2 (i) ^ p + q + r h2 (iv) (2a .3h^ x + 4h (xiv) ^9x + 4h^2x .12h (vii) ^ x . y = 3 (ii) x = 2.3h^a + 10h (xiii) ^ x + 2h^2x .5 (iii) x = 3.4y) 2 2 (iii) ^b + 2h^b .1h (x) ^2a .1h^ x + 2h (xi) ^ x + 1h^11 .2h 2 2 (iv) ^1 + 6xh^1 .2.1h^ x + 15h (x) ^ x + 9h^ x . (i) I (ii) III (iii) on x axis (ix) False (x) True (iv) III (v) on y axis (vi) on y axis (vii) IV (viii) origin (ix) I (x) II 3.1h (viii) ^3x .3z) 2 2 (i) ^3x + 4yh^9x . 3. (4.b + 3c) (ii) (a .1h^ x + 5h (xv) ^1 .4h^ y + 9h (xii) ^ y + 4h^ y .1h^ x . 22 (iv) x $ . y axis 8.4h^ x .2.9h (ix) ^ y .2b . parallel to x axis 7.18h (ii) ^5x + 2h^ x + 4h (v) ^5y .5a + 25h 2 2 (v) ^ x . (i) 5 (ii) 9 (iii) 8 (iv) –4 5.5h (iii) ^ y + 3h^ y + 4h (vi) ^t .7h 3.6xh (xii) ^8x .2yh^ x + 2xy + 4y h (ii) ^m + 2h^m . 8 (ii) x < 3.1 1.9h (ii) ^ x + 1h^ x . y = 2 3. 16.3 (v) x = 1 .3yh^4x + 6xy + 9y h Exercise 4. (i) False (iii) True (iv) False (v) True (vi) False (vii) True 2. 50. (0.4) 282 11.12xy + 16y h 2 (iii) ^a + 5h^a . (i) ^ x + 1h^ x + 14h (iv) ^ x . (i) x > 4 2.8 (i) x = 1.2 (viii) True Exercise 5.4h^ y .q + 2h^ p .xh^3x + 10h Exercise 4. 4. ABCD is a rectangle 9.1h (ii) ^ p .3h (vi) ^ x + 1h^ x . y =. 4.2h (ix) ^3x .1h^ x + 2h (iii) ^ x + 1h^ x + 2h^ x .6h^ y .11h 2. (i) (x + 1) 2 (ii) (3x .2y .5h (iii) ^ x + 2h^2x + 5h (vi) ^9y . (i) ^a + b + 2h^a + b + 7h (i) ^ x + 1h^ x .2h^ x .5 (ii) True (iii) x # .2h^ x + 11h (xi) ^m + 8h^m . 27 (iv) x = 1 .1h^2x .7h^ y .3) .q .2m + 4h 2 2 (iv) ^2x . (ii) ^ x + 3h^ x + 10h (v) ^ y .8h^t . y = 1 2 5. (i) –7 (ii) 3 (iii) 8 (iv) –5 4. parallel to y axis 6.y + 1) 2 (v) (5x .

tan A = 24 . tan i = 15 . 30 24. 225 19 4 64 13.–15) (–8. cosec C = 26 26 24 17 63 5.x2 . (i) 1 (ii) 0 (vii) 9 (viii) 2 4. cosec A = 17 . sec i = 10 . 7. 4 5 (iii) (x) 29 74 (iv) 2 2 10. cos C = 24 . tan C = 10 . tan A = 9 . tan i = 6 . sin A = 24 . tan i = 35 .11. (i) 202 (ii) 4 5 (ix) 18 16. cosec i = 41 . cos i = 11 . (i) 24 (ii) 10 + 4 10 18. cosec i = 37 .2 1.–3) 20.Exercise 5. sec A = 26 . cot A = 12 15 12 9 12 9 8 . cos i = 8 . tan i = 9 . sec C = 26 . cos P = 12 . sec A = 17 . sec P = 13 . cosec A = 26 26 10 sin C = 10 . cosec P = 13 . cot i = 40 41 41 40 9 40 9 2. (i) 45c y2 . cot A = 10 24 10 24 26 . cos i = 24 . cos i = 40 . 8. cosec i = 10 . cosec i = 17 . cos i = 12 . No. 1 9. cot i = 8 17 17 8 15 15 (v) sin i = 60 . cosec i = 25 . (i) sin i = 6 . collinear points 25. –2 (vi) 1 (vii) 5 (viii) 15 15. cot C = 24 10 24 10 10. tan i = y y x . (0.cot i = 24 25 25 24 7 24 7 (iii) sin i = 35 .–7) 14.2 1. (i) cos A = 12 . cot i = x y2 . (i) 2 (ii) 1 (iii) 3 (iv) 25 (v) 7 (vi) 4 4 2 144 3 Exercise 6. tan i = 60 . tan i = 7 . cot i = 12 37 37 12 35 12 35 (iv) sin i = 9 . cot A = 15 (ii) sin A = 17 15 8 15 8 (iii) sin P = 5 . sec A = 15 . (4. 6. sec i = 37 . 20 21.–15) (–8. (8. 1 7. sec i = 41 . 2 x y -x 2 y y2 . cos A = 10 .15)(8.x2 . –5 19. cot i = 11 61 61 11 11 60 (vi) cos i = sec i = 3. –10. cosec A = 15 . sec i = 25 . cosec i = . cot P = 12 13 13 5 12 5 (iv) sin i = 15 . 7 (v) 5 2 13. cos i = 8 . sec i = 61 . (i) 1 (ii) 1 (iii) 1 (iv) 1 (v) 1 (vi) 1 283 . cot i = 8 10 10 8 6 8 6 (ii) sin i = 7 . 15) Exercise 6. tan A = 8 .1 1.x2 (ii) 0c (iv) 30c (iii) 60c 26 .

(i) 80c (ii) 35c 4. 59c (iii) 30c . 8.4134 cm2 5. (ii) 43c (iii) 100 12. 99.36c 5.108c. (i) 75c (ii) 55c (iii) 110c 11.1 1. 72c . 110c 2. (i) 100c (ii) 30c 13. 67. (i) 30c (ii) 32c 6.2 1. 50c (ii) 31c . (i) 50c.5 cm (v) 88 dm. 123. 231 cm2.1056 cm 12. (i) 80c (ii) 80c Exercise 8. (i) + A = + C = + E = + G =115c .3 1. 70c. 30cm (iv) 115c 5. 26cm 4. 109. (i) 36c (ii) 40c (iii) 40c.144c 4. 30c . 110c .5 cm.0389 cm2 (ii) 0. 40cm (v) 40c 6.57 cm. 45c.9670 (v) 0. (i) 27c (ii) 66c (v) 80c (iii) 42c (iv) 55c (v) 70c 2.96c . (i) 44c30l (ii) 14c54l (ii) 1. l = 9 .72c 5. 64 cm (ii) 2.9760 (viii) 0.2. 6.110c Exercise 7. 80c. 15 8. 12. (i) 22 cm.3579 (iii) 1. 30c Exercise 7.3 cm. b = 6 3. (i) 30c (ii) 36c (iii) 60c (iv) 72c (v) 80c. 48c.4996 7. (i) 60c (ii)41c (iii) 55c (iv) 55c (v) 47c (vi) 60c Exercise 6. 3.37 cm (iii) 11 cm. 39 cm (iv) 16. (i) 45c (ii) 45c (iii) 45c (iv) 60c 6. 12cm 2. (i) 0.2113 (vi) 0.7623 (iii) 20c12l (iv) 4. 50c (ii) 40c (iii) 30c 15.130 dm 284 . (i) 35c 14. (i) 1.8098 8.7002 (iv) 0. 12 7. 8. 77 cm2.3090 (iii) 0.3 1. (i) 55c.25c.90c 9.2698 4.75 cm2. 13cm 8. (i) 0 (ii) 2 (iii) 0 (iv) 6 (v) 1 (vi) 9 (vii) 0 (viii) 3 (ix) 1 2 3 3.50c + B = + D = + H = 65c 10.1 1.72c .60c. (i) 122c (ii) 32c (iii) 60c (iv) 140 3. (i) 50c (ii) 130c 10.0042 3. 60c 10.1841 (ix) 2.60c 7.376 cm2 9. 46. 70c. 15cm 3. 14. 924 dm2. 1cm (vi) 42c 7. 7cm 9.100c (vi) 54c. 20.7475 (x) 1.784 cm Exercise 7.4384 (vii) 0.8568 m 2.1778 (iv) 76c30l (v) 89c6l (v) 4.09 cm 11. 13.6278 cm2 6.

