Ohm’s law ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS AND THEIR UNITS Ohm's Law states that in a simple electrical circuit, the voltage equals the electrical current times the resistance. V = IR where: V is the voltage in volts I is the current in amperes or amps R is the resistance in ohms Voltage Voltage is the electrical potential energy and is measured in volts. A good analogy is to think of a water hose. There is water pressure or potential energy on the other side of the faucet or outlet valve. The unit symbol for volts is V, as in 110V. Current

Fixed Resistors A fixed resistor is one in which the value of its resistance cannot change.05% tolerance. like the volume adjustment of Radio. Electrical current is similar to the rate of water flowing through a hose.2 Current indicates the amount of electrons passing through the wire and is measured in amperes or amps for short. Metal film resistors Variable Resistors There are two general ways in which variable resistors are used." A 1000 Ohm resistor is typically shown as 1KOhm ( kilo Ohm ). and the unit symbol for it is the Greek letter omega. Metal film resistors Metal film resistors are used when a higher tolerance (more accurate value) is needed. and 1000 K-Ohms is written as 1M-Ohm ( megohm ). The typical resistor is made of either carbon film or metal film. They are also classified according to the material from which they are made. as in 2. Usually the tolerance of the resistance value is ±5%. One is the variable resistor which value is easily changed. they use I to indicate current instead of a different letter. Carbon film resistors have a disadvantage. TYPES OF RESISTANCE There are two classes of resistors. FIXED RESISTORS VARIABLE RESISTORS. . Ω. Resistance is measured in ohms. The other is semi-fixed resistor that is not meant to be adjusted by anyone but a technician. cheap resistor. There are other types as well. The unit symbol for amps is A. Resistance value is designated in units called the "Ohm. Carbon film resistors This is the most general purpose. they tend to be electrically noisy. Resistance Electrical resistance can be thought of as the "friction" on the movement of electrons in a wire.0A. For some reason. They are much more accurate in value than carbon film resistors. but these are the most common. They have about ±0.

Alternating Current DC .Alternating Current . Like links in a chain. Laws of Resistance 1. Resistors in Parallel A parallel circuit is one that has two or more paths for the electricity to flow. There is only one path for the electricity to flow. 2. The resistance of a conductor depends on the material. the loads are parallel to each other. The above factors can be summed up mathematically as where ρ is constant representing the nature of material and is known as specific resistance.The resistance of a conductor varies directly as its length. The resistance of a conductor depends on its temperature.The resistance of a conductor varies inversely to its cross section area. 4. In other words. 3. TYPES OF CURRENT AC .Direct Current AC .3 Resistor color code RESISTENCE IN CIRCUIT Resistors in Series A series circuit is one with all the loads in a row.

g. The copper plate and the zinc plate are externally connected to a bulb Zinc loses electrons more readily than copper. . These two metal plates are called electrodes and the solution is called the electrolyte. If it is just a single chemical source then it is called a cell. SIMPLE VOLTAIC CELL In a simple voltaic cell a zinc plate and a copper plate are immersed in a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. or electro-motive force (EMF) a store of energy is required. Any device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy.4 Alternating Current is current in which the direction changes with time. Backup and Emergency Generators at Commercial Buildings) DC . The magnitude may vary but the direction is always fixed. taken in a glass vessel. The term battery is used when several electrical cells are connected together to provide a source of a potential difference in a circuit. Car Battery) Photovoltaic Cells (Solar Cells) DC Generators AC to DC adapters Electricity CELL AND BATTERIES In order to provide a potential difference. AC Sources: Power Plant (Mains Supply) Generators (e. DC Sources: Dry Cells Secondary Cells (e. Each zinc atom loses two free electrons and hence gains two units of positive charge.g.Direct Current Direct Current is unidirectional. One such method is a battery or cell. as it is more electropositive than copper.

So. 4S2P means four cells in a series and two parallel. the more Volts you have running through the bulb.5 Volt batteries provide 4. . Seebeck Effect This effect is named after common Johann Seebeck. CELLS IN PARALLEL Devices that require more current are typically designed to use larger cells because the larger cells are capable of delivering a proportionally larger current. are joined at their ends (called a junction) through a sensitive galvanometer. and the two junctions are kept at different temperatures. THERMOELECTRICITY Thermoelectricity refers to the phenomena that occur at the junctions of dissimilar conductors when a temperature difference exists between the junctions. He found that Bismuth. then the galvanometer shows a deflection. You may have noticed that the traditional flashlight comes in various sizes to accommodate a varying number of batteries stacked end to end. it does not undergo a similar reaction and hence remains a region of deficiency of electrons.5 As copper is lower in the metal activity series. a German physicist. Traditional Zinc Carbon batteries cannot be reused when their chemical energy has been released COMBINATION OF CELLS IN SERIES AND PARALLEL CELLS IN SERIES These batteries are in a series. who discovered it in 1821.5 Volts. free electrons from the zinc plate flow to the copper plate and the bulb connected externally starts glowing. when the zinc plate and the copper plate are connected by means of a metal wire. Three 1. The same phenomenon occurs within a single conductor too. The battery cells in a laptop are set up in a combination of series and parallel to provide the correct current and voltage. ALSO CALLED Zinc Carbon This is commonly known as the Leclanché Cell and despite being the oldest type of battery it is still the most commonly used as it is very low-cost. The longer the series. with the two ends are maintained at different temperatures.

