KINGSTON UNIVERSITY

February 12

Mars Express

2010

SCHOOL OF AEROSPACE AND AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING

KAUSALYAH THEVENDRAM K0938660

BENG (HONS) AEROSPACE ENGINEERING, ASTRONAUTICS & SPACE TECHNOLOGY

However. The report states the mission of the spacecraft and the lander. Online journals also were a great help along with this report as a reference. KINGSTON UNIVERSITY Page 1 .Mars Express KAUSALYAH THEVENDRAM K0938660 ABSTRACT This report is based on the Mars Express mission which was ESA’s (European Space Agency) first mission to Mars. Beagle 2 as well as the technology which are being used to successfully complete the mission. The information on Mars Express is obtained from many sources from the internet. The mission was a success and also a failure. The objectives of the mission as well as the facts of the Planet Mars were acquired from many sources. the mission is now prolonged for another Martian year by the ESA. This is includes the equipment used in the spacecraft as well as the lander. The successiveness and failure of the mission is also discussed in the conclusion of the report.

.6 1.2 Beagle 2…………………………………………………………………….11 KINGSTON UNIVERSITY Page 2 .4 Mars Express Instruments…………………………………………………….Mars Express KAUSALYAH THEVENDRAM K0938660 TABLE OF CONTENT 1.2 Background of Mars Express…………………………………………………4 1.3.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………3 1.4.5 1.4.3 MARSIS (Sub-surface Sounding Radar Altimeter)…………………….4 PFS (Planetary Fourier Spectrometer)………………………………….5 1.2 OMEGA (Visible and Infrared Mineralogical Mapping Spectrometer).4.4..3 Mission of Mars Express………………………………………………………5 1.4.7 1.7 1.6 1.3.4.1 High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC)……………………………….5 SPICAM (Ultraviolet and Infrared Atmospheric Spectrometer).10 References………………………………………………………………………….6 ASPERA (Energetic Neutral Atoms Analyser)…………………………9 1.8 1.1 Mars Express Orbiter………………………………………………………5 1.4.8 1.7 MaRS (Mars Radio Science Experiment)………………………………9 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………….4..

In conjunction. Geographically. In this case. space exploration is necessary to discover the ability of living creature in this planet in order to know regarding the origin of life in our Earth. According to space research. It is also said to have the highest volcano in the solar system which rises 25 kilometers above the surrounding terrain.1 INTRODUCTION Space is a galactic cosmos which is yet to be discovered by human. Mars is a small planet with a diameter half than Earth. space missions are introduced to discover our solar system and natural resources which can be reliable to human race. KINGSTON UNIVERSITY Page 3 .Mars Express KAUSALYAH THEVENDRAM K0938660 1. Mars is a cool and dry planet with a foremost composition of carbon dioxide in the thin atmosphere. one of the planets in our solar system has continued to fascinate mankind which is Mars. Due to this climate condition. The mission to repopulate human race in the most likely planet to Earth is being part of space exploration.1 below was known to be humid and moderate. The exploration of space and planetary is vital to human race as the existence of Earth and the risk that Earth could face can be identified. explore and discover the planets and unknown objects in the solar system and universe. Mars being the planet closest to Earth as shown in the Figure 1. Space exploration enable human race to understand. Meanwhile in the early history of the planet.

Figure 1.2.1 below to launch the mission. Fregat is the fourth stage and was ignited twice during the launch. Toulouse and France being the prime contractor leading a consortium of 24 companies in 15 European countries and the United States.esa. atmosphere and reactions to the solar system.1 The distance between Earth and Mars http://www. The first ignition positioned it into a circular orbit separating it from Soyuz KINGSTON UNIVERSITY Page 4 .int/SPECIALS/Mars_Express/SEMNS75V9ED_1. Mars Express. a European/Russian company which supplied the Soyuz/Fregat rocket as shown in the Figure 1. Beagle 2. This Mars Express mission was launched on the 2nd June 2003 by Starsem. a small lander of Mars Express was named along with the ship that Charles Darwin sailed when verbalizing his ideas about evolution.1 – The Soyuz /Fregat rocket launcher for Mars Express The Soyuz rocket normally has three stages but in some particular launches there is a fourth stage added. In the case of Mars Express. the first European Space Agency (ESA) probe with Astrium.2.Mars Express KAUSALYAH THEVENDRAM K0938660 Figure 1.html 1.2 BACKGROUND OF MARS EXPRESS The conception of Mars Express originated following the failed Russian Mars 1996 probe which was designed to study the red planet’s surface. The name of Mars Express was given in conjunction of being built more quickly than any other planetary operations.