2 1.84 cm2 Exercise 8. 27. (3. 15. (i) 10 cm (ii) 30 cm (iii) 6 cm 5.5 m2 8.25 15.1 1. no solution Exercise 11. 5. 19 4. 5. (1. 39. 6.5766 cm2. 25. 6.67 12. 38.160. 37 5. 125 cubes 7. 6 3. 4. Rs. (iv) 512 m2.16 cm2 14.5 m2.3 1. 53 cm (ii) 2200 cm2. 4000 hollow blocks. 4 m 5.18 2.5 cm 9. 4. 7. (ii) 2 hrs. (i) 154 m2. 4. 96 cm2.58 9. (v) 3844 cm2. 346. 160 cm2 6.000 9. 216 dm3 (iv) 2304 cm2.3456 cm2.62 cm3.25cm (iv) 250 cm2.12. (i) 7 hrs. 4. 3) 4.7 6. many solutions 7.2 m. 0) 5. 216 cm2 (ii) 144 dm2. (ii) 8. 8000 cm3. 42 m3 2.5 cm2. 123 7. 27 cm 3. 40 .025 Exercise 8. –12) 12. 28 13. 6.25 cm2 (ii) 700 cm2 6. 700 dm2.44 cm2. 188.00.5 2. 6. 6) 6. (2. 80. 8000 cm2.2 1. 48. 123. 12. 6 7. 192 6.2. 13824 cm3 2. 4. 11.3 1. 60c . 175. 28. 40. 174 cm2. Exercise 10. (iii) 25 m2. (i) 15 cm (ii) 13 cm (iii) 5 dm 6.5 Exercise 11. 5 3. 30 Exercise 11. 34.1 14.16 cm2. 3.992 m2. 60. Rs. (ii) 350 m2. (i) 125. Rs. 40. 3) 2. many solutions 3. (i) 72 cm. 52. (2.05 285 5. 25. (–3. 4. 190 cm (iii) 91. 14. 62 4. Rs. (iii) 15 hrs 13. 110 cm3 (ii) 400 dm2. (2. 147 m2. 216 dm2. 50. 8 4.5 cm2 10. 3) 8. 3 5. 720 m2 . 37. 64000 cm3 8. 29791 cm3 3. 5 2. 326. 1200 dm3 (iii) 70 m2. (i) 19 cm.13 11.625 m3. no solution 11. 15. (i) 154 cm2. 61kg 8. 3. 82 m2. 2) 9. –3) 11. 17 3.67 10.8 m 11. (i) 165 cm. 1920 m3 4. (1. 55.56. (i) 51 (ii) 14. 0. 28. 120.65 cm 4. (i) 280c (ii) 120c 7. Rs. 53. 30. (i) 120c (ii) 90c (iii) 36 cm 3.280 5. 308cm2 (ii) 25m. (2.2 1. (i) 110.

(i) 7 (ii) 3 20 25 17. (i) 7 10 14. (i) 3 5 (ii) 8 25 (iii) 2 25 (iii) 69 100 (iii) 201 500 (iii) 1 5 (iii) 9 20 (iii) 11 50 (iii) 3 20 (iii) 21 250 (iii) 21 125 7.1 1.1 28 Median 14 4 31. 6. (i) 1 4 (iv) 9 50 (iv) 1 5 (iv) 793 100 (iv) 29 125 (ii) 9 10 (v) 81 100 4. No.78 (vi) 1. 5. 4.4 1.2 30 Mode 13. (i) 7 (ii) 1 20 20 18. 41.18 Q. 8. (ii) . (i) 21 50 (iv) 19 100 (iv) 219 500 13. 72 2. (i) 3 (ii) 19 25 125 286 . 7 3.1 (iv) -0.75 Mean 14 4.8 33. (i) 13 20 (iv) 24 25 (iii) 119 500 (iv) 1 6 (ii) 7 20 8.05 32. (i) 4 (ii) 19 15 30 (ii) 9 20 (ii) 1 20 (v) 3 4 (v) 1 20 (v) 33 250 (v) 14 25 (iii) 1 5 (iii) 1 10 16.45 (ix) 112% 5 6. (i) 49 (ii) 4 100 25 10.15 4 27. 7. (i) 39 (ii) 9 125 20 (iii) 11 30 (iv) 3 20 11. (i) 2 5 (ii) 3 10 (ii) 3 4 9. (i) 3 5 15. 13 20 (iii) 11 25 5.3 Exercise 12. (i) 179 (ii) 53 500 500 12. (i) 183 (ii) 1 500 4 19. 43.Exercise 11.

Multiple Choice 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 A D B D B A C A D C A B B D C A C D A C B C A C B A A 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 D A B A B C D A C B D D B B C B A C A D B A C B C A B 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 A B D B C D C A C A D A D C D A B C B A A D B D A A A 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 C C C B A B C B C D B D A A D B A D B A D D D C B B B 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 A B C B C A C B A C C B C B B D A C A A D B A D A C A 287 .

6812 0.4579 0.6830 0.6031 0.6170 0.4409 0.1 3.4871 0.5024 0.5775 0.6085 0.5428 0.2304 0.6513 0.4281 0.0043 0.3522 0.6107 0.1 4.1790 0.5563 0.6064 0.3222 0.4742 0.5587 0.5378 0.7118 0.5877 0.6712 0.1 1.4314 0.5809 0.0 5.5224 0.6191 0.7324 1 0.5635 0.0 2.3010 0.0569 0.2601 0.2380 0.7348 4 0.6474 0.7267 0.1875 0.1367 0.7007 0.2900 0.6911 0.7160 0.6758 0.6998 0.LOGARITHM TABLE Mean Difference 0 1.5 4.3598 0.4955 0.6937 0.4757 0.6803 0.6365 0.6571 0.3 4.4232 0.2625 0.6902 0.4456 0.5 1.6972 0.5821 0.4425 0.7243 0.3579 0.3541 0.3979 0.6609 0.2068 0.6 4.5132 0.1239 0.7152 0.7084 0.5145 0.2455 0.6875 0.3424 0.6821 0.2 5.5289 0.6335 0.3324 0.5302 0.3365 0.3997 0.5340 0.0 1.4 4.3784 0.4900 0.6665 0.5539 0.2041 0.6618 0.7332 2 0.2504 0.3263 0.0 3.7076 0.4829 0.6955 0.5237 0.3284 0.5527 0.3032 0.2529 0.6053 0.6628 0.6345 0.7 3.6096 0.0086 0.1004 0.7380 8 0.4183 0.7024 0.9 3.2695 0.6503 0.6946 0.2648 0.3404 0.4669 0.3962 0.7185 0.6201 0.2553 0.4713 0.2405 0.4378 0.6580 0.5159 0.7292 0.1959 0.4200 0.8 3.6767 0.4942 0.4014 0.7372 7 0.1732 0.6454 0.4048 0.2788 0.4150 0.5988 0.5647 0.1303 0.5263 0.3747 0.5051 0.0334 0.5011 0.7016 0.4857 0.4 2.4654 0.0755 0.5328 0.5729 0.5465 0.7235 0.1 5.4983 0.0170 0.1492 0.5038 0.4969 0.4533 0.7143 0.7050 0.3181 0.4609 0.4564 0.6355 0.1173 0.5623 0.4133 0.6590 0.3909 0.6284 0.5899 0.6212 0.0492 0.5717 0.3304 0.9 4.4 0.2 2.5276 0.5105 0.1038 0.5119 0.3927 0.6325 0.7316 0.8 4.1106 0.6776 0.3892 0.1430 0.5752 0.4843 0.3820 0.6 2.4216 0.5551 0.6522 0.1761 0.5705 0.5888 0.2430 0.1614 0.4346 0.6928 0.1987 0.5065 0.5599 0.0899 0.6730 0.4393 0.4298 0.0253 0.5453 0.6232 0.1553 0.3636 0.3444 0.4031 0.2577 0.3560 0.6893 0.4786 0.4594 0.6532 0.5416 0.8 2.6656 0.1335 0.2945 0.6484 0.2148 0.4166 0.6637 0.4518 0.6021 0.3856 0.0792 0.5786 0.6 3.2878 0.6551 0.6493 0.3 3.5 3.7033 0.5575 0.6385 0.2279 0.1206 0.2765 0.7388 9 0.2175 0.5366 0.4814 0.6839 0.5855 0.0682 0.7259 0.6415 0.7226 0.1584 0.6884 0.5694 0.2672 0.4997 0.3054 0.5955 0.6848 0.6702 0.5966 0.4082 0.0719 0.5944 0.6794 0.3243 0.6253 0.3 5.6294 0.5670 0.3502 0.6464 0.3201 0.2967 0.5441 0.7251 0.0374 0.3118 0.2 3.2095 0.5211 0.7356 5 0.6693 0.7067 0.5514 0.5798 0.6222 0.4683 0.5763 0.7300 0.1818 0.0864 0.6243 0.1523 0.5198 0.3160 0.6160 0.5866 0.1072 0.1847 0.6857 0.2330 0.1271 0.6128 0.6981 0.7202 0.9 5.6 1.6684 0.2227 0.6117 0.6405 0.5740 0.7135 0.3655 0.5250 0.6444 0.5315 0.7110 0.6542 0.0000 0.4698 0.3 2.4548 0.4624 0.4800 0.2923 0.0294 0.5490 0.6274 0.4771 0.4 3.4249 0.7126 0.5403 0.1931 0.0645 0.6739 0.1139 0.4487 0.1703 0.5922 0.2742 0.5502 0.6314 0.1 2.6561 0.6964 0.7218 0.6180 0.3617 0.7396 1 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 8 8 7 6 6 6 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 12 11 10 10 9 8 8 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 4 17 15 14 13 12 11 11 10 9 9 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 5 21 19 17 16 15 14 13 12 12 11 11 10 10 9 9 9 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 25 23 21 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 13 12 12 11 11 10 10 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 7 29 26 24 23 21 20 18 17 16 16 15 14 14 13 12 12 11 11 11 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 33 30 28 26 24 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 15 14 14 13 13 12 12 11 11 11 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 9 37 34 31 29 27 25 24 22 21 20 19 18 17 17 16 15 15 14 14 13 13 12 12 12 11 11 11 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 288 .2989 0.7275 0.7193 0.4116 0.4472 0.6425 0.6920 0.3729 0.4728 0.3674 0.3139 0.1644 0.2 1.6599 0.3464 0.6749 0.3075 0.7042 0.5911 0.7 2.3945 0.7059 0.6042 0.6721 0.2355 0.4928 0.6375 0.6435 0.6675 0.6866 0.6990 0.0969 0.5391 0.7 1.6304 0.0828 0.6395 0.1461 0.5977 0.3345 0.3802 0.5172 0.0128 0.7 4.5092 0.5832 0.3838 0.5478 0.0 4.1903 0.4330 0.2480 0.7168 0.6149 0.7093 0.4 1.5933 0.4886 0.3096 0.6010 0.3766 0.1399 0.2253 0.5682 0.4099 0.6785 0.5353 0.6075 0.4440 0.0531 0.4265 0.6138 0.1673 0.5658 0.0414 0.5 2.7364 6 0.3692 0.7284 0.2014 0.7308 0.5185 0.0607 0.5999 0.3 1.7210 0.2718 0.7101 0.2201 0.2 4.8 1.0934 0.5611 0.2833 0.4065 0.4914 0.4639 0.4362 0.2122 0.5843 0.6263 0.4502 0.9 2.6646 0.3711 0.0212 0.3874 0.0453 0.7340 3 0.2810 0.7177 0.3385 0.3483 0.5079 0.2856 0.

