Name : Abbas Sheikh Ali Jimale No: 090

Semesterm2 second year student

Assignment Anatomy : structures involved pulmonary and systemic circulation The Pulmonary Circuit structure involves Introduction: In the pulmonary circuit, blood is pumped to the lungs from the right ventricle of the heart. It is carried to the lungs via pulmonary arteries. At lungs, oxygen in the alveolae diffuses to the capillaries surrounding the alveolae and carbon dioxide inside the blood diffuses to the alveolae. As a result, blood is oxygenated which is then carried to the heart's left half -to the left atrium via pulmonary veins. Oxygen rich blood is prepared for the whole organs and tissues of the body. This is important because mitochondria inside the cells should use oxygen to produce energy from the organic compounds. Pulmonary artery caries oxygen poor blood from right heart to the lung where oxygenation and removal carbon dioxide accur . The pulmonary circulation takes blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and back to the left atrium. the pulmonary trunk, the only vessel that removes blood from the right ventricle. This large artery divides into the right and left pulmonary arteries that carry blood to the lungs where it is oxygenated. 1. The pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs. They are the only arteries (other than umbilical arteries in the fetus) that carry deoxygenated blood. It then branches into two pulmonary arteries (left and right), which deliver de-oxygenated blood to the corresponding lung. Structures of artery in the circulation are same Except strength elasticityb and , aech of those structures has three layers1. tunica interna (has endothelium ,subendothelium membrane and internal elastic lamina ). 2. tunica media has external elastic lamian and smoothmuscle 3. Tunica externa elstic fibers and colagen

2. Pulmonary vein: carry oxygen righ blood from the lung back to the elft heart .which divides right and left, structures of the three layers are same

as the artery except external elastic lamina of the tunica media.
3. Pulmonary capillary: has only tunica interne structurally .

4. Right atrium Structures • • • • • sinus Venarum: smooth walled portion that surrounds the opening of the superior and inferior vena cava and the coronary sinus. Openings of three vessels: 'a.'Superior Vena Cava 'b.'Inferior Vena Cava 'c.'Coronary Sinus Pectinate muscles(musculi pectinati): muscular wall of the atria Right auricle: pouch-like extension of the muscular part (pectinate muscles) of the right atrium Crista terminalis: a ridge separating the muscular and smooth walled parts of the right atrium

Interatrial septum: separates right atrium from left atrium ' a.'Fossa Ovalis, represents the closure of an opening that was present within the interatrial septum of the fetal heart (normal) and was called the foramen ovale 6. Right ventricle: The right ventricle wall is thickest at the base and thins towards the apex.

The pulmonary valve : is the semilunar valve of the heart that lies between the right ventricle

and the pulmonary artery and has three cusps. These are located at the base of both the pulmonary trunk (pulmonary artery) and the aorta, the two arteries taking blood out of the ventricles. These valves permit blood to be forced into the arteries, but prevent backflow of blood from the arteries into the ventricles. These valves do not have chordae tendineae, and are more similar to valves in veins than atrioventricular valves. Know all valves structurally are projections into the lumen of tunica intima and covered by endothelium cells and have core elastic fibers. 7. The tricuspid valve is on the right dorsal side of the mammalian heart, between the right atrium and the right ventricle. The normal tricuspid valve usually has three leaflets and three papillary muscles. They are connected to the papillary muscles by the chordae tendineae, which lie in the right ventricle. Tricuspid valves will not always consist of three leaflets and may also occur with two or four leaflets; the number may change during life. The chordae tendineae are attached to papillary muscles that cause tension to better hold the valve. 9. Right atrioventricular valves: These are small valves that prevent backflow from the

ventricles into the atrium during systole. They are anchored to the wall of the ventricle by chordae tendineae, which prevent the valve from inverting.
Systemic circulation structures involved are the folowing
1. Left atrium: Left atrium It receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins, and

pumps it into the left ventricle, via the bicuspid valve.
2. Left ventricle: The left ventricular wall is three times the thickness of the right, The left

ventricle is thicker and more muscular than the right ventricle because it pumps blood at a higher pressure the left ventricular wall is three times the thickness of the right.
3. Aorta: The largest artery in the body, the aorta connects directly to the heart and is the

first blood vessel that blood contacts as it leaves the heart at the start of the circulatory cycle.structurely same pulmonary artery .
4. Systemic Artery: Arteries are a type of blood vessel carry blood away from heart (one

place to another). Structure: Arteries are large, and contain a high percentage of a special type of muscle, called smooth muscle, that can be controlled by hormones and special signals from the nervous system. Artery has same as pulmonary artery in structure.artery

5. 6.

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divide into arteriole –capilary-capileriole-venule and vein is the last process of blood pass. Systemic capillaries: all blood vesels that exchange nutriennts and others take place, has same structure with pulmonary capilary. Systemic veins: these are all blood vessels that bring blood to the heart. Structure is same as pulmonary vein and has low pressure than artery . However, the layers are thinner, containing less tissue. The mitral valve is typically 4-6 cm² in area. It has two cusps, or leaflets, (the anteromedial leaflet and the posterolateral leaflet) that guard the opening. The opening is surrounded by a fibrous ring known as the mitral valve annulus. Also known as the "bicuspid valve" because it contains two flaps, the mitral valve gets its name from the resemblance to a bishop's mitre. Left Atrioventricular valves: These are small valves that prevent backflow from the ventricles into the atrium during systole. They are anchored to the wall of the ventricle by chordae tendineae, which prevent the valve from inverting. The aortic valve: lies between the left ventricle and the aorta. The aortic valve has three cusps.

Reference: 1. http://www.lakesidepress.com/ pulmonary books / chapter 7-1 2. http://.en .wilibooks .org./wiki/file 3. histology and cell biology author Abdirahman L.k IERZEN BAUM 2nd ed. Page number from 351-361 ISBN0-323-04527-8

Passage of Blood through the Heart

Reference: http://www.lakesidepress.com/ pulmonary books / chapter 7-1 http://.en .wilibooks .org./wiki/file