1. 2. 3. 4.

To study the level of awareness of consumers regarding green products. To find various customer motives behind purchase of green products. To study the effect of green marketing on behavior of consumers. To study factors effecting consumer behavior towards green products.

Review of Literature
In order to get an insight and to gain proper understanding of the topic, a thorough review of the work already done in the relevant field is a must. With this in mind, some of the available literature has been reviewed. Consumer Behaviour and related aspects Lattin et al. (1987) examined the nature of dynamic consumer response to promotional price discounts. The findings of the study suggested that increased exposure to discount pricing raised consumers¶ reference points but did not necessarily decreased the probability of brand choice. It was observed the as expectations of the consumers increased, they were used to bought from the category during the deal periods and avoided buying during periods in which the value available in the category was low. Lattin et al. (1988) examined the nature of dynamic consumer response to point-ofpurchase pricing and promotional activity. The findings of the study suggested that there were significant reference effects of promotional activity on consumer response and for controlling those promotional dynamics, the effects of reference price appeared to be non-significant. Sriram and Forman (1993) showed that consumers place less value on products¶ environmental performance in the case of purchasing high involvement products than in the case of frequently purchased products. Sultan (2002) in his study examined consumer behavior for the internet over time. The study concluded that early adopters of on-line services for home use in the US were more innovative than average. They considered technological products as fun to use but were not necessarily familiar with technical details of new technologies and products. Over time, consumer awareness, preference, and choice behavior related to Internet services continued to evolve. Awareness of new technologies was very high among those initial adopters of on-line services for the home. The research found that preference for on-line services, in terms of willingness to pay, was positively related to ownership of high-tech products and negatively to income and innovativeness. However, the amount of money actually spent on on-line services was positively related to consumer innovativeness, income, and household size. McCabe et al. (2003) in his study analysed the effect of examining actual products or product descriptions on consumer preference regarding online shopping or retail shopping. It was found that products with primarily material properties such as clothing and carpeting were preferred to shop in environment which allowed physical inspection. It was further found that there was no difference in preference across the two environments for products with primarily geometric properties such as packed goods, for which vision was highly diagnostic. Keen et al. (2004) investigated the structure for consumer preferences to buy product through three retail formats: store, catalog, and internet. The study observed a shift in retailing trend from traditional store based retailing to increased use of internet. It was also observed that the most money spent by consumers was spent in retail stores, then catalogs and then finally the

Spake et al. (2007) analysed the relationship between attitudes toward direct-to-consumer advertising. The fear that the internet will take over the retail arena seemed to be exaggerated. Corporate-level dimensions included corporate activities. Hedonic self seekers had least positive attitude towards fair trade. (2008) investigated consumer purchase intentions toward personalized products in an online selling situation. Anisimova (2007) in his paper examined two groups of corporate brand attributes: corporate and marketing level. the knowledge. and of price level of fair trade products. The study found that cognitive and domain specific innovativeness enhanced the actual adoption of new products.internet. organizational values and corporate personality. Hirunyawipada et al. The study also revealed that time. Pelsmacker et al. emotional and symbolic brand benefits. The results showed that the ascetic and to less extent value conscious consumers had more positive attitude towards fair trade in general. ascetic consumers. (2008) in his study examined. It was observed that reason behind this misinterpretation was negligence on the part of consumer as the consumer was presented the extended warranty sales material. Marketing level dimensions included functional. the ³4-year´ extended warranty included the manufacturer¶s warranty and was actually providing 3 years of extended protection. product type and individualism by price interaction also had a significant effect. hedonic self seekers and value skeptics. but price did not had any effect on purchase intentions. performance. Results indicated that individualism was the only culture dimension which had great significant effect on purchase intention. For this purpose four categories of consumers were identified: value-conscious consumers. corporate brand personality and functional consumer benefits were the most critical and consistent predictors of both attitudinal and behavioural loyalty. The study also showed that all groups had a negative perception of the quality and quantity of fair trade information. specifically the length of the warranty contract using a mall-intercept method to identify 101 consumers who purchased home electronics products in the past 2 years. (2006) examined the perspective of consumer innovativeness and perceived risk for high technology product adoption. Results revealed that corporate values. psychological and network externalities risks showed no significant impact on tendency to acquire new information about new products. Moon et al. The results showed that majority of consumers misinterpreted retailer¶s ³4-year´ extended warranty as providing four additional years of coverage beyond the manufacturer¶s warranty when in fact. whereas sensory innovativeness and perceived social and physical risks enhanced consumers¶ propensity to acquire new information about new products. corporate associations. attitude and buying behavior of consumers with respect to fair trade issues. They were used to buy fair trade products more often and spent more money on fair trade products. Research also observed that there was an identifiable segment of customers that had preference for internet shopping. beliefs. The study found that retail stores had greatest market share for the near future. but consumers used to spent very few moments reading the material and it was highly likely that they might not studied a very small print disclosure that the warranty ³includes the manufacturer¶s warranty´. fair-trade shops and fair trade products. The study showed that consumers were skeptical of DTC advertising and thought that with this method of advertising enough information was not provided about those products. Maronick (2007) examined consumers¶ perceptions of the terms of an extended warranty. . On the other hand financial risks had a negative impact on the propensity to acquire new information about new products.

