# Data Communication & Computer Networks

Assignment 1 Solution
BEE5 D&E

Course Instructor: Dr. Junaid Qadir 2/28/2011

EDGE. Solution to R7: (2) HFC bandwidth and transmission rate is shared among users. Similiarities All technologies support servicing multiple users Dissimilarities WiFi and WiMAX support higher data rate to end users compared to GPRS All technologies are packet switched WiFi provides very less coverage area compared to other technologies WiFi. (Mobile access) Solution to R6 (2) Ethernet can run over twisted pair copper wire. Currently. 2. Ethernet is widely deployed over twisted pair copper wire and fiber optics. WiMAX etc. 3. In the downstream channel head end is the only transmitter present so there is no one else to collide with and hence collision is not possible in downstream channel. (Company access) Wireless LAN. 5. coaxial cable and fiber optic. 6. Dial-up connection over telephone line. (Mobile access) Cellular mobile access. 4. (Residential access) Switched Ethernet.Review questions: Solution to R3 (2) 1. EDGE and GPRS provide multiple access WiFi is based on TDD whereas EDGE and GPRS is based on TDMA based on FDD Solution to R11: (2) Delay from sending host to packet switch: L/R1 Delay from packet switch to receiving host: L/R2 End to end delay becomes: (L/R1) + (L/R2) . (Residential access) DSL over telephone line. (Residential access) Cable over HFC. Solution to R8: (2) Popular wireless Internet access technologies include WiFi. GPRS.

they only require 2 Mbps of bandwidth. d) Probability that all three users transmit is given by: (probability that user 1 transmits) AND (probability that user 2 transmits) AND (probability that user 3 transmits).2. Problems: Solution to P5: (7) a) b) c) d) e) f) Ddrop= m/s seconds Dtrans= L/R seconds Dend-to-end= (m/s + L/R) seconds The last bit would just be leaving host A. two users fill into this capacity and no one is queued and queuing delay does not take place.2*0. a user gets the same slot on the link every time the slot arrives. The first bit is in link and has not reached host B.008. the fraction of time the queue grows is 0. propagation delay.2*0. probability that a user transmits is 0. If two or less users are present. Solution to R15: (2) In packet switching.008. a user transmits for only 20% of the time. Propagation delay however remains fixed. packets traversing a given link do not follow a sequence or pattern to access available slot in the link. queuing delay and processing delay. However in simple TDM systems. Processing delay can vary depending upon load on the processor of devices. which in probabilistic terms will be written as (0. . However if third user comes. b) Queuing delay only incurs when available bandwidth of transmission is less than required. The first bit has reached host B. As the queue grows only when all three users transmit simultaneously. Solution to R17: (2) The packet will have to face transmission delay. only two users can be supported as they take up bandwidth of 2 Mbps together. Since 2 Mbps is the capacity. one will have to wait in queue before bandwidth becomes available because 3 Mbps bandwidth is not available.Solution to R14: (4) a) If circuit switching is used.008. c) As stated. and probability that all three users transmit simultaneously is 0. Queuing delay can vary depending upon requests on the device. Transmission delay can vary if transmission scheme changes over time (for example from higher bit rate to lower bit rate).2) = 0.

120.128.253.31.25 9 ms 172.1.97.pk [221.10] 11 84 ms 50 ms 54 ms rwp44.pk [115.1 2 ms 111.net.100. Traceroute to www.pk: Attempt 1: C:\Users\FARAN>tracert www.21] 9 50 ms 53 ms 50 ms rwp44.251.68.net.240.71] over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 1 ms 5 ms 2 ms 2 ms 7 ms 3 ms 3 ms 5 ms 6 ms 6 ms 2 ms 2 ms 10.net.99.seecs.nayatel.net.pk [221.pk [115.131.1] 2 ms 172.252.pk [58.nayatel.pk [221.120.pie.120.nust.178] 14 48 ms 52 ms 50 ms 115-186-131-71.pie.seecs.5] 10 51 ms 50 ms 49 ms rwp44.edu.pk [115.31.pk [221.131.10 2 ms 172.153 8 26 ms 26 ms 26 ms rwp44.nayatel.nust.175.120.197.186.g) As m=(L/R)*S=(100/28000)*250000000=893 km.186.pie.237.nust.nust.186.97.pk [111.206] 13 49 ms 49 ms 49 ms 115-186-128-178. Solution to P15: (5) The following Traceroute command was executed on Windows based machine using tracert command. The command was run three times at same time of the day for demonstration purpose only.31.68.65.edu.pk Tracing route to seecs.9 6 12 ms 7 25 ms 29 ms 25 ms 221.71] .240.1.120.2 1 ms 10.102] 12 51 ms 54 ms 48 ms 58-65-175-206.254.12.pie.edu.edu.

