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CONFIDENTIAL

For Official Use Only

INDIAN STANDARDS AND INDIAN ELECTRICITY RULES EXTRACTS

CHIEF TECHNICAL EXAMINER’S ORGANISATION


NEW DELHI
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 2

INDEX

INTERNAL

S.NO IS / IE RULES SUBJECT REFER PAGE


-ENCE NO
CPWD
SPEC.
PAGE

1. IS 732-1963 Code of practice for Electrical Wiring 3 1


installations (system Voltage not exceeding 650
Volts)

2. IS 732-1963 Code of practice for Electrical Wiring 3 2


installations (system Voltage not exceeding 650
Volts)

3. IE RULE 1956 / 50 Medium pressure wiring 5 2

4. IE RULE 1956 / 51 Regarding Medium and High pressure wiring 5 2

5. IE RULE 1956 / Identification of earthed and Neutral conductors. 6 2-3


32(1)(2)

6. IE RULE 1956 / 51(1) Fixed type metallic boxes 7 3

7. IS 375-1963 ® Marking and arrangement for switch-gear bus- 23 3


bars, main connections and auxiliary wiring

8. IE RULE 1956 / 33 Earthed termination on consumer premises. 27 3

9. IE RULE 1956 / 33 Connection with Earth. 27 3-4

10. IE RULE 1956 / 33 Connection with Earth. 27 4

11. IS 347 / 1952 Varnish Shellac for general purposes 28 4-5

12. IS2309 / 1969 Code of practice for the protection of buildings 31 4-6
and allied structures against lightning.

13. IS RULE 1956 Safety procedure. 40 6

14. IS CODE 5216 / 1969 Guide for safety procedures and practice in 40 7-8
electrical works.
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INDEX

EXTERNAL

S.No IS / IE RULES SUBJECT REFER P. NO


-ENCE
CPWD
SPEC.
PAGE
1. IS 1954 (Part- For working voltages upto and including 1100 Volts. 3 1-2
I)1976
2. IS 1954(Part-For working Voltage from 3.3 KV up to and including 11 3 2-5
II)1967 KV.
3. IS 692-1973 Paper insulated lead sheathed cables for electricity 3 5-6
supply.
4. IS 732-1963 Code of practice for electrical wiring installations 3 6-7
(System voltage not exceeding 650 Volts).
5. IS 3961 (PART- Paper insulated lead sheathed cables. 3 7
II)1967
6. IS 3961 (PART- PVC insulated and PVC sheathed heavy duty cables. 3 7
II)1967
7. IS 5819--1970 Recommended short circuit rating of high voltage PVC 3 8-9
cables.
8. IS 1255-1967 Code of practice for installation and maintenance of 4-6 9-10
paper insulated power cables ( up to & including 53 KV).
9. IS 1255-1967 --do—Section II 10 10-11
10. IS 2713 - 1964 Tubular steel poles for O.H. Lines. 10 11-13
11. IS 705-1970 Reinforced concrete poles for OH power & 10 13-15
Telecommunication lnes.
12. IS 876-1970 Wood poles for O.H power and Telecommunications 10 15-16
lnes.
13. IS 1678-1960 Prestresssed concrete poles for OH power, traction and 10 16-18
Telecommunications lines.
14. IE RULE 1956/76 Strength of Supports. 10 19
15. IE RULE 1956/90 Earthing of poles. 10 19
16. IS 2141-1979 Galvanized stay strand. 11 19-22
17. IS 1445-1966 Porcelain Insulators for O.H. power lines (below 1000 11 17-22
V)
18. IS 731/1971 Porcelain Insulators for overhead lines (3.3 KV and 11 22-35
below).
19. IE RULE 88 Repairing Guard Wire. 11 35
20. IS 398-1961 Hard drawn stranded "A" and steel-cord "A" conductors 11 35
for over head power transmission purpose.
21. -do-(Part 8) ---do-- 11 36-37
22. IS 3070-1974 Non-Linear resistor types lighting arrestors. 11 38-42
PART(I)
23. IS 3070-1966 Expulsion type Lighting Arrestors. 11 42-44
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(PART II)
24. IE RULE 92 Regarding Earthing the lightning arrestors. 12 45
25. IE RULE 77 Clearance above ground of the lowest conductor. 12 45-46
26. IE RULE 79 Clearance from building of low and medium voltage 12 46
lines and service lines.
27. --do-- 80 --do—of high & extra high . 12 47
28. --do—81 Conductors at different voltage on same supports. 12 47
29. --do-- 86 Conditions to supply where Telecommunications lines 12 47
and power lines are carried on same supports.
30. --do—87 Lines crossing or approaching each other. 12 48
31. IS 2551-1963 Danger Notice Plates. 16 48
32. IS 270-1962 Galvanized steel barbed wire for fencing. 16 49-51
33. IE RULE 76 Guard of service Line. 16 51
34. IS 1255-1967 Care of practice for installation and maintenance of paper 26 51
insulated power cables (up to and including 33 KV
Section 11.7).
35. IS 429-1954 Methods for testing weights and uniformity of coating 52-53
on Galvanized iron and steel wires and steel sheets.
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 5

INTERNAL

IS 732-1963

Electrical wiring installation (system voltage not exceeding 650 Volts) Layout of Wiring ’Power’
and heating, Sub-Circuits shall be kept separate and distinct from ’lighting’ and ’fan’ Sub-Circuits.
All wirings shall be done on the distribution system with main and branch distribution boards at
convenient physical and electrical load centre and without isolated fuses. All types of wiring,
whether concealed or unconcealed should be capable of easy inspection. The unconcealed
wiring when run along the walls should be as near the ceiling as possible. In all types of wirings,
due consideration shall be give for neatness and good appearance. 3.5.2. Balancing of circuits in
three wire of polyphase installation shall be as enclosed in earthing metal of incombustible
insulating material that it is not possible to have ready access to them unless the points between
which a voltage exceeding 250 Volts may be precast are 2 Mt. or more apart, in which case
means of access shall be marked to indicate the voltage present.

3.6 Position of wiring run and points:-

All runs of wiring and the exact positions of all points and switch boxes shall be first
marked on the plan of the building or on the building itself and approved by the Engineer-in-
Charge or the owner before actual commencement of work.

3.7 Voltage and frequency supply:-

All current consuming devices shall be suitable for the voltage and frequency of supply to
which the are to be connected.

3.8 Drawings:-

On completion of the work, a wiring diagram shall be prepared and submitted to the
Engineer-in-Charge or the owner. All wiring diagrams shall indicated clearly the main switch
board, the runs of various mains and their controls. All circuits shall be clearly indicated and
numbered in the wiring diagrams and all points shall be given the same number as the circuit to
which they are electrically connected.

I.S 732-1963

Conventional symbols for electrical Installation:

These have clearly been shown in appendix D of the specification, which are much more
sufficient and clearly shown.

Electrical Wiring Installation (System voltage not exceeding 650 Volts.

The installation shall be designed as to enable equipment to work with a variation in the
declared supply voltage of + 5 percent in respect of low voltage and medium voltage and
12.5 percent in respect of high voltage.
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Medium pressure wiring: I.E Rule 50

The supply of energy to each motor or group of motors or other apparatus meant for
operating one particular machine, is controlled by a suitable linked switch or a circuit
breaker or an emergency tripping device with manual reset of requisite capacity placed in
such a portion as to be adjacent to the motor or a group of motors or other apparatus
readily accessible to and easily operated by the person in charge and so connected in the
circuit of that but its means all supply of energy can be cut off from the motor or a group of
motors or apparatus and from any regulating switch, resistance or other devices
associated there with.

I.E. Rule 51

1 (a) All conductors (other than those of O.H. Lines) shall be completely enclosed in
mechanically strong metal casing or metallic covering which is electrically and mechanically
continuous and adequately protected against mechanical damage unless the said conductors are
accessible only to an authorised person or are installed and protected to the satisfaction of the
Inspector as to prevent danger.

I.E. Rule 32 (I)

An indication of a permanent nature shall be provided by the owner of the earthed or


earthed neutral conductor or the conductor which is to be connected there in, to enable such
conductor to be distinguished from any line conductor.

I.E. Rule 32 (ii)

No cutout link or switch other than a linked switch arranged to operate simultaneously on
the earthed or earthed neutral conductor and live conductors shall be inserted or remain or
remain inserted in any earthed or earthed neutral conductors of a two wire system or in any
earthed neutral conductor or a multi-wire system or in any conductor connected thereto with the
following exceptions:

a) A link for testing purposes or


b) A switch for use in controlling a generator or transformer.

I.E. Rule 51 (1)

D (ii) If there are any attachments or bare connections at the back of the switch board, the
space (if any) behind the switch board shall be either less then 0.229 Mtr. (9 inches) or more than
0.762 Mtr. (30 inches) in with, measured from the farthest outstanding part of any attachment or
conductor. If the space behind the switch board exceeds 0.762 Mtr. (30 inches) in with, there
shall be a passage way from either and of the switch board clear to a height of 1.829 Mtr (6 Feet).

Switch gear, bus-bars. Main connections and Auxiliary Wiring, marking arrangements for
(revised).
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I.S. 375-1963

Bus-bar markings: A sufficient brief has been given in the specifications itself which is
more sufficient as required.

I.E. Rule 33.

The supplier shall provide and maintain on the consumers premises for the consumer’s
use a suitable earthed terminal in an accessible position at or near the point of commencement of
supply.
Provided that in case of medium, high or extra high voltage installation, the consumer shall
in addition to aforementioned earthing arrangement provide his own earthing system with an
independent electrode.