The study found that coping strategies had a significant influence on consumers¶ product beliefs. The main barrier to increasing the market share of organic vegetables was that consumers did not clearly differentiate between the various µpesticide safe¶ labels and the organic labels. use or disposal. The findings suggested that most consumers could not easily identify greener products (apart from cleaning products) although they would favour products manufactured by greener companies. that organic products were environmentally friendly. the green marketing started to became a prominent field of study. Informing consumers about unique characteristics of organic production methods. The paper suggested that the market for greener products could be exploited more within consumer groups that have proenvironmental values. who bought organic vegetables were older. (2009) analysed consumers¶ adoption of new technology products. The respondents. As firms recognised the strategic importance of marketing in finding responses to green consumers¶ ³environmental needs´. Schobesberger et al. UK.Cui et al. The main reasons for purchasing organic products were that consumers expected them to be healthier. This opened a market opportunity for organic foods. a survey was conducted in Bangkok. Green Marketing and Effect of green marketing on Purchase Barr and Gilg (2006) found from their survey of sustainable household activities in Devon. consumers in Thailand increasingly demanded µsafe¶ foods. and they did not find the current product marketing particularly relevant or engaging. Finisterra do paco et al. that green purchasing behaviour was the least popular activity alongside activities such as recycling and habitual household activities. More than a third of the 848 respondents reported having purchased organic vegetables or fruits in the past. the pesticide-residue problem proved enduring. (2008) investigated if marketing and branding techniques could help establish green brands and introduce greener patterns of consumption into contemporary lifestyles in the current context where environmentally friendly products were increasingly available. which were produced entirely without using synthetic chemicals. But their data showed that not surprisingly. had higher education level and a higher family income than those who had not bought them. However. Baker et al. To examine consumer perception of organic foods in Thailand. Such consumer had been described as one who used to avoid products that were likely to endanger health. (2008) revealed that the concern with environmental degradation favoured the sprouting of a new segment of consumers: the green consumers. This resulted in a number of initiatives and labels indicating µpesticide safe¶ vegetables. The results showed that there was a correlation between consumer confidence in the performance of green products and their pro-environmental beliefs in general. cause significant damage to the environment during production. the strict inspection and required third party . (2008) revealed that in response to food scares related to high levels of pesticide residues sometimes found on vegetables and fruits. green consumers did consider environmental factors when purchasing products (a weekly activity) but engaged more frequently in activities such as switching off lights and recycling paper (a daily activity). which in turn mediated the effects of coping strategies on consumers¶ attitude toward adoption and purchase intention of the new product. cause unnecessary waste. and use materials derived from threatened species or environments. The study investigated several variables related with the environmental aspects.

