STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS

01 April 2011 13:50

Solid Solubility Solubility = the ability to combine material without producing additional phase.
Phase properties: ○ the same structure/atomic arrangement throughout ○ roughly the same composition and properties throughout ○ a definite interface separating it from adjoining phases.

Solubility types ○ Unlimited solubility ○ Limited solubility ○ No solubility

- e.g. water and alcohol - e.g. salt and water - e.g. oil and water

In metals: UNLIMITED - (Ni - Cu) LIMITED - (Zn - Cu | max 40% Zn) Conditions for unlimited solid solubility in metals 1.) Atoms of similar size. 2.) same crystal structure (i.e. FCC, BCC, HCP) 3.) same valence and electronegativity (to avoid the formation of compounds rather than solutions)

SOLID SOLUTION STRENGTHENING introduction of a solid substitutional alloy (e.g. Ni) into the original lattice (e.g. Cu), disturbed so that the slip of dislocations across atomic planes is hindered, thereby strengthening the material. Strength influenced by: ○ size difference between the atoms (↑difference = ↑ lattice distortion = ↑strength) ○ Amount of alloying elements added (if too much--> dispersion strengthening)
Effects of solid-solution strengthening ↑ yield strength, tensile strength and hardness ↓ductility ↓electrical conductivity ↑ resistance to creep.

AGE HARDENING ( or PRECIPITATION HARDENING)
Precipitate: NON COHERENT COHERENT = second phase which distorts the crystal structure of the matrix (it is coherent with the matrix) Planes distorted = ↑ strength →dispersion strengthening

It is NOT AN HEAT TREATMENT process But it's useful to understand excessive solubility solution heat treatment and ageing

For optimum strength: ○ matrix soft and ductile, precipitate hard and brittle (matrix provides ductility, precipitates ↑strength) ○ discontinuous precipitates in a continuous matrix (cracks in precipitate arrested by precipitate/matrix interface) ○ small, numerous and round precipitate particles ○ Larger amounts of precipitate to ↑ alloy strength
Age hardening designed to produce a uniform dispersoid of a fine, hard coherent precipitate in a softer, ductile matrix. Requirements: ○ alloy systems where SOLID SOLUBILITY LIMITS α T (Example AI-4%Cu) ○ Soft matrix, hard brittle precipitate ○ Coherent precipitate ○ Quenchable alloy

(1) SOLUTION TREATMENT : dissolution of precipitates (2) QUENCH: rapid cooling to avoid formation of θ- only supersaturated α (3) AGE : heating below solvus T--> Atoms diffuse short distances and precipitates nucleate and grow Natural ageing @ T room (longer time) - avoids overageing Artificial ageing @ high T below solvus line (shorter time)
If high T for too long --> overageing (reduction of strength)

WORK HARDENING
If Alloys do not respond to age hardening heat treatment cold working (e.g. rolling, drawing, cold extruding).

An as-cast metal has equiaxed grain structure On cold working, these grains elongate in metal flow direction.
Effects (most marked in metal flow direction) : ↑ hardness and strength ↓ ductility and toughness

Strained material with internal stresses

Annealing to relieve stresses : Nuclei growth (recrystallisation) in areas with highest residual stresses . Grain size controlled by ○ altering levels of cold work ○ altering time at the recrystallisation temperature

If T<T recrystallisation --> stress-relief anneal ( no grain growth)

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price ( for aerospace industry) SOLID SOLUTION with Al.Zn.5% Cu.g.LIGHT ALLOYS mercoledì 6 aprile 2011 08:52 PROPERTIES + low density (2. forging.2% Mn added for corrosion R--> still principal casting alloy Zr to refine grains ( higher mech properties) In Al alloys.9 g/cc) + good electrical conductivity + good thermal conduction + Corrosion resistant + High coefficient of thermal expansion + soft and ductile + Relatively low molting point (660°C). aerounautics) ELECTRICAL (conductors.Iow strength -price WROUGHT ALLOYS NON-HEAT TREATABLE Work hardening to strengthen Reduces ductility and formability [ e.High shrinkage APPS: • automotive • aerospace PROPERTIES: + high strength +readily welded +high corrosion resistance -poor ductility -reduced properties if Mg>4% APPS: • Ship building • automotive PROPERTIES: + high strength +good ductility With Silicon: ↓xThermal exp coeff ↑Weldability ↑Corrosion R castings APPS: • aircraft • Car bodies Special alloy: 12%Si-15Cu-1%Mg-2%Ni For piston-->dispersion hardening IMPORTANT ALLOYS: T4: solution + natural ageing T6: solution + artificial ageing Heat treated ( stable ) Other properties: AGE HARDENED Al (5-6% Zn. less grain size □ Mg has low volume heat capacity-->less heat to remove casting □ Zn:Al:Mg production rates = 1.74 g/cc) < Al (2.difficult to cast .Th In WWI Mg-Al-Zn-->0. 2. 5000 series Al-Mg (Mg2Al3 non coherent precipitate) ] ALUMINIUM • • • • APPLICATIONS BIG 4: BUILDING (roofing. surface burst into flame Most used alloys: T4 naturally aged T6 artificially aged Sand or die casting CASTING (90% european production) Processes: ○ SAND CASTING (largest use of Mg alloys) ○ PERMANENT MOULD CASTING □ Faster rate of solidification( high mech prop. oxide film protects from oxidation In Mg alloys.7 g/cc) + easily machinable + low melting point (650°C) . rolling).5% Mg) 572 503 VS PURE ANNEALED Al Tensile strength (MPa) Yield strength (Mpa) 45 17 MAGNESIUM PROPERTIES + low density (1.5% Mg) ] No universally accepted nomenclature PROPERTIES: + low melting point + good surface finishing + no gas solubility + light weight .Zr. . but higher strength -weight ratio Casting production:  Automotive crankcase  Formula 1 racing car gearbox  Helicopter gearcase WROUGHT Mg difficult to deform < 250°C Hot working (extrusion. cables) TYPES OF ALLOYS ( 4-DIGIT SERIES) CAST ALLOYS HEAT TREATABLE SOLID SOLUBILITY function of T [ e.cladding.Pure Mg is weak .6:1. over 850°C. 300°C<T<500°C Some sheet and plates weldable-->aerospace industry MSE3 Page 3 .beverages) TRANSPORT (high performance cars.7 g/cc) < steel (7.9 Mg casting have similar properties of Al castings. 2000 series Al-Cu-Mg (3.heat exchange components) PACKAGING (foods.g.0.0:1.