I.E. Rule-61

The following provisions shall apply to the connection with earth of system at low voltage
in cases where the voltage normally exceeds 125 volts and of systems at medium voltage.

(a) The neutral conductor of a three phase four wire system and the middle conductor of a two
phase, three wire system shall earthed by not less then two separate and distinct
connections with earthed both at the generating station and at the sub-station, it may also
be earthed at one or more points along the distribution system or service line in addition to
any connection with earth which may be at the consumer’s premises.

Connection with earth, I.E. Rule-67

The following provision shall apply to the connections with earth of three phase system for
use at high or extra high voltage.

In the case of star connected systems with earthed neutral or delta connected systems
with earthed artificial neutral point.

(a) The neutral point shall be earthed by not less than two separate and distinct connections
with earth each having its own electrode at the generating station and at the sub-station
and may be earthed at any other point provided that no interference of any description is
caused by such earthing.
(b) In the event of an appreciable harmonious current flowing in the neutral connection so as
to cause interference with communication circuits, the generator or transformer neutral
shall be earthen through a suitable impedance.

Varnish, shellac, for General purposes I.S. 347-1952

Shellac solutions: Weigh accurately a quantity of the material equivalent to 10.00 g. of dry shellac
and dilute to 100 ml. With could 95 percent (by volume) ethyl alcohol (IS 321- 1952 filled the
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 8

solution in an ordinary funnel using a medium grade filtrate and then collect 5 ml, or more of the
clear filtrate for the test.

Protection of building and allied structures against lighting (First Revision). I.S. 2309-1969

C.I. (General): While every structure, theoretically has a chance of being struck by
lightning, the degree of this chance varies depending upon a number of associated factors such
as lightning incidences, surroundings, types of terrain etc. For a certain class of structures which
form a source of danger such as the housing explosive factories or stores or flamable materials,
complete protection against lightning shall be provided. In other cases covered by this code it
may be necessary to decide whether this protection is called for, under a given set of
circumstances.

C. 1 – 2

There would be other factors which are not capable of such assessment in relative terms.
Yet these may over-ride all other considerations for exchange a requirement that there should be
no avoidable risk to life or the over-whelming importance or value of the structure. In such cases,
however, it may be desirable to make a decision on an assessment in terms of the chances of the
structure being struck and of the consequences if it is struck. For this various factors denoting
chances of the structure being struck by lightning and the total effect of these factors shall be
assessed. As an aid to making judgment a set of indices is given for the various which are
capable of being assessed.

C. 1 - 3

Structures containing explosives or flammable material are excluded from this method of
assessment.

Factors Capable of Assessment:

(1) Usage of structure: The lightning hazard to human being within a structure or building is a
very important factor in deciding how for to go in providing lightning protection schools, hospitals,
factories, railway stations etc. are places where a large number of people congregate and,
therefore, are structures of greater importance than small building and houses.

(2) Type of Construction:

The type of construction of the structure has a large influence upon the extent of
protection. A steel framed building to some extent is self protecting and may not require any
additional protection, while brick building or building with thatched roof require greater degree of
protection.

(3) Contents or consequential effects:


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In addition to direct loss due to destruction of buildings by lightning, fire, resulting from
lightning, killing of livestock etc., there may be indirect losses which some- times accompany the
destruction of buildings and their contests.

(4) Degree of Isolation:

The relative exposure of a particular building will be an element in determining whether the
expense of protection is warranted. In closely built-up towns and cities the hazard is not as great
as in the open country. In the latter farm barns in many cases are the most prominent targets for
lightning in a large area.

(5) Type of terrain:

In hilly or mountainous area a building is more susceptible to damage than a building in


plains and flat terrain. In hilly areas itself, a building upon high ground is usually subject to greater
hazard than the one in a valley or other wise sheltered area.

(6) Height of structures:

Height of structure is an important factor for the purpose of lightning protection. Taller
structures are subject to greater hazards than smaller structure and, therefore, lightning
protection is more desirable in tall structures.

(7) Lightning prevalence:

The need for protection varies from place to place, although not necessarily in direct
proportion to the thunder storm frequency.

I.E Rule 1965 (Safety procedure)

Safety procedure has been sufficiently detailed in the specifications.

Guide for safety procedures and practices in electrical works

I.S Code 5216-1969

In all electrical works, it is very necessary that certain elementary safety practices are
observed. It has been found that a quite large number of accidents occur due to the neglect to
these practices.

7.2 Fires and fire extinguishers:

In the event of fire on electrical mains or apparatus, the effective part shall immediately be
completely isolated from its source of supply of electrical energy.
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7.2.2 Fire extinguishers which are not insulated should never be employed in fighting fires near
exposed live conductors. Only such fire extinguishers should be used on electrical main
and apparatus which are marked as suitable for the purpose when using fire hose it should
be ensured that the jet of water does not come into contact with live conductors.

7.2.3 It is dangerous to throw a steam of water a wet blanket or a stream from ordinary sodas
operated type extinguishers on live mains or apparatus. When found necessary to use
them, have all the neighbouring mains or apparatus made dead. Carbon-di-oxide, carbon-
tetra-chloride and other special type of extinguishers, sand or dry blanket may be used on
live conductors and static apparatus.

7.3 Lightning:

Inadequate lightning of working areas is by itself a source of danger particularly when is


undertaken at night. Never, therefore, allow any work in park or badly illuminated or ill ventilated
places.

7.4 Safety posters:

Suitable safety posters in the form of "Do" and Don’t" instructions for the guidance of the
working staff should be exhibited at important locations such as generating stations, receiving
stations, sub-stations and factories.

Electric shock Chart:-

It should be exhibited at important locations and the staff should also be trained so that in
cases of any accident the preliminary first aid can be given to the person affected. Sufficiently, it
has been mentioned in appendix C of the Specification on safety procedure which should also be
kept in mind.

EXTERNAL

For working voltages up to and including 1000 volts.

I.S 1554 Part – I – 1976

(1) Insulation:

The conductor shall be provided with PVC insulation applied by extrusion.

(2) Thickness of insulation:

The average thickness of the insulation shall be not less than the nominal value (T I)
specified in Table I
.
(3) Tolerance on thickness of insulation:
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The smallest of the measured values of the thickness of the insulation shall not fall below
the nominal value (T I in mm) specified in Table 1 by more than 0.1 mm + 0.1 T.

(4) Application of insulation:

The insulation shall be so applied that it fits closely on the conductor and it shall be easily
possible to remove it without damage to the conductor.

Inner Sheath ( Common Covering)

1. The laid up cores shall be provided with an inner sheath applied either by extrusion or by
wrapping. It shall be ensured that it is as circular as possible.
2. The inner sheath shall be so applied it fits closely on the laid up cores and it shall be
possible to remove it without damage to the insulation.
3. The values of thickness of inner sheath shall be given in table 3 single core cables shall
have no inner sheath.

Outer sheath.

The outer sheath shall be applied by extrusions. It shall be applied.

(a) Over the insulation in cases of unarmoured single core cables.


(b) Over the inner sheath in case of unarmoured twin-three and Multi core cables, and
(c) Over the armouring in case of armoured cables.

2. Colour of the outer sheathe shall be black.

Thickness of outer sheath

Unarmoured cables : The thickness of PVC outer sheath of unarmoured cables,


determined by taking the average of a number of measurements shall be not less than the
nominal value (Ts) specified in table 6 and the smallest of the measured values shall not fall be
low the nominal value (Ts) specified in table 5 by more than 0.2mm + 0.2 ts. PVC insulated
(Heavy duty ) electrical cables for working voltages from 3.3 KV upto and including 11 KV .

I.S 1554 (Part-II)-1970

1. Composition of insulation :- The insulation shall consist of :-


(a) Compound polying (chloride etc)
(b) Suitable Co-polymers of which major constituent shall be vinyl chloride or
(c) Mixtures of polying chloride and suitable co-polymers which have been suitable
compounded and crossed so as to comply with the requirements of this standard.
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 12

2. Thickness of insulation:-

The average thickness of the insulation when measured in accordance with 10.8 shall be
not less than the standard value specified in table 1.

3. Tolerance in thickness of insulation :-

The smallest of the measured values of thickness of insulation tl ( in mm ) shall not fall
below the standard values specified in table 1 by more than 0.1 +0.1 mm.

4. Insulation resistance:-

The insulation resistance of cable shall be such that specific insulation resistance of the
material shall bot be less than the values given below at specified temperatures:-

26 D.C 3.3 x 10 13 ohm cm


60 D.C 3.45 x 10 13 ohm cm
70 D.C 1x10 11 ohm cm

Identification of cores:-

The core identification shall be as follows:-

Voltage Grade Method of identification

1.9/33 ) (a) Different colouring of the PVC insulation or


3.3/3.3) (b)Colored strips applied on the cores or
3.8/6.6) (c)By numerals (1,2,3) either by applying numbered strips applied
in the cores or
6.6/6.6) (d) Colored strips applied on the cores or
6.35/11) (e) By numerals (1,2,3,) either by applying numbered strips or by
printing on the cores.
Table 1 Thickness of insulation.

