these particular positions. Stress design work and design oriented consulting output in lieu of conventional publications when making pay, promotion and tenure decisions concerning these individuals.

1) The beneficial trend of the past two decades toward up-grading analytical aspects of engineering education has unfortunately been accompanied by a concomitant deterioration in the quality of instruction offered in engineering synthesis and design.

2) The individual teacher can do much to rectify this imbalance simply by modifying the conduct of existing courses. Questions of synthesis and design can be introduced in nearly every course at every level. What is mainly needed is a shift in viewpoint, and the allocation of sufficient time and effort toward fostering creativity in design. 3) School administrators can play a decisive role in restoring a healthier balance in engineering education by adopting policies of faculty recruitment, pay, promotion, and tenure that foster and reward creative design skills to a degree comparable to that now lavished on research and publications.


Simplified Metho


Feedbacd Amplifier Analysis


Abstract-An exact asymptotic method is presented for performing gain calculations on feedback amplifiers. The method is algorithmic and utilizes only Ohm's law, voltage and current division and source conversion and does not require the breaking of the feedback loop. For impedance calculations Blackman's formula is used. A set of quick-reference tables is presented for the most common feedback amplifier configurations.


A COMMON approach used in the teaching of feedback amplifiers to undergraduates consists of presenting the fundamental principles on a block diagram basis. This is very suitable for demonstrating the general effects of feedback, such as improvement in gain stability, distortion, and changes in bandwidth. But the block diagram method is of limited usefulness in practical feedback amplifier circuits, since the feedback network causes significant loading on the basic amplifier and so it is impossible to separate the feedback amplifier into two distinct blocks. A number of different methods have been used to circumvent the problem. The traditional method [1] requires the breaking of the feedback loop at some point and carefully terminating with the proper impedance at the break. This often gives rise to conceptual problems which are difficult to resolve. For example, how can this procedure be applied to a very simple feedback amplifier such as the emitter follower? A more recent method [2] overcomes some of the above


Manuscript received January 9 1974. The author is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Newark College of Engineering, Newark, N. J. 07102.

work is ignored. Another approach is to represent the amplifier and feedback network in terms of their respective two port matrices [3]. The student is required to choose a Y, Z, H, or G matrix representation depending on the categorization of the amplifier on the basis of the input-output feedback connection (shunt-shunt, series-series etc.). This method is complicated and so approximations to this method are often used. Finally, there is the problem of finding input and output impedances. The usual method is to multiply or divide the open loop impedance by the return difference depending on the amplifier categorization. This makes no provision for finding impedance for cases not falling into the four basic classifications, for example amplifiers with unbalanced bridge feedback. This paper presents the asymptotic formula for gain calculations in sections 2 and 3. A simple derivation is given in appendix A. The asymptotic gain method has the following advantages: a. It is exact. b. It is algorithmic. No ingenuity is required to apply the method. c. It is simple. Ohm's law, voltage and current division, and source conversion suffice to find all feedback quantities. d. It is general. The subject of breaking the loop never really comes up. For impedance calculation Blackman's impedance rela-

difficulties by placing a phantom voltage (or current) source at the break, but the method is approximate inasmuch as forward transmission through the feedback net-

Authorized licensed use limited to: Politecnico di Torino. Downloaded on March 23, 2009 at 10:49 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