9445 0.9581 0.8722 0.9800 0.9469 0.9805 0.0 8.9675 0.8785 0.9619 0.8987 0.9325 0.9365 0.7796 0.9605 0.9624 0.9263 0.8215 0.7745 0.8451 0.8704 0.7931 0.9736 0.3 8.8109 0.8136 0.0 6.2 8.8921 0.9566 0.9031 0.8089 0.8122 0.8675 0.8710 0.8513 0.7882 0.9484 0.9450 0.8876 0.9222 0.7731 0.8096 0.9047 0.7803 0.9886 0.8976 0.8331 0.8357 0.3 9.8254 0.9939 0.9547 0.9122 0.8854 0.7938 0.7634 0.8299 0.9232 0.9410 0.8363 0.9385 0.7752 0.7612 0.9053 0.9435 0.9741 0.1 6.9400 0.9128 0.8597 0.8 5.8579 0.7597 0.7774 0.8228 0.9934 0.9562 0.9117 0.5 8.8954 0.8716 0.8657 0.7543 0.9877 0.8932 0.2 6.8561 0.7825 0.9390 0.7966 0.9440 0.8014 0.8463 0.9415 0.8825 0.9841 0.8519 0.8756 0.8814 0.9827 0.9680 0.8021 0.9 8.7490 0.4 7.9355 0.7657 0.9661 0.8248 0.9832 0.9768 0.9227 0.9533 0.8768 0.9699 0.7679 0.8882 0.9557 0.8965 0.9890 0.8 6.8842 0.8338 0.1 8.9 0.9850 0.9823 0.7686 0.8633 0.8287 0.8543 0.9294 0.8745 0.9894 0.9666 0.9474 0.9917 0.7782 0.3 6.9576 0.9987 0.8432 0.9309 0.9253 0.6 9.8 8.7466 0.8609 0.9703 0.5 6.8102 0.8407 0.9025 0.9036 0.7 8.9943 0.8698 0.8420 0.4 6.7980 0.9395 0.7627 0.7520 0.7694 0.8779 0.8267 0.7505 0.7709 0.8000 0.9528 0.7451 0.9836 0.6 5.9571 0.8482 0.6 6.8865 0.9058 0.9652 0.9845 0.9809 0.9499 0.2 9.9727 0.7412 0.8142 0.2 7.9538 0.9754 0.9042 0.9180 0.9004 0.9818 0.9 9.8808 0.8859 0.7917 0.8129 0.8069 0.8899 0.8871 0.8904 0.8241 0.9217 0.9020 0.9274 0.9956 0.9948 0.7701 0.8627 0.8401 0.9191 0.9969 0.8621 0.9186 0.8837 0.9983 0.6 7.9079 0.8222 0.8591 0.9552 0.9375 0.8681 0.7604 0.9 6.8848 0.9996 289 .9961 0.8007 0.8639 0.8414 0.9289 0.8960 0.9090 0.8651 0.9763 0.8476 0.8 7.7497 0.9370 0.8537 0.9455 0.7 6.9782 0.9405 0.7896 0.9586 0.8306 0.8549 0.8971 0.9859 0.8727 0.9974 0.8603 0.8531 0.8280 0.7789 0.9908 0.9713 0.9196 0.3 7.8426 0.9175 0.9750 0.8382 0.9509 0.9304 0.9380 0.9085 0.9542 0.8663 0.7889 0.7959 0.8943 0.9912 0.9096 0.9420 0.9863 0.7810 0.8209 0.9335 0.8692 0.7875 0.8395 0.7903 0.8028 0.7589 0.7528 0.9489 0.8733 0.7993 0.7443 0.9154 0.8500 0.9201 0.9638 0.8319 0.8506 0.9284 0.7818 0.8082 0.9633 0.7767 0.8573 0.7459 0.9279 0.7 7.8344 0.9614 0.9952 0.8525 0.8235 0.9991 0.9350 0.8910 0.9600 0.9345 0.9595 0.9717 0.8949 0.9773 0.9 7.9872 0.8325 0.LOGARITHM TABLE Mean Difference 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5.7482 0.5 9.9899 0.9258 0.7574 0.7952 0.9063 0.9206 0.8195 0.7664 0.8116 0.7 5.9777 0.9425 0.8062 0.9479 0.8202 0.9795 0.7 9.9791 0.9015 0.7973 0.8445 0.9978 0.9315 0.8189 0.8274 0.7868 0.7582 0.9759 0.8176 0.8075 0.8982 0.9494 0.8615 0.8041 0.9299 0.7404 0.8893 0.8887 0.8938 0.8993 0.8494 0.7945 0.8293 0.7853 0.8457 0.8669 0.7672 0.9159 0.8774 0.7910 0.8048 0.7716 0.9069 0.9170 0.9009 0.9112 0.9513 0.8797 0.4 9.8169 0.9628 0.9609 0.8055 0.7474 0.9523 0.7860 0.8351 0.9074 0.7435 0.9460 0.9106 0.8998 0.9745 0.7832 0.9708 0.9138 0.8156 0.7723 0.0 9.8488 0.7551 0.9165 0.9143 0.7987 0.5 7.8820 0.7427 0.9786 0.8791 0.7738 0.8831 0.7924 0.8739 0.8439 0.9212 0.8035 0.8567 0.9101 0.9643 0.8388 0.8149 0.9921 0.9320 0.9657 0.9694 0.9149 0.9133 0.9330 0.9965 0.9647 0.9926 0.9248 0.7559 0.9238 0.7419 0.9518 0.7839 0.8802 0.6 8.9854 0.7619 0.8 9.4 8.8312 0.9930 0.9340 0.7649 0.8376 0.8751 0.1 7.7513 0.7846 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 0.8645 0.8585 0.7760 0.9430 0.0 7.8762 0.8686 0.8261 0.8370 0.8555 0.8915 0.9243 0.8162 0.7642 0.5 5.9590 0.9465 0.1 9.9731 0.9671 0.8927 0.9722 0.9868 0.9903 0.7536 0.7566 0.9685 0.9504 0.9689 0.8182 0.9814 0.9360 0.9269 0.8470 0.9881 0.