fitting for aerospace ind.5 Sn But only 1% of Ti consumpion (low thermal conductivity-->larger thermal gradient) Low thermal conductivity --->high cutting T --->chips stick to tool cutting edge --->Reducing tool life Application: ○ Chemical industry ○ Few precision casting for aerospace . O2.5 g/cc) + strength up to 1400 Mpa PURE METAL: + low corrosion resistance . high pressure compressor disc) FORCES IN FORMING In cold working: σf=Kεn σf=cἐm k=strength coefficient n=work hardening exp RECRYSTALLISATION In hot working: ἐ=strain rate [s-1] m=strain rate sensivitity exp WORK HARDENING (high strain rates.g.valves) TYPES OF PROCESSES CASTING TMP=1678°C High affinity with O.H Casting under vacuum FORMING Require: ○ high power ○ High T forming ○ Dies heating control (low th gradient)--->Localised chilling and cracking ---> Expensive tooling(die faces in Ni or Co for high T) MACHINING Most used alloys: ○ Ti-6Al-4V ○ Ti-5Al-2.but expensive] (e.low mech properties HCP(α)structure ↓ 882°C BBC(β) structure ↑882°C Applications: • Heat exchangers (pipes .ta. Zr) ○ Zr) α-stabilising elements . • High-strength fasteners General properties +corrosion resistance +high T properties(up to 535°C) [above 535°C oxyde film breaks down] α.↑ transformation T (Al.tubes) • valves for petrolchemical industry ALLOYS 4 groups: ○ Solid-solution strengthening without altering transformation T (Tin.LIGHT ALLOYS 2 venerdì 15 aprile 2011 19:47 TITANIUM PROPERTIES + low density (4.H) ○ β-stabilising elements .5% Sn) + corrosion R + oxydation R + high T strength + weldable β-alloys + can be aged to produce higher strength Apps: • Beams.β alloys [ MOST USED ] ( TI-6%Al-4%V also Ti-6/4) + superplastic (up to 1000%) Apps: • For aircraft parts • Some for bioengineering (joints.N.Nb) ○ Eutectoid reaction .Mo.↓ transformation-phase structure @ T room α-alloys (5%Al-2. Recrystallisation can't take place) MSE3 Page 4 .High resistance to deformation ---> Ti alloys less forgeable than others--->require: ○ High strain rate (ἐ) to reduce chilling Or ○ Isothermal forging (in vacuum) [reduce pressure .↓ transformation T (v.plates.

W] MEDIUM alloys Hot-work TOOL steel 315 C 425 C 550 C STEELS FOR HIGH T AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS [ Fe .) ○ Burners in boilers ○ Furnace components ○ Tooling for hot-working Materials ○ Ti alloys ○ Steels ○ Super-alloys (Ni-based) ○ Ceramics TI ALLOYS α-β Alloys Ti-6Al-4V More α = ↑ mech prop Higher strength and creep R Near-α Alloys [heat treatable To improve mech prop] HEAT TREATED for max creep R WELDABLE [for light weight high p compressor drum Assembly development for Rolls-Royce aerospace engines HEAT TREATABLE for good balance of properties [ fatigue R. improve strength and R at high T • Nb.V.Mo.Cr -Ni. Ti3Al up to 700 C ] Reduce density. Mo stabilzes β-phase • Used up to 600 c..W added to improve Troom properties Max T for different steels: PLAIN carbon LOW-ALLOY steel [Cr. above 600 C OXYDATION • Above 600 C-->INTERMETALLICS (compounds of Ti) [generally TiAl (up to 870 c) . creep R] Process: solution treatment (1028 C for 2h) Apps: Oil quench High p compressors Age 700 C for 2h On aircraft engines Air cooling General properties • Al stabilizes α-phase. toughness. also smaller amounts of Ti and Al] Bcc Cr tends to stabilize α (bcc ferrite) Fcc Ni tends to stabilize Υ (fcc austenite) Up to 11% Corrosion R AUSTENITIC ss 750 C Ti-Al-->precipitation hardening of intermetallic phases Ni3Ti and Ni3Al which resist at high T High T stability Famous austenitic SS : 18-8 Cr-Ni Also very Creep resistant Apps: exhaust parts in IC engines MSE3 Page 1 ..HIGH T ALLOYS .COATINGS 01 April 2011 13:51 HIGH T MATERIALS Properties: ○ Retention of strength at high T ○ Creep R Depends on ○ Oxidation R Applications and T ○ Corrosion R ○ Wear/spalling R High T environments ○ Engines (reciprocating. gas turbines.

