International Journal of Refrigeration 26 (2003) 865–872 www.elsevier.

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From mine to refrigeration: a life cycle inventory analysis of the production of HFC-134a
A. McCullocha, A.A. Lindleyb,*
a b

School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR, UK Ineos Fluor Ltd., PO Box 13, The Heath, Runcorn WA7 4QF, UK

Received 30 July 2002; received in revised form 26 May 2003; accepted 23 June 2003

Abstract A life cycle inventory analysis has been conducted for the production of HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, CH2FCF3)1 through from basic raw materials (crude oil, natural gas, sulphur and fluorspar) to the pure product delivered to industrial customers. The analysis was based on real industrial operations in Japan, USA and UK. It showed that production required limestone, water and transition metal catalysts, in addition to the basic raw materials, and that the energy required to provide these raw materials in a form that can be used at the plants and to process them through intermediates into HFC-134a is the equivalent of 4.52 tonnes of CO2 per tonne of product. Environmental releases associated with HFC-134a included waste salt brine (to the sea), mine tailings (mainly ‘‘country’’ rock landfilled at the mine) and small quantities of calcium sulphate and spent catalyst (both sent to landfill). In addition, greenhouse gases amounting to the equivalent of 2.1 tonnes of CO2 per tonne of product were emitted to the atmosphere from the plants studied, an effect very much smaller than that estimated in previous studies mainly because the real release rates from current processes are very much less than those assumed in prior work. The global warming potential2 of HFC-134a is 1300, meaning that, during the first 100 years following the release of one tonne, the effect on climate change is equivalent to 1300 tonnes of carbon dioxide. Consequently, the 6.6 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent, emitted during production in the form of energy required and other greenhouse gases, is of relatively little importance and the key requirement to reduce environmental impact is containment during use. # 2003 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Refrigerant; R134a; Process; Production; TEWI

De la mine aux applications frigorifiques : analyse de la ´ production de R134a fondee sur un inventaire tenant compte du cycle de vie
` ´ ´ Mots cle´s : Frigorigene ; R134a ; Procede ; Production ; TEWI

* Corresponding author. Tel. +44-1928-513145; fax +441928-511418. E-mail address: andrew.lindley@ineosfluor.com (A.A. Lindley). 1 HFCs, or Hydrofluorocarbons, are compounds comprising hydrogen fluorine and carbon only. 2 The Global Warming Potential (GWP) of a material is defined as the integrated radiative forcing over 100 years following 0140-7007/$35.00 # 2003 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/S0140-7007(03)00095-1

an assumed release of 1kg divided by the integrated radiative forcing over the same period from release of 1 kg of carbon dioxide. Radiative forcing is the specific increase in infrared absorption in WmÀ2 ppbÀ1 (Watts per square metre at the Earth’s surface per part per billion concentration of the material). All effects beyond 100 years are disregarded; thus Global Warming Potential captures all of the effect of an HFC but less than 40% of the total effect from CO2.