Nominal area Thickness of Insulation for single core of three core cables rated
voltage in KV or conductor
1.9/3.3 3.8/6.6 6.6/6.6 6.35/11
mm mm mm mm

mm mm mm mm mm
25 2.3 3.6 4.2 4.2
35 2.3 3.6 4.2 4.2
50 2.3 3.6 4.2 4.2
70 2.3 3.6 4.2 4.2
95 2.3 3.6 4.2 4.2
120 2.3 3.6 4.2 4.2
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150 2.3 3.6 4.2 4.2


185 2.3 3.6 4.2 4.2
225 2.3 3.6 4.2 4.2
240 2.3 3.6 4.2 4.2
300 2.5 3.6 4.2 4.2
400 2.7 3.6 4.2 4.2
500 3.0 3.6 4.2 4.2
625 3.4 3.6 4.2 4.2
800 3.4 3.6 4.2 4.2
1000 3.4 3.6 4.2 4.2

Inner Sheath

In cables consisting of three cores, the individual cores shall be laid up and then be
summarised by common covering applied either by extension or wrapping a filling material
containing unvulcanized rubber or a thermoplastic material approved or plastic tape may be
applied over the common covering when a wrapped common covering is employed, it shall be
ensured that the circulating of the cable is maintained.
The values of the thickness of the common covering and wrapping are given in table 2
single core cables shall have no inner sheath.
Table –2 Thickness of inner sheath.

Calculated dia over standards Cable cores. Thickness of inner sheath


Over Up to & including
mm mm mm

-- 15 0.3
45 25 0.3
25 35 0.4
35 45 0.5
45 55 0.6
55 65 0.7
65 -- 0.7

Outer sheath

1. Extruded PVC outer sheath shall be provided over armour. The composition of the
sheathing compounds shall be as given in 1 (insulation). The colour of the PVC sheath
shall be black.
2. Thickness of sheath:- The thickness of the sheath arrived out by taking the average of a
number of measurements shall not be less than the standard value specified in table 4
when measured in accordance with 10.8.
Tolerance on the thickness of sheath, t s :-
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The smallest of the measured values of thickness of sheath t s


(in mm ) shall not fall below the
standard value specified in table 4 by more than 0.2 + 0.2 t s
mm:

Table 4 – Thickness of outer sheath.

Calculated diamater of the sheath. Thickness of sheath

Over Up to & including


(1) (2) (3)
mm mm mm
-- 15 1.8
15 25 2.0
25 35 2.2
35 40 2.4
40 45 2.6
45. 50 2.8
50 55 3.0
55 60 3.2
60 65 3.4
65 70 3.6
70 75 3.8
75 80 4.0

Item 3 & 4 Lead sheathed cable I.S 692 – 1973


Lead or lead alloy sheath

1. After impregnation in accordance with I.E. the cable shall be covered with a metallic
sheath of lead alloy as specifically agreed to between the purchaser and the manufacturer.
2. The sheath shall be extruded directly on the cable in the form of a seamless tube. It shall
be reasonably close- fittings, impervious to moisture and free from in holes, joints mended
places and other defects. Stop marks of the press are not considered as defects.
3. Thickness of sheath:- The minimum thickness of sheath when measured in accordance
with 24.7 shall not fall below the nominal value specified in the relevant table by an amount
not more than 5 percent + 0.1 mm. For this purpose, the calculated minimum value shall
be rounded off to an accuracy of 0.0 mm.

Bedding

Armoured cables shall have a protective beading overload or lead alloy sheath. Unless
extruded type is required by the purchaser, the bedding shall be of lapped type.
Lapped Bedding:-
Except in ’SL’ cables the lapped bedding shall consist of two paper tapes applied over
compounded lead of lead alloy sheath without overlap but breaking joint, covered with a layer of
compound and followed by
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 15

(a) Two layers of cotton tapes


(b) One layer of cotton tapes followed by a layer of hessian tape.
(c) Two layers of hessian tapes.
(d) One layer of jute or
(e) One or more layers of synthetic fibrous materials.

Additional compound shall be applied over each Separate layer of natural fibrous materials.

Test for the thickness of lead and leed alloy sheath

A ring of in case of cables less than 12.5mm dia. Over sheath, a flattened circumferential
strip shall be carefully cut from the sample. The samples shall be taken not less than 300 mm
from the end of a factory length and it shall be determined by measurements at a sufficient
number of points around the circumferences of the ring sample of along the surface of the
flattened strip sample to ensure that the minimum thickness is included. The measurement shall
be made with micrometer having one flat nose and either a flat rectangular nose 0.8 mm wide
and 2.4 mm long or a ball nose, when the tests are made on the ring sample, the flat rectangular
nose or that the ball nose shall be applied to the side of the ring .

Electrical wiring installations (system voltage not exceeding 650 volts IS 732-1963

The installation shall be designed as to enable equipment to work with a variation in the
declared supply voltage of + 5 percent in respect of low voltage and medium voltage and + 12.5
percent in respect of high voltage.

Part- I Paper insulated lead sheathed cables I.S. 3961(Part-I-1967)

0.2 This standard has been drawn up to provide to the users general guidance for loading of
cables. The overloading of cables will reduce the life expectancy of the cable and at the
same time under loading it will mean uneconomic utilization of its capacity. Depending
upon the loading cycle met within practice, the installation engineer may decide the
economic loading of cables.
0.3 The current ratings given in the standard have been drawn up on certain assumptions
pertaining to soil conditions prevalent in this country, permissible temperature, rise of
insulating materials, conductor etc. It is, however, to be expected that these conditions
may be somewhat different in different places in a vast country like ours. In such cases the
installation engineer is expected to keep in mind the loading conditions, the soil and
atmospheric conditions in the area etc. before deciding on the choice of the proper size of
the cable

PVC Insulated and PVC sheathed heavy duty cables.I.S 3961 (Part-II)-1967

The size of the cable with the proper current carrying capacity can be adopted as per the
tables of cables.

Current rating tables should be adopted before the selection of the cables.
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Proceelain Insulators for O.H. Power Lines (below 1000 Volts) I.S.1445 –1966
General requirements.

4.1 The porcelain shall be sound, free from defects, thoroughly vitrified and smoothly glazed.
4.2 The design of the insulator shall be such that stresses due to expansion and contraction in
any part of the insulator shall not lead to its deterioration.
4.3 The glaze, unless, otherwise specified, shall be brown in colour except for the screw
threads and the parts on which the porcelain is supported during fixing which may be left
unglazed. All other surfaces of the insulator shall be effectively glazed.
4.4 The insulators shall be in one piece. The pin insulator shall have a top groove and have
dimension as shown in figures in the I.S.

Temperature limits I.S 5819-1970

The short circuit ratings are based on the following temperature limits:

Voltage grade of Conductor temperature 0 C Armour temperature 0


C
cable
Maximum for Maximum for Prior to short Maximum to
continuous short circuit circuit short circuit
operation
3.3 KV
6.6 KV (earthed) 70 150 60 150
6.6 KV
(unearthed)
11 KV (earthed) 60 140 50 140

Table 1 - Short Circuit ratings of aluminium conductor for high voltage PVC cable
(applicable to single core & three core cables)

Cross Short Circuit Rating for 1 Sec duration


Section 3.3 KV 6.6 KV earthed 6.6 KV 11 KV
(mm 2 ) unearthed
0
(T=150 C) (T=150 0 C) (T=150 0 C) (T=150 0
C)
0 0 0 0
(T o =70 C (T o =70 C (T o =70 C (T o =70 C

mm2
25 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.83
35 2.52 2.52 2.52 2.56
50 3.60 3.60 3.60 3.65
70 5.04 5.04 5.04 5.11
95 6.84 6.84 6.84 6.76
120 8.64 8.64 8.64 8.76
150 10.8 10.8 10.8 11.0
185 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.5
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 17

225 16.2 16.2 16.2 17.5


240 17.3 17.3 17.3 17.5
300 21.6 21.6 21.6 21.9
400 28.8 28.8 28.8 29.2
500 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.5
625 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.6
800 57.6 57.6 57.6 58.4
1000 72.0 72.0 72.0 73.0

T= Maximum short circuit temperature of conductor.


T o = Temperature of conductor prior to short circuit for any other multiply the above ratings by 1 /8

Code of practice for installation and maintenance of paper


INSULATED POWER CABLES (up to and including 33 KV)

I.S. 1255-1967
Single core cables.

Three single core cables forming one three phase circuit shall normally be laid in close Tri-
foil formation and shall be bound together at intervals of approximately 1 metre. The relative
position of the three cables shall be changed at cash joint, complete transpositions being affected
in every three consecutive cable lengths. Where there is not possible and cables are laid side by
side, the current rating is lower. The joints shall be clearly marked in an approved manner to
indicate the circuit and phases.

Where there are a number of parallel cables perhaps, the following manner of cable laying is
preferable:-

RYB BYR RYB BYR and so on


123 321 123 321

Where the cables are laid on trays for different systems then the systems be laid in changed
phases sequence as below:

RYB BYR
123 321
RYB BYR
123 321 and so on
RYB BYR
123 321

When only three single core cables are laid for a single system, them, the triangular disposition
as below is suitable:-

B
R 3 Y
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 18

1 2

In the case of a number of systems, but only one cable per system, the following
arrangement would be disadvantageous:

B B B B B
R 3 Y Y 3 R R 3 Y Y 3 R R 3 y
2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
2
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 19

Section II
I.S 1255-1967
Jointing of cables

1. It is not intended to deal in this code with complicated work if jointing of cables in much
detail, as in all cases it would be best to follow strictly the instructions furnished by the
suppliers of cables and joint boxes. However, following recommendations are given for
general guidance,
2. Jointing work should be commenced as soon as two or three lengths have been laid. This
will reduce the time available for moisture to enter the ends of the cable if they are not
perfectly sealed, plumbed caps over the ends of the cable can contain pin holes which it is
practically impossible to see with the naked eye but which could cause moisture to enter
after a period of time. It is, therefore, always advisable to protect the factory plumbed cap
by laying the end solid in bitumen until such time as the jointing is commences.
Joint position:-
During the preliminary stages of laying the cable, consideration should be given to proper
location of the joint position so that when the cable is actually laid the joint are made in the
most suitable places. Circumstances do not always permit ideal conditions but joint in
carriage ways and drives under costly paving under concrete or asphalt surface and in
proximity to telephone cables and gas or water mains should be a avoided wherever
possible. There should be sufficient overlap of cables to allow for the removal of cable
ends which may have been damaged. This point is extremely important as otherwise it
may result in a short piece of the cable having to be let in.