and those who usually or always purchased organic produce were more likely to pay a premium. Ultimately. Segment of young people found to be more environmentally concerned. disbelief of green claims and lack of information. certification involvement and perceived importance of certification. Sammer & Wüstenhagen¶s (2006) Swiss study showed that consumers presented with the EC Energy label were willing to pay more for µA¶ rated washing machines. (2005) identified reasons for less green consumption such as lack of availability of green products. Vlosky et al. Consumers. especially in tough economic times. However. green products would generate the greatest sales advantage if their price point was close to similar to less environmentally friendly products. the National Organic Program (NOP) initiated novel labeling standards for food products in the US in 2002.certification might be a promising strategy to develop the market for organic vegetables in Thailand¶s urban centers. It was found that not all consumers were strongly influenced by green marketing. Environmental certification programs were increasingly being recognized as significant market-based tools for linking manufacturing and consumer purchases. (2007) In the study conducted a study on six grocery stores of USA found that in response to dramatically increasing adoption in consumer markets. Batte et al. This . Govindasamy and Italia (1999) surveyed consumers at five grocery retail stores in New Jersey in March 1997 to obtain estimates of WTP for organically grown fresh produce. key green marketing issues and activities. Awareness and availability of green products De Pelsmacker et al. the awareness of green foods did not mean good knowledge and fine perception. Willingness to Pay Lampe et al. Chang & Li (2005) discussed the relationship between consumer¶s WTP and perception as well as confidence in green vegetables with a bivariate correlation. both in Europe and the United States. It was revealed that global industrialization and the subsequent dwindling of many natural resources had become elements for product differentiation in marketing. They also concluded that the likelihood of paying a premium goes down as the number of individuals in the household rises. The data indicated that there were positive correlations between the willingness-to-pay and the independent variables: environmental consciousness. A conceptual model was proposed that captured the effects of perceptions. (1995) examined next. Their analysis showed that females with higher annual incomes. both in Europe and the United States. younger individuals. awareness and price on consumer willingness to purchase and pay a premium for environmentally certified forest products. It was also analysed that non-commercial sources of information such as universities and TV. The result indicated that consumer¶s confidence in green vegetables attributed positively to his/her WTP. (1999) analysed US Consumers¶ willingness to pay for environmentally certified wood products. The research examined the relationships between intrinsic environmental motivations and the willingness-topay a premium for environmentally certified wood products. were willing to pay only slightly more for green products. radio and newspaper news reports would also build consumer confidence on the benefits of green products.

It was suggested that even a temporary tax set at a level that was strictly lower than the marginal social . were better able to explain consumers¶ pro-environmental purchasing behaviour. Findings indicated that. the conceptualization of the purchasing domain and the particular product category at issue. (2006) revealed that µµGreen¶¶ consumers appeared to accept individual responsibility for the provision of public goods. Straughan et al. the study indicated that perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE) provided the greatest insight into ecologically conscious consumer behavior. however. despite a significant amount of past research attention. Nyborg et al. and selftranscendent value types. The article presented evidence of the impact of the NOP through analysis of data collected in seven central Ohio. The study also provided a method of profiling and segmenting college students based upon ecologically conscious consumer behavior. gradations of organic content were now codified. suggesting that targeted marketing may be effective for organic merchandisers. concerns for these consequences. namely general green purchasing behaviour and specific purchasing habits relating to five green product categories. Hansla et al. even those with less than 100% organic ingredients. Additional constructs examined suggested that environmental segmentation alternatives were more stable than past profiles that relied primarily on demographic criteria. namely marketing students and members of the United Kingdom general public. Rather than a simple binary message (organic or not). although the strength of the relationships varied according to sample type.program was a particularly relevant standardization effort for multi-ingredient processed foods. not by social sanctions. Further. Two conceptualizations of the purchasing domain were addressed. even for consumers motivated by internalized moral norms. Results suggested that consumers were willing to pay premium prices for organic foods. Permanent increases in green consumption might be achieved by imposing temporary taxes or subsidies. The study explored the extent to which variables. others. specific to environmental consciousness. USA grocery stores. or through advertising that influenced beliefs about others¶ behavior or about external effects. (1999) examined the dynamic nature of ecologically conscious consumer behavior. The magnitudes of WTP varied significantly among consumer groups. Two data sets were used in the analysis. demographic criteria were not as useful a profiling method as psychographic criteria. taxes could reduce the influence of moral motivation. The propensity to take such responsibility might depend on beliefs about others¶ behavior. Consistent with past findings. (1996) revealed that traditional segmentation variables (sociodemographics) and personality indicators were of limited use for characterizing the green consumer. the inclusion of altruism to the profile appeared to add significantly to past efforts. Attitude towards green electricity was in turn related to awareness of consequences of environmental problems for oneself. This effect could produce multiple equilibria with either high or low demand for µµgreen¶¶ products. and the biosphere. The results of a mail survey of 855 Swedish household consumers showed that willingness to pay for green electricity increased with a positive attitude towards green electricity and decreased with electricity costs. Findings suggested that measures of environmental consciousness were closely linked to environmentally-responsible purchasing behaviour. (2008) conducted an experiment to examine psychological determinants of attitude towards and willingness to pay for green electricity. Profiling the Green Consumers Schlegelmilch et al. If a tax was interpreted as taking responsibility away from the individual.