Mo6C) | interference with dislocation movements = higher strength ○ PRECIPITATION HARDENING [ alloys contains Al or Ti.Higher density than steel (=8. Al.Nb for Υ' strengthening] 100 [high volumes of Υ' precipitates -->turbine blades] STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS ○ SOLID SOLUTION STRENGTHENING [alloying Cr.Co coated (union carbide) ] Coating application: PLASMA TORCH [5-120 KW. Y=Ittrium] Ceramic insulating layer [ e.Al.g Al alloy +SiC particles --> + high T capability (as metals) + wear R SURFACE COATINGS First line of degradations in components is the SURFACE Materials for strength don't always have at high T: ○ Wear R SURFACE COATINGS of high T materials ○ Corrosion R WEAR RESISTANCE e.g: • WC-9%Co [up to 580 °C] Bearing materials in compressor of G.115[<950 C] ○ Casting alloys: INCONEL 713 [ Al.HIGH T ALLOYS 2 venerdì 15 aprile 2011 19:50 SUPERALLOYS Generally based on Ni [variants of Ni-20%Cr] Types: ○ Wrought alloys : NIMONIC 75[<750 c] . powder velocity 125-600 m/s] COATING SYSTEMS for: ○ Thermoshock R ○ Corrosion R ○ Oxydation R e.Co.T.T. ceramic insulating layer bonded to oxydation R coating Coating application: PLASMA SPRAY -->suffers from EROSION Applications: aeroengine industry MCrAlY bonded thermal barrier systems: Undercoats 250 μm Aerofasts in G. creep R] Cobalt based alloys Used: STELLITE (Cr-Co alloy) +high T hardness +high T strength +high T wear R +corrosion R -more expensive -difficult to machine and work -not popular as Ni-based alloys Apps: ○ cutting tools ○ Aircraft engines ○ Turbine blades ○ Biomedical implants (investment casting) CERAMICS Technical ceramics: ○ Silicon carbide ○ Silicon nitride Properties: ○ Less toughness ○ More brittle Than metals METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES (MMCs) Metal alloys + ceramic reinforcements (fibers.T. engines Ceramic layers 750 μm MSE3 Page 7 .g.g.9 g/cc) Apps: • Gas turbines • Internal combustion engines • Other apps: ○ Nuclear applications ○ Metal-working equipment ○ Pressure vessels ○ High T bolts ○ High t furnace components ○ High T springs Processes • Machining • Forging • Casting [600-1000 C Tuse.Ni.W : no metallurgical softening on heating =creep R ] ○ DISPERSION STRENGTHENING [ carbide dispersions: 4 networks of fine stable particles (MC carbides eg TiC. forming Ni3Ti or Ni3Al :Υ' phase = Increase creep R up to very high T ] Designed for: ○ High strength ○ Corrosion and creep R Up to 1000 C Age hardening optimise distribution of microstructure .Ni.Y-->corrosion R up to 110°C for turbine blades Coating application: DETONATION GUN [particles at 750 m/s on surface. • Cr3C2 + (35Ni-20Cr) [up to 1030°C] Metals in combustion chambers of G. To prevent fretting wear OXYDATION RESISTANCE MCrAlY [ M=metal.Mo. particles) e. Zirconia ZrO 2 ] MCrAlY for bandcoat -->more stability THERMAL BARRIERS Cr. whiskers.Al : sacrifical oxydation --> Corrosion R Y: improves coating tenacity Cr.Ti.

or discontinuity.NDT non destructive testing 01 April 2011 13:51 NDT NDT = general QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURE [on 100% products or statistical analysis(sampling)] ○ checks for defects without destroying products (vs tensile test.absorbitive materials More portable than x-ray equipment e. must have different absorption caractheristics than the material itself ULTRASONIC TESTING Used to detect VERY SMALL INTERNAL FLAWS All that is needed is an internal surface caused by a discontinuity. image quality indicator (penetrometer) --> to find sensitivity Type: STEP-HOLE I.I. impact/toughtness test…) ○ do not determine mechanical properties 1st test: always VISUAL INSPECTION Other tests: ○ Radiography  x-rays  γ-rays ○ Ultrasonic testing ○ Magnetic particle inspection ○ Eddy current testing ○ Dye-penetrant RADIOGRAPHY For detection of INTERNAL DEFECTS x-rays or γ-rays --> sources of penetrating radiations The flaw.Q. such that I(t)=I0exp(-λt) Where I0=original intensity λ=decay constant [s-1] When exp(-λt)=0.g used ON-SITE for weldments in pipeline Intensity of γ-ray source decreases with time. The smaller the %sensitivity.5 --> t is half-life of isotope For Co60--> t(1/2)=5. A piezoelectric transducer introduces pulses of sound into a test piece at high frequencies ( >100 KHz). the better γ-RAYS Intensive radiation of a single wavelength from radiactive source Cobalt 60: best isotope (higher energy than x-rays) Used for thick.Q.I. Velocity of sound through various media is know: Air @ 330 m/s Al @ 6250 m/s Stainless steel @ 5740 m/s X-RAYS (William Wanken. creep test.3 years--> no longer useful after 2 half lives(I=25%I0) A defect when a component of known material results in the ultrasound wave being reflected (partially reflected rather than transmitter--> recorded by oscilloscope) Δx x DETECTOR Each step has hole with φ=h step VISIBILITY reduces MSE3 Page 8 . 1895) Sensitivity in radiography: %sensitivity=Δx/x 100% Where x=thickness Δx=smallest thickness available I.