Joint holes:-
Whenever practicable, joint holes should be of sufficient dimensions as to allow joints to
work with as much freedom of movement and comfort as possible. For this purpose, the
depth of the holes should be at least 0.3 m below the cables proposed to be jointed. The
sides of the holes should be draped with small tarpaulin sheets to prevent loose earth from
falling on the joint during the course of markings. If the ground has been made up by
tapping of if running sand is met with the holes should be well shored well shored up with
timber so as to prevent collapse. The two lengths of cable meeting at a joint are laid with
as overlap of about 1m, when putting in. This enables the jointer to adjust the position of
his slightly to allow for any obstructions that may be encountered. When two or more
cables are laid together, the joints are arranged to be staggered by two or three yards, lso
as to reduce the excess with of trench and also to isolate the joints from each other and
reduce the possibility of one joint failure affecting the other joints.

Sump holes:- When jointing cables in water logged ground or under monsoon conditions, a
sump hole should be excavated tt one end of the joint holes in such a position so that the
accumulating water can be pumped out or baled out without causing interference to the
jointing operation.

Tents:- A test should be used in all circumstances where jointing work is being
carried out in the open. It is a mistake to think that tents are only provided as a protection
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 20

against rain. It is equally important to prevent dust from being blown in the exposed joint
and jointing materials, especially on the compound and tapes. It follows, therefore, that the
tent should be erected in such a manner as to reduce to a minimum the amount of dust or
foreign matter likely to be blown in. This is generally achieved by having only one entrance
to the tent and the back facing the direction of the wind. The tent cover should be weighted
or tied down on the three remaining sides.

Tubular steel poles for overhead power Lines. I.S.2713-1964


Steel tubular poles

Tubular steel poles shall be of the following two types:


(a) Stepped or
(b) Swaged.

Manufacture:-
(1) Stepped poles shall be made from one length of tube, the diameter being reduced in
parallel steps by passing the tubes through a series of dies.
(2) Swaged poles shall be made of tubes of suitable lengths, swaged together when hot,
The upper edge of each joint shall be chamfered off at an angle of about 45 Degree.

Chemical composition:

The materials when analysed in accordance with I.S. 228-1959 Methods of


chemical Analysis of pig Iron, Cast Iron and plain carbon and Low Alloy Steels (Revised),
shall not show sulphur and phosphorous contents of more than 0.060 percent each.

Physical requirements:-

The material when tested in accordance with I.S. 1894-1962 Methods for tensile
testing of steel tubes shall show a tensile strength of 55.0 to 65.0 Kg/mm 2 and a minimum
percentage along ation of 950 divided by the actual tensile in kg/mm 2 on a gauge length
of 5.65/A where As is the cross sectional area of the test piece.

(2)The tensile test shall be conducted on 3 percent of tubes selected from each lot of
tubular poles of one size.
Freedom from Defects:-
Poles shall be well-finished, cleaned and free from harmful defects. Lands of the
poles shall be cut square Poles shall be reasonably straight, smooth and cylindrical.

Dimensions and Sectional properties:-


(1) The dimensions of poles shall be as given in Table I for stepped poles and tube for
swaged poles. Useful properties of these poles calculated on the basis of
dimensions are also given in Tables I & II .
(2) A few sectional properties which are useful in designing the poles are given in
Tables III & IV Appendix A.
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 21

Tolerances:-
(1) Outside diameter:- The poles shall be as nearly circular as possible and their outside
diameters shall not vary from the appropriate values, except at the joint or step, by
more than + 1.0 per cent.
(2) Thickness:- The thickness of any section shall not fall below the percentage of
tolerance given under 11.2.1 and 11.2.2. of this India Standard Specification.

2.1 In the case of electrically welded tubes, the thickness of any section shall not fall below
the thickness specified by more than 10 per cent.
2.2 In the case of seamless tubes, the thickness of any section shall not fall below the
following tolerances:-
(a)Where the ratio of the thickness to the outside diameter is more than 3 per cent + 25
percent of the specified thickness .
(b)Where the ratio of the thickness to the outside diameter is equal to or less than 3 per
cent- 15 per cent of the specified thickness.

Weight:- The main weight for bulk supplies shall be not more than 5 per cent below
the calculated value. The weight any single pole shall not fall below the calculated weight
by more than 1/1600 or its length.

Reinforced concrete poles for overhead power and Telecommunication Lines (IS 785-
1964)

1. Classification:- Reinforced concrete poles shall be classified into 11 classes as


given in Table I :-

Table I
Minimum ultimate transverse load and maximum length for different classes of reinforced
concrete poles.

Class of pole Max. overall length (m) Minimum ultimate transverse load
At 600 mm from top
1 17.0 3000
2 17.0 2300
3 17.0 2000
4 17.0 1400
5 16.0 1100
6 12.5 1000
7 12.0 800
8 12.0 700
9 11.0 500
10 0.00 300
11 7.5 200
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 22

1.1 Provided handling and erection stresses are specially checked and adequately
catered for in the design the ultimate transverse loads specified in table 1 may be
reduced, if so desired by the purchaser, but in no case shall be the minimum
ultimate transverse load be less than 120 Kg.
Transverse:- The direction along with the line bisecting the angle made by the conductors
at the pole. In the case of a strength run this will be the horizontal direction normal to the
run of the conductors.

Ultimate transverse Load: The load which causes failure when applied at a point 600 mm
below the top and perpendicular to the axis of the pole along the transverse direction with
the but of the pole clamped so as to obtain the specified lever arm.

Working load: The maximum sustained load in the transverse direction, including wind
pressure as a single force applied at a point 600 mm below the top with the butt end of the
pole so as to obtain the specified lever arm.

Overall length of poles: The minimum overall length of all classes of poles shall be 6 M
and the maximum overall length as given in table Intermediate lengths shall be in steps of
0.5 m.

Tolerances:- The tolerance on the overall length of the poles shall be of + 15 mm. The
tolerance on cross – sectional dimensions shall be + 3 mm . The tolerance on the
uprightness of the pole shall be 0.5 per cent.

Material:-The cement used in manufacture of reinforced concrete poles shall be either


ordinary or raped hardening Portland cement confirming I.S. 269-1958 or Portland blast
furnace slag cement confirming to I.S. 455 – 1962.

Aggregate:-Aggregates used for the manufacture of reinforced concrete poles shall


conform to I.S. 383 –1963 Where specified, a sample of the aggregates shall be submitted
with the tender to the purchaser for approval. The whole of the aggregate pass through a
sieve having apertures not exceeding three quarters of the minimum distance between the
main reinforcing bars but in no case shall the maximum size of the aggregate exceed 20
mm.

Reinforcement: Reinforcing bars and wires used for the manufacture of reinforced
concrete poles shall be one of the following :-
(a) Mild steel and medium tensile steel bars and hard drawn …. Wire conforming to I.S.
432-1960.
(b) Annealed wire with an ultimate tensile strength not less than 32 Kg. Per sq. mm.
(c) The surface of all reinforcement shall be free from loose scale, oil, grease, clay of other
material that may have deteriorating effect on the bond between the reinforcement and
the concrete. Slight hard rust my, however, be permissible.

Concrete: Concrete used for the manufacture of reinforced concrete poles shall comply
with the requirements specified in I.S 456-1964. Where ordinary concrete conforming to
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 23

the requirements of I.S 456-1964 is used, the cement aggregate ratio for concrete shall be
not less than 1:3 .

Wood poles for overhead power and Telecommunications Lines.


I.S. 876-1961

Wood pole _ Long, solid, fairly straight stem of a three approximately circular in cross-
section.

Specimens of Timber: Timber suitable for wood poles shall be classified into three groups
as indicated below based on the modulus of rupture of shall clear specimens (Sec. I.S.
1708-1960) Methods of testing small clear specimens of Timber) tested in the green state,
that is, above 25 per cent moisture content.

Group –A- Very strong timber having a modulus of rupture in bending of 850 Kg./Cm2 and
over represented by sal (shorea robsta)

Group-B- Strong timber having a modulus of rupture in bending 630 to 850 Kg/Cm2,
represented by teak (Tectona grounds)

Group- C Moderately strong timber having a modulus of rupture in bending 450 Kg/Cm2 to
630 Kg /Cm2 represented by choir (pinus longifulia).

Preservation :- Sap wood of all species of timber is permissible. Therefore, poles shall be
treated with a preservative so as to impregnate completely the sap wood and as much of
heartwood of non-durable species as possible. The pressure and the preservative
treatment shall be as given in Appendix C.

Dimension:- Dimensions of wood poles of different timber specifics and different of


strength classes (sec. 3 and 4) shall be given in Table I.

(1) For poles of intermediate lengths, the sizes given for next longer pole shall be
used.