The lower-income category scored high because they were non-earning (students) or have just begun earning. Singh (2009) explored the extent of the relationship between the demography and socially responsible behaviour of Indian consumers. Young Indians were identified as being more promising and socially responsible than their elders. with the emergence of a customer-oriented market. (iii) 68 percent of online shoppers said that purchasing eco friendly products was important while 35 percent said that it was extremely or very important to them. The study discussed the different demands in green marketing and used a questionnaire to collect customers¶ personal information and their preference toward purchase of a green notebook computer. was an important issue. The report found (i) 50 percent of online shoppers purchased eco friendly products because it reduced the impact on future generations while 15 percent purchased eco friendly products to improve personal health. younger ones particularly. The environment was rated as the most important ethical driver during purchasing decisions followed by human rights then animal rights/welfare issues.benefit provided by the green product would be sufficient to move the economy towards full adoption. including parents and individuals looking at parenthood.8 percent and reaching $17. growing 21. The step-wise regression was used to confirm the suitable segmentation variables. with µfood goods¶ being most strongly linked and µbrown goods¶ were least strongly linked. (2009) revealed that issues of environmental protection became more and more important. The policy makers needed to promote urbanization for sustainable living and creating awareness of clean-green living. Gender-wise. Education-wise. The findings revealed that some product groups were more strongly linked to ethical issues (and bundles of issues) than others.624 online shoppers conducted in September 2007. (ii) 82 percent of respondents said that they were looking for help with eco friendly product selection. Wang et al. the behaviour was quite symmetrical in both the groups. Analyzing according to income-level revealed significant difference only for urban consumers.S. . Consumers were increasingly concerned about how their behaviors affected the earth. Once the adoption rate had reached a certain threshold value.8 billion in consumer sales in 2006. (vi) 70 percent of online adults. The study suggested that green marketers should focus on young consumers and more particularly the female population for creating loyal segment and gaining competitive edge. The inference was reinforced while analyzing the SRCBvalues across the age groups. Therefore. (vii) The U. inverse relationship was noticeable between the SRCB-mean values and educational-level. online merchant availability and the best prices for eco friendly products. Determining how to identify target customers who were satisfied and willing to pay more. (iv) 74 percent of surveyed respondents said that being a positive eco friendly example to others was important to them. the females were demonstrating high scores on the SRCB-scale. (v) 46 percent of online shoppers said that ³energy efficient´ was the most important attribute when purchasing eco friendly appliances. said that the statement ³I¶m concerned about the environment´ described their attitude. Interestingly. Consumer Behaviour Report (2007) collected consumer data towards eco friendly shopping behavior from a survey of 1. identifying consumers¶ behaviors had become an important issue for businesses. it might be due to the respondents' continued education. organic industry continued to expand. the tax or subsidy could be removed without causing the green good to decline in market share. It was found that urban respondents scored high in all demographic categories in comparison with rural consumers. Wheale & Hinton (2007) conducted a questionnaire survey in the UK and revealed that amongst the population of green consumers there was a hierarchy of importance of ethical drivers in the purchase decision-making process.