a company headquartered in UK which produces HFC-134a in three locations (UK. hence real plants operate with much lower emissions. Ethylene can be converted.11] that examined the climate change implications of manufacturing refrigerants from the point of view of production energy content (embedded energy). methane. HFCs. the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change includes materials such as hydrocarbons and sulphur oxides that are secondary greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases included in the Kyoto Protocol are carbon dioxide.866 A. 4 Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) is a restricted sub-set life-cycle analysis that counts the energy requirements of a system over its whole service life and the direct releases of greenhouse gases and expresses that total as the equivalent mass of CO2 (using GWP as the conversion factor for releases of other greenhouse gases). The basic carbon raw materials are crude oil and gas which yield ethylene via pyrolysis of a potentially wide range of natural gas and refinery products (from methane to heavy oil). McCulloch and Campbell used a compendium of emissions from a number of producers [11]. The energy requirements will augment the GWP of HFC-134a because the CO2 released from generating this energy will be additional to the direct effect from release of the HFC. The source of fluorine is fluorspar. the process procedures are summarised here and described in detail below. The value of the latter parameter sets the greenhouse effect of releasing 1 kg of HFC-134a equivalent to that from releasing 1300 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2) calculated over the first 100 years following the release of both [1]. Chlorine is produced in conventional chlor-alkali plant by electrolysis of brine in membrane and in mercury cells according to location of the plant. The extent of this effect will be proportional to the amount emitted and the GWP of HFC-134a. Furthermore. The crude oil is assumed to be transported to the refinery by VLCC (Very Large Crude Carrier) and the ethylene sent out by pipeline to the plant using it. Previous studies of this topic have relied on information from regulatory sources. Lindley / International Journal of Refrigeration 26 (2003) 865–872 1. The balance between releases of refrigerant greenhouse gases and energy efficiency of the equipment in which they are used have been extensively examined in various reports on Total Equivalent Warming Impact4 [2–9] and the purpose of this work is to build on these and the prior work of Campbell and McCulloch [10. This route is used by nearly all of the producers of HFC-134a and the competing process (hydrogenolysis of CFC-114a) has been shown to have very similar energy-related emissions [11] so that the route studied should be a good but not perfect global model. it includes all energy related inputs. However.A. Banks and colleagues used submissions to the UK government under Integrated Pollution Control regulations [12]. including efficiency losses. partition into the atmosphere and will increase absorption of infrared radiation in the lower atmosphere. In both cases the information related to processes without treatment systems to remove controlled substances from the normal process vents. Leakage from installations and the act of using aerosols will have an effect on the environment in the form of a forcing of climate change. including Central America and S. 1. with a globally traded substance such as this fluorocarbon. but should not include the energy equivalent of raw materials that are chemically converted into the finished product. Introduction HFC-134a is a common fluorinated greenhouse gas3 that is used extensively in a range of functions: principally refrigeration and air conditioning but also in blowing plastic matrix foams and propelling medical and technical aerosols. as described by Campbell and McCulloch [10]. In addition. The major processes involved in the manufacture of HFC-134a are shown in Fig. This is the energy required to convert raw materials into the finished product. It is assumed that. into trichloroethene. if released. The processes involve chlorination to dichloroethane and further conversion by chlorination into trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene. a mineral form of calcium fluoride mined in many regions of the world. the additional CO2 needs to be placed in the context of the GWP of 1300. The TEWIs of systems can be directly compared as a metric of relative sustainability. McCulloch. in these stages. USA and Japan) by fluorination of trichloroethene using hydrogen fluoride in a gas phase process over a heterogeneous catalyst. Here we present a more complete inventory analysis of the raw material and energy inputs and by-product emissions into the environment during the manufacture of HFC-134a using actual data from real operations. Results are presented as a single set of values regardless of the origin of the material. Asia and Europe.E. 2. A. Boundaries The study is based on an analysis of the operations of Ineos Fluor Ltd. the introduction of vent treatment (which is now 3 A greenhouse gas is a material that will.. The analysis takes into account the small differences in manufacturing procedure at each location and the energy requirements for movement of raw materials to the plants and product between locations and to the customers. In all cases the regulatory limits represent maxima beyond which sanctions will be taken by the authorities. more commonplace) has resulted in a step-change reduction in emissions by a factor in the region of 100. perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride. It . it is not possible to discriminate material used by a particular customer by place of origin. materials are transported by pipeline with virtually no energy penalty. nitrous oxide.

in turn. Overall. The complete process is totally enclosed. Japanese and European hydrogen fluoride facilities were carried in bulk solids carriers. where it was mined by the Frasch process. This. A. the HCFC-133a is not isolated and removed from the process. Processes 3. together with large recycles of the reagents. was assumed that shipments to US. is much more difficult. oxide catalyst (based on chromia). for the manufacture of HFC-134a. The second stage.1. In the plants currently operated nearly all of the streams that might potentially go into the atmosphere are treated by thermal oxidation. The reaction equilibrium is biased toward the starting materials and so it requires removal of the hydrogen chloride. Acid grade fluorspar is converted to anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (HF) in reaction with oleum. Material and energy inputs into these processes were considered. over a solid metal The first stage reactor converts trichloroethene to 1. ethane). substitution of the last remaining chlorine substituent by fluorine. amounts to an insignificant value per tonne of product [13] and this aspect is not considered further here.A.1. The single alternative process involves hydrogenolysis of CFC-114a (CF3CFCl2. 2.000 tonnes yearÀ1. Lindley / International Journal of Refrigeration 26 (2003) 865–872 867 Fig.1. when spread over a 20 year plant lifetime and productive capacity in the region of 10. is made from sulphur that is brought in bulk from (say) Poland or southern USA.2-tetrafluorodichloroethane) but emissions and energy requirements have been shown to be similar to the process described . Manufacture of HFC-134a A block diagram of the processing stages is shown in Fig. It has previously been shown that construction energy input and environmental impact. in two stages.1-trifluoro-2-chloroHCFC-133a (CF3CH2Cl. a mixture of sulphuric acid and sulphur trioxide. 1. 1.A. the process can be represented by: CHCl ¼ CCl2 þ 4HF ! CH2 FCF3 þ 3HCl ð1Þ 3. McCulloch. intermediate reagents are physically retained within the equipment and releases to atmosphere are minimal. Block diagram showing the major stages and intermediate materials in the conversion of crude oil and other minerals into HFC-134a. The reactions are accomplished at elevated temperature and pressure. The conversion can be completed in one pass with minimal recycle and.1.