CHEMICAL EFFECTS OF A CURRENT Solid and molten metals are good conductors of electricity due to free electrons. The passage of an electric current through a conducting liquid causes chemical reactions. e. It is based on Seebeck effect. The solutions which conduct electric current are called electrolytes and the vessel containing it along with electrodes is called an electrolytic cell. When current flows through metals. A thermocouple current-meter consists of a resistance R. only heating occurs and no chemical effect is observed. The two junction circuit is called a thermocouple. Cont. Thermocouple current-meter Thermoelectric effects are also used to measure current. a thermocouple and a sensitive galvanometer. water.6 Cont. OR . Thermoelectric generator Thermo-couples can be used to generate electric power using Seebeck effect. for short. in remote areas.g. Cont. Thermoelectric Detector The thermopile is a sensitive device used for detection and measurement of intensity of heat or high radiation. When an acid. This effect is called thermoelectric effect because heat energy is directly converted into electrical energy Another example of thermo electrical Applications of Thermoelectricity Thermoelectric thermometer This provides the most accurate and conveinient measurement of temperature. The resulting effects are called Chemical effects of currents. base or an inorganic salt is added to water it dissociates into positive and negative ions which conduct electricity. The resulting current is known as thermoelectric current.. CHEMICAL EFFECTS OF A CURRENT When an electric current passes through a liquid it may cause a chemical reaction to occur in the liquid. ELECTROLYSIS The splitting (lysing) of a substance or decomposing by forcing a current through a cell to produce a chemical change for which the cell potential is negative. This emf generated in the circuit is called thermoelectric emf or thermo-emf. Most liquids have no free electrons and hence do not conduct electricity.

If the patient has not received adequate warning of the sensations she will experience. PLASMA A plasma can be seen as a highly ionized gas. REASION OF ELECTROLYTIC BURN If the pads are too thin for the intensity and duration of the treatment. so ionized that it local charges are large enough with a long enough lifetime to produce effects!’ . or end of the lead projects over the edge of the pad. and even more to solids!). to pads of uneven thickness or with creases or with raw edges of pads that are unevenly damp. she may tolerate too much current or concentration may pass undetected. this means a small quantity of ionized molecules compared to the total quantity of molecules in a given volume. IONIZATION OF GASES Gases are made of molecules with no linking force between them (by opposition to liquids. clip. as the tissues are then directly involved in the chemical actions. Molten NaCl Electrolytic Cell cathode half-cell (-) REDUCTION Na+ + e. as a grey spot surrounded by the reddened area. chemicals may soak through skin. REASION OF ELECTROLYTIC BURN Concentration of current may also cause burn as more chemicals are formed in the area of concentration than elsewhere. This process is known as electrolysis.7 The passage of an electric current through a liquid causes chemical changes. the same thing may occur. This may occur if the electrode. ‘A ionized gas. are electrolyte or chemical burns. ELECTROLYTIC BURNS Burns produced by the constant D.C. This may be due to a break in the skin to the presence of un dissolved slats on the pad. REASION OF ELECTROLYTIC BURN Burns are most liable to occur if the current is applied with metal in contact with the tissues. This definition is not very academic. Conduction is possible only in those liquids which are at least partly dissociated into oppositely charged ions. A gas naturally has a small ionization rate. Cl2 + 2e- overall cell reaction 2Na+ + 2Cl. such liquids are called electrolytes. 2Na + Cl2 ELECTROLYTIC BURNS FIRST WE READ ABOUT ELECTRICAL MUSCELS STIMULATION EMS Electrical stimulation uses an electrical current to cause a single muscle or a group of muscles to contract. Na anode half-cell (+) OXIDATION 2Cl. Tissue is destroyed and the burn appears. The electrolytic cell Electric current forces charges on electrodes Electrolysis Schematic of the electroplating of a spoon. By placing electrodes on the skin in various locations the physical therapist can recruit the appropriate muscle fibers. but it describes quite well what a plasma is. or if the pads have been properly washed after a previous treatment and still contain some chemicals.

and so described by Sir William Crookes in 1879 (he called it "radiant matter") in which cathode rays. it just provides the heat. They collect in a space charge around the cathode and protect it from heavy positive ions that could do serious damage. diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts electric current in only one direction. . is the process by which charge carriers. a vacuum tube/ electron tube /thermionic valve is a device used to amplify. TRIODE The tri part of triode means 3. DIODES AND TRIODES In electronics. surrounded by an envelope which allows them to operate in a vacuum. that is electrons. DIODES It basically consists of two parts or ‘Electrodes’. OR This property of ‘boiling off’ electrons is called ‘Thermionic Emission’ as the emission of electrons is produced by the heat. the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve. Thus. ELECTRONIC TUBES. and plate or anode. such as electrons or ions. move over a surface or some sort of energy barrier by the induction of heat. grid. The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current in one direction (called the diode's forward direction) while blocking current in the opposite direction (the reverse direction). switch. There are three elements in a triode. When we heat up the metal we get a cloud of electrons that are ‘boiling’ off the metal surface and then (usually!) falling back again. also known as thermal electron emission. the cathode. This property of ‘boiling off’ electrons is called ‘Thermionic Emission’ as the emission of electrons is produced by the heat. The heater doesn't count since it doesn't take part in the operation. were discovered THERMIONIC EMISSION Thermionic emission. If we write an ode to tri we have a 3 element tube. otherwise modify.8 CONT. Tubes depend on the thermionic emission of electrons. or create an electrical signal by controlling the movement of electrons in a lowpressure space. Plasma was first identified in a Crookes tube. Electrons are emitted from the cathode exactly the same as in a diode.

As the grid is made less negative it lets more and more electrons through.9 In normal operation the grid is made negative with respect to the cathode and never goes positive. The grid does not attract electrons and because its wires are very thin. in modern tubes. The electric field of the grid repels the negatively charged electrons and limits the number that can pass through to the plate. few electrons run into it by accident. . If the grid is made negative enough no electrons at all can get through.