the orbiter will analysis the atmospheric composition and determines its global circulation.1 Mars Express orbiter The main objective of the mission was to search for evidence of sub-surface water from orbit. the orbiter will examine the structure of the sub-surface processes especially the permafrost. a geological and mineralogical mapping of the Mars surface will be studied by the orbiter using a variety of multi-coloured image at a resolution of 100 metres. It will image the entire surface of the planet at high resolution (10 metres/pixel) and a number of selected areas at super resolution (2 meters/pixel) for a better capture. The presence of liquid would be an indication whether Martian life is a possibility. 1. Apart from this. The Mars Express orbiter will play the main roles in the mission. This will be done to a depth of few kilometres beneath the surface.2 Beagle 2 The lander was meant to make its own descend on the surface of the landing site with the power of the planet’s gravity. Moreover. the lander which was to make its own way to the landing site on the surface.3. The Mars Express spacecraft launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan successfully entered the Martian orbit on 25th December 2003. Six days before the arrival. Mars Express ejected Beagle 2.3. 1. The spacecraft first manoeuvred into a highly capture elliptical orbit and then moved on to a near polar orbit in January 2004.3 MISSION OF MARS EXPRESS 1. As soon as the Beagle 2 comes to a halt after been ejected. Moreover. The landing site is Isidis Planitia where traces of life could have been conserved. Mars Express would also conduct a global research on reserves which would be useful for human kind using the orbiter’s sub-surface radar in conjunction with Beagle 2 on the surface. the orbiter will also determine the effect of atmosphere on the surface as well as the interaction of that atmosphere with the solar wind. The low latitude of the landing site is to minimise the amount of insulation needed by the lander to withstand the cold Martian night. Besides that. the bags filled with gas will be released and inner workings will be KINGSTON UNIVERSITY Page 5 .Mars Express KAUSALYAH THEVENDRAM K0938660 while the second injected Mars Express into its planetary trajectory a few hours later. In order to understand how close the mars planet is to humankind.

The instruments that are been used in the surface and sub-surface are the HRSC (High Resolution Stereo Camera). Meanwhile.4 MARS EXPRESS INSTRUMENTS There are number of instruments been used in the process of the mission. In addition. OMEGA (Visible and Infrared Mineralogical Mapping Spectrometer). the Beagle 2 was also sent to determine the geology.1 High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) The HRSC as shown in the Figure 1.4. The lander of Mars Express was planned to search for sign of life signature (exobiology) as well as study the climate and weather in the planet. Another benefit is the 3 dimensional imaging which will present the topography view of Mars in complete colour. The Beagle’s PAW (Position Adjustable Workbench) which also part of the inner workings located at the end arm is where most of the experiments are situated. The inner workings which are the solar panels will power the lander and its experiments through sunlight throughout the mission. 1. PFS (Planetary Fourier Spectrometer). Some specific areas will require a resolution with 2 metres which will allow a deep examination of the surface. The PAW’s job is to move around so that the camera attached to it will be able to capture some images of the side. One of the strength of this device is the ability of obtaining a supreme precision with the combination of images with both resolutions. SPICAM (Ultraviolet and Infrared Atmospheric Spectrometer) and ASPERA (Energetic Neutral Atoms Analyser) are the instruments used in the atmosphere and ionosphere.Mars Express KAUSALYAH THEVENDRAM K0938660 revealed by the opening of the outer casing. with 3 dimensions and high resolution up to 10 metres. The Beagle 2 has about 180 sols (Martian days which is almost an Earth day) to complete its mission. The MaRS (Mars Radio Science Experiment) is being used as a communication instrument. MARSIS (Sub-surface Sounding Radar Altimeter). chemical and ore of the landing site.1 (a) below is a device that will map the entire planet in full colour. KINGSTON UNIVERSITY Page 6 . 1.4.

int/SPECIALS/Mars_Express/SEMUC75V9ED_0.2 OMEGA (Visible and Infrared Mineralogical Mapping Spectrometer) OMEGA will provide a surface structure in 100 metre squares.Mars Express KAUSALYAH THEVENDRAM K0938660 Figure1. OMEGA as shown in Figure 1. The device will analyse the light which is reflected from the planet’s surface to examine the mineral composition on the surface layer. through the Figure 1.2 (a) http://www.html KINGSTON UNIVERSITY Page 7 .2 microns.1(a) http://www.5 to 5. For this purpose.4.4.html 1.esa.int/SPECIALS/Mars_Express/SEMUC75V9ED_0.esa.4. the range of wavelength activated was between 0.4.2 (a) will also measure the trait of atmospheric composition when the reflected light atmosphere to enter the passes sensor.

Figure 1.4. This is done by analysing the wavelength of sunlight in the range of 1. surface characterisation as well as ionosphere sounding. climatic and geologic progress of the planet. The findings for reservoir of water will be address key issues in the concept of hydrologic.Mars Express KAUSALYAH THEVENDRAM K0938660 1. the infrared radiation emitted by molecules in the atmosphere is also analysed by this instrument.4 (a) is used to determine the composition of atmosphere in Mars.4.html 1. In addition.3 (a) below) primary objectives are to map the existence of water in the form of liquid or solid in the crust of Mars.3 (a) http://www.4 PFS (Planetary Fourier Spectrometer) The PFS as shown in Figure 1.4. Significantly this will be the surface of Mars but there is a radio signal that will travel through the surface.4. KINGSTON UNIVERSITY Page 8 .esa. The instrument will examine to a depth of few kilometres beneath the surface. The 40 metre long antenna will send a low frequency radio signal to the planet’s surface. MARSIS also contributes in the subsurface geologic probing.3 MARSIS (Sub-surface Sounding Radar Altimeter) MARSIS (as shown on Figure 1.4.2 to 45 microns which are absorbed by the molecules in the atmosphere.int/SPECIALS/Mars_Express/SEMUC75V9ED_0. The signals will be reflected from any surface that they encounter. This would be reflected at sub-surface boundaries between layers of different materials.