Other by-product materials that may be released into the environment are fluorinated VOCs. These decomposition products react with stratospheric ozone and deplete the concentration in the ozone layer. all of these are counted in the values assigned to HFC-134a. heat (in the form of steam or natural gas). (from all sources). Lindley / International Journal of Refrigeration 26 (2003) 865–872 Fig. Although manufacture of the catalyst requires chromium oxide. the small amounts of VOC greenhouse gases that escape without the possibility of being oxidised (losses from container filling and fugitive emissions from plant flanges etc are typical examples) were specifically estimated using methods consistent with that sanctioned by the USEPA [14]. McCulloch. The major environ- .3 tonnes of trichloroethene and 0. The principal co-product is hydrochloric acid which can be sold as such and. which are greenhouse gases.868 A.2 MWh of electrical energy and 28 GJ of heat energy 5 Ozone Depleting Substances are materials that can be transported into the stratosphere and there decompose to release chlorine or bromine. the former are removed from process vent streams by thermal oxidation and the fuel. nitric acid and alkali. On average these amount to 1. Typically about 1. 2. and water in amounts that depend on the way that individual plants are operated. the processes do not emit ozone depleting substances5 or greenhouse gases in controlled vents. Ozone depleting substances are controlled under the Montreal Protocol. However.8 tonnes of HF are required for each tonne of HFC-134a. Any requirement for alkali to neutralise unsold hydrochloric acid is similarly assigned to the HFC-134a product. water and alkali requirements for this are included in the analysis. A. but the process also requires electrical power. mainly associated with filling containers for transport of the product where the small leakages cannot be captured and treated. Block diagram of the production stage of the HFC-134a process showing principal chemical and service requirements and process outputs.11]. Almost all of the releases are as so-called fugitive emissions. the quantities involved are small in comparison to the principal raw materials and present no special issues relative to the scale of manufacture of HFCs.5 tonnes of nitrogen and 13 m3 of water per tonne of HFC-134a. In general. is treated as neutral in that it attracts none of the process inputs. Because the systems are totally enclosed and because it is a general condition of operation for these relatively new plants that vent gases are treated. here [10. nitrogen and air. 0. in this analysis.A. and spent catalyst.