Measurement:-
Length:- Length of poles shall be measured between the extreme ends of poles.
Poles shall be not more than 7.5 cm. Shorter of more than 15 cm. Longer than the
specified length.

Circumference:- Circumference of the pole shall be measured at the top and at the mark
representing ground level and shall be as given in Table I.
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 24

Prestressed concrete poles for overhead power, traction and Telecommunication


Lines. Telecommunication Lines. I.S. 1678 – 1960

Classification : The prestressed concrete poles shall be classified into 11 classes


conforming to minimum ultimate transverse load and maximum overall length given in
Table I.

Table I

Minimum ultimate transverse load and maximum length for different classes of prestresed
concrete poles.

Class of poles Maximum overall length. Minimum ultimate Transverse load.


Mtr Kg.
1 17.0 3000
2 17.0 2300
3 17.0 1800
4 17.0 1400
5 16.0 1100
6 12.5 1000
7 12.0 800
8 12.0 700
9 11.0 450
10 9.0 300
11 7.5 200

Overall length of poles:- The minimum overall length of all classes of poles shall be 6 m
and maximum overall length shall be as specified in Table 1. Further the lengths shall be
in intervals of 0.5 m.

Tolerance: The tolerance of overall length of the poles shall be + 15 mm. The tolerance on
cross-sectional dimensions shall be + 3 mm. The tolerance on cross-sectional dimensions
shall be + 3 mm. The tolerance on uprightness of the pole shall be 0.5 per cent.

Material:-
Cement: The cement used in the manufacture of prestressed concrete poles shall be
ordinary or rapid hardening Portland cement conforming to I.S. 269-1958 or Portland blast-
furnace slag cement conforming to I.S. 455- 1953.

Aggregates:
Aggregates used for the manufacture of prestressed concrete poles shall conform to I.S.
383-1952. Where specified, a sample of the aggregates shall be submitted with the tender
to the purchaser for approval. The maximum size of aggregates shall in no case exceed
20 mm.
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 25

High Tensile Steel :


The high tensile steel wire and bars used for the manufacture of prestressed concrete
poles shall conform to the relevant Indian Standards Specifications. The diameter of
smooth wire used for pretensioning system. Where prestress is developed by bond shall
not exceed 5 mm.

Other reinforcement:
Reinforcing bars and wires used for the manufacture of prestressed concrete poles shall
be of the following:-

(a) Mild steel and medium tensile steel bars and hard drawn steel wire conforming to I.S.
432-1960.
(b) Annealed wire with an ultimate tensile strength of not less than 32 Kg/mm2. The cold
drawn steel wire shall satisfy cold bend test specified in I.S. 432-1960.

Depth of planting :-
The minimum depth of planting of pole below ground level shall be in accordance with
Table II, the actual depth being determined on the basis of ground conditions.

Table II Minimum depths of planting of prestressed concrete poles in the ground.

Length of poles Minimum depth in grounds


(1) (2)
m. m.
6.0 to 7.5 1.20
8.0 to 9.0 1.50
9.5 to 11.0 1.80
11.5 to 13.00 2.00
13.5 to 14.5 2.20
15.00 to 16.5 2.30
17.0 2.40

I.E. Rule 76

Supports

Maximum stresses: Factors of safety (1) (a) The owner of every overhead line shall ensure
that it has the following minimum factors of safety. The minimum factors of safety for
supports based on crippling load shall be as follows:-

(1) For metal supports 2.0

(2)For mechanically processed concrete


supports. 2.5

(3)For hard moulded concrete supports 3.0


R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 26

(4)For wood supports 3.5

The said owner shall also ensure that the strength of the supports in the direction of
the line is not less than one-fourth of the strength required in the directions transverse to
the line.
Provided that in the case of latticed steel or other compound structures, the factors of
safety shall not be less than 1.5 under such broken wire conditions as may be specified by
the state Government in this behalf. The said owner shall also ensure that the strength of
the supports in the direction of the lines is not less than one-fourth of the strength required
in the direction transverse to the line.
Provided that in the case of latticed steel or other compound structures factors of
safety shall not be less than 1.5 under such broke wire condition as may be specified by
the State Government in this behalf.

I.E. Rule 90
Earthing
1) All metal supports of overhead lines and metallic fitting attached thereto, shall be
permanently and efficiently earthed. For this purpose a continuous earth wiring shall be
provided and securely fastened to each pole and connected with earth ordinarily at four
points in every 1.609 Km. (mile), the spacing between the points may as nearly
equidistance as possible . Alternatively, each support and the metallic fitting attaching
thereto shall be efficiently earthed.
(2)Each stray wire shall be similarly earthed unless insulator has been placed in it at a
height not less than 3.048 meters (10 ft.) from the ground.

Galvanized stay strand. I.S. 2141-1979


Stray
Material: The wire shall be drawn from steel made by the open hearth basic oxygen or
electric furnace process and of such quality that when drawn to the size of wire specified
and coated with zinc finished strand and the individual wires shall be inform quality and
have the properties and characteristics as specified in this specification. The wire shall be
not contain sulphur and phosphorous exceeding 0.060 per cent each.

Tensile grade:
The wire shall be of following grades:

Grade Tensile designation Minimum tensile strength N/mm2.

1. 1770 1770
2. 1570 1570
3. 1100 1100
4. 700 700
5. 450 450
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 27

Tests on wires before manufacturing

1. Ductility test: The wire shall be subjected to the wrapping test in accordance with I.S.1755-
1961, method for wrapping test of wore. When wrapped eight times round its own,
diameter and on being subsequently strengthened the wire shall not break or split.

Tolerance on wire diameter.


The diameter of the test piece shall be determined with a micrometer by taking two
measurements at three places along a length of not less than 250 mm and the average of
these six measurements shall be taken as being the diameter of the galvanised wire.
Test on complete strands
1. Tensile and elongation test:
The and of the strands shall be suitably prepared by either filling in the interstices with finer
wire or other suitable means, to minimize failure at the testing machine grips. The load
shall be applied at a steady rate not exceeding 100 N/mm2 per second. An initial load of
10 per cent of the specified breaking load shall be applied to the test piece, at which stage
the distance apart of the testing of machine grips shall be 30 times of the strand subject to
a minimum of 100 mm.

2. The elongation shall be determined as the percentage increase in separation between the
grips from the position after application of the initial load to the position at the initial failure
in the test piece. Elongation test shall made on lengths of strand which do not contain wire
joints. The percentage elongation of the strands shall not be less than that specified below:

Grade Minimum percent elongation

1 2
2 3
3 4
4 10
5 12

3. It the test piece breaks within 25 mm. Of the grips of the testing machine and shows less
than the specified elongation, the tests shall be disregarded and further tests made until
the break occurs more than 25 mm. From the grips. Additional test pieces shall be taken
from the same coil or drawn when the previous tests are to be disregarded.

Making:
The size. Construction, tensile designation, lay, coating, lengths, mass, manufactures
name or trade make, lot number and coil number along with the order number of
purchaser and any other making which may be specified by the purchaser shall be legibly
stamped upon a metallic tag securely attached when galvanized stay strands are supplied
in coil. In case galvanized stay strands are supplied in coil the information may be
strencilled on both sides of the reels or strencilled on one side of the real and metallic tag
giving the information may be attached on other side of the coil.
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 28

Porcelain Insulators for O.H. power Lines (below 1000 V) I.S. 1445-1966

General requirements
4.1 The porcelain shall be sound, free from defects, thoroughly verified and smoothly glazed.
4.2 The design of the insulator shall be such that tresses due to expansion and contraction in
any part of the insulator shall not lead to its deterioration.
4.3 The glaze, unless otherwise specified, shall be brown in colour except for the screw
threads and the parts or which the porcelain is supported during fixing which may be left
unglazed. All other surfaces of the insulator shall be effectively glazed.
4.4 The insulators shall be in one piece. The pin insulator shall have a top groove and have
dimensions as shown in figures in the I.S.

Porcelain Insulators for overhead lines (3.3 KV and above)


I.S. Specifications. I.S. 731-1971
Insulator above 1000 Volts.
General Specifications:

4.1 The porcelain shall be sound free from defects, thoroughly verified and smoothly glazed.
4.2 Unless, otherwise specified, the glaze shall be brown in colour. The glaze shall cover all
the porcelain parts of the insulator except those areas which serve as supports during
fixing or are left unglazed for the purpose of assembly.
4.3 The design of the insulator shall be such that stresses due to expansion and contraction in
any part of the insulator shall not lead to deterioration. The porcelain shall not engage
directly with hard metal.
4.4 Cement used in the construction of the insulator shall not cause fracture by expansion or
loosening by contraction and proper care shall be taken to locate the individual parts
correctly during cementing. The cement shall not give rise to chemical reaction with metal
fitting and its thickness shall be as uniform as possible.

Classification:
Overhead line insulators are divided into two types according to their construction.
Type A- An insulator unit in which the length of the shortest puncture patch through solid
insulating material is at least equal to half the length of the shortest flashover path through
air outside the insulator.
Type B- An insulator or an insulator unit in which the length of the shortest puncture patch
through solid insulating material is less than half the length of the shortest flash over path-
through air outside the insulator.

Basic Insulation Levels:


1. The basic insulation levels of the insulators shall be given in table IA and Table I B.
2. In this, standards, power frequency voltages are expressed as peak values divided by 2
and impulse voltages are expressed as peak values.
3. The withstands and flash over voltages are referred to the reference atmospheric
conditions.
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 29

Mechanical Loads:
1. The insulators shall be suitable for the minimum failing loads specified in table 2. The
loads shall be transverse in the case of pin and line post insulators and axial in the case of
string insulators units.