html 1.4.38 microns relatively.Mars Express KAUSALYAH THEVENDRAM K0938660 Figure 1.4. The SPICAM is shown the Figure 1.esa. KINGSTON UNIVERSITY Page 9 . An ultraviolet sensor and infrared sensor in the equipment will measure the ozone layer which absorbs light with 250 nanometres and water vapour which absorbs light with a wavelength 1.int/SPECIALS/Mars_Express/SEMUC75V9ED_0.5 SPICAM (Ultraviolet and Infrared Atmospheric Spectrometer) The composition of atmosphere is identified by the SPICAM from the wavelength of the lights absorbed by the essential gases.4.4 (a) http://www.5 (a) below.

Mars Express KAUSALYAH THEVENDRAM K0938660 Figure 1.html 1.6 ASPERA (Energetic Neutral Atoms Analyser) Ions.4.html 1. This is to divulge the amount of oxygen and hydrogen atoms in the atmosphere which interacts with solar winds. electrons and energetic neutral atoms in the outer layer of the atmosphere are measured by equipment called ASPERA as shown in the Figure 1.4.7 MaRS (Mars Radio Science Experiment) The MaRS as shown in the Figure 1. ionosphere and surface of the planet.5 (a) http://www.esa.7 (a) below is used as a communication device. Meanwhile. KINGSTON UNIVERSITY Page 10 .4.int/SPECIALS/Mars_Express/SEMUC75V9ED_0.6 (a) below.int/SPECIALS/Mars_Express/SEMUC75V9ED_0.6 (a) http://www.4. Figure 1.esa. the planet’s gravity field will provide the information on the interior. Radio signal is used to transport information from the spacecraft to Earth to analyse the atmosphere. This information is gained by calculating the changes of velocity of the spacecraft relative to Earth.4.4.

html 1. KINGSTON UNIVERSITY Page 11 .5 (a) below. Its numerous achievements include the discovery of methane in the atmosphere which could be an indication of volcanic activities. 2009.5 CONCLUSION Mars Express has sent back much scientific data of extraordinary quality. Researches have concluded that the auroras were a result of local magnetic fields created on the planet’s coating as Mars does not have a magnetic field. the lander of Mars Express was unidentified. Some of Mars Express mission was said to be unsuccessful because the plan to land a probe on the planet’s surface was not accomplished. ESA confirmed the extension of the mission of its orbiter for another Martian year.Mars Express KAUSALYAH THEVENDRAM K0938660 Figure 1. In September 2005 as Mars Express approached the end of its primary mission of one Martian year. there was no signal distinguished from the lander ever since it left the spacecraft in December 2003. One of the main highlights is the first discovery of auroras in Mars as shown in the Figure 1. The Mars Express is now continuing on mission through December 31.esa.7 (a) http://www.4.int/SPECIALS/Mars_Express/SEMUC75V9ED_0. Beagle 2. Unfortunately. Mars Express also confirmed the existence of water at the South Pole.

google.5 (a) Auroras in Mars http://images.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://blogs.nationalgeographic.com/blogs/news/brea kingorbit/breakingorbitimages/mars-aurora- Word count: 1862 words KINGSTON UNIVERSITY Page 12 .Mars Express KAUSALYAH THEVENDRAM K0938660 Figure 1.co.

Mission Overview.ac.int/SPECIALS/Mars_Express/SEMUC75V9ED_0.uk. Space Exploration Archieve. Mars Express. Mars Express Orbiter Instruments.com/missions/express/ [Accessed 10 February 2010]. Kingston University Plagiarism Tutorial Completed KINGSTON UNIVERSITY Page 13 . Nmm.marsnews.Europe’s mission to Mars. (2009).aspx [Accessed 9 February 2010]. European Space Agency (ESA).uk/explore/astronomy-and-time/astronomy-facts/exploration/mars-express [Accessed 8 February 2010].com. (2005). Mars Express .bnsc. Availabe at: http://www. Available at: http://www.html [Accessed 9 February 2010].gov. Available at: http://www. The Planetary Society. Available at: http://www.esa. Available at: http://www.org/explore/topics/mars_Express/ [Accessed 8 February 2010].uk/Missions/Exploring-the-Solar-System/8116.ac.Mars Express KAUSALYAH THEVENDRAM K0938660 REFERENCES BNSC. MarsNews.nmm.planetary.

Mars Express KAUSALYAH THEVENDRAM K0938660 KINGSTON UNIVERSITY Page 14 .