Ni. which interact with the applied field. These Eddy currents induce additional electromagnetic fields in the sample.Co) A magnetic field is induced in the material to be tested.g. information can be deduced concerning the structure and properties of the sample. producing line of flux.M.Changes in the electrical conductivity or magnetic permeability of the sample can be detected and these changes can be due to changes in composition. mictrostructure variation :depth of case in a case-hardened steel DYE PENETRANT INSPECTION For surface breaking defects RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NDT AND FRACTURE MECHANICS Fracture mechanics = effects of cracks on strength of material If size of flaw is known after NDT.) NDT supplies INFO needed to make the decision if the component can be in service until next scheduled test MSE3 Page 9 . Parts can be dry or diluted (to help magnetic flow) Used for: ○ Quench cracks ○ Fatigue cracks ○ Cracks induced by machining processes (e. which in turn induces Eddy current in the sample.MAGNETIC PARTICLES INSPECTION EDDY CURRENT TESTING For all electricity conducting materials (all metals) For defection of flaws (discontinuities) near the surface of ferromagnetic materials (Fe. grinding) AC-surface flaws only DC-surface or deeper (sub-surfaces) flaws AC current flowing in a conductive coil produces electromagnetic fiel. Ways to induce field: ○ Place part in magnetic coil ○ Induce current in part ○ Place part close to magnet Flaw creates N-S poles opposite to part's N-S poles. prediction can be made wheter the flaw will cause fracture for a given applied stress (F. By determining the effect of the sample on the field.Wheatstone bridge type apparatus R1=R2 R3 : standard component in coil R4: production(test) component in coil e. Go/no go test (accept/reject) . The discontinuity must be perpendicular to the line of flux and close to the surface. microstructure or flaws close to the surface.g.

wire drawing. rolling.NEAR NET SHAPE PROCESSES For materials: ○ Expensive ○ Difficult to machine Less waste and use of energy Processes: Metal forming Metal casting METAL FORMING Plastic deformation of metals Classifications: By applied system of stress: ○ Uniaxial tensile ○ Uniaxial compressive ○ Biaxial tensile DIRECT PROCESSES Compressive stress -->induces 2 compressive stresses on mutally perpendicular planes e. sliding along surface d-e: STRETCH FORMING punch radius .32 to 0. DEEP DRAWING Process: deep drawing + pressing [bending + stretching] Applications: from circular sheet to cup Areas: a-b: IRONING( pure radial drawing die-blank holder) b-c: STRETCH FORMING over die radius ..center is in cold-worked conditions a) b) c) d) Require: hollow cylinder [from hot-forming or boring) It is COLD FINISHING: + closer dimensions +mechanical properties LOAD VARIATION DURING CYCLE -3 components: ○ Ideal load(to deform plastically metal) .improve also mechanical properties] e.stable and non-reactive with food DRAWING &IRONING DRAWING & REDRAWING For food For beverages 2 machines : ○ drawing and redrawing ○ Stampin. + redundant Real load affected by: ○ Friction ○ Redundant work load Every material has optimum α: ○ Al 24° ○ Cu 12° ○ Steel 6° e.15 mm Tin from 0.g ROLLING σ1 By stress system induced in workpiece: ○ Direct compression (e.g. stretch forming of sheet metal) INDIRECT PROCESSES Tensile stress --> induces 2 compressive stresses on mutually perpendicular planes [only COLD WORKING -->because rely on STRAIN HARDENING .friction.bell (lubricant sprayed as part enters ○ b-approach core (1st contact part-nib-->die angle α) ○ c-bearing or parallel:  + length = + tool life  . metal doesn't slide over punch -->low hardness e-f: BASE OF CUP .energy loss ○ d-relief (elastic spring.no deformations (original metallurgical conditions )-->higher hardness INHOMOGENEOUS PROPERTIES [blanks differentially annealed .g.g. EXTRUSION σ1 a σ2 σ3 b C α d L Load vs die angle α Ideal load : F=σ A2 lnR (R=Ai/Af) Large α = . deep drawing) ○ Biaxial tensile (e.20 mm MSE3 Page 10 .g TUBE DRAWING TYPES: Sinking Fixed plug Floating plug Moving madrel e. extrusion) ○ Indirect compressin (e.10 mm Cans thickness: From 0.calibrating. forging.g.42 to 0.trimming NB: before 3-piece can process Cans thickness: Al from 0.18 to 0.g WIRE DRAWING Multi-drawing σ2 σ3 DIE SECTION Die parts Casing: protect the nib Nib (usually WC hard and resistant): ○ a.length = .SLIDING (possible THINNING) c-d: STRETCHING die-punch .g.function of drawing ratio R1/R2 ○ Friction load ○ Ironing load Problems:wrinkling (b) -->require outer pressure ring or blank holder (constant p and clearance) CASE STUDY: MANUFACTURE OF CANS (beverages) PROCESSES Materials: Al alloys -->strengthen by WORK HARDENING -->non-heat treatable work hardening series:  3000 Al-Ma  5000 Al-Mg Also Tin as light.back) Die angle α affects load force to pull the wire: e.

turbochargers ] Steps: ○ Wax injection and cluster assembly ○ Mould invested and then wax removed ○ [wax melts at 65°C ] ○ Added fire refractory ○ Metal pouring and removal-->finished part High T require higher performance High T materials used APPLICATION: TURBINE BLADES CASTING SHELL MOULD COOLING CERAMIC CORE WAX ALTERNATIVE Removed chemically [caustic soda -remove ceramics. grain boundaries softer than grains --> grain boundary sliding EQUIAXIAL [ISOTROPIC COOLING] COLUMNAR [DIRECTIONAL COOLING No machining required SINGLE CRYSTAL MSE3 Page 11 . not metals] Turbine blade in operation = creep test [tensile strength at high T] At high T.g.CASTING venerdì 15 aprile 2011 20:49 INVESTMENT CASTING Material used: Al alloys Applications: aeroengine and high performance car engines [e.