685 2.541 2.611 1.710 2.133 7 1.296 2.004 2.31 0.904 2.538 1.371 1.390 1.203 2.567 1.076 1.607 1.858 1.213 1.702 1.018 2.807 1.102 1.661 2.588 2.626 1.247 1.600 1.938 3.805 2.574 1.218 2.951 3.140 1.064 1.416 1.249 2.141 8 1.667 1.11 0.040 1.000 1.679 2.21 0.148 2.279 1.05 0.265 1.138 2.099 1.259 1.673 2.531 1.518 2.589 1.663 1.754 1.30 0.438 2.189 1.851 2.449 2.340 1.982 2.559 2.729 2.178 2.10 0.594 2.12 0.377 1.20 0.180 1.012 1.799 2.723 2.309 1.094 2.306 1.208 2.600 2.265 2.104 1.901 1.23 0.13 0.307 2.089 2.803 1.716 2.360 2.128 2.618 2.37 0.500 2.667 2.08 0.517 1.06 0.062 3.222 1.972 3.344 2.193 2.213 2.219 1.069 1.013 3.761 2.35 0.230 1.321 1.138 1.547 2.483 2.42 0.799 1.510 1.054 1.742 2.084 2.384 1.45 0.276 1.419 1.811 1.205 1.027 3.570 1.679 1.472 1.117 1.564 2.694 1.16 0.175 1.113 2.086 1.521 1.41 0.330 1.585 1.079 1.529 2.570 2.25 0.24 0.089 1.368 1.035 1.19 0.897 2.824 1.460 2.046 2.710 1.007 1.04 0.382 2.239 2.879 1.033 1.963 2.726 1.612 2.183 1.350 2.506 2.094 1.462 1.026 1.202 1.161 1.109 1.991 2.750 1.135 1.371 2.076 3.476 1.730 1.339 2.845 1.22 0.422 1.234 2.178 1.39 0.130 1.549 1.337 1.773 2.223 2.052 1.892 1.38 0.083 3.614 1.924 2.43 0.837 1.250 1.038 1.690 1.445 1.629 1.919 1.009 1.118 2.191 1.965 3.435 1.327 1.045 1.091 1.442 1.469 1.125 1.028 2.343 1.552 1.914 1.556 1.29 0.067 1.301 2.032 2.380 1.034 3.592 1.642 2.216 1.114 1.871 2.950 1.388 2.109 2.188 2.698 1.923 1.884 2.496 1.479 1.377 2.148 9 1.722 1.047 1.649 2.644 1.403 1.864 2.393 2.734 1.793 2.738 1.553 2.023 1.387 1.409 1.119 1.019 1.186 1.512 2.259 2.48 0.300 1.770 1.328 2.560 1.40 0.535 2.455 2.466 2.606 2.968 2.910 1.26 0.545 1.133 2.097 2 1.633 1.366 2.126 6 1.245 1.358 1.090 1 1.041 3.324 1.167 1.32 0.44 0.352 1.841 1.406 1.148 1.002 1.285 1.767 2.523 2.825 2.159 1.844 2.228 2.048 3.514 1.735 2.786 2.105 3 1.936 1.500 1.812 2.17 0.503 1.005 1.123 2.932 1.427 2.355 1.954 2.748 2.999 3.07 0.432 1.312 1.483 1.941 1.524 1.051 2.227 1.275 2.163 2.01 0.911 2.014 1.871 1.432 2.070 2.477 2.622 1.268 1.107 1.49 0 1.062 1.037 2.349 1.14 0.692 2.075 2.972 2.132 1.127 1.795 1.455 1.ANTI LOGARITHM TABLE Mean Difference 0.000 2.897 1.006 3.944 3.426 1.282 1.016 1.429 1.03 0.244 2.112 1.421 2.637 1.780 2.704 2.173 2.596 1.146 1.021 1.877 2.917 2.014 2.057 1.242 1.061 2.253 1.652 1.122 1.18 0.816 1.069 3.986 2.153 2.239 1.849 1.198 2.404 2.624 2.197 1.164 1.459 1.683 1.778 1.020 3.208 1.854 1.46 0.507 1.059 1.977 2.270 2.995 2.194 1.104 2.958 3.714 1.528 1.452 1.023 2.042 2.081 1.838 2.361 1.112 4 1.766 1.671 1.820 1.862 1.636 2.303 1.055 3.393 1.291 2.36 0.396 1.151 1.884 1.439 1.236 1.072 1.959 2.042 1.400 1.866 1.009 2.334 1.656 1.578 1.415 2.641 1.158 2.576 2.858 2.630 2.832 1.028 1.254 2.333 2.931 2.317 2.831 2.156 1.225 1.985 3.143 1.02 0.355 2.742 1.294 1.746 1.413 1.791 1.050 1.346 1.758 1.582 2.119 5 1.774 1.493 1.472 2.074 1.262 1.084 1.183 2.34 0.323 2.00 0.365 1.603 1.660 1.928 1.618 1.495 2.698 2.762 1.782 1.706 1.155 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 6 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 7 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 8 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 9 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 290 .030 1.905 1.581 1.099 2.945 1.15 0.172 1.288 1.09 0.979 3.280 2.291 1.065 2.374 1.199 1.489 2.27 0.828 1.563 1.47 0.312 2.888 1.891 2.486 1.399 2.687 1.297 1.143 2.443 2.449 1.655 2.648 1.754 2.153 1.542 1.080 2.168 2.33 0.675 1.096 1.256 1.992 3.535 1.318 1.410 2.718 1.286 2.875 1.271 1.28 0.169 1.466 1.786 1.211 1.489 1.274 1.056 2.233 1.315 1.818 2.

92 0.145 7.353 6.732 4.358 5.871 7.200 5.623 5.572 9.52 0.492 8.413 7.152 5.365 3.433 8.130 4.59 0.035 8.808 6.966 5.852 8.383 5.86 0.758 3.117 5.236 3.243 3.607 6.383 6.556 3.616 9.963 4.74 0.586 7.573 3.762 7.630 8.861 5.096 7.898 5.67 0.124 6.516 6.798 7.650 8.794 5.559 5.324 6.365 4.499 3.388 3.53 0.714 6.499 7.831 9.656 3.645 4.950 7.528 9.206 3.345 7.412 3.727 9.834 5.568 7.698 3.266 3.546 5.458 5.161 7.823 6.925 8.637 6.026 6.178 7.585 5.ANTI LOGARITHM TABLE Mean Difference 0.023 5.918 7.886 6 3.648 3.84 0.224 5.266 6.933 9.71 0.346 5.436 4.581 4.188 5.531 8.414 8.074 4.333 5.256 4.606 3.902 7.78 0.015 7.276 4.636 5.194 6.60 0.995 9.177 3.159 4.261 7.457 4.943 6.162 9.534 5.304 3.335 4.140 4.376 9.223 6.095 6.055 4.89 0.453 8.272 5.727 7.683 6.670 8.281 3.487 4.984 6.368 6.741 3.057 9.77 0.699 4.943 5.539 4.982 7.345 4.551 7.848 5.017 8.653 6.656 4.083 4.472 8.91 0.109 6.85 0.819 4.639 3.451 3.931 8 3.047 5.112 7.226 9.741 5.957 6.661 9.222 8.295 7.837 3.929 6.289 3.58 0.817 3 3.908 3.72 0.516 3.508 3.442 6.295 4.498 4.790 8.111 4.73 0.334 3.954 9.966 7.081 6.667 4.613 4.943 8.908 7 3.445 5.892 9.147 8.572 5.475 3.80 0.246 4.419 9.745 7.221 3.188 4.875 6.730 6.192 3.012 6.882 3.046 4.634 4.204 9.064 4.890 3.816 7.375 4.531 6.764 4.237 6.690 3.875 4.373 3.009 4.534 7.482 7.622 6.55 0.484 9.690 8.495 5.840 4 3.688 4.598 5.57 0.508 4.909 5.550 4.462 9.138 6.140 5.767 3.972 4.483 5.459 3.311 7.121 4.356 8.793 3.68 0.337 8.180 6.768 5.521 5.889 8.385 4.614 3.962 8.76 0.776 6.519 4.162 3.404 3.039 6.194 7.321 5.54 0.66 0.471 6.099 9.467 4.491 3.486 6.244 7.342 3.920 5.209 6.88 0.589 3.319 3.251 3.067 6.333 9.710 8.624 4.990 4.054 8.954 9 3.164 5.926 4.65 0.091 8.675 5.047 7.397 9.715 3.761 6.524 3.709 7.621 7.570 8.396 3.036 4.707 3.464 7.899 3.397 6.753 4.018 4.733 3.90 0.772 1 3.426 4.295 6.683 9.745 6.296 3.981 4.511 8.936 4.053 6.97 0.152 6.811 3.166 8.724 3.851 9.853 4.328 7.955 5.436 3.310 6.258 3.284 5.185 8.540 3.780 7.977 5.821 5.236 4.668 6.70 0.082 5.093 5.129 5.888 6.998 6.375 8.311 9.260 8.027 4.457 6.839 6.61 0.446 4.198 4.516 7.350 3.81 0.551 8.406 4.93 0.355 4.447 7.470 5.178 4.715 5.64 0.594 9.241 8.184 3.031 7.357 3.305 4.887 5.87 0.408 5.395 4.581 3.339 6.51 0.855 3.170 3.797 4.699 6.631 3.281 6.309 5.750 9.702 5.016 9.433 5.50 0.315 4.75 0.934 7.597 3.864 3.212 5.299 8.227 4.721 4.664 3.96 0.792 6.622 3.754 5.285 4.278 7.093 4.327 3.638 7.395 5.864 4.907 8.802 3.506 9.610 5.290 9.248 5.590 8.427 6.662 5.141 9.980 8.318 8.129 7.592 6.260 5.354 9.036 9.99 0 3.420 3.770 8.970 6.362 7.546 6.508 5.742 4.297 5.102 4.217 4.183 9.94 0.571 4.95 0.467 3.169 4.656 7.012 5.211 7.550 9.62 0.873 3.63 0.483 3.236 5.078 9.831 4.98 0.501 6.998 7.477 4.79 0.395 8.750 8.560 4.705 9.428 3.819 3.412 6.058 5.199 3.775 4.063 7.808 5.69 0.592 4.674 7.166 6.913 9.279 8.902 6.176 5.810 9.548 3.872 9.610 8.689 5.110 8.268 9.072 8.916 6.728 5.932 5.565 3.989 5.070 5.846 3.532 3.379 7.974 9.649 5.311 3.420 5.381 3.603 7.325 4.416 4.430 7.603 4.842 4.673 3.273 3.561 6.999 4.954 4.252 6.786 4.828 3.035 5.691 7.128 8.079 7.150 4.710 4.000 5.207 4.214 3.638 9.228 7.441 9.808 4.917 4.396 7.730 8.870 8.105 5.529 4.82 0.247 9.795 2 3.977 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 6 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 7 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 8 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 9 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 20 291 .577 6.443 3.784 3.750 3.56 0.370 5.681 3.228 3.998 8.781 5.266 4.834 8.945 4.677 4.120 9.776 3.887 7.83 0.855 7.863 5 3.204 8.