Table 2 A.
Test voltage for all insulators up to and including 72.5 KV. Rated voltage and for
insulators for non effectively earthed system above 72.5 KV.

Highest Visible Wet power Power Impulse voltage Power


system discharge frequency frequency withstand test frequency
voltage test withstand puncture puncture
test withstand withstand
KV (rms) KV (rms) KV (rms) KV KV (rms) KV (rms)
(peak)

3.6 3 21 78 1.3 times the actual 45


7.2 5.5 27 90 wet flash over voltage 60
12 9 35 105 of the unit. 75
24 18 55 140 125
36 27 75 180 170
72.5 53 140 310 325
123 88 230 - 550
145 105 275 - 650
245 154 460 - 1050

Even though highest system voltage of 123 KV. is not standard value in I.S. 585-
1962 voltages and frequency for AC transmission and distribution system a number of older
power systems are retaining the nominal system voltage of 110 KV which corresponds to the
highest system Voltage of 123 KV. The test voltage for this highest system voltage are, therefore,
given for the benefit of such power system .

Table I B Test voltages for insulators for use on affectively earth system above. 72.5 KV

Highest Visible Wet. Power Power frequency Impulse Voltage


System Discharge frequency puncture with withstand
Voltage test withstand stand test on test.
Test. String insulator
Tests.
KV (rms) KV (rms) KV (rms) KV(rms) KV (peak)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
123 88 185 1.3 times 450
145 105 230 the actual wet 550
245 154 395 flashover voltage 900
420 266 680 of unit. 1550
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 30

Table 2 Minimum Failing loads string Insulator units.

Pin Insulator. Line Post Insulator. Failing Load. Recommended pin


Ball shank dia.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
KN KN KN mm
5 10 45 11 or 16
10 -- 70 16
90 16
120 11 or 20
160 24
190 24
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Creepage Distance:- No minimum creepage distance are specified for clear atmospheric
conditions.

Highest Moderately Heavy polluted atmospheres


System polluted
Voltage atmospheres Total Protected
KV. mm mm mm
3.6 75 130 --
7.2 130 230 --
12 230 320 --
24 430 560 --
36 580 840 420
72 1100 1700 850
123 1850 2800 1400
145 2250 3400 1700
245 3800 5600 2800
420 6480 9660 4830

Note:- For insulator used in an approximately vertical position the values given in Col.2 or 3 and 4
shall Apply. For insulators used in an approximately horizontal position, they values given in Col.
2 shall apply, but the values in Cal. 3 and 4 may be reduced by as much as 20 percent.

Tests:
1. Routine Tests: The following tests shall be carried out as routine tests:-
(a) Visual examination.
(b) Mechanical routine test ( for string insulator units only).
(c) Electrical routing test (for type B string insulators and rigid insulators.
2. Visible discharge tests: The test room shall be darkened and a period of five minutes shall
be allowed for the observer to become accustomed to darkness. A power frequency test
voltage of the specified value given in table IA or table 18 shall be applied in accordance
with Appendix B and maintained at this value for five minutes. During this time
observations shall be made there shall be no sign of visible corona.
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 31

3. Impulse Voltage withstand test:


(1) The insulator shall be tested dry under the conditions prescribed in Appendix B.
(2) The impulse generator shall be adjusted to produce a standard 1.2150 impulse wave of
peak value equal to the specified value of the impulse withstand voltage corrected for
atmospheric conditions in accordance with Appendix A.
(3) Five such impulse voltage waves shall be applied to the insulator. If there is no
flashover or puncture the insulator shall be considered to have passed test. If during
the application of these five waves puncture occurs or if there is more than one
flashover, the insulator shall be considered to have failed to comply with the standard.
If only one flashover occurs a new series of ten impulse waves shall be applied. The
insulator shall be considered to have passed this test only if during this new series of
tests there is no flashover of puncture.
(4) The insulator shall be capable of passing the impulse voltage withstand test with
voltages of both positive and negative polarity. However, when it is evident which
polarity will give the lower breakdown voltage, it shall surface to test the polarity.
(5) To provide information when specially requested the 50 percent impulse flashover
voltage for positive and negative polarities may be determined by a suitable procedure.
(6) The impulse flashover voltages to be recorded shall be at the positive and negative 50
percent impulse flashover voltage as measured above and corrected in a accordance
with Appendix A.
(7) The insulator shall not be damaged by these tests, but slight marks on the surface of
the insulating parts of chipping of the cement of other material used for assembly shall
be permitted.

4. Wet power frequency voltage withstand test:


(1) The insulator shall be arranged as prescribed in Appendix B.
(2) Before the commencement of the test, the insulator shall be exposed to the artificial
rain produced in accordance with 3.3 of I.S. 2071-1962 for at least one minute before
application of voltage and then throughout the test.
(3) The test voltage to be applied to the insulator shall be the specified value of the wet
power frequency withstand voltage adjusted for atmospheric conditions at the time of
test.
(4) A voltage of about 75 percent of the test voltage as determined in 3 shall be applied
and then increased gradually to reach the test voltage in a time not less than five
seconds. The test voltage shall be maintained at this value for one minute.
The insulator shall not flashover or puncture during the application of the test
voltage.
5. To provide information when specially requested the wet flashover voltage of the insulator
may be determined by increasing the voltage gradually from about 75 percent of the wet
withstand voltage to reach the flashover voltage in not less than five seconds. The
flashover voltage shall be the arithmetic mean of five consecutive reading and the value
after correction to standard atmospheric conditions shall be recorded.
6. Temperature Cycle Test: Insulators with their integral parts, if any, shall be quickly6 and
completely immersed without being placed in an intermediate container in a water both
maintained at temperature of 70 D.C higher than that of the cold bath used in the nest of
the test and left submerged for 15 minutes. They shall then be withdrawn and quickly and
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 32

completely immerged being placed in an intermediate container in the cold water bath
where they shall remain for 15 minutes. This heating and cooling cycle shall be performed
three times in succession. The time taken to transfer from either bath to the other shall be
as short as possible and never exceed 30 seconds. The quantity of water in the test tanks
shall be sufficiently large for the immersion of the insulators so as not to cause a
temperature variation of more than + 5D.C in the water.
On completion of the third cold cycle the insulator shall be examined to verify that they not
cracked. Type A insulators shall then be subjected to the mechanical test prescribed in
10.14. Type B insulator shall be subjected for one minute to the power frequency test
prescribed in 10.15 . The insulators shall withstand the appropriate test without cracking or
puncture of mechanical wreckage.

7. Electromechanical finding load test (on type B string insulators only).

(1) This test shall be applied to string insulator units of such types where electrical
discharge will serve to indicate mechanical failure. For other time the insulators
shall be submitted to the mechanical failing load test.
(2) The insulator units shall be subjected individually to a power frequency voltage and
to a tensile load applied simultaneously between the metal parts.
(3) For insulator with ball and socket couplings, the coupling pieces of the testing
machine shall be in accordance with I.S. 2486 as regards their essential
dimensions.
(4) The voltage shall be 50 percent to 60 percent of the specified wet power frequency
withstand voltage of the string insulator unit and it shall be maintained at this value
throughout the test.
(5) The tensile load shall be gradually increased form a value of 75 percent of specified
electromechanical failing load until it reached.
(6) The insulator passes the test if the specified electromechanical failing load is
reached without puncture.
(7) To provide information when specially requested, the load may be increased until
the failing load as defined in 2.12 is reached the value recorded.
8. Mechanical failing load test. (String insulator units)
(1) String insulator units of type A and those of the B to which the electromechanical
failing load test is not applicable shall be subjected individually to a tensile load
applied between the metal parts.
(2) For insulators with ball and socked coupling, the coupling pieces of the testing
machine shall be in accordance with I.S. 2846. (part II) 1963 as regards their
essential dimensions.
(3) The load shall be gradually increased from a value of 75 per cent of the specified
mechanical failing load until the specified mechanical failing load is reached.
(4) The insulator passes the tests if the specified mechanical failing load is reached.
(5) To provide information when specially requested, the load may be increased until
the failing load is defined in 2.13 is reached and the value recorded.
9. Rigid insulators:
Rigid insulators shall be mounted on a rigidly fixed pin capable of withstanding without
appreciate deformation the loads to which it will be subjected during the test, insulators
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 33