outer rim hotter than inner rim] BLADES Same materials as discs. but also density Main alloy: Ti 6-4 [4% V] also called IMI 318 Problem: require machining-->expensive process. but good at high T • Ti (from 1960 to today)-->300 to 600 C. then T ↑ to 900 C. difficult to machine WIDE CHORD FAN BLADE construction: ○ Panels : creep formed (aka superplastic forming) [require very fine equiaxed grain size (<50μm). but no fatigue resistance Materials: • Forged Al alloys (Al-Cu) • Steels (stainless steels) • Ti -->IMI834 up to 600 C Process: Forging + heat treatment (precision forging) --> right microstructure in different disc parts Materials: • Forged Al alloys (Al-Cu) after WW2-->up to 200 C [as compression ratio ↑. expensive material.failure along fibers] selection: CRP (carbonfiber reinforced plastics) -->very high specific strength (3 times steel) 2nd selection: Ti alloy blades -->↑toughness.CASE STUDIES 01 April 2011 13:52 GAS TURBINE AEROENGINE TYPES SUBSONIC SPEED (civil aircrafts) SUPERSONIC SPEED (military aircrafts . used alloys for turbine blades HOT END TURBINE DISCS BLADES Most demanding service conditions Require: • Creep resistance • High T resistance Require: Same as compressor discs Materials: • Steels (stainless steels) in the beginning • Ni-based superalloys Materials: • Ni-based superalloys Strengthen mechanism: precipitation hardening Υ' precipitates (Ni3Al or Ni3Ti)-->persists at high T Process: investment casting Selection steps: Pick best material (Ni-based superalloys) If not enough. then tensile stress) ○ Honeycomb inserted with: diffusion bonding Usually SF + DB done together PRECISION FORGING (larger presses and better process control) Material important characteristics: from RESONANT FREQUENCY Preferred high natural frequency f>resonant f -->avoid vibrations Require high EI and low ρ E=young's modulus I=moment of inertia L=ideal length COMPRESSOR DISCS Require: • Creep resistance on outer rim • Tensile and fatigue strength on inner rim [T and p ↑ along compressor. coatings If not enough. lighter than steels [ISOTHERMAL FORGING] NB: if Texit too high. cooling system If not enough.RB211) Dimensions: ○ 2m diameter ○ 4000 rpm rotation 1st Denser material = higher stress --->try lower density material first Failed Test with chicken-->material not tough enough [impact damage on bird strikes . Texit ↑] • Steels (stainless steels) --> heavy.apart Concorde) CRITICAL COMPONENTS ○ Fan blades ○ Compressor disks ○ Compressor blades ○ Combustion chamber ○ Turbine disks ○ Turbine blades • TURBOPROP (propeller) • TURBOFAN high bypass ratio • TURBOFAN low bypass ratio • TURBOJET COOL END HOT END Higher blades number: ↓aerodynamics ↑fuel consumptions EFFICIENCY Propulsive ηp Thermal ηt MATERIAL REQUIREMENT high specific strength (spec strength=strength/weight) at high T COOL END FAN BLADES for high bypass ratio TurboFan engines (1st developed by Rolls Royce . switch to CERAMICS (problems with toughness) • • • • MSE3 Page 12 .

steam generators under centrifugal stresses] CREEP= time-dependent and permanent deformation of materials when subjected to a constant load or stress. (undesirable phenomenon |limits lifetime of part | in metals important above 0. in alloys: • Interstitial • substitutional plastic deformation (related to dislocation density) CREEP Many materials are have to bear: ○ elevated T ○ static mechanical stresses [e..CREEP CRYSTALLOGRAPHY Common crystal systems: FCC BCC TETRAGONAL HEXAGONAL • • • • DEFECTS POINT • Vacancy(up with T) • Interstitial(small concentrations) LINEAR(DISLOCATIONS) • Edge • Screw • Mixed [ BURGER VECTORS ] SLIP SYSTEMS (depend on the structure) STRENGTH ALTERATION Grain size reduction Finer material stronger than coarse grains (GREATER GRAIN BOUNDARY AREA=less motion of dislocations) Hall Petch equation: LATTICE STRAIN on surrounding host atoms Solid solution alloying Alloying with impurity atoms INTERSTITIAL or SUBSTITUTIONAL solid solution (up Yield and tensile strength) Strain hardening Strength up as metal plastically deformed COLD WORKING-WORK HARDENING INTERFACIAL(BOUNDARIES) • • • • External surfaces Grain boundaries Twin boundaries Stacking faults IMPURITIES If desired. [decreasing creep rate | increasing creep resistance or strain hardening] Secondary = steady-state creep [constant creep rate | balance between strain hardening and recovery] Tertiary = [rate acceleration |ultimate failure ( rupture) from microstructural or metallurgical changes] CREEP CURVE = SUPERPOSITION OF CURVES IMPORTANT PARAMETER: • Steady state creep rate VARIABLES • Stress • T GENERAL FORMULA MSE3 Page 1 . turbine rotors in jet engines .4 Tm ] CREEP TEST = constant load test Always until rupture (creep rupture tests) 3 areas: Primary = transient creep.g.

low stress NABARRO-HERRING (stress-directed atomic diffusion) dislocation glide + vacancy diffusion steady-state creep rate : balance between rate of strain hardening (h)and rate of thermal recovery (r) Not significant for steady-state creep rate.CREEP 2 CREEP MECHANISMS Principal deformation processes at high T: ○ Slip ○ Sub-grain formation ○ Grain-boundary sliding principal creep mechanisms: ○ Dislocation glide ○ Dislocation creep ○ Diffusion creep ○ Grain boundary sliding More than 1 mech per time: • In series: Dominates fastest mech • In parallel: Dominates slower mech GRAIN BOUNDARY SLIDING DISLOCATION CREEP DIFFUSION CREEP In high T.5 T/Tm Assume creep as single activated process (Arrhenius eq): To find activation energy Q(T differential creep test: DATA EXTRAPOLATION METHOD (LARSON-MILLER) L-M PARAMETER: T in °K tr in hours MSE3 Page 14 . Steady state creep > 0. important for: • initiation of intergranular fracture • maintaining grain contiguity during diffusional flow mechanisms Diffusion vs dislocation climb COBLE CREEP (at lower T grain boundary diffusion) General theory: Power-law relation (intermediate σ) DEFORMATION MECHANISMS MAP (stress-T diagram) Harper-Dorn Creep: [at low stresses Linear relation n=1) At High stresses ( ) The regions of the map = dominant deformation mechanism @given stress-temperature condition. The boundaries= combinations of stress and T where respective strain rates are equal.