(3) Longer the people had been consumers of these goods. A survey of 552 Hong Kong citizens was conducted to examine how consistent consumers¶ actions were with their attitudes towards seven environmentally sensitive products. and they often considered ecological issues when making a purchase. the study considered the following categories of determinants: economic and cognitive factors (income. set up proper marketing strategies to increase profits and satisfy the customers¶ demand for products having the least ecological impact. higher levels of specifications. the ability of attitudes to predict behaviour for environmentally sensitive products was questionable. Environmental attitude and concern Esther et al. (2) Consumption patterns of reference persons were significant covariates of all three kinds of pro-environmental consumption. They reported that today¶s ecological problems were severe. Business should pay more attention to the demand of the target customers. Their influence was greatest in the case of organic food. From a survey conducted in the region of Hanover. that was. Rowlands et al. It was found that Increasing concerns about the environment prompted some of them to consider green . demographic variables. The paper suggested for more education and initiative from both the government and businessmen to induce people to channel their attitudes into actions. Using various statistical analyses. it found the following: (1) Economic and cognitive factors were significant covariates of all three kinds of pro-environmental consumption. and the factors that influenced the intensity of buying organic food. psychological variables. environmental knowledge. focusing on the role of reference groups and routine behavior. to make more profits. Welsch et al. While the green awareness had started to rise rapidly in some of the countries. Their influence was greatest in the case of green electricity. They placed a high importance on security and warm relationships with others. Laroche et al. Germany. that corporations did not act responsibly toward the environment and that behaving in an ecologically favorable fashion was important and not inconvenient. blue-collar individuals. (2009) investigated the determinants of pro-environmental consumption. estimated price premium. attitudes toward environmental protection and non-purchasing environmental behaviors were used to profile customers. geographic variables. psychological and behavioral profiles of consumers who were willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products. own consumption patterns in the past. the paper investigated the demographic. They had the highest level of willingness involving environmental initiatives in each aspect mentioned. (2001) revealed that concerns related to the environment were evident in the increasingly ecologically conscious marketplace. (2003) analysed potential purchasers of green electricity. The study analysed the factors that explain whether or not people had installed residential solar energy equipment or had subscribed to green-electricity programs. consumption patterns of reference persons. The results concluded that the customers in the µµPragmatic group´ were the target customers in the study. (1998) revealed that the green movement in newly industrialized countries was lag behind the West. greater the intensity of buying organic food.Behavior variables. level of information on environmentally-friendly goods). The results showed that consumers¶ environmental concern was not reflected in their purchasing behaviour. The ultimate purpose of the research was to help firms target customers. It was found that this segment of consumers were more likely to be females. They were more highly educated. They were willing to pay more for such a notebook computer. married and with at least one child living at home. In addition to demographic characteristics and environmental attitudes.

concluded that families with children were more likely to buy organic produce than those without children. Responses from a survey distributed in a major Canadian metropolitan area were also examined. Attitudinal characteristics . which showed that these concerns might be more closely related with economic factors than with an environmental consciousness. (2000) in his study revealed that information presentation format and inferences about missing values could not account for the observed effects of missing . Drawing upon the literature on green product purchasers more generally. It was found that the Portuguese. The study empirically tested a values typology as a basis to explain attitude formation. (2009) in his study collected data through a survey of Portuguese consumers aged over 18. Gap between Intention to buy and actual behaviour Follows et al. Influence of Families and Children Thompson and Kidwell (1998) in a study of conventional and organic produce purchases. It could be concluded that Portuguese consumers understood the challenges currently placed before the environment. Do Paco et al. liberalism and altruism . Product Choice criteria Simonson et al. Their participation was often based on protecting the environment by saving electricity and water. it was seen that there was a segment of ³greener´ consumers in the sample which was different significantly in some aspects from the other market segments.best identified the potential purchasers of green electricity. The results of the study showed that there were consumers who bought green products and that certain environmental and demographic variables were significant for differentiating between the ³greener´ segment and the other segments.electricity . which took the personal implications of consumption into account. It was also noted that there were consumers who were prepared to base their buying decisions on purchasing products that did not harm the environment. In fact. even though their concerns were not always translated into environmentally friendly behaviour. and that they were aware of the existence of environmental problems. The model successfully predicted the purchase of environmentally responsible and non-responsible product alternatives. attitudinal characteristics and socialization characteristics. The study identified the potential purchaser of green electricity.specifically ecological concern. Individual consequences. it was proposed that those who would pay increasingly higher premiums for green electricity were more likely to possess particular demographic characteristics. did not translate their concerns into actions: they rarely joined environmentalist associations and they did not take part in policy making. (2000) tested a consumer model of environmentally responsible purchase behaviour using covariance structural analysis. despite their support for policies designed to improve the environment. were found to be just as important in predicting intention as the environmental consequences of a product. A hierarchial relationship from values to product specific attitudes to purchase intention to purchase behaviour was confirmed.the electricity that had been generated by more environmentally sustainable means (for example. solar power or wind power).