1994 0.0209 0.0070 0.1201 0.6293 0.2045 0.6600 0.4035 0.1599 0.NATuRAL SINES Degree 0´ 0.6032 0.3923 0.5150 0.0000 0.0˚ 0.1478 0.1959 0.1942 0.3762 0.6374 0.5˚ 0.6884 0.4710 0.0035 0.3875 0.4664 0.1045 0.4242 0.6320 0.2840 0.1219 0.6170 0.7022 42´ 0.6997 30´ 0.6347 0.6115 0.4555 0.1633 0.0349 0.1530 0.2385 0.2740 0.5210 0.3746 0.6˚ 0.0993 0.6211 0.5255 0.1925 0.1908 0.2113 0.4131 0.0645 0.6613 0.0401 0.2198 0.2990 0.4695 0.5606 0.3987 0.4894 0.3239 0.2790 0.1028 0.0976 0.3502 0.0471 0.5270 0.5461 0.4289 0.3387 0.3795 0.3007 0.6157 0.4524 0.6101 0.4617 0.3778 0.6143 0.2233 0.0732 0.6239 0.7009 36´ 0.1288 0.3681 0.5519 0.4540 0.5417 0.4633 0.0628 0.5548 0.2723 0.4493 0.4003 0.5779 0.6665 0.0506 0.2300 0.6060 0.3971 0.6972 18´ 0.7059 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Mean Difference 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 4 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 5 15 15 15 15 15 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 11 11 11 11 11 11 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 292 .6018 0.6756 0.1771 0.4384 0.5850 0.4909 0.2588 0.0750 0.1149 0.2890 0.5000 0.6678 0.5388 0.2907 0.2773 0.5976 0.4863 0.5402 0.6794 0.1097 0.5635 0.5962 0.2689 0.4099 0.2096 0.1˚ 0.6388 0.5505 0.6508 0.1840 0.2181 0.0715 0.1547 0.4955 0.1184 0.6441 0.3420 0.1167 0.6361 0.3156 0.2436 0.1357 0.3584 0.6225 0.4179 0.6455 0.2857 0.2605 0.3469 0.2756 0.1115 0.0140 0.6468 0.1977 0.4478 0.1788 0.6652 0.4083 0.5621 0.0332 0.5821 0.1874 0.6574 0.4586 0.3697 0.0767 0.2334 0.4602 0.6782 0.4833 0.3289 0.2924 0.4˚ 0.6428 0.2874 0.0454 0.5664 0.6266 0.0819 0.4756 0.1132 0.3437 0.3891 0.0906 0.4509 0.5835 0.3649 0.6858 0.4924 0.4879 0.0244 0.1374 0.3107 0.6820 0.2470 0.2521 0.2807 0.0523 0.6587 0.0419 0.5693 0.2215 0.0663 0.6639 0.4939 0.6074 0.4321 0.6307 0.0854 0.3535 0.6730 0.4726 0.5180 0.1891 0.6704 0.2571 0.5432 0.5225 0.5892 0.4985 0.1650 0.2028 0.0941 0.2672 0.6046 0.0558 0.1513 0.5864 0.1426 0.4848 0.4802 0.0924 0.3567 0.6743 0.2079 0.0680 0.6280 0.4462 0.1305 0.3074 0.5878 0.4337 0.7046 54´ 0.3˚ 0.5563 0.2487 0.3633 0.2164 0.6184 0.6959 12´ 0.4787 0.3859 0.6334 0.5240 0.2622 0.0610 0.2554 0.0175 0.6534 0.2130 0.4818 0.3371 0.2453 0.1271 0.0314 0.3955 0.3057 0.6934 0.5678 0.6198 0.3827 0.4195 0.4431 0.5476 0.0297 0.0262 0.5299 0.1616 0.5920 0.6871 0.4067 0.4274 0.5314 0.4648 0.3024 0.0192 0.2368 0.5284 0.5807 0.3223 0.3404 0.1736 0.1236 0.4210 0.1409 0.5135 0.0837 0.5105 0.3811 0.5030 0.5948 0.5165 0.1857 0.0802 0.5358 0.5446 0.5075 0.3173 0.6769 0.3939 0.3453 0.3714 0.8˚ 0.1323 0.6845 0.3123 0.6896 0.2062 0.5793 0.4741 0.6833 0.3338 0.6561 0.1685 0.2147 0.2823 0.3040 0.0436 0.0017 0.5750 0.0052 0.3090 0.2250 0.3206 0.6414 0.5721 0.2706 0.0958 0.4415 0.0366 0.7˚ 0.2402 0.3486 0.6921 0.0576 0.1754 0.5577 0.4019 0.0227 0.5650 0.2538 0.7034 48´ 0.5015 0.3600 0.2419 0.1822 0.1080 0.1340 0.5195 0.4163 0.4446 0.1444 0.1805 0.6984 24´ 0.5534 0.5906 0.5344 0.2940 0.4115 0.1392 0.4147 0.3730 0.6129 0.0157 0.0488 0.3256 0.3305 0.3907 0.6547 0.5120 0.5329 0.4226 0.3190 0.2267 0.9˚ 0.1461 0.5736 0.3140 0.0541 0.4368 0.0105 0.2656 0.3665 0.3272 0.0279 0.4772 0.2317 0.1495 0.5592 0.4399 0.6717 0.6807 0.4970 0.6947 6´ 0.6004 0.0087 0.2957 0.2639 0.1011 0.6401 0.2504 0.5490 0.3355 0.2011 0.5045 0.2˚ 0.3843 0.1719 0.4571 0.0593 0.5060 0.1253 0.6088 0.1564 0.0122 0.4305 0.6909 0.5764 0.5707 0.6691 0.5373 0.1063 0.6494 0.0698 0.4051 0.1702 0.0889 0.4352 0.2284 0.3518 0.1582 0.5090 0.6481 0.0384 0.3322 0.3551 0.4679 0.2974 0.5990 0.2351 0.4258 0.0872 0.6521 0.3616 0.6252 0.0785 0.5934 0.1668 0.6626 0.