larger grain size=better creep R . Fe alloying with refractories + Cr + Ti SUPERALLOYS Properties • Improve corrosion R • Resistance to high T • High mech properties in extreme conditions Light density • • • • Applications: Ta and Mo alloyed with stainless steel = better corrosion R Mo for extrusion dies and structural parts in space vehicles W for light filaments.HIGH T ALLOYS HIGH T ALLOYS Factors that affect creep characteristics of metals: ○ Melting temperature ○ Elastic modulus ○ Grain size [high Tm=high E . Ni. Also advanced processing techniques: ○ directional solidification[ highly elongated or single-crystal components] ○ controlled unidirectional solidification MSE3 Page 15 . x-ray tubes. but at higher T] POLYMERS: Viscoelastic creep REFRACTORY METALS • • • • Types: niobium (Nb) molybdenum (Mo) tungsten(W) Tantalium(Ta) Properties: • Very high Tm [Nb 2468°C . Smaller grain size=higher creep rates ] HIGH T ALLOYS ○ Stainless steels ○ Refractory metals ○ superalloys NB Creep in: CERAMICS: creep deformation after compressive σ at high T [time-deformation creep similar to metals. and welding electrodes Ta immune to chemical attack by virtually all environments < 150°C Applications: • Aircraft turbine components • Nuclear reactors • Petrolchemical equipment Creep R of Co and Ni superalloys: enhanced by solid-solution alloying or addition of a dispersed phase which is virtually insoluble in the matrix.W 3410°C] • High E • High strength and hardness [at every T range] Types: Co.

architecture] Adverse Effects: ○ Product appearance ○ Maintenance and operating costs ○ Plant shutdowns ○ Contamination of product ○ Loss of valuable product ○ Effects on safety and reliability ○ Product liability Corrosion Engineering= design and application of methods to prevent corrosion Corrosion Management=process of reviewing applied Corrosion Engineering considerations.000 times) MSE3 Page 16 . lose their chemical reactivity and become extremely inert. under particular environmental conditions. corrosion process is electrochemical (chemical reaction with transfer of electrons from one chemical species to another) Metal atoms: oxidation reaction (takes place on ANODE) Reduction: transfer of electrons to other species Reduction in metal ions (occurs in CATHODE) or Oxidation + reduction= electrochemical reaction e. Stainless steels: at least 11%Cr-->highly resistant to corrosion Fe-Cu Associated V: 0.g: Zinc in acid Iron in water Zinc in Cu sulphate ELECTRODE POTENTIALS Not all metals experience oxidation with the same degree of ease E.323 V 2 series: Standard emf series : standard half cell (hydrogen) coupled with other metal half cells and ranked by Voltage Galvanic series: represents relative reactivities of metals and commercial alloys in seawater Aluminum: is highly corrosion resistant also because passivates (If damaged.g. Happens to: ○ Chromium ○ Iron ○ Nickel ○ Titanium And many of their alloys.g. appearance) Deteriorative mechanisms different for 3 material types: • In metals actual material loss: ○ by dissolution (corrosion) ○ By formation of nonmetallic scale or film (oxidation) • In ceramics:corrosion only at high T or extreme environments • In Polymers:degradation CORROSION OF METALS Corrosion =destructive and unintentional attack of a metal it is electrochemical and ordinarily begins at the surface.physical properties. [all metals occur in nature as compounds] Exceptions: gold and platinum. [Corrosion is efficiently and adequately controlled only with both CE and CM] CORROSION RATE EXPRESSION Corrosion rates may be expressed in different ways: ○ Percentage weight loss ○ Milligrams per square centimeter per day ○ Grams per square inch per hour But do not indicate corrosion resistance in terms of penetration: Better indicator: The corrosion penetration rate (CPR) W = weight loss [mg] Ρ = density [g/cm3] A=area [ cm2] t= exposure time [hours] K is 87.78 V Fe-Zn GALVANIC COUPLE Two metals electrically connected in a liquid electrolyte: ○ one metal becomes an anode and corrodes ○ other metal becomes cathode Associated V: 0.: PASSIVITY PASSIVITY :Some active metals and alloys.CORROSION 01 April 2011 CORROSION Materials experience interaction with diverse environments some interactions impair a materials usefulness (mechanical properties . the protective film normally reforms very rapidly) But subsequent damage to a pre-existing passive film could result in a substantial increase in corrosion rate (by as much as 100. Huge problem: 5% nation's income spent on corrosion prevention and the maintenance or replacement of products lost or contaminated [occasionally used to advantage e. Passive behaviour from : formation of adherent and very thin oxide film on metal surface.6 for mm/y. Corrosion—The Thermodynamic Driving Force Most metals and alloys subject corrosion in different environments (more stable in an ionic state than as metals) In thermodynamic terms: net decrease in free energy in going from metallic to oxidized states. which serves as a protective barrier to further corrosion. ELECTROCHEMICAL CONSIDERATIONS For metallic materials.