section 2. K will approximately equal the used to determine the ratio RfJRe. and computing the value of the variable Xa in the resulting system. T Return Ratio. Using the method of section 2.2 0 and refer the resultant circuit to the emitter of the first transistor. VI( Gf where = K T + G 1+ T 1 +T (1) Figure 2.3 Calculation of the Direct Transmission Term Go We simply set T to zero by setting k equal to zero. Voltages are unchanged by this to the gain Gf. the return V1= V2 j' Re + Rf ratio T is equal to-Xa. Downloaded on March 23. with the result The use of the asymptotic gain formula will now be Re R2 (9) illustrated through some examples.3 (this is particularly true for this example where KT >» Go) we shall illustrate the method of calculation 2. This is the (8) -* c. We see by inspection that setting all independent sources to zero. circuit is shown in figure 4. 2009 at 10:49 from IEEE Xplore. For for situations where it might be of interest.c. Series-shunt feedback pair. Gf _ Feedback Amplifier Gain Go = Gf |T=0 _ Direct Transmission Term +_ K = Gf IT-. Simplified equivalent circuit for the series-shunt feedback pair. To find the asymptotic gain K we return to figure 2 and impose the condition hfe2 -.T-= h +2 tity xa by the parameter k as follows: || hibl) Re + hibi R + hie2 (7) JR2 + Rf + (Re (6) Xb = kxa . and then the negaculated with respect to one and only one controlled source tive of ib2 is T.1 we draw the equivalent circuit of figure 3 for calculating the return ratio T.1 Calculation of the Return Ratio T in turn ia --* 0. In appendix A it is shown that the same as letting k Re controlling quantity Xa goes to zero. We All the quantities which enter equation 1 must be cal. We find in a very straightforward manner within the feedback amplifier.Accordingly Ve = V1 and then the relevant part of the pendent source kxa by an independent source of value k.proceed to calculate ib2 by inspection. This formula is very general and can be used in all situations including unbalanced bridge feedback.ROSENSTARK: FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER ANALYSIS 193 -o2 tion is reviewed in section 4. Although Go is usually not of interest as mentioned in final gain Gf of the feedback amplifier. A gain specification can be that for (loop gain) T >> 1. need not be calculated. hence th-e ratio V2/Vi corresponding to K is 2. The ratio V2/V1 which equals Go is determined by in3. In those situations it can be ignored and transformation and we get the diagram shown in figure 5. In appendix C a set of quick-reference tables is presented for the most common feedback amplifier configurations. (The term s'eries-shunt is used for identification and not for classification. Asymptotic Gain (2) (3) (4) (5) K=Re . Restrictions apply. In figure 2 = many amplifiers Go. R2+ Rf + (Re 1 hibl) hibl+ Re Example 1: Consider the series-shunt feedback pair in We can at this point calculate the quantity KT/Go by figure 1 and its simplified equivalent circuit in figure 2. hence ibl O 0 (since hfel remains finite). ASYMPTOTIC GAIN FORMULA Rather than use the customary A and : approach we shall here analyze amplifiers by using the asymptotic gain formula (which is derived in appendix A) VI VI jr2 2' Figure 1. We shall refer to the conRe R2 aiRl trolled source quantity Xb related to the controlling quan. APPLICATION OF THE ASYMPTOTIC METHOD spection. This causes ib2 -* 0 and 2. It may be and this is approximately equal to the final gain of the remarked at this point that inspection of equation 1 shows feedback amplifier if T >> 1.2 Calculation of the Asymptotic Gain K + Rf To find K we let the return ratio T -* oo. The amplifier gain calculated with this condition imposed is K. << KT and so contributes very little we set hf.) We shall arbitrarily select the controlled source of the second transistor to calculate all the desired quantities. Authorized licensed use limited to: Politecnico di Torino. 2. and a simple derivation is given in appendix B. The return ratio T is determined by replacing the de.