Blair et al. (2007) explored the factors which influenced the consumer attitude and behaviour towards green practices in the lodging industry in India and also explored the consumers' intentions to pay for such practices. (3) across exposure to a series of ad claims. reduction of overall consumption and avoidance of products containing genetically modified organisms. Findings revealed that the consumers using hotel services were conscious about environmentally friendly practices in India. but had less impact on their estimates of store¶s regular price. Manaktola et al. The study also showed that purchase decision of buyers who considered contribute importance prior to making a choice and those with the need for cognition were less susceptible to be influenced by missing information. Rios et al. (2006) in his study used a statewide sample of Maine registered vehicle owners and examined factors that affect their assessments of ecolabeled conventionally fueled passenger vehicles. Tilikidou (2006) in his study examined pro-environmental purchasing behaviour (PPB) and how it was influenced by demographics. Study also demonstrated that environmental certifications strengthened consumers¶ believes in the product¶s ecological performance. It was found that environmental attributes of an eco-labeled passenger vehicle were significant in the purchase decision. environmental knowledge (a factor rather neglected so far) and attitudes (environmental unconcern). Noblet et al. The higher scores were obtained with reference to energy and water conservation. (2006) determined the attitudes towards brand with environmental association. though this effect was smaller than other functional attributes. The results of the study showed that (1) the opportunity to shop across various retail stores reduced the effect of comparative price claims on consumers¶ estimates of lowest price for a particular item. less than 20% of Greeks might be characterized as relatively frequent pro-environmental purchasers. (2) access to advertising from competing retailers had the same pattern of effects. Particular attention was paid to how eco-information may affect the two-stage vehicle purchase process. The eco-information was considered in the vehicle purchase decision. The findings also indicated that choosing from sets with missing information could impact buyer tastes and purchase decisions subsequently. They patronised the . It was also found that for shopping of branded goods. The study examined the role of personal characteristics such as perceived effectiveness of consumer purchase decisions and perceptions of the eco-labeled products as factors in the vehicle purchase decision. The results indicated that professionals. the comparative price claims might prove counterproductive for retail advertisers by leading consumers to believe that the store¶s regular prices were high without convincing them that its sale prices were low. but it was generally not considered at the class-level decision. PPB was found to be adopted at a rather low level. It was found that there was a positive effect of environmental associations on brand attitudes. holding a graduate and/or a postgraduate degree and with an annual income of 25-30 thousand Euros were more engaged in PPB in Greece. (2002) examined the effects of shopping information on consumers¶ responses to comparative price claims in retail advertisements.information on consumer choice. those effects generalized from estimates of specific item prices to judgment of the store¶s general pricing. 35-55 years old. PPB was found to be correlated positively and moderately with environmental knowledge and negatively and moderately with environmental unconcern. The study focused on developing an empirical and theoretical framework with which to model vehicle choice decisions under eco-labeled conditions. The consumers also declared that they were used to choose the eco-friendly alternative of a product when there was no significant price difference.