Acids . Where: AO is the molecular weight of the oxide Am is the atomic weight of the metal po and pm are the oxide and metal densities.The atmosphere (greater losses)-->Al.Liquid metals . . compressive stresses result in the film as it forms.sstainless steel .Cu. Al.Application of a protective surface coating (PAINTING) . Several techniques for improving the oxidation resistance of a metal: .g. Oxidation of ○ Sodium ○ Potassium ○ Tantalum e. oxidation of ○ Iron ○ Copper ○ Cobalt e. plain carbon steel . Other factors influencing corrosion resistance: .The human body oxide layer formation for divalent metal (oxidation and reduction half reaction) for no t divalent metals: oxydation occurs at metal-scale interface reduction half reaction occurs at scale-gas interface Pilling Bedworth ratio < 1 -->the oxide film porous and unprotective because insufficient to fully cover the metal surface.CORROSION 2 CORROSIVE ENVIRONMENTS . SCALING KINETICS oxide scale reaction [normally on the surface]-->rate of reaction: measuring weight gain per unit area(W) as f(time) Oxide layers: ○ nonporous ○ adheres to metal surface rate of layer growth controlled by ionic diffusion. = 1 --> ideal > 1 -->If the ratio is greater than unity.Molten salts .Inorganic solvents . steel.Soils-->cast iron. continually exposing a fresh and unprotected metal surface.g oxidation of (@Troom) ○ Aluminum ○ Iron ○ copper MSE3 Page 22 .brass.t parabolic relationship Oxide layers: ○ porous ○ flakes off [P-B ratios <1 or >2] [oxygen available for reaction as oxide does not act as a reaction barrier] W-t linear relationship Oxide layers: very thin —less than 100 nm form at low T W-t logarithmic relationship e.Cu. . W. > 2-3 the oxide coating may crack and flake off.Bases .The oxide should have a relatively high melting point and good high-temperature plasticity.galvanized steel .A high degree of adherence between film and metal.Comparable coefficients of thermal expansion for metal and oxide.g.addition of alloying elements will form a more adherent and protective oxide scale --> more favorable Pilling-Bedworth ratio and/or improving other scale characteristics.Aqueous solutions-->cast iron.

mainly because of inherently high ductilities. HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT metal alloys. copper in the case of brass)is then precipitated from solution at the surface.CORROSION 3 FORMS OF CORROSION Metallic corrosion classified into eight forms: ○ Uniform ○ Galvanic ○ Crevice ○ Pitting ○ Intergranular ○ Selective leaching ○ Erosion-corrosion ○ Stress-corrosion GALVANIC CORROSION occurs when two metals or alloys having different compositions are electrically coupled while exposed to an electrolyte. corrosion may be severe. Hydrogen embrittlement is a type of failure: . and other elements are vulnerable to preferential removal. specifically steels. Hydrogen induced cracks are most often transgranular.copper and steel tubing in a domestic water heater DEFENSES include the following: choose two dissimilar metals close together in the galvanic series. It is supposed that gravity causes the pits to grow downward. oxidation of the metal occurs at this position. Cracks may form at low stress levels(below the tensile strength) Most alloys are susceptible to stress corrosion in specific environments. These particles form along the grain boundaries which leaves an adjacent chromium-depleted zone so this grain boundary region is now highly susceptible to corrosion. Failure behavior is of brittle material. [strain hardening alloys will enhance embrittlement] Prevention • Reducing tensile strength of the alloy via a heat treatment.g. Electrons from this electrochemical reaction are conducted through the metal to adjacent external regions. Hydrogen in its atomic form diffuses interstitially through the crystal lattice. 2. . extremely insidious : undetected and with very little material loss until failure occurs. Stainless steels suffer it.% C so that carbide formation is minimal. [ in crevices and recesses or under deposits of dirt or corrosion products] The crevice: • wide enough for the solution to penetrate • narrow enough for stagnancy MECHANISM After oxygen has been depleted within the crevice.Lowering the carbon content below 0. the cathode. especially at moderate stress levels: • Most stainless steels stress corrode in solutions containing chloride ions • brasses are especially vulnerable when exposed to ammonia The stress that produces stress corrosion cracking need not be externally applied. and abrupt changes in pipe diameter— positions where the fluid changes direction or flow suddenly becomes turbulent. experience reduction in ductility and tensile strength when H enters the material. brittle fracture occurs as cracks grow and propagate. initial corrosion dissolves both components of the alloy but the more noble metal. Some familiar examples include: • rusting of steel and iron • Tarnishing of silverware Most common corrosion Easy to predict and design • • • • PITTING localized corrosion attack in which small pits or holes form. Prevention Change design to eliminate fluid turbulence and impingement Use materials that resist erosion Hard ceramic linings in steel pipes. £lectrically connect a third. alloying with about 2% Mo enhances their resistance significantly. Prevention Probably the best measure to take in reducing or totally eliminating stress corrosion is to lower the magnitude of the stress. • "Baking" the alloy at an elevated temperature to drive out any dissolved hydrogen. Protective measures: 1. In a microscopic sense. Alloying the stainless steel with another metal such as niobium or titanium. Avoid small anode-to-cathode surface area ratio. Precautions: • welded instead of riveted or bolted joints. consumed by reduction . . Gaseous and solid corrosion products that are entrapped internally can give rise to internal stresses. MSE3 Page 23 .FCC alloys are relatively resistant to hydrogen embrittlement. Especially harmful to alloys that passivate forming a protective surface film: The abrasive action erode the film If coating not capable of continuously reforming. Fluid properties: • Increasing fluid velocity enhances rate of corrosion • More erosive solution when particulate solids are present Commonly found in piping. this is a form of cathodic protection. • Removing accumulated deposits frequently • Designing containment vessels to avoid stagnant areas and ensure complete drainage. Identified by surface grooves and waves having contours that are characteristic of the flow of the fluid. In other cases. the oxidation arc: reduction reactions occur randomly over the surface.ions. For such a concentration cell. Most common example: dezincification of brass [ zinc selectively leached from a copper-zinc brass alloy] • mechanical properties of the alloy significantly impaired • material changes from yellow to a red or copper color UNIFORM ATTACK electrochemical corrosion with equivalent intensity over the entire exposed surface and often leaves behind a scale or deposit. EROSION . and between two regions of the same metal piece. For example: Steel screws in contact with brass in a marine environment . cobalt. Relatively soft metals such as copper and lead are also sensitive to this form of attack. a given phase in a multiphase material may be more prone to attack in a process known as selective attack. corrosion occurs in the locale that has the lower concentration. High-strength steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement.CORROSION From combined action of chemical attack and mechanical abrasion or wear as a consequence of fluid motion and all metal alloys are susceptible. SELECTIVE LEACHING In solid solution alloys and occurs when one element or constituent is preferentially removed as a consequence of corrosion processes. • Substitution of a more embrittlement-resistant alloy. anodic metal to the other two.and Cl. with complementary reduction at the surface. This leads to increased solution of the parent alloy due to galvanic effects and hence further deposition of copper.Martensitic steels are especially vulnerable. MECHANISM same as for crevice corrosion in that oxidation occurs within the pit itself. even though the metal alloy is intrinsically ductile. and pumps are also susceptible to this form of corrosion. elbows. Electrically insulate dissimilar metals from each other. iron. use an anode area as large as possible. and increasing strength tends to enhance the material's susceptibility: . will be protected from corrosion.03 wt. Prevalent in some stainless steels when heated to temperatures between 500 and 800°C for sufficiently long time periods— formation of small precipitate particles of chromium carbide (Cr23C6).Subjecting the sensitized material to a high-temperature heat treatment in which all the chromium carbide particles are redissolved. especially at bends. valves. which has a greater tendency to form carbides than does chromium so that the Cr remains in solid solution. May also occur with other alloy systems in which aluminum. ferritic. The less noble or more reactive metal in the environment will corrode. 3. May be initiated by localized surface defect such as a scratch or a slight variation in composition.In response to applied or residual tensile stresses. Many alloys that passivate are susceptible to crevice corrosion because protective flms are often destroyed by the H . the more inert metal. may be residual one from rapid temperature changes and uneven contraction. CREVICE CORROSION Electrochemical corrosion as a consequence of concentration differences of ions or dissolved gases in the electrolyte solution. Hydrogen embrittlement is similar to stress corrosion. turbine blades. (E. chromium. and concentrations as low as several parts per million can lead to cracking. STRESS CORROSION From combined action of tensile stress and corrosive environment In each case. INTERGRANULAR CORROSION preferentially along grain boundaries for some alloys and in specific environments. and spheroiditic steels are more resilient. Polished surfaces display a greater resistance to pitting corrosion. Propellers. • Removal of the source of hydrogen.Bainitic. Removal of particulates and bubbles from solution Small cracks form and propagate in direction perpendicular to the stress with the result that failure may eventually occur. although intergranular fracture observed for some alloys. or for two-phase alloys in which each phase has a different coefficient of expansion.