. Downloaded on March 23. Restrictions apply.0 R2 11 [Rf + Re || hibl].e+ Re Re (13) Equation 12 states the familiar result for the emitter follower Impedance at terminals a b with feedback (16) amplifier normal.L using the results of equations 7. B.. (19) In many cases either T. hfe)Re' (14) Figure 5. FINDING IMPEDANCES It has been 30 years since R. Figure 4. to obtain KT= Go KT aihf2 ~~R1 R1 Re±+Rf R R + hie2 (10) and this can be used to ascertain the relative contribution of Go to Gf. + (1 + hfel) [Re II (Rf + R2)] (20) (21) Z22.194 ie.Rf = V4I R. Zabo Impedance at terminals a b with controlled (17) source Xb = kxa set to zero. but a feedback technique that is general should be able to stand the test of being applied to degenerate circuits. Return ratio for source Xb computed with terT. The problem is solved since the approximate final amplifier gain Gf is known and the amount of feedback T is also known. -Return ratio for source Xb computed with terT. Example 2: It is an accepted fact that the emitter follower of figure 6a possesses feedback. hence the only new quantity that is required is Zab° Example 3: For the series-shunt feedback pair of figures 1 and 2 find the input impedance Znl. 13 and 14 arc combined in equation 1. but it is a difficult 4.3 we obtain directly circuit to analyze by the A. 8 and 9. 2. The emitter follower (a) and equivalent circuit (b).. (Note: The output impedance is by convention found with the input source set to zero.eR1 2 VI R. If a very accurate answer is desired then substitution into equation 1 can be carried out. will be zero. G. 2009 at 10:49 from IEEE Xplore. Although the method is very simple. since there is no hie K = G (11) 1 hie (12) .1. or T. Blackman's impedance relation allows determination of impedances in an unequivocal manner. NOVEMBER 1974 lb2 -" h () s1 ib liII. Furthermore. Blackman presented his method for finding impedances in feedback amplifiers. and the output impedance Z22'. Circuit for calculating the asymptotic gain K.. Circuit for calculating the return ratio T.° = hie. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON EDUCATION. Blackman's method of finding impedance in a feedback amplifier is embodied in the very simple relation Zab = Zabo 1 + Toe + T8c (15) where logical way of removing feedback by breaking the loop. and the non-zero return ratio will correspond to the return ratio computed when obtaining the amplifier gain. . We set hfe2 0 and then -find by inspection that Zil. Circuit for calculating the direct transmission term G. current division and source conversion. and 2. (b) Figure 6. (a) Figure 3. it is largely ignored in favor of techniques which require that the amplifier be classified into one of four recognized configurations before proceeding. We see that at no time was it necessary to classify the circuit as to the type of feedback being used. Applying the rules of sections 2. minals a b open-circuited. (18) minals a b short-circuited. we When equations 12. and also the question of breaking the loop never came up. We will therefore proceed to test the asymptotic formula on the emitter follower equivalent circuit shown in figure 6b. approach. The classification is used to determine whether 1 + T should multiply or divide the open-loop impedance.f 1.) Zab - - - - = = Authorized licensed use limited to: Politecnico di Torino. without the need to break the feedback loop and without the need to categorize the amplifier.2. This circuit can be readily analyzed by ordinary methods. obtain (to no one's surprise) hie + (1 + (1 + hfe)Re hiF hjb. the methods of analysis required were merely voltage division.

7)] and Z22 Z22 t -1 =I ± T(of eq.1' are short-circuited the circuit is the same as in figure 3. hence Tll.ROSENSTARK: FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER ANALYSIS 195 We now turn our attention to finding the various return ratios. (27) But the above conditions correspond to those found in section 2. (A-2) From this we conclude that for finite V1 lim Xa = lim Xa = 0. Restrictions apply. and A-7 in equation A-4 we obtain the asymptotic gain formula APPENDIX A Gf =K T + Go (A-8) DERIVATION OF THE ASYMPTOTIC 1+T 1+T GAIN FORMULA We shall now establish the condition that is imposed We draw the feedback amplifier as shown in figure Al on the feedback amplifier when k -> oo which is equivand display the controlled source Xb which is contained alent to T X-* as can be seen from equation A-5. A-6. (A-4) We now need an interpretation of terms for the above If the source V1 is set to zero and Xb is replaced by k.7) (24) and T22tsc = 0.kCD = AV1 + BXb V2 (A-1) Xa= CV1 + DXb. = T(ofeq.Asymptotic Gain. CONCLUSION BC A= K. . (23) By similar observations we find T22. Eliminside the amplifier. = T(ofeq.. In that case Blackman's method has a These conditions correspond to those found in section 2.2.3. BC For bridge feedback Toc and T. Circuit for deriving the asymptotic gain formula. hence La found above is the negative of the return ratio. so that subject need not be covered separately. Accordingly . In addition the method used is directly applicable to A = G. 2009 at 10:49 from IEEE Xplore.1' are open-circuited then ibl = 0.1. Students are particularly A = Gf k=o = Gf |T=0gratified to find that the results obtained by these methods are in complete agreement with those obtained by mesh or The above conditions correspond to those found in section 2. 7) o 0 (A-3) Solving for V2/V1 we obtain after some manipulation Gf = V2/VI = (A -BC/D) (-kD) + A 1 -kD equation.7).oo T-oo Authorized licensed use limited to: Politecnico di Torino. Using equations A-5. (A-6) Use of the asymptotic gain method and Blackman's impedance relation has led to greater student confidence Again from equation A-4 in being able to evaluate amplifier parameters irrespective of the feedback connection. When terminals 1 . (A-5) and the solution was obtained without prior knowledge From equation A-4 as to whether 1 + T belongs in the numerator or denominator. Xa (A-9) La1 . hence 5. Downloaded on March 23. inating Xb from equations A-2 and A-3 we obtain We shall consider V1 and Xb as sources and V2 and xa as c outputs. = ZjjO1[I + T(of eq. hence Tll oc _ + VXa + Xb- 0 x Xk + = 0.kD = T -Return Ratio. and A. hence nodal analysis. (A-7) operational amplifiers.D = Gf k-o = GfIT-oo D the impedance calculations cannot be performed by traditional methods. Xb = kxa. then we find for xa from equation A-2 = xa. clear advantage. (A-10) In addition we have for the controlled source = k-.kD. (22) Figure Al. Accordingly we write CV V1. (25) We thus find by substitution into equation 15 that (26) Zni. When terminals 1 .6 are both non-zero. -Direct Transmission Term.