97.edu.240.186.1.pk [221.Trace complete.131.1] 5 ms 14 ms 172.128.68.99.186.net.seecs.pk [221.pie.pk [221.120.12.net.31.pk Tracing route to seecs.251.pie.175.237.71] over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 ms 1 ms 1 ms 2 ms 1 ms 5 ms 5 ms 4 ms 10.120.153 8 26 ms 25 ms 29 ms rwp44. .65.254.1 2 ms 111.97.net.net.71] Trace complete.nust.9 7 25 ms 28 ms 25 ms 221.1.pie.131.21] 9 52 ms 49 ms 52 ms rwp44.nayatel.pk [115.240.31.100.197.68.253.178] 14 * 52 ms 53 ms 115-186-131-71.31.2 4 ms 10.edu.120.186.120.pk [115.nayatel.pk [58.nust.10 3 ms 6 ms 5 ms 172. Attempt 2: C:\Users\FARAN>tracert www.206] 13 53 ms 49 ms 54 ms 115-186-128-178.edu.nayatel.120.nust.pk [111.252.pk [115.pk [221.5] 10 54 ms 51 ms 50 ms rwp44.102] 12 48 ms 50 ms 49 ms 58-65-175-206.25 7 ms 10 ms 12 ms 172.10] 11 96 ms 52 ms 50 ms rwp44.pie.

21] 9 51 ms 50 ms 49 ms rwp44.12.pie.186.197.pk [221.pk Tracing route to seecs.nayatel. b) In first attempt.pk [221.net.120.68.pk [221.edu. the average round trip delay is (48 + 52 + 50)/3 = 50ms.edu.pk [115.net.nust.31.1] 6 ms 172. The packet takes same path in all three attempts.net.240.71] Trace complete.102] 12 49 ms 52 ms 54 ms 58-65-175-206.31.1 6 ms 111.seecs.128.100.186.251.pie.2 1 ms 10.pk [221.10] 11 53 ms 50 ms 104 ms rwp44.99.pie.9 6 29 ms 7 26 ms 25 ms 28 ms 221.63ms .65.5] 10 54 ms 51 ms 51 ms rwp44.240.153 8 26 ms 28 ms 25 ms rwp44.Attempt 3: C:\Users\FARAN>tracert www.71] over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 2 ms 2 ms 6 ms 4 ms 9 ms 1 ms 2 ms 4 ms 5 ms 4 ms 10.252.pk [58.120.237.nayatel.131.120.131.nayatel.206] 13 52 ms 49 ms 57 ms 115-186-128-178.254.25 8 ms 14 ms 172.97.1.120.31.120.net.97.pk [115.68.186.10 6 ms 5 ms 172.pie.178] 14 50 ms 48 ms 48 ms 115-186-131-71.pk [115.175.edu.pk [111. a) The packet traverses through 14 routers in each attempt.nust. Standard deviation is: sqrt{[(48-50)2+(52-50)2+(50-50)2]/3} = 1.253.1.nust.

3)2+(48-49.221 304 ms 294 ms 290 ms 216. .31.155 290 ms 275 ms 287 ms 209.97.23.125.com [110.1 4 ms 10 ms 5 ms 111.217 312 ms 313 ms 319 ms hb-in-f99.12.1e100.14.3ms.36 273 ms 306 ms 281 ms 209.85.249.87.14.3)2+(48-49.14.99.43.29] 122 ms 122 ms 133 ms tw31-static45.tw1.1.14. Standard deviation is: sqrt{[(50-49.In second attempt.87.97.91 308 ms 297 ms 299 ms 72.85.72 121 ms 127 ms 115 ms 72.l.20.google.com [117.5ms.nust.233. Delays increase when packets move from one network to the other as from NUST s network to PTCL s PIE network.5ms In third attempt.252.com.68.tw1.74 177 ms 189 ms 175 ms 209.209 342 ms 292 ms 295 ms 216.233] 124 ms 124 ms 123 ms tw255-static29.google.1] 4 ms 5 ms 6 ms 172.99] over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 2 ms 3 ms 26 ms 10.45] 124 ms 118 ms 119 ms 72. d) We perform tracert for www. The round trip delay for intercontinental delay is much larger for intra continental transmission.81 297 ms 294 ms 304 ms 209. The output is shown below.47 320 ms 320 ms 326 ms 72.25 134 ms 130 ms 193 ms tw23-static233.net [74.com Tracing route to www.105 314 ms 314 ms 316 ms 72.236. Starting from NUST s network to PTCL s PIE (Pakistan Internet Exchange) to Nayatel s network.85.pk [111.218.google.125.100 121 ms 120 ms 112 ms 66.239. C:\Users\FARAN>tracert www.99] Trace complete.93.5)2]/2} =0.14.13ms c) The packet traverses through three different ISPs. Standard deviation is: sqrt{[(52-52.242.com [117. the average round trip delay is ( 52 + 53)/2 = 52.3)2]/3} = 1.20.5)2+(53-52.43.250 315 ms 316 ms 314 ms 209.100.tw1.33 119 ms 118 ms 116 ms 209.85.254.248.232.248.239.249.202 117 ms 128 ms 118 ms 72. the average round trip delay is (50 + 48 + 48)/3 = 49.31.14.edu.com [74.1.94.232.85.249.68.85.2 4 ms 3 ms 5 ms 10.255.232.