AIRPORT DESIGN Runway orientation: In the direction of the prevailing wind, determined from the Wind Roses in order

there are no obstructions from all approaches and no noise problems from aircraft landing or taking-off. Runway length: It is calculated from the basic length for the design aircraft (as given by ICAO and respective corrections recommended by ICAO). Example for Boeing 737: Wing span 35,8m; Length of aircraft 39,5m; Height 12,6m; Turning radius 25m; Basic runway 2540m Correction from the meteorology of the site: Altitude and maximum temperature. - Altitude: Runway length to be increased at a rate of 7% per 300m rise in elevation above mean sea level - Temperature: Length corrected for temperature increasing at a rate 1% for every 1% rise in temperature. Gradients: For quick drainage of surface water ICAO recommends a maximum gradient of 1,5% for category A airports, and the longitudinal gradient of runway increases and the maximum is also 1,5%. Taxiways: Length short as possible; width 22,5m, max longitudinal & transverse gradients 1,5%,Turning radius 120m, distance to runway 150m, distance to terminal building 150m, exit of turns best at 300. Aerodrome reference code: Code number Ref. field length Code letter Wing span 1 Less than 800m A < 15m 2 800m = or <1200m B 15= or <24m 3 1200 = or <1800m C 24= or <36m 4 1800 = or more D 36= or <52m E 52= or <65m F 65= or <80m Classification by runways: ICAO classifies runways by length, width, tyre pressure etc. According to category, safety area is specified as 150m widths and an extension of 60m on either side of the runway. (i) Classification by pavement type: Rigid pavement – Code R; Flexible pavement – Code F (ii) Sub-grade strength category: a) High strength: k=150MN/m3; CBR=13-15 – Code A b) Medium strength: k=80MN/m3; CBR=8-13 – Code B c) Low strength: k=40MN/m3; CBR=4-8 – Code C d) Very low strength: k=20MN/m3; CBR=3-4 – Code D. (iii) Maximum allowable tyre pressure: - High – no pressure limit – Code W - Medium – up to 1,5MPa – Code X - Low – up to 1,0 MPa – Code Y - Very low – up to 0,5MPa – Code Z (iv) Evaluation method (Code): a) Technical evaluation – T; b) Using aircraft experience – U Example: PCN 80/R/B/W/T: Bearing strength of airport runway rests on medium strength sub-grade assessed to be 80 and the tyre pressure has no limitation - this is the pavement classification. Example: PCN 50/F/A/W/U: The sub-grade strength is 50, flexible pavement, high strength, evaluation by aircraft experience – this is the pavement classification. The reading of Pavement Classification Number is: PCN No of airport; k-sub-grade strength, pavement type, sub-grade strength, tyre pressure, evaluation method. Table 1. Airport classification Type Basic runway length (m) Pavement width (m) Maximum longitudinal gradient (%) Maximum Minimum A 2100 45 1,5 B 2099 1500 45 1,5 C 1490 900 30 1,5 D 899 750 22,5 2,0 E 749 600 18 2,0 Table 2. Taxiway geometry ICAO airport classification Width Max. longitudinal gradient Min. transverse gradient A 22,5 1,5 1,5 B 22,5 1,5 1,5 C 15,0 3,0 1,5 D 9,9 3,0 2,0 E 7,5 3,0 2,0

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For determination of the design aircraft. Overlays of hot-mix asphalt are most often applicable to both types designed using the CBR values of the sub-grade and sub-base materials. including cruise altitude. speed of construction. less complexity than concrete entails. fuel to decent and fuel to cruise to specified altitude at a specified speed to find the total quantity of fuel burnout. including the wheel load weight. Group the forecast traffic into landing gear groups and convert all aircraft types into the gear of the design aircraft.Speed (km/h) for exit taxiway 65 80 95 Taxiway Radius (m) 517 731 941 Table 3. 5. runway slope. Then.7 of the thickness of the base for non-critical areas. durable runway because of smoothness. to wing span.5 Dual wheel Dual tandem 0.3 Double dual tandem Dual wheel 1. 2 . width and shoulders acc. Convert the annual departures into the design aircraft configuration. depressions and replacement of sub-grade of broken pavement for proper drainage. Use the relevant graphs for design of pavement layers for the given CBR for the sub-grade. operating mass empty. W2 = Wheel load of aircraft in question. headwind in cruise. Assume the type of aircraft and the particular conditions. where R1 = Annual departures of the design aircraft. determine the length. Using the relevant tables. low maintenance. using the basic expression/formula: Log R1 = Log R2 * (W2 /W1) ½. 3.0 Dual tandem Dual wheel 1. The minimum permitted is 0. the compaction depth. W1 = Wheel load of Design Aircraft. forecast annual departures and maximum take-off weight. Add this quantity of fuel to the mass found in step 1 to find the take-off mass. airport temperature. standard conditions of climb and decent en-route. 5. Bituminous pavement overlays for runways: Reasons: (i) Expected overloading (ii) To maintain satisfactory serviceable level (iii) To strengthen for heavy aircraft (iv) To the extend design life. using the appropriate table. Summarize to find the total equivalent annual departures by the design aircraft.6 Double dual wheel Dual tandem 1. The needed input includes: aircraft types with the respective gear types. 6. Determination of the aircraft and annual departures for pavement design: 1. determine the runway length using the airport conditions which are listed initially in the problem as in step 1. 4. low initial and life-cycle cost. Conversion factors according to wheels To convert from To Multiply departures by Single wheel Dual wheel 0. 6. Appropriate graphs indicate the total pavement thickness. CBR for subbase materials. a comparison of the required thickness for all different aircrafts using design curves and relevant data should be done. check if the climb-limited mass is less than the maximum take-off structural mass. Using the approved flight manual of the design aircraft. 1. The design curves used determine the total pavement thickness and the surface course thickness of the critical areas of runways. Summarize the fuel required to climb to cruise altitude. R2 = Annual departures expressed in Design Aircraft. After the repair a light tack coat or fog is used and then the layer of the hot-mix of high quality with appropriate aggregate is laid. breakups. on rigid the thickness depends on original thickness and cracking and is usually 200-250mm.7 Steps in runway length determination: It is calculated from the basic length for the design aircraft. which should not exceed the specified maximum take-off structural mass. payload and fuel reserve to find the landing mass. speed. 2. thickness of asphalt/bituminous surfacing and the drainage structure.9 is used. Summarize the operating mass empty. airport surface wind.7 Dual wheel Single wheel 1. The surface should be prepared by repairing potholes. the gross weight and number of departures. longitudinal and transverse slopes. 4. payload and fuel reserve. Hot-mix asphalt is a top choice for a smooth. There ate two types of overlays: (i) Applicable to both flexible and rigid pavement to strengthen the thickness of minimum of 75mm (ii) Applicable to either pavement: on flexible to strengthen for a dual wheel aircraft to be 75mm used on 600mm. which should not exceed the maximum structural landing mass as specified in the aircraft manual and tables. 2.8 Single wheel Dual tandem 0. All aircraft should be grouped into this configuration. For non-critical areas for the base and sub-base thickness a factor of 0. airport altitude. It is usually not. irregularities. gradients etc. 3.0 Dual tandem Single wheel 2. One requiring the greatest thickness is the design one.