7815 0.9252 0.9877 0.8695 0.9799 0.9869 0.9851 0.8241 0.9744 0.9949 0.9833 0.9265 0.7083 0.8625 0.7314 0.9085 0.9330 0.7848 0.9403 0.9829 0.9893 0.9483 0.9668 0.0000 48´ 0.9632 0.9164 0.8131 0.7902 0.7230 0.9516 0.9992 0.7859 0.8290 0.9960 0.9748 0.8111 0.8171 0.9593 0.8746 0.8581 0.9910 0.8729 0.8805 0.8181 0.9219 0.9588 0.7570 0.9385 0.8462 0.7071 0.9291 0.9974 0.9997 1.9792 0.9905 0.8862 0.9993 0.9711 0.9041 0.8678 0.9996 0.8563 0.8443 0.9150 0.9367 0.9945 0.9882 0.9659 0.8949 0.9778 0.9092 0.9907 0.8499 0.7976 0.9998 1.9890 0.9923 0.9259 0.9956 0.9988 0.9995 0.9985 0.9563 0.7408 0.8934 0.8310 0.8652 0.9655 0.9928 0.8028 0.9999 12´ 0.7934 0.9003 0.9245 0.9011 0.8894 0.9839 0.8406 0.9995 0.9728 0.8942 0.7804 0.9171 0.7096 0.9999 18´ 0.9622 0.9751 0.9505 0.9191 0.6˚ 0.8607 0.7660 0.9978 0.8965 0.7349 0.9373 0.9426 0.8508 0.9943 0.9232 0.9857 0.7120 0.9997 1.7749 0.9980 0.9298 0.9715 0.9952 0.7627 0.9449 0.9954 0.9854 0.9898 0.9391 0.9919 0.9212 0.9979 0.9934 0.8090 0.9650 0.7266 0.9568 0.8434 0.9966 0.8886 0.9472 0.7912 0.9641 0.7181 0.9532 0.7254 0.7490 0.8151 0.8821 0.8870 0.7242 0.9900 0.9397 0.9947 0.9863 0.7986 0.8261 0.8348 0.9354 0.3˚ 0.7716 0.7771 0.0000 54´ 0.9107 0.9930 0.9681 0.9239 0.8634 0.8251 0.7466 0.8545 0.7193 0.8415 0.1˚ 0.9999 30´ 0.8686 0.8846 0.9311 0.9880 0.9673 0.9996 0.9494 0.7793 0.9826 0.8918 0.8763 0.8788 0.8643 0.7694 0.8368 0.8838 0.9940 0.7547 0.7302 0.7290 0.7108 0.9763 0.9951 0.9694 0.8660 0.9921 0.9962 0.7536 0.9936 0.7431 0.9932 0.9466 0.9789 0.9677 0.9963 0.7923 0.9617 0.8453 0.9720 0.0˚ 0.8100 0.7524 0.9198 0.9478 0.9736 0.8572 0.9976 0.9285 0.9991 0.9573 0.9986 0.9421 0.9455 0.7891 0.9981 0.8554 0.4˚ 0.9323 0.9578 0.9957 0.7672 0.8910 0.8536 0.9033 0.9500 0.9860 0.7615 0.7169 0.2˚ 0.8377 0.7649 0.9121 0.8517 0.9969 0.9135 0.7638 0.7604 0.9912 0.9114 0.8813 0.9056 0.9965 0.7705 0.8231 0.9998 1.9336 0.9157 0.9548 0.7396 0.9990 0.8˚ 0.7997 0.9444 0.9461 0.NATuRAL SINES Degree 0´ 0.9026 0.9537 0.8704 0.7218 0.9553 0.9989 0.9903 0.8300 0.7826 0.9690 0.9558 0.7559 0.9598 0.9205 0.8829 0.9664 0.9823 0.7944 0.9636 0.9987 0.9785 0.9304 0.0000 42´ 0.8080 0.7443 0.9803 0.9971 0.7738 0.9128 0.7955 0.8049 0.8121 0.8669 0.7478 0.8070 0.7157 0.9686 0.9994 0.8996 0.7373 0.8712 0.9225 0.9707 0.9184 0.7420 0.8599 0.7782 0.8271 0.8141 0.9703 0.9982 0.8980 0.8755 0.7361 0.9885 0.8957 0.7581 0.7145 0.9759 0.9511 0.9781 0.9317 0.7133 0.9888 0.9755 0.9993 0.7455 0.8339 0.0000 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mean Difference 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 4 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 5 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 293 .9813 0.9348 0.9608 0.8007 0.9983 0.5˚ 0.8396 0.9100 0.9942 0.9489 0.8771 0.7760 0.9972 0.9770 0.9973 0.8878 0.0000 36´ 0.7727 0.9527 0.9603 0.8387 0.9895 0.9938 0.9415 0.7593 0.9998 6´ 0.7513 0.9871 0.9272 0.9796 0.7683 0.9806 0.8988 0.9997 1.8211 0.9977 0.9917 0.7501 0.9732 0.7869 0.8192 0.8854 0.8721 0.9816 0.7385 0.9438 0.8161 0.9078 0.9018 0.8738 0.9070 0.9959 0.9774 0.9724 0.9740 0.9984 0.9432 0.9178 0.8202 0.7337 0.7880 0.9613 0.9143 0.9999 24´ 0.8221 0.9583 0.9521 0.9063 0.9˚ 0.9342 0.8590 0.7965 0.7˚ 0.7325 0.8490 0.8425 0.9914 0.8039 0.7837 0.9361 0.8059 0.9542 0.9409 0.8902 0.8926 0.7278 0.8320 0.9836 0.8471 0.9278 0.9820 0.9845 0.8616 0.9379 0.9874 0.8526 0.8796 0.8358 0.9627 0.8780 0.8480 0.9646 0.8329 0.9767 0.9848 0.7206 0.9968 0.8973 0.9699 0.8018 0.9866 0.9810 0.9990 0.9842 0.8281 0.9925 0.9048 0.

7604 0.9673 0.9736 0.9128 0.9942 0.9558 0.9686 0.9636 0.9998 0.7793 0.9910 0.9563 0.9806 0.9803 0.9816 0.9724 0.7181 12´ 0.7934 0.7278 0.9178 0.7133 0.9304 0.9212 0.9578 0.9421 42´ 0.9976 0.9527 0.8490 0.7749 0.9952 0.9461 0.8878 0.9397 0.7986 0.8368 0.9985 0.8545 0.9792 0.9993 0.8536 0.8590 0.9903 0.9956 0.7230 0.9373 0.9848 0.9135 0.9707 0.9963 0.9921 0.7349 0.7536 0.8241 0.7837 0.9845 0.7466 0.9265 0.9317 0.9690 0.7738 0.8049 0.9245 0.9505 0.7547 0.8290 0.9880 0.9954 0.9919 0.7314 0.9992 0.8862 0.4˚ 1.7694 0.7965 0.8934 0.9826 0.9951 0.9866 0.9930 0.9983 0.9092 0.7337 0.9888 0.9998 0.9989 0.9996 0.9˚ 0.8080 0.9974 0.7912 0.7782 0.8695 0.8434 0.9711 0.9877 0.8738 0.8996 0.9997 0.9990 0.9613 0.9444 0.9085 0.9379 0.9121 0.9472 0.7443 0.9965 0.9839 0.9981 0.9056 0.9898 0.8678 0.9537 0.9391 0.0000 0.0000 0.7771 0.8652 0.9893 0.7760 0.9184 0.9500 0.9813 0.9548 0.9998 0.8965 0.8121 0.8415 0.9323 0.9829 0.9969 0.8111 0.8660 0.9511 0.8616 0.9568 0.8771 0.7145 0.9869 0.9171 0.7804 0.8221 0.9949 0.7976 0.9914 0.7193 6´ 0.8973 0.9988 0.7157 24´ 0.7716 0.9426 36´ 0.8141 0.7490 0.9997 0.9934 0.8918 0.9940 0.9923 0.7254 0.9449 0.8796 0.9900 0.8˚ 0.9361 0.9553 0.9938 0.9966 0.3˚ 1.7501 0.9699 0.8090 0.9928 0.9225 0.9191 0.9744 0.9627 0.9971 0.7242 0.9532 0.7859 0.7815 0.9603 0.8281 0.9272 0.8894 0.7120 0.8329 0.8251 0.8377 0.9857 0.8704 0.7325 0.9593 0.9993 0.9995 0.9664 0.9048 0.8231 0.9984 0.8517 0.8202 0.9655 0.8942 0.8526 0.9833 0.9874 0.9198 0.8211 0.8669 0.9114 0.9767 0.7570 0.9774 0.9999 0.9917 0.9285 0.8721 0.9078 0.9150 0.7705 0.9789 0.9650 0.9882 0.9751 0.9748 0.9239 0.9455 0.9770 0.9026 0.9763 0.9033 0.9494 0.9516 0.9278 0.8425 0.9659 0.9219 0.8729 0.8949 0.8161 0.7396 0.9598 0.7683 0.8387 0.NATuRAL COSINES (Numbers in mean difference columns to be subtracted.8471 0.8453 0.9311 0.9608 0.9977 0.7649 0.9973 0.9990 0.9785 0.8320 0.8018 0.7638 0.9947 0.9932 0.8181 0.8261 0.7627 0.8300 0.8838 0.9259 0.7869 0.8886 0.9489 0.9681 0.8059 0.9232 0.2˚ 1.9778 0.9070 0.8599 0.9912 0.7923 0.9997 0.8910 0.8028 0.7891 0.9732 0.7478 0.9968 0.9991 0.8980 0.9885 0.9851 0.9632 0.9542 0.7944 0.8310 0.9483 0.9432 30´ 0.9995 0.8988 0.7290 0.9957 0.8339 0.9994 0.7408 0.9796 0.8406 0.7431 0.9972 0.8396 0.8131 0.9854 0.5˚ 1.9836 0.9298 0.9466 0.9100 0.9820 0.9962 0.9107 0.9728 0.9588 0.9982 0.8870 0.9996 0.7373 0.9342 0.7955 0.9895 0.8755 0.8572 0.8607 0.7559 0.8846 0.8508 0.9799 0.7826 0.9943 0.7880 0.9863 0.8829 0.9415 48´ 0.7997 0.7361 0.9668 0.9715 0.9157 0.8625 0.8763 0.9063 0.9521 0.9842 0.9871 0.7096 0.1˚ 1.9694 0.7302 0.8039 0.8780 0.8746 0.9936 0.0000 0.9348 0.8634 0.7108 0.9164 0.7083 294 .9354 0.9385 0.7524 0.7513 0.8581 0.9367 0.9986 0.8643 0.8007 0.9573 0.8813 0.8554 0.9979 0.9617 0.8443 0.8854 0.7660 0.9945 0.9641 0.8957 0.9403 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Mean Difference 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 5 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 0.9011 0.9980 0.9478 0.9646 0.8462 0.9740 0.9907 0.9252 0.9336 0.9622 0.8926 0.7848 0.9755 0.8171 0.9960 0.8805 0.8480 0.0000 0.9759 0.9330 0.9438 0.9999 0.9890 0.9018 0.8151 0.9291 0.8348 0.8100 0.9003 0.9823 0.9041 0.9409 54´ 0.7206 0.9999 0.7˚ 0.7615 0.0˚ 1. not added) Degree 0´ 0.7169 18´ 0.7727 0.8788 0.9583 0.7455 0.8902 0.7581 0.8499 0.8070 0.9978 0.7593 0.9720 0.9143 0.7385 0.8563 0.6˚ 0.9810 0.8821 0.8358 0.8192 0.7420 0.7672 0.9905 0.9987 0.9959 0.9703 0.7266 0.7218 0.9205 0.8271 0.9860 0.9677 0.9999 0.0000 0.9781 0.0000 0.8686 0.9925 0.7902 0.8712 0.