As described by Campbell and McCul- . are counted as solid waste for landfill.20].5 tonnes. North American and Japanese plants are Poland and Texas/Louisiana. The requirement there is to contain the waste but not necessarily to treat it in any way. as collecting agent. Calcium fluoride This is mined as fluorspar (CaF2) and requirements for USA. Principal sources for European.3. mainly to rotate the kiln and provide other mixing. Mine capacity is nominally 100. McCulloch. the fluorspar will contain country rock and other inert impurities. Sulphuric acid A standard double absorption ‘‘contact’’ process is assumed in which sulphur is burnt in air to sulphur dioxide (SO2) that is oxidised further to sulphur trioxide (SO3) over a vanadium pentoxide catalyst [16]. the waste being mainly ground up country rock that goes to a tailings dam.000 tons. at an average rate of 1 kg tonneÀ1 of product is essentially an inert transition metal oxyfluoride that is treated as special waste and sent to secure landfill. Recovery from run-of-mine is assumed to be 50%. eventually.A. This is adsorbed onto the refined fluorspar and is subsequently carbonised in the HF kiln. The calorific value of sulphur combustion is recovered by raising steam which provides most of the energy to drive the gas flow through the plant with a significant fraction left over for use in neighbouring processes. Spent catalyst. However.000 tonne bulk tankers and thence moved a total of 20 km by road. 3. The 3. However. Because movement of HFC-134a and the raw materials directly associated with it are a relatively small portion of the total movement of goods and materials. silver or zinc ores. The energy exported is credited to sulphuric acid production: The catalyst for the process has been developed over many decades and now lasts several years.2. should serve as a model for operations elsewhere. Like the catalyst used in HFC-134a manufacture.25 kg tonneÀ1 [21]. It is also assumed to be transported molten to the sulphuric acid plant by sea in 20. 3. it is sold as synthetic anhydrite for use in hydraulic cements and screeds and also for landfill engineering. Europe and Japan come mainly from China and Europe [19. together with varying amounts of lead. Hydrogen fluoride This was assumed to be manufactured in a standard rotary kiln process by reaction of fluorspar (CaF2. In this calculation it is assumed to be landfilled. calcium fluoride) with oleum (a mixture of concentrated sulphuric acid and sulphur trioxide) [15]: CaF2 þ H2 SO4 ! 2HF þ CaSO4 ð2Þ S þ O2 ! SO2 ðþ1=2O2 Þ -vanadium pentoxide ! SO3 ð3Þ This reaction requires a temperature of over 300  C and heat is generally provided by burning natural gas. This process requires large amounts of hot water and has significantly higher energy requirements than recovery processes [18]. Much (20 million tonnes yearÀ1) of the sulphur traded for sulphuric acid manufacture has been recovered from crude oil and natural gas desulphurisation [17]. The product is transferred between plants and to major customers in ISO standard demountable tanks each with a typical carrying capacity of 21. It may be regenerated in situ many times but. assuming 17 days at sea. use of recovered sulphur and storage and shipping as a solid powder would tend to reduce the energy load but may not represent a realistic worst case.36 GJ of natural gas to heat the water to extract it (equivalent to 0. The residual quantities that cannot be sold.075 tonnes of CO2) for transportation.5 tonnes of solid calcium sulphate (CaSO4) co-produced finds several uses in civil engineering. with the exception of transportation.A. this becomes impossible and it has to be replaced. the notional basis for the calculation was an historical UK mining and milling operation that. Shipments between plants are mainly sea borne by container ships in the region of 60. residues being associated with the synthetic anhydrite product.17 tonnes of CO2) and 0. the principal potential impact on the environment arises during disposal. a waste disposal landfill that has been suitably engineered to obviate leaching of the contents by environmental water or wind-borne release of waste in the form of dust. Lindley / International Journal of Refrigeration 26 (2003) 865–872 869 mental effect is in disposal of spent catalyst. 3. Thus each tonne of sulphur requires in the region of 3. The spent catalyst amounts to 20 g tonneÀ1 of sulphuric acid product and is disposed of in secure landfill or returned to the catalyst manufacturer for reprocessing. it seems appropriate to include only the energy cost of shipping the raw materials and product in these calculations. Customers receive the product mainly by road. These are separated and recovered from the crushed and milled fluorspar mainly by froth flotation using. a significant amount (14 million tonnes yearÀ1) is mined by the Frasch process in which it is obtained from underground deposits by melting with superheated water.000 tonnes yearÀ1 as finished dry acid grade calcium fluoride. There is a relatively small requirement for electrical power.4.025 tonnes of fuel oil (0. A. for example on the occasions when the quality of this by-product does not match specification. a soap such as oleic acid or sodium stearate at a rate of 0. This is thought to represent a typical situation with high energy requirements. As mined.

