Civil War

Wednesday, 11 May 2011 7:49 PM

1st Phase - 1927-37
The First Phase of the Chinese Civil War 1927-37 - CCP splits in two 1. Moscow trained central-leadership went underground in Shanghai, tried to organise urban revolts but failed. From 1931 Mao used the failure the Moscow directed leadership to consolidate his power as the real leader of the CCP. 2. Mao led another group to the countryside of Hunan and Jiangxi where they est. independent soviet areas. There Mao and Zhu De founded the Red Army. 1930-1934  Chiang Kai-Shek launched a series of five military Campaigns of Encirclement and Extermination against the CCP in the Kiangsi Soviet. During these campaigns Mao and Zhu De successfully developed the tactics of guerrilla warfare from base areas in the countryside. • Tactics of mobile infiltration and guerrilla warfare developed by Mao helped the CCP fight off the first four campaigns. • For the fifth one, Chiang gathered about 700, 000 troops (you know, the casual 700,000) and est. a series of blockhouses around the CCP positions. The Central Communist Party abandoned Mao’s guerrilla tactics and used regular warfare tactics against the better equipped (had American weapons) and larger Nationalist forces. As a result, the CCP suffered heavy losses and were nearly crushed completely. BUT in order to avoid total extermination, on Oct. 15, 1934, the remaining 85000 troops, 15000 admin personnel and 35 women broke through the Nationalist lines and fled westward. This was the start of the LONG MARCH. Mao not in control at this point of events, Zhu De is in control. The Long March Long March: Commences October 1934 6000 miles north, a retreat. Somewhere between 100, 000 and 200, 000 began the march. Only those who were not injured could march. Many were left behind and slaughtered by KMT. During the first three months of the march the Communists were subjected to constant bombardment form Chiang’s air forces and attacks from his army, losing over half their men this way. Moral was low when they arrived in Tsun-i. At a conference there in 1935, Mao established dominance of the party. Travelled over 18 mountain ranges and 24 rivers Days without eating Only 7000 and 8000 Red Army troops survived Long March Video - Began during 1934 60, 000 communists had been massacred. April 1934: communists losing, totally surrounded. Chang-Kai Shek wanted to stamp communism out. Red Army equipment and munition less than that of nationalists (armed with US weapons).

and territorial. the PLA (People’s Liberation Army) they fought against were experienced in guerrilla warfare. In March 1947 they seized Yenan. and the CCP launched a counter-offensive in Manchuria. BUT by mid 1947 they were overstretched in occupying all the areas gained.The Long March was a military retreat North to give the Communists an opportunity to regroup.It was inefficient  little attempt was made to Reasons for CCP success . Mao was not yet the leader. Why did the Communists win? (Some of this information is split further down. his policy was to support the nationalists and hostile to the CCP. but agreed with retreat. 2nd phase 1946-49 During the Second Phase of the Civil War 1946-49 REASONS FOR USSR INVOLVEMENT Stalin’s position/ foreign intervention: Political. not modern warfare with modern weapons and the nationalists had a monopoly of air power. US objectives: .CCP were able to present themselves as more patriotic than the KMT who would more reliably resist foreign influences and forces .The KMT was a government of industrialists. The People’s Liberation Army (new name for the Red Army) won victories in Manchuria in 1948. but here are some notes) It’s important to be aware of the many advantages the Nationalists had.create a pro-American China as: a) a huge market for US capital and trade b) a pro-American neighbour of the USSR Serious fighting broke out for the second time between armies in Manchuria in April 1946. they had a large. No real objective at the start. However: Downfalls of the Nationalists . bankers and landlords. It made no attempt to gain the support of the peasantry . including the fact they were recognised and supported by the USA and the USSR. . Initially. the KMT were successful. US equipped army.wanted to prevent the rise of a strong central government in China .wanted to gain territory around and at China’s borderlands Since Stalin thought that Mao would make a stronger ruler of China than Chiang. took Beijing in early 1949 and Nanjing in April 1949.

The KMT forces were allowed to loot and pillage the countryside . Led to hyperinflation. invasion of Manchuria . high taxes and forced labour was resented. .the KMT lacked good generals and was poorly led KMT was more interested in wiping out communists than dealing with threat of Japan. US aid went into pockets of officials) .Mao was successful in cultivating the support of the peasantry .The Long March assumed a position of some sort of national epic and it’s spell captured the peasants hearts.The CCP were not allowed to loot and pillage countryside “repay. with Mao gaining the idea that he had the “mandate of heaven’ . popular.improve the conditions of the masses. the admin of the KMT was notoriously corrupt (laws were not applied impartially to rich and poor alike.paid for the wars by printing money. basic ideology .They were seen as more effective fighters than the KMT during the SinoJapanese War . replenish.strong.KMT relied upon a hated secret police system . repair” -communist land policy far more attractive . KMT did not prevent hoarding of rice during famines by profiteers.Mao had capable general (like Zhu De and Lin Biaou)  Mao took advantage of KMT weaknesses .

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