5˚ 0.6018 0.4051 0.2957 0.5358 0.3827 0.5948 0.1840 0.4909 0.0958 0.2402 0.4756 0.3665 0.6143 0.5563 0.1582 0.5165 0.0506 0.2096 0.5892 0.3404 0.3649 0.5461 0.6934 0.0262 0.5548 0.5976 0.6626 0.4955 0.0122 0.4802 0.4863 0.0767 0.0384 0.0349 0.6088 0.1305 0.3633 0.5240 0.6060 0.5402 0.0105 0.7009 0.1184 0.3420 0.4555 0.0889 0.7022 0.6508 0.4115 0.4305 36´ 0.6521 0.1822 0.6896 0.7˚ 0.2028 0.0802 0.3272 0.2470 0.5270 0.9˚ 0.5721 0.5060 0.2554 0.1564 0.6639 0.3˚ 0.5329 0.1616 0.6266 0.1409 0.2233 0.2250 0.4602 0.3074 0.3518 0.5621 0.6561 0.2890 0.2317 0.2453 0.4163 0.4399 0.6756 0.6334 0.2773 0.1253 0.6665 0.3714 0.3762 3 0.6547 0.0209 0.0471 0.2588 0.1719 0.1599 0.5344 0.6347 0.6587 0.3551 0.1097 0.5150 0.4289 42´ 0.7046 0.1754 0.5707 0.0419 0.1˚ 0.6441 0.5255 0.6782 0.0593 0.5864 0.0541 0.5490 0.1271 0.0436 0.2874 0.0035 0.6613 0.5764 0.3907 68 0.3057 0.4226 66 0.1495 0.1805 0.0698 0.1994 0.1650 0.0297 0.6401 0.4571 0.6884 0.5476 0.0663 0.5750 0.2198 0.3305 0.0976 0.5432 0.4384 6´ 0.0070 0.2113 0.1547 0.1891 0.5180 0.0680 0.1374 0.6678 0.3746 69 0.3024 0.6225 0.5314 0.4741 0.6280 0.0558 0.2130 0.6074 0.3256 0.4524 0.5505 0.6858 0.5577 0.3778 0.1857 0.2504 0.3681 0.6794 0.4924 0.3891 0.5693 0.3939 0.2689 0.2011 0.4179 0.3223 0.1167 0.3811 0.3923 3 0.4772 0.6101 0.6198 0.4648 0.5417 0.NATuRAL COSINES (Numbers in mean difference columns to be subtracted.4664 0.1288 0.5075 0.1426 0.6947 0.6984 0.7059 0.2940 0.4195 0.5878 0.4067 67 0.5920 0.2857 0.0192 0.4710 0.2267 0.5000 0.2147 0.0872 0.0732 0.2079 0.6807 0.5519 0.6184 0.1115 0.5736 0.4679 0.3469 0.1668 0.1685 0.6494 0.2924 0.0645 0.1513 0.6972 0.3090 0.5906 0.3371 0.0576 0.6921 0.2181 0.2790 0.3140 0.0˚ 0.4003 0.1132 0.5650 0.3387 0.8˚ 0.6820 0.2639 0.3730 0.2385 0.4879 0.1977 0.5015 0.6414 0.6574 0.5299 0.3453 0.2756 0.6032 0.0366 0.4894 0.6307 0.5373 0.0628 0.2215 0.6871 0.3987 0.5135 0.6388 0.3616 0.6769 0.4540 0.5030 0.5210 0.4462 0.3289 0.5388 0.5934 0.6717 0.7071 0.1028 0.6730 0.4833 0.1444 0.1908 0.0017 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 295 .4617 0.2487 0.5850 0.4787 0.4083 3 0.5835 0.0279 0.1149 0.2436 0.3338 0.4131 0.3697 0.3795 0.2823 0.6833 0.0314 0.2990 0.3040 0.1788 0.3502 0.2706 0.2656 0.4274 48´ 0.2807 0.0854 0.6252 0.1633 0.5592 0.3173 0.5090 0.1736 0.6115 0.4415 0.5635 0.6481 0.4368 0.2351 0.6170 0.6293 0.3600 3 0.4509 0.4970 0.6361 0.2334 0.6534 0.0087 0.2300 0.4586 0.2062 0.2164 0.4035 0.3971 0.3584 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 0.1236 0.3875 0.0715 0.0140 18´ 0.6239 0.3123 0.5606 0.3190 0.4493 0.6997 0.3107 0.6959 0.0941 0.0523 0.0157 12´ 0.4258 54´ 0.1461 0.0819 0.1201 0.4147 0.6909 0.1219 0.4726 0.4019 0.6374 0.6157 0.0488 0.4099 0.2˚ 0.4337 24´ 0.5284 0.6468 0.4985 0.5779 0.4695 0.5534 0.1045 0.2723 0.1925 0.6129 0.1478 0.1530 0. not added) Degree 0´ 0.2571 0.6600 0.4633 0.3007 0.6046 0.0785 0.5045 0.6455 0.6743 0.4478 0.3486 0.1392 0.1942 0.1357 0.7034 0.6652 0.2284 0.4431 0.1080 0.3355 0.2538 0.0052 0.6211 0.6320 0.0906 0.1063 0.5990 0.5678 0.2740 0.0175 0.2974 0.1874 0.3955 0.3567 0.2419 0.4352 0.0750 0.2605 0.3843 0.0454 0.5821 0.3437 3 0.1011 0.5120 0.5446 0.2840 0.5793 0.0244 0.1702 0.3206 0.0993 0.1323 0.0924 0.5962 0.3156 0.6004 0.5195 0.5807 0.0227 0.4210 0.2521 0.4939 0.1771 0.2622 0.3535 0.4˚ 0.4446 0.3322 0.6845 0.2045 0.2368 0.1959 0.6691 0.0332 0.5664 0.4848 0.4321 30´ 0.0401 0.5105 0.2672 0.0837 0.3859 0.6˚ 0.5225 0.0610 0.6704 0.4242 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 Mean Difference 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 3 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 4 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 5 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 0.1340 0.4818 0.3239 0.2907 0.6428 0.

7983 0.6371 0.5272 0.2811 0.8632 0.4727 0.2943 0.3899 0.0017 0.0524 0.6080 0.8127 0.9228 0.3939 0.4327 0.8754 0.3249 0.NATuRAL TANGENTS Degree 0´ 0.5890 0.0981 0.3269 0.3000 0.0419 0.2364 0.1691 0.2071 0.4899 0.9590 0.8451 0.4813 0.6519 0.4494 0.0559 0.4452 0.2456 0.1602 0.5820 0.0857 0.7080 0.9391 0.4986 0.3739 0.0157 0.2717 0.5117 0.2475 0.0105 0.0805 0.9827 36´ 0.7239 0.9556 0.9358 0.6619 0.1122 0.8511 0.2905 0.7319 0.1530 0.5797 0.7265 0.0577 0.6322 0.3365 0.1584 0.1980 0.9260 0.9861 42´ 0.6420 0.0734 0.0963 0.7757 0.7618 0.4265 0.5161 0.0612 0.6056 0.0507 0.4040 0.5938 0.2530 0.8878 0.1033 0.2438 0.9325 0.4791 0.5317 0.5051 0.5475 0.1370 0.3979 0.7400 0.1495 0.6569 0.6346 0.3057 0.2736 0.0454 0.0297 0.8571 0.4557 0.3581 0.0209 0.6594 0.6445 0.3346 0.5008 0.9163 0.4473 0.2199 0.0822 0.7508 0.0314 0.8069 0.3153 0.2886 0.0875 0.6976 0.0928 0.2586 0.0910 0.4020 0.4578 0.3288 0.1459 0.4101 0.4224 0.1352 0.7˚ 0.1890 0.0437 0.1051 0.0227 0.4142 0.2830 0.2309 0.3659 0.4663 0.0647 0.2792 0.1139 0.3779 0.8421 0.0122 0.7159 0.9490 0.0664 0.6694 0.5961 0.4536 0.2698 0.4599 0.8541 0.8481 0.1908 0.0279 0.8156 0.2180 0.9195 0.0˚ 0.7785 0.9759 24´ 0.4706 0.0262 0.5407 0.6796 0.6669 0.3879 0.4369 0.5612 0.3076 0.3719 0.0332 0.7954 0.3522 0.6924 0.1086 0.3502 0.1263 0.9623 0.3463 0.4183 0.1548 0.1673 0.0682 0.0384 0.3620 0.3679 0.7869 0.2401 0.2493 0.4411 0.0349 0.2773 0.8391 0.0402 0.2˚ 0.8941 0.2327 0.6745 0.5206 0.1763 0.2568 0.9293 0.0052 0.3482 0.5˚ 0.6009 0.8012 0.5228 0.6152 0.2661 0.5589 0.6494 0.0629 0.2867 0.7427 0.9523 0.9725 18´ 0.1512 0.3799 0.0035 0.8˚ 0.7536 0.6720 0.6176 0.1228 0.6544 0.1016 0.1799 0.6224 0.2623 0.7028 0.6032 0.5295 0.0175 0.6822 0.6273 0.5362 0.9004 0.7186 0.7212 0.8816 0.5543 0.9896 48´ 0.4621 0.9657 6´ 0.5985 0.2849 0.1246 0.1835 0.9930 54´ 0.3819 0.6200 0.0752 0.2962 0.6297 0.8332 0.7590 0.4286 0.2642 0.1317 0.5727 0.5635 0.8185 0.5914 0.3172 0.4˚ 0.1566 0.4061 0.3˚ 0.5774 0.5250 0.7454 0.2144 0.1638 0.4081 0.2016 0.0192 0.9965 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 Mean Difference 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 3 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 16 17 17 4 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 18 18 18 19 20 20 21 21 22 23 5 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 25 26 27 28 29 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 296 .3307 0.7346 0.0542 0.3600 0.1˚ 0.2053 0.1620 0.4245 0.0472 0.8785 0.4204 0.5658 0.5029 0.6104 0.6249 0.3839 0.6128 0.5750 0.1157 0.4921 0.1299 0.7898 0.7373 0.5184 0.2217 0.0840 0.1781 0.2981 0.8273 0.3096 0.2549 0.7813 0.5498 0.1281 0.1441 0.9691 12´ 0.8847 0.3134 0.5520 0.0945 0.1709 0.0998 0.0717 0.0000 0.5452 0.4942 0.0087 0.3959 0.2605 0.1175 0.7002 0.2254 0.8361 0.7481 0.4431 0.4770 0.3640 0.1334 0.6873 0.8601 0.4642 0.4748 0.2679 0.8302 0.2035 0.9793 30´ 0.9099 0.5139 0.5430 0.2924 0.9457 0.9067 0.3327 0.8243 0.5681 0.6771 0.7673 0.2290 0.4515 0.1192 0.1210 0.3385 0.4163 0.4348 0.4390 0.4964 0.7841 0.1944 0.0699 0.2345 0.1727 0.3230 0.7107 0.0787 0.1423 0.8662 0.0140 0.2162 0.9036 0.3404 0.3859 0.5867 0.7292 0.0594 0.2754 0.8972 0.1817 0.0244 0.3561 0.1745 0.0769 0.9424 0.0070 0.5844 0.3019 0.4834 0.3443 0.1477 0.0892 0.1388 0.8098 0.2107 0.1998 0.5095 0.4877 0.3038 0.7133 0.8910 0.3191 0.2382 0.4684 0.1069 0.5384 0.8693 0.6847 0.8214 0.5340 0.6644 0.2235 0.0489 0.1962 0.6899 0.2089 0.6˚ 0.3759 0.1853 0.1871 0.6950 0.3115 0.6469 0.7563 0.5566 0.8724 0.3424 0.3211 0.1926 0.6395 0.1405 0.5073 0.3919 0.4856 0.1655 0.9131 0.7729 0.0367 0.1104 0.4122 0.3699 0.3541 0.9˚ 0.5704 0.2419 0.4307 0.8040 0.2126 0.7054 0.7646 0.4000 0.2272 0.7926 0.7701 0.2512 0.