the overall reaction is: 2NaCl þ 2H2 OÀ2 electrons ! Cl2 þ 2NaOH ð7Þ ð4Þ Process energy requirements are 9. almost the same mass of natural gas as oil products was used as feedstock and the principal other requirement was a total of 25. fluorspar and sulphur round the world were Hydrogen chloride (HCl) is a major co-product of this stage of this process (0. Ethylene Ethylene (C2H4. the data calculated by Boustead for ethylene from the plants feeding into the North European Pipeline was used [29].6 tonnes tonneÀ1) and releases small amounts of sulphur dioxide.27 tonnes NaCl. plants are situated close to the oil refineries that provide the feedstock and the ethylene is distributed to users by pipeline [28]. trichloroethylene) is a common industrial solvent with global sales of some 200.870 A. In either case. The alternative. This difference is reflected in the chloralkali sourced for production in USA and Japan. 3. whence the principal products are trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene. set at the energy value of the chlorine content which amounts to 1. taking full credit for HCl recovery. McCulloch. for example if it were converted into hydrochloric acid (as in the HFC-134a production step).9 Gj tonneÀ1 of natural gas. Some 3.97 GJ hydrogen fuel credit and 3. Hydrogen coproduct is equivalent to a credit of 1.92 tonnes tonneÀ1) and. crude oil.78 MWh tonneÀ1 [10]. 1. Trichloroethene Trichloroethene (CHCl¼CCl2. and caustic soda solution boost the process energy requirement for a tonne of trichloroethene to 32 GJ. European capacity for chlorine production by this route is 6900 kt yearÀ1 [25]. 1.013 tonnes of hydrogen. Shipping and transport The fuel requirements to ship HFC-134a product.04 g of mercury if the mercury cell process is used and none in the case of the membrane process [27]. Chlorine. Additional requirements for energy in the form of natural gas and steam. For this analysis.06 MWh. ethene) is the largest individual petrochemical product. alkali and hydrogen by electrolysis In Europe.13 tonnes of water. can be used on site in further processing or in oxychlorination reactions.6 kWh tonneÀ1 electricity and 0. CH2 ClCH2 Cl þ 2Cl2 ! CHCl ¼ CCl2 þ 3HCl CH2 ClCH2 Cl þ 3Cl2 ! CCl2 ¼ CCl2 þ 4HCl ð5Þ ð6Þ The inventory calculation is based on the ‘‘electrochemical unit’’. the process requires 5. The amalgam is decom- .75 GJ of energy. caustic soda) and hydrogen and the mercury is recycled. Based on the data of Elkin [24]. 3. A. 3. For fluorspar sourced from locations other than UK.8. If the HCl were not recovered. in many cases. CH2 ¼ CH2 þ Cl2 ! CH2 ClCH2 Cl À1 posed to yield sodium hydroxide (NaOH.7. for this calculation.000 tonne bulk solids carriers) from either China or Mexico.A. membrane. In this.26].53 tonnes water. Further conversion of the dichloroethane is accomplished in a separate process. The process also requires water (1. the energy recovered from it and the requirements for brine.464 tonnes of chlorine.296 tonnes of ethylene and 0. The equivalent values for a tonne of chlorine are: 3. 2. Lindley / International Journal of Refrigeration 26 (2003) 865–872 loch [10].9 GJ tonneÀ1 derived independently for an average European process [23]. this would rise to about 52 GJ tonneÀ1. essentially one tonne of total products.5. the electrolysis of sodium (or potassium) chloride brine is commonly accomplished in mercury cells that give gaseous chlorine (Cl2) and sodium amalgam as the primary products. divided into 0.000 tonnes yearÀ1 [22]. In Campbell and McCulloch [10] we suggested a model process which proceeded via dichloroethane that gives results similar to the ‘‘average’’ European process [23].523 tonnes of sodium hydroxide and 0.13 tonnes of sodium chloride (NaCl) and 1. were assumed to be natural gas. process operates without use of mercury.9 GJ tonneÀ1 of energy (including the primary energy used for electrical power). For each tonne of alkali (caustic soda as 100% NaOH). For this reason it is assumed to attract an energy credit. 3. chlorination of ethylene to dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) proceeds at about 95% efficiency and so will require 0. a value consistent with the 50. the main additional input arose from sea borne transportation (assumed to be in 50. The quantity converted into HFC-134a is significantly less than this but would be produced by the same process. with co-production of propene and other valuable chemical raw materials.6. It is made by pyrolysing mixed hydrocarbon feedstock (anything from natural gas to heavy oil) in plants of several hundred thousand tonnes yearÀ1. again described by Elkin [24].13 MWh of electricity are required.26 tonnes of waste brine is generated that contains 0. If the latter is treated simply as a fuel (with a calorific value of 286 GJ tonneÀ1).755 tonnes of chlorine per tonne of product.54 kg tonneÀ1 of fuel oil. oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic hydrocarbons to the atmosphere and small amounts of solid to landfill (ash and mineral waste). 1. water and electrical power may be split between the two main products [10. 0. 34. the sodium hydroxide being generated directly in the cathode compartment of the cell.8 tonnes waste brine. In general.5 Gj tonne and. 3.