the experiment assessed the potential viability of market-oriented solutions. favoured environmentally labelled packaging as the most important criteria in their choice. The paper studied the potential effects of providing eco-information in the private market for passenger vehicles and light-duty trucks sold in the United States. which suggested that the more information manufacturers . Moreover. Rokka et al. Shen et al. Results indicated that consumers were different in their preferences for packaging. the results indicated that it is premature. The results of the study suggested that consumers in Shanghai were well aware of the China Energy Efficiency Label and tended to pay more attention to products with such labels. The findings emphasized on the increased importance of ethical and environmental dimension in product choices. price and convenience of use of daily products. China. The study suggested that the hotels would have to invest in environmentally friendly practices and look at long-term gains. if not unwarranted. (2009) conducted a hypothetical choice experiment in Shanghai. The results pointed out the importance of well-designed labeling practices as they significantly affected individuals¶ perceptions of the eco-friendliness of products. Therefore.hotels which adapted green practices though not compromising on service quality. the importance of underlying psychological factors. and individuals¶ priorities of the product and of the environmental problem suggested a strong role for the long-run provision of eco-information. to examine whether the China Energy Efficiency Label influenced consumers¶ choices of air conditioners and refrigerators. little information had been gathered on willingness-to-pay (WTP) for such products and its determinants in non-affluent consumer markets. especially in cases where individuals held incorrect perceptions. Kempen et al. to assume that the poor were not ready to make pro-ethical choices in the marketplace. Local consumers in developing countries were generally believed to be too poor to pay a premium for green/ethical products. Given the ineffectiveness of command-and-control policies to curb the problem of illegal logging in Guatemala. Indian hotels had the competitive advantage over similar products if they followed green practices. Teisl et al. onethird of consumers. it was found that information on the legal procedures for firewood extraction significantly affected consumer choice between legal and illegal firewood. While the experiment on firewood consumption in central Guatemala only implied a weak and indirect test of WTP for green products. In addition. (2008) examined consumer environmental choice was studied by analysing the relative importance of green packaging when comapared with other relevant product attributes. The study also proposed that the attention in environmental consumer research should be shifted from general attitude studies towards the study of actual product choices. Further. Contrary to several previous studies. the study found that the largest consumer segment. The consumers would prefer to use lodging that followed those practices but were not willing to pay extra for those services. brand. The study was based on an analysis of preferences for functional drink products of a sample of 330 consumers using these products. air conditioners and refrigerators affixed with a hypothetical label that indicated saving in electricity bills compared with a standard model received significant preferences. The government needed to acknowledge and institutionalise the practice by instituting rewards and offering benefits in taxes. (2008) examined how the characteristics of the individual and the information simultaneously influenced an information program¶s success. (2009) investigated that whether households in Guatemala were willing to surrender a small material gain in order to buy legal rather than illegal firewood. It was also found that various distinctive consumer segments could be identified on the market.

It was concluded that barriers to marketing such products. would be formidable. Tranter (2009) revealed that in recent years. The results of the study showed that the determinants of green consumer behaviour were also different with regard to values. and WPM in the gender group and from OI to WPM in the age group were statistically significant. Denmark. in overall value. and WPM. WOMI. WOMI. word-of-mouth intention (WOMI). the EU had become a net importer of organic food to supply increasing demand. Financial support was given for farmers during the conversion period to help expand organic production as this was seen as a barrier to conversion. Portugal. only the paths from OI to VI. Specifically. Finally. Consumers primarily purchased organic products for food safety and health reasons. weighted by class probability. It was concluded that values played a significant roles in determining such behaviours and behaviour used to differ by gender. Finally. The study revealed that the direct reasons for green consumer behaviour were varied depending on economy and health concerns. Female consumers were found to be more environment oriented. (2009) examined hotel customers¶ eco-friendly decision-making processes. Consumers¶ attitudes towards and willingness-to-pay for. Gender and green Consumer behavior Usui (2001) examined the effect of individual values on green consumer behaviour. the willingness to pay values for more energy efficient refrigerators were higher than those for more energy efficient air conditioners. farmers had been marketing products produced in this conversion period and labeled as such. Study showed that conversion-grade products were perceived as little better than conventional. Additionally. the findings from a structural modeling comparison revealed that OI completely mediated the effect of ATGB on components of behavioral intentions. the potential of policies for marketing conversion-grade products to encourage more conversion was examined. together with barriers to achieving this. However. visit intention (VI). the extent to which was described here for the UK. . the study tested the relationships among attitude toward green behaviors (ATGB). Meanwhile. Ireland and Italy. implying that Shanghai consumers had greater incentive to pay more for appliances they use more frequently. conversion-grade food in those countries was examined. Subsequent tests for metric invariances demonstrated that the relationships among study variables were generally stronger among females and high age groups.provide. The results of structural equation analyses showed that OI is a positive function of ATGB and that OI significantly affected VI. overall image (OI). particularly from retailers. and willingness to pay more (WPM) by considering the effects of gender and age in a green hotel context. with vegetables attracting a higher premium than meat. Han et al. It was found that consumers would be prepared to pay a premium for conversion-grade produce of around half the premium for organic produce. the more their products would be preferred by consumers.