provided with integral metal fittings for mounting shall be mounted for lest using these
fittings. The insulator shall be subjected to a load equal to 75 per cent of the specified
mechanical failing load applied perpendicular to the axis of the insulator in the plane of the
side groove. The wire rope shall be such that localized stresses in the side groove of the
insulator are avoided. If the insulator is provided with means of clamping the conductor,
the load shall be applied to this clamp till the mechanical failing load is reached.
(1)The insulator passed the test if the specified mechanical failing load is reached.
(2)To provide information when specially requested the load may be increased until the
failing load as defined in 2.13 is reached and the value recorded.
10. Twenty four hours test- mechanical test (for string insulator only)
(1) The insulator shall be subjected for 24 hours to a tensile load, applied axially which
shall be two- thirds of the specified minimum failing load.
(2) The insulator shall then pass the power frequency routine test given in 10-15.
11. Puncture test (for insulators type B only)
The puncture test may be either a power frequency puncture test or by agreement
between manufacturer and purchaser, an impulse over voltage test.
12. Power frequency puncture test:-
The insulators after having been cleaned and dried, shall be completely immersed in a
thank containing a suitable insulating medium to prevent surface discharge on them. If the
tank is made of metal, its dimensions shall be such test the shortest distance between a
by part of the insulator and the side of the tank is not less than 1.5 times the diameter of
the largest insulator shed. The immersion medium shall be at about room temperature.
(2)The test voltage shall be applied between those parts which normally have the
operating voltage between them. During immersion in the insulating medium, precautions
shall be taken to avoid air pockets under the sheds of the insulator.
(3) The voltage shall be raised as rapidly as is consistent with its value being indicated by
the measuring instrument to the specified puncture voltage. No puncture shall occur
below the specified puncture voltage.
(4) To provide information when specially requested the voltage may then be raised until
puncture occurs and the puncture voltage is recorded.
13 Porosity test:-
(1)Porcelain fragments from the insulators or by agreement, from representative pieces of
porcelain fired adjust to them shall be immersed in a 1 percent alcohol solution of function
(1 g fuchsion in 100 g methylated spirit) under a pressure of not less than 15x106N/M2 for
a time such that the products of the test duration in hours and the test pressure in N/m2 is
not less than 180x106.
(2)The fragments shall then be removed from the solution, washed, dried and again
broken.
(3)Examination with naked eye of the freshly broken surface shall not reveal any
penetration into small cracks formed during the initial breaking shall be neglected.
14. Galvanising test: This test comprises firstly variation of the uniformity of the coating of zinc
(test by immersion in copper sulphate) and secondly verification of the weight of zinc per
unit surface (test by chemical dissolution). This second test is optional and shall be carried
out only if so agreed by the manufacturer and the purchaser.
(2)The uniformity of zinc coating of galvanised material fittings shall satisfy the
requirements.
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 34

15. Visual Examination Test:- A visual examination shall be made on each insulator. The colour of
the insulator shall approximate to the colour specified on the drawing. Some variation in the
colour shade is permitted and shall not justify rejection of the insulator. The insulator shall be
free from physical distortion of shape within tolerances specified.

The areas specified as glazed on the drawing shall be covered by a smooth hard glaze
free from cracks and other defects prejudicial to satisfactory performance is service. Out of
those areas specified as glazed on the drawing the total area not covered by the glaze
shall not exceed (1+DF)/2000 cm 2

Also the area of any single glaze defect shall not exceed (0.5 + DF)/20.000 cm 2

Where D is the greatest diameter of the insulator in centimetres.

16. Mechanical Routine Test:- A Type of string insulator units shall be subjected for at least 1
minute to a tensile load equal to 60 per cent of the specified mechanical failing load.
(1)Type B string insulator shall be subjected for at least 10 seconds to a tensile load equal
to 40 percent of the specified electro mechanical failing load.
(2)Insulators which break whose metal parts are fractured or become detached ruing the
test shall be rejected.

17. Electrical Routine Test:- Type B string insulator units and rigid insulators shall be subjected to
a power frequency voltage. For string insulator units, the voltage shall be applied between the
metal part, but the nominal metal work of inter linked insulators may be replaced by other
suitable fittings.
(1)Rigid insulators shall be placed head down area in a tank containing water to a depth
sufficient to cover the side conductor grooves and the voltage shall be applied between the
tank and water practically filling the in hole or …………..of each insulator, Alternatively,
metal electrodes may be used provided the electric stress in the porcelain is not reduced.
(2)The test voltage shall be such as to produce frequent flashover (every few seconds).
(3)The time of application of the test voltage shall be at least 5 consecutive minutes.
(4)Insulators which puncture during the test shall be rejected.

Sampling procedure:

Sample Size: The number of insulators to be selected at random from the lot shall be in
accordance with col 2 of the Table 5 if required additional insulators as given in col. 3 of
Table shall also be sealed at random.
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 35

Table 5 sample size and criterion of conformity.


C-1
Lot size First sample size. Second Sample size. Acceptance Rejection
Number. Number.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
N N1 N2 C1 C2
101 to 500 ‘ 5 10 0 2
501 to 800 7 14 0 3
801 to 1300 10 20 0 3
1301 to 3200 15 30 1 4
3201 to 8000 25 50 2 5
8001 & above 35 70 2 7

Note: All the insulators selected as in C-1 as above shall be subjected to the
appropriate acceptance test.

C-2 Conformity Test:-


The lot shall be considered as conforming to the requirements of the acceptance tests of
the number of failures found in the first sample N1 is less than or equal to C1. If the
number of failures is greater than or equal to C2, the lot shall be considered as not
conforming to the requirements of the acceptance tests and shall be rejected. If the
number of failures is between C1 and C2 and a second sample of N2 insulators shall be
selected and subjected to acceptance tests. If the number of failures in the two sample
combined is loss than C2, the lot shall be considered as conforming to the requirements of
acceptance to tests otherwise it shall be considered to have failed.

Guard Wire I.E. Rule 88

(1) Every guard wire shall have an actual breaking strength of not less than 635.02 Kg.
(1400 Lbs) and if made of iron or steel, shall be galvanized.
(2) Every guard wire shall be connected with earth at each point at which its electrical
continuity is broken.

Hard drawn stranded aluminium and steel-cord aluminium conductors for overhead power
transmission purposes (Revised). I.S 398-1976.

9.1 The wires used in the construction of a galvanized steel reinforced aluminium
conductor shall before stranding, satisfy all the relevant requirements of this standard.
9.2 The lay ratio of the different layers shall be within the limits given in table 4.
9.3 The ratio of the nominal dia of the aluminium wires to the nominal dia. of the
galvanized steel wires in any particular construction of galvanized steel reinforced
Aluminium conductors, shall conform to the appropriate value given in table 4.
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 36

9.4 In all constructions, the successive layers shall have opposite directions of lay, the
outermost layer being right handed. The wire in each layer shall be evenly and closely
strained.
9.5 In conductors having multiple layers of aluminium wires the lay ratio of any aluminium
layers shall not be greater than the lay ratio of the aluminium layer immediately beneath it.

Hard drawn stranded aluminium and steel cored aluminium conductors for over head
powers transmission purposes.

I.S. 398 – (Part –I 1976).

Table 1 Aluminium wires used in the construction of aluminium stranded


conductors.
diameter work. Cross Mass Resistanc Breaking load
section area e at 20.c Min
of nominal Max
diameter
work.
Nom. Min Max. Befvore After
stranding stranding
mm. mm. mm. mm 2 Kg/Km Omega/m KN KN
2.21 2.19 2.23 3.836 10.37 7.553 0.68 0.65

3.10 3.07 3.13 7.548 20.40 3.843 1.24 1.18


3.18 3.15 3.21 7.942 21.47 3.651 1.29 1.23
3.99 3.95 4.03 12.50 33.80 2.332 1.98 1.88
4.39 4.35 4.43 15.14 40.91 1.914 2.40 2.28
4.65 4.60 4.70 16.98 45.90 1.712 2.70 2.56

Note 1:- The resistance has been calculated from the maximum value of resistivity and the cross
sectional area based on the minimum diameter.

Note 2:- The resistance of individual wires shall be such that the completed stranded conductor
meets the requirements of the maximum resistance specified in Table 2 calculated by applying
the relevant stranding constants given in Table 4.
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 37

Table – 2 Aluminium stranded conductors

Nominal Sranding Sectional Overall Mass Approx Maximum


area Dia. area Dia. Aluminium breaking
wire load
resistance at
calculated
20 0 C
mm 2 mm mm 2 mm Kg/Km .P KN

25 7/2.21 26.85 6.63 74 1.093 4.52


50 7/3.10 52.83 9.30 145 0.5561
8.25
100 7/4.39 106.0 13.17 290 0.2770
15.96
150 19/3.18 150.9 15.90 415 0.1956
23.28
240 19/3.99 237.6 19.95 654 0.1244
35.74
300 19/4.65 322.7 23.25 888 0.09171 48.74

Note: 1 :- For this basis of calculation sec. Appendix A.


Note:2 :- The sectional area of a stranded conductor has been taken as the sum of the
cross-sectional are a of the individual wires.

Table 3 lay ratios for aluminium stranded conductors.

Number of wires in conductor. Lay Ratio

6 wire layer 12 wire layer.


Min. Max. Min. Max.

7 10 14 -- --
19 10 16 10 14

Table 4 stranding Constants.

Number of wires in conductor. Stranding constants

Mass Electrical
Resistance.

7 7.091 0.1447
19 19.34 0.5357
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 38

Resistance Test:-The electrical resistance of one specimen cut from each of the samples taken
11.1.1 or 11.1.2 shall be measured at ambient temperature. The measured resistance shall be
corrected to the value at 20 0 C by means of the formula.

R 20 =R T /(1+ W-20))
Where R 20 = Resistance corrected at 20.C
RT = Resistance measured at T.C
= Constant mass temperature co-efficient of resistance = 0.004) and
T = Ambient temperature during measurement.
The resistance corrected at 20 Degree shall be not more than the maximum value specified in
table 1.

Non-Linear Register Type Lighting Arrestors


I.S. 3070 (Part-I_ 1974).

Lightning Arrestor: A device designed to protect electrical apparatus from high transient voltage
and to limit the duration and frequency the amplitude of follow-current. The term ’Lightning
Arrestor’ includes any external series which is essential for the proper functioning of the device as
installed for service, regardless of whether or not it is supplied as an integral part of the device.