4% of the potential impact from release of the HFC itself. 1 kg of ‘‘special waste’’ (mainly spent catalyst) to landfill. Haywood J. USA and Japan. Dai X.17 tonnes of natural gas. Haigh J. Radiative forcing of climate change.04 tonnes CO2 tonneÀ1 HFC-134a. The energy cost of transporting product to the customers is somewhat larger than that for the raw materials and is equivalent to a further 0. Of the byproducts and wastes that are produced.21 tonnes of limestone. McCulloch. Containment of HFC-134a during use and adequate provisions for disposal without significant release into the atmosphere are therefore far more important to minimise environmental impact than any further measures that could be taken during the production phase. In: Houghton JT. 0.A. Griggs DJ. which were assumed to be 20% of the total ship time. it is an insoluble compound of chromium. Myhre G.5 tonne payloads was assumed to be accomplished with a diesel usage of 2. This does not obviate the objective to continue to minimise emissions from production.15 tonnes of crude oil. This value includes all energy related inputs from primary fuels using the conversion factors shown in Jaques [31] and excludes the CO2 equivalent of the feedstock carbon sources (the crude oil and natural gas shown above). The energy required to obtain and convert the raw materials and deliver the product. It also includes the CO2 released when limestone is converted to lime by calcination [32].04 g of mercury released into sea water and greenhouse gases amounting to the equivalent of 2. Environmental releases associated with each tonne of HFC-134a are: 9. In all of the plants it is discharged to seawater and will augment the pre-existing natural background (the concentration in the effluent is about 50 times background and the dilution factor should be several thousand-fold). HFC-134a is a greenhouse gas with a Global Warming Potential equal to 1300 (tonnes of CO2 per tonne of HFC).02 tonnes of CO2 tonneÀ1 HFC-134a and are included in this value. 0. Energy requirements to transport the raw materials amount to 0. for permission to publish proprietary data and to the two reviewers for their helpful comments. plus the effect from other greenhouse gases released during conversion would be equivalent to 6. manufacture of each tonne of HFC-134a requires: 0.16 tonnes of sulphur. Shi GY.1 tonnes of CO2.8 km lÀ1 (8 miles per gallon) with no backloading.06 kWh tonne kmÀ1.2 g of mercury in compounds released into the atmosphere and 0. A. 3 kg of hydrocarbon VOCs. 3. oxygen and fluorine that is buried in secure landfill from which leaching into the environment should not occur. showing that the fuel usage (F tonnes dayÀ1) is linearly related to the size of the vessel (T tons deadweight): F ¼ 7:76 þ 3:29 Â 10À4 Â T R2 ¼ 0:963 À1 ð8Þ An allowance of a further 3 tonnes day was included for days in port. Globally averaged over plants in UK.48 tonnes of CO2 per tonne of product. Road transport of the typical 21. The total mercury released per tonne of HFC-134a is less than 1/10th that in a normal dental filling. Ding Y.39 tonnes of mine tailings (mainly ‘‘country’’ rock) landfilled at the fluorspar mine. Acknowledgements The authors are indebted to the management of Ineos Fluor Ltd. References [1] Ramaswamy V. Noguer M. However. 2 kg of sulphur dioxide. 0. 30 kg of calcium sulphate (to landfill). Lindley / International Journal of Refrigeration 26 (2003) 865–872 871 calculated from the data in Ewart [30]. Load factors varied from 50% for the dedicated carriers to 80% for a container liner.3 tonnes of waste salt brine (to the sea).6 tonnes of CO2 per tonne of HFC-134a. Nakajima T. 0. 0. The energy required to provide these raw materials in a form that can be used at the plants and to process them through intermediates into HFC-134a is the equivalent of 4.A. again not backloaded. van de Linden PJ.39 tonnes of fluorspar.1 tonnes of sodium or potassium chloride and 25 tonnes of water. requirements for the manufacture of HFC-134a are minor relative to global industrial demand and the materials themselves do not present special problems of extraction. or 0. Conclusion The purpose of this paper was to place emissions into the environment during the manufacture of HFC-134a into the context of the environmental impact that might arise from its use and ultimate disposal. the waste catalyst would arguably be of most concern. Boucher O. with rail transport at 0. . 4. Hauglustaine D. None of the raw materials presents a particular environmental issue. 0. Solomon S.

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