1910 3.0807 572.1028 1.9042 3.2349 1.1067 1.2799 1.3759 3.0913 1.2218 1.4420 3.4947 8.0579 10.7453 5.3319 1.3079 1.2148 2.3564 1.0408 4.7326 2.4646 3.9812 4.7625 2.1184 1.2708 1.9292 2.3332 3.4659 1.1343 1.6935 81.0594 2.3662 4.2914 3.9210 2.9797 2.9087 15.3955 5.4994 1.5782 2.5340 1.1918 1.6383 1.4301 14.4465 31.9970 2.0557 20.6140 6.7062 15.8239 2.9887 3.8397 3.6447 1.3175 1.0237 3.4638 21.3432 24.5339 3.4023 2.0724 1.2303 4.4882 1.2422 5.7929 2.6605 2.7046 5.5107 4.6643 1.2924 5.8040 1.0686 2.0285 9.2527 1.0799 1.0875 1.6051 2.4142 2.7747 1.3916 1.2106 3.4826 1.2846 1.4262 2.8006 38.1716 3.9882 13.4442 1.0045 5.1642 2.4938 1.0283 1.7179 2.1842 2.1251 2.2066 8.6363 57.8118 4.7395 286.8115 1.0837 1.9˚ 1.6128 1.0965 2.3572 11.0538 1.7113 1.7894 6.3465 1.0061 3.1632 15.6554 3.0176 1.4895 114.0503 2.4281 1.3435 5.1667 1.8572 1.0595 3.6768 11.8556 3.2˚ 1.5166 1.2305 3.2506 3.2045 2.6174 17.5399 1.9458 2.6187 2.0686 1.2889 2.6842 1.5126 10.1443 9.5818 1.6512 1.9038 35.0970 5.7603 1.3007 19.9520 4.7720 7.8˚ 1.3713 1.4737 4.2371 42´ 0.7797 13.4605 1.9711 2.1423 1.2432 7.2781 2.2636 9.0057 2.0233 2.6305 3.0575 1.2996 17.2998 2.6646 5.0212 1.3270 1.2572 1.6325 2.7062 3.3673 2.4˚ 1.8863 26.1022 4.0612 1.9962 16.6713 6.2972 4.2355 2.1145 1.5517 1.7675 1.4176 1.7391 1.1224 1.3863 9.0777 3.4383 2.3789 2.8978 44.3122 3.8502 6.5578 6.9544 3.6912 7.4874 3.9842 48´ 0.0108 4.8807 1.1334 3.2049 33.1106 1.9174 143.7˚ 1.9758 6.0141 1.3367 1.7182 1.8341 1.1544 1.2460 2.6059 3.6775 1.6977 1.2174 1.2251 2.3559 2.8062 9.8967 1.9395 7.8945 16.4229 1.0035 1.3544 3.4876 2.4015 4.0413 2.2566 2.3814 1.9124 6.3315 4.6319 1.3332 2.5864 5.9714 3.1976 4.1943 2.7251 1.2617 1.9158 9.0145 2.8716 3.1335 4.1060 2.7461 1.0951 1.1626 1.0070 1.4504 2.7966 1.7776 2.3663 1.1348 2.2437 1.3514 1.2393 1.0761 1.7403 30.3859 7.8448 11.5282 1.4071 1.1446 5.0428 1.5129 2.0661 190.6122 7.6066 1.3445 2.8728 1.8470 24´ 0.9047 1.3138 7.2938 1.1504 1.9232 4.8548 7.7848 4.8887 1.0778 2.6003 1.9375 3.5483 4.0501 1.1445 2.6427 10.6191 1.1960 1.4124 1.1885 95.5224 1.4751 2.3416 1.2985 1.5386 2.5051 1.1708 1.2131 1.5880 1.7769 10.6996 8.3220 2.1446 63.3968 1.6464 2.0464 1.4019 1.1929 5.1543 2.3854 36´ 0.1155 2.2045 1.2048 13.9626 2.8650 1.1833 1.9152 5.5350 7.1750 1.6567 12´ 0.2482 1.5649 2.2662 1.0990 1.0415 3.6151 18´ 0.4770 1.3˚ 1.4550 1.5816 3.3032 1.8947 4.NATuRAL TANGENTS Degree 0´ 0.1875 1.1792 1.3613 1.1146 3.7583 4.9208 3.0000 1.3865 1.2900 6´ 0.9594 5.1585 1.6889 2.4645 27.0649 1.1463 1.0961 3.5458 1.1154 8.7297 6.9507 18.8878 3.0247 1.8495 1.0217 22.6255 1.9375 2.5002 2.2709 3.0187 12.7820 1.1742 6.1303 1.1653 4.8083 2.6806 3.2261 1.0504 5.7321 4.7893 1.2635 4.4627 2.5576 3.3962 8.0323 2.4486 6.5517 2.3764 1.1066 6.5105 3.8418 1.7867 5.8190 1.6909 1.3222 1.9128 1.5916 2.5637 1.4288 12.5˚ 1.9572 1 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 22 24 26 29 32 36 41 46 53 Mean Difference 2 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 16 16 17 18 19 20 21 23 24 26 27 29 31 34 37 40 43 47 52 58 64 72 81 93 107 3 18 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 29 30 32 34 36 38 41 44 47 51 55 60 65 71 78 87 96 108 122 139 160 4 24 25 25 27 28 29 30 31 33 34 36 38 40 43 45 48 51 55 58 63 68 73 79 87 95 104 116 129 144 163 186 213 5 30 31 32 33 34 36 38 39 41 43 45 48 50 53 56 60 64 68 73 78 85 92 99 108 119 131 145 161 180 204 232 267 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 12.8288 5.8667 4.5958 8.2088 1.0319 1.5108 1.1742 2.8716 5.0713 4.5757 1.9883 2.6645 14.1263 1.5697 1.0105 1.6746 2.3127 1.4715 1.6709 1.1524 3.6˚ 1.4777 54´ 0.3499 22.6577 1.4388 1.5887 297 .1988 30´ 0.5257 2.4335 1.8265 1.2002 1.9152 10.5144 11.3977 3.0872 2.7532 1.2052 10.3002 8.3109 2.2753 1.0811 28.6685 19.7321 1.7034 2.5789 12.5026 6.8391 4.8593 40.4373 4.1383 1.1˚ 1.0405 6.4496 1.8205 71.2305 1.2892 1.2715 52.0355 1.0˚ 1.6252 5.7475 2.0307 47.5941 1.0392 1.4197 3.4596 7.8319 23.9542 2.5577 1.7045 1.2673 2.3906 2.0264 8.

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