Several mechanisms for the effectiveness of inhibitors: . In the atmosphere and most aqueous environments. depends both on the alloy and on the corrosive environment. MSE3 Page 25 .Zn] GALVANIZATION layer of zinc applied to surface of steel by hot dipping. DESIGN Should allow for complete drainage in the case of a shutdown.the metal may experience passivation] INHIBITORS Substances that.CORROSION 4 CORROSION PREVENTION General techniques: .Avoid sharp bends in piping with high velocities and/or solids in suspension (Erosion-corrosion) COATINGS Physical barriers to corrosion as films and coatings. zinc is anodic and will protect steel. CATHODIC PROTECTION Used for all eight different forms of corrosion and may completely stop corrosion.Cathodic Protection . increasing or decreasing the concentration of some species in the solution will have a positive effect [e. and easy washing. (Stress-corrosion) . Oxidation occurs by the generalized reaction Cathodic protection simply involves supplying. decrease its corrosiveness. The latter experiences oxidation. electrons to the metal to be protected.Corrosion Inhibitors MATERIAL SELECTION most common and easiest way: selection of materials once the corrosion environment has been characterized.Others form a very thin protective coating. when added in relatively low concentrations to the environment. [Cost may be a significant factor] ENVIRONMENTAL ALTERATION Lowering fluid T &/or v reduces corrosion rate. from an external source. Essential: • high degree of surface adhesion • Coating nonreactive in corrosive environment • resistant to mechanical damage All three material types—metals.Environmental alteration .Coatings .Avoid excessive mechanical or thermal stresses on components exposed to corrosive media.Materials selection . Since dissolved oxygen may enhance the corrosivity of many solutions. and protects the first metal (sacrificial anode) [Mg.g.Weld rather than rivet tanks (Crevice corrosion) . include provision for the exclusion of air.Other inhibitor molecules attach to the corroding surface and interfere with either the oxidation or the reduction reaction. Other examples of intelligent design: . and polymers—are used as coatings for metals. making it a cathode [reverse reaction] CATHODIC PROTECTION METHODS GALVANIC COUPLE One technique employs a galvanic couple: the metal to be protected electrically connected to a more reactive metal. ceramics. Terminal (-) connected to the structure Terminal (+) to inert anode (often graphite) high-conductivity backfill material provides good electrical contact between the anode and surrounding soil. . A current path exists between the cathode and anode through the intervening soil. the design should. completing the electrical circuit. Inhibitors are used in closed systems such as automobile radiators and steam boilers.Design . . extremely slow rate of corrosion of zinc coating as quite large ratio of anode-to-cathode surface A IMPRESSED CURRENT Source of electrons is an impressed current from an external dc power source. if possible.Some react with and eliminate chemically active species (such as dissolved oxygen).