The above conditions correspond to those found in tion 19. El Solving for V/I. Figure Bi. K. V =AI+ BXb Xa =CI + Dxb. The quantities T. then from equation B-2 Xa= kD. From equation B-1 we have Z. For example. Shunt-series BJT amplifier. Z42 Ze2+ re2+ Z+2 = - Substituting equations B-5. which is Blackman's impedance relation. To use the tables. (B-1) (B-2) (B-3) Also Xb = kxa. and V and xa as outputs. Although the tables are self-explanatory.196 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON EDUCATION. But the above conditions correspond to those found in equation 18. NOVEMBER 1974 APPENDIX B A SIMPLE DERIVATION OF BLACKMAN'S RELATION As in appendix A we draw the circuit in figure Bl and treat I and Xb as sources. . and B-7 into equation B-4 we obtain Zab = Hf Z =Z_ Z4+Z42(1+Zk2Ze H1+ZI K =L2(ZL+IZ2) Zab 1 + T8C + T0c (B-8) KT=Hf Z (I + Z2) Figure C2. hence (B-5) A = Zabo. and C1-C8). APPENDIX C Authorized licensed use limited to: Politecnico di Torino. (B-7) T Z2 =2 Z.k(AD . hence (B-6) -k (AD .L Z +ZL K = A = v I X6 x b=° Z= +Z2+ZL TZ+H -Z2 The above corresponds to the definition in equation 17. hence -kD = equa- Toc. Go Hf H. Z. the ampliA TABLE OF SOME COMMON CIRCUITS fier denoted by the triangle and the collector resistor of In this section a table of common feedback amplifier the first transistor must be replaced by a hybrid model configurations is presented for quick reference (Figures as shown in the second diagram. Z Figure Cl. . a portion of the amplifier has to be replaced by an unilateral equivalent circuit.BC) /A.BC)/A 1 . If V = 0 and Xb = k. we obtain the impedance at terminals a . 2009 at 10:49 from IEEE Xplore.: Xa= k (AD . H.BC)/A = T8c. Restrictions apply.kD (B-4) We now need an interpretation of terms for the above equation. then equations B-1 and B-2 give the result for x. If I = 0 and Xb = k. in the series-shunt feedback case of figure C3. some Go were found with respect to the only controlled source comments are in order. Circuit for deriving Blackman's impedance formula. depicted in the second diagram. Shunt-shunt amplifier.b after some rearranging Z= A 1 . + H. B-6. Downloaded on March 23. KT. +HI . = Z. Z ZL z.

ROSENSTARK: FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER ANALYSIS 197 I Z/el = z ei T= + re-. 2009 at 10:49 from IEEE Xplore.Z + ZL = ZIZ + Zj rd2Z2 Z/2 S2 s' + A Z' AZ Z'.0 Go =A A Z 2 KT=A-1 +2 (1++Z Zs GO Figure C5. .. El ~~~~~z El?) Z2 zs --I s2 I T zl E2 + II r - - . Figure C4. = Ze + rel rbfZ S + re2+ Ze2=Ze2+r~2+ rb2 +Z ze2 +8 Z2 + Z/ +Z/IZ(Ze a.J +Z zizi I--' E2 L 2 z/ 1 T Z -1-zi Zizi 2+ZL KT z Z ZL L. Figure C6.+2+42 . KT rb R . Series-series BJT amplifier. Shunt-series FET amplifier. Hf(I +-2) a. Series-shunt BJT amplifier. Authorized licensed use limited to: Politecnico di Torino. AZI K P2 I L2 + Zs2=s L +2 ( 1 =- Z IRZ. Hf Z'L +1 Ze T = + 41 Ze2 I e2 ILHfZ + Ze/Ze KT KT K = 1 2 Ze aHz G= -a Hf Ze Figure C3.Z2 I+ ZL + ZL Z. Downloaded on March 23. L ZL =ZzZL +ZL K = zIelZei+rej + rbi+. Shunt-shunt amplifier. Restrictions apply.

Series-shunt FET amplifier. 18. These programs are usually of two general types. Orono. MEMBER. stub tuning and quarterwave transformers. Student response was very favorable and it is concluded that some Manuscript received April 3. FIELD.g. for a simple analysis program similar to ECAP. Stewart. P2 Zs I+ A2 G. "Effect of Feedback on Impedance". Orono to analyze a network of cascaded two-ports with the possibility of one feedback path. pp. Some examples of its use are given. In addition it would be following the industrial approach. the analysis of amplifiers with 1. so cism of the manuscript. NOVEMBER 1974 E2 i rdi +Zi Zs + rd2+Z2 rdi + Zi KL=__ + T = L2 Z-. University of Maine. will encompass nearly all networks encountered in an undergraduate course. mixed active elements is also possible. Z+ZL Z+z2/ t + Z2 L+Z2 ~ Zs KT t. while not the most general. Figure C7. and to Dr. 1974. P. An analysis program would then be very useful in a microwave engineering course. B. "Feedback Made Easy for the Undergraduate". 4. 22. 04473. 2009 at 10:49 from IEEE Xplore. 269-277. Such a program has been developed at the University of Maine. Jeannette Rosenstark for her valuable critiThe triangular amplifier is integrated or discrete. 97-103. 2. Series-series FET amplifier. L. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author wishes to express his gratitude to Prof. Vol. . H. the analysis is sufficiently general to cover a multitude of situations. In order to perform these and other calculations many industrial firms have developed analysis programs specifically for microwave networks [1-3]. IEEE sort of analysis program should be used in an undergraduate microwave engineering course. Restrictions apply. for the many enlightening discussions on the subject of feedback. October 1943. 12. e. Allyin & Bacon. on Education. HERRICK. Me. Ch. it is quite tedious to calculate the network's frequency response by hand even when using Smith chart methods. However. C. The first type analyzes cascaded two port networks and may or may not allow feedback. To satisfy this need Authorized licensed use limited to: Politecnico di Torino.1 45 1-fL2 Zl AZ 4 K=- zs5 I+ Lj I 2ZL Zs AZi(1 ZL? KT=_A Zi. "Electronic Principles.. Joseph Frank of Newark College of Engineering. AND DAVID L. "Engineering Electronics".198 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON EDUCATION. It would allow the student to both verify his designs and determine their frequency responses. June 1969. but which is applicable to distributed circuits. The second type is more general in that it will handle multiport networks but it is less efficient when applied to cascaded networks. Downloaded on March 23. E. Models and Circuits". IEEE Trans. The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering. Belove and D. It is also fast and very easy to use. Abstract-There exists a need. L. 3. pp. This configuration. R. STUDENT MEMBER. Physics. Since the triangular amplifier may contain REFEREN CES either BJT's or FET's. Schilling. Gray and C. John Wiley. Chapter 12. in undergraduate microwave engineering courses. IEEE. INTRODUCTION Most undergraduate microwave engineering courses include impedance matching methods. Blackman. 1969. BSTJ Vol. S. Figure C8. Short Notes MECAP-An Analysis Program for Microwave Engineering Courses JOHN C. 1967. Searle.

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