Note:- Lightning arrestors are usually connected between the electrical conductors of a network
and earth although they may some times be connected across the windings of apparatus or
between electrical conductors.

Protective characteristics of an arrestor:- The combination of the following.


(a) Lightning voltage impulse spark over voltage/time curve as determined in 7.7.3.
(b) The residual voltage/discharge current curve as determined in 7.8
(c) For 10,000 A arrestors rated 100 KV and higher the switching- voltage impulse spark
over voltage/ time curve as determined in 7.7.4.
Normal Service Conditions:- Lightning arrestors which conform to this standard shall be suitable
for operation when installed outdoor and exceed to direct sun under the following normal service
conditions:-

(a) Ambient temperature within the range of – 10.c to + 50.c


(b) Altitude not exceeding 1000 m.
(c) Frequency of the AC power supply not less than 48 HZ and exceeding its rated
voltage.

Rating: Lightning arrestors shall be rated in terms of the following:


(a) Voltage
(b) Frequency &
(c) Nominal Discharge Current,
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 39

Standard Voltage ratings:- Standard values of rated voltage for arrestors(in Kilovolt r.m.s.) shall
be:-
0.175, 0.280, 0.500, 0.660, 3.4.5, 7.5, 9,10.5
12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, 36, 39, 42,
51, 51, 54,, 60, 75, 84, 96, 102, 108, 120, 126, 138, 150,
174, 186, 186, & 198.

Standard rating frequencies: The standard rated frequencies are 50 Hz and 60 Hz.

Standard Nominal discharge currents:- The standard nominal discharge currents are 10,000 A,
5000 A, 2500A, and 1500A having an 8/20 wave-shape.

Note:- For the 10,000A arrestor there are two types light duty and heavy duty, which are different
rated by the amplitude of the long duration, impulse current which they are capable of
withstanding.

Test requirements and performance characteristics:


Lightning arrestors are classified by their standard nominal discharge currents. They shall meet
the test requirements and performance characteristic listed in Table 1.

Marking:- Each lightning arrestor shall be provided with a name plate or plates legibly and
indelibly marked with at least the following formation:-

(a) Rated voltage.


(b) Rates frequency, of other than one of the standard frequencies.
(c) Nominal discharge current (Specifying for 5000 A arrestor whether series A or series
B).
(d) Long-duration discharge class (for 10,000 A heavy duty arrestors).
(e) Pressure-relief class ( for arrestors fitted with pressure-relief devices).
(f) The manufacture’s name or trade make, type the identification.
(g) They year of manufacture.
(h) Number and order of assembly of the units (if arrestor consists of more than one units).

Note:- The work ’rated’ need not appear on the name plate, recognised abbreviation may be used
to express the above quantities.

Tests
General:- (1) Except when specified otherwise all tests shall be made on the same
arrestors, arrestor sections or arrestor units. They shall be new, clean, completely
assembled and arranged as nearly as possible as in service and shall be fitted with
grading rains, if used.

(2)The measuring equipment shall meet the requirements of I.S. 2070-1962 and the
values obtained shall be accepted as accurate for the purpose of compliance with the
relevant test clauses.
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 40

(3) Power- frequency voltage tests:- All power frequency tests shall be made with an
alternation voltage having a frequency between the limits of 48 Hz and 62 Hz and an
approximately sinusoidal wave shape.
(4) Wet test:- It is generally recognised that et tests are not intended to reproduce actual
operating conditions but to provide a criterion based on accumulated experience that
satisfactory service operation will be obtained. These should be carried out in
accordance with I.S. 2070-1962.
(5) The test should give reproducible results in the same and in different laboratories.
(6) Wet tests shall be made only on arrestors designed for use outdoors. Where such a
test is specified, the test abject shall be subjected to a spray of water of prescribed
resistivity provided by a properly located nozzle or nozzles. The spray consisting of
shall drops. Shall fall on the test abject at an angle approximately 45 D to the vertical
and horizontal components of the precipitation rate.
(7) The vertical component of the spray shall be measured with a collecting vessel having
a horizontal opening area 100 cm2 to 750 cm2 when both vertical and horizontal
components are required, the horizontal component shall be measured with a
collecting vessel having a similar vertical opening directed towards the nozzles. The
collecting vessel should be located on the side of the test object facing the nozzles and
as close to the test object as is possible without collecting splashes from it.
(8) For test objects of height greater than 50 cm, measurements of the rate of precipitation
shall be made near the and the middle and values obtained for any one position shall
not differ by more than 25 per cent from the average for the three positions, for test
objects of 50 cm, height of less, the measurements shall be made near the middle only.
(9) The test object shall be sprayed for at least one minute before the application of
voltage (alternatively more consistent results may be obtained if the test object is
thoroughly wetted with water of the prescribed resistivity and temperature before the
application of voltage). The characteristics of the spray shall be as follows:-
(a)Precipitation rate vertical component 3mm / mix + 10 per cent.
(b) Resistivity of water 10,000 cm
+ 10 percent.
(c)Temperature of water (in Celsius degree)
Ambient temp + 15 Degree.
(d) Type of nozzle.
(e) Water pressure.
10. Polluted Housing Test:- The development of artificial pollution testing has not yet reached the
stage at which it is possible for formulate a mandatory test for lightning, arrestors. Useful
information may be gained however for existing test methods and certain general principles may
be laid down in their application to lightning arrestors.
Proposals embracing these principles, together with reference to several such methods are given
in appendix B to stipulate further investigation in the expectation that from experience gained in
such investigation it will be possible to devise an agreed method on which a mandatory test may
be based.
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 41

Expulsion type Lightning Arrestors: I.S. 3070 (Part-II 1966)

Normal service conditions:- Lightning arrests which conform to this standard shall be
suitable for operation under the following normal service conditions:-
(a) Ambient temperature:-
(1) Maximum ambient air temperature 45 Degree C.
(2) Maximum daily average air temperature 35 Degree C. and
(3) Maximum yearly average ambient air temperature 30 Degree C.
(b) Altitude not exceeding 1000 metres.
(c) Frequency of the alternating current power supply not less than 40 and not more than
60 cycles per second.
(d) Power frequency voltage applied between the line and the earth terminals of the
arrestors not exceeding its rated voltage.
(e) Maximum and minimum prospective fault currents at the arrestor locations within the
range of minimum-maximum power frequency current interrupting rating of the
arrestors. Possible changes in the prospective fault current which may result from
changes in the system, such as changed in system capacity or neutral earthing shall be
considered.
(f) Short-circuit power factor of the system at the point of installation of the arrestor not
lower than the appropriate test circuit power factor, or higher than the appropriate X/R
ration.
(g) Rate of rise of transient recovery voltage ( or natural frequency) and the amplitude
factor of the system shall not exceed the rated, rate of rise of transient recovery voltage
and the rated amplitude factor.
Classification:- Expulsion type lightning arrestor shall be classified as
(a) Thirty kilo Amperes discharge capacity distribution class.
(b) Sixty five kilo Amperes discharge capacity distribution class and
(c) Transmission-class.

Ratings:-
Expulsion type lightning arrestor shall be rated in terms of the following:-
(a) Voltage.
(b) Frequency.
(c) Impulse withstand current.
(d) Power frequency current interrupting rating (minimum to maximum), transient recovery
voltage and short circuit power factor.

Voltage:-

The rated voltage in KV rms of transmission class expulsion type arrestors (expulsion
protector fuses ) shall be 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 30,36, 60, 75, 968/20.
Frequency:-

The rated frequency shall be the standard frequency of 50 c/s.


R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 42

Marking:-

Each lightning arrestor shall be provided with a name plate or plated legibly and
indelibly marked with a least the following information:-

(a) Name of trade mark of the manufacturer and country of manufacture.


(b) Type, designation and or serial number,
(c) Rated voltage.
(d) Rated discharge current.
(e) Power frequency current interrupting rating (minimum and maximum values).
(f) Arcing gap spacing, if adjustable by user and
(g) External series gap spacing ( if used) (if the external series gap spacing is adjustable,
the minimum and maximum value shall be stated).

Voltage withstand test of arrestor insulation:-

Dry and wet tests shall be made in accordance with 8 on the assembled insulating
members of those arrestors which have both line and earth terminals attached directly to
them . The arcing chamber and series gap electrodes shall be removed to permit these
tests. The test piece shall withstand without flash over the application of the appropriate
power frequency voltage for one minute as specified in Cal. 2 of table 4 for distribution
class of table 5 for transmission class arrestors. In wet tests, the piece shall be subjected
to precipitation as specified in 3.3 of I.S. 2071-1962. The test voltage shall be applied
between the line and earth terminals of the arrestor.

E.I Rule 92:

The earthing lead for any lightning arrestor shall not pass through any iron or steel
pipe but shall be taken as directly as possible from the lightning arrestor to a separate
earth electrode subject to the avoidance of bonds wherever possible.

India Electricity Rules :- I.E. Rules 77:

1. No conductor of an overhead line including service lines, erected across a street


shall at any part thereof at a height less than:-
(a) For low and medium voltage lines- 5.791 m (19 ft.)
(b) For high voltage lines- 6.096 mt. (20 ft.)
2. No conductor of an overhead line, i/c service lines erected along any street shall at
any part thereof be at a height less than:
(a) For low and medium voltage lines- 5.485 M (18 ft)
(b) For high voltage lines- 5.791 M (19 ft).
3. No conductor of as overhead line i/c service lines, erected also where than along of
across any street shall be at a height less than:-
(a) For low medium and high voltage line up to and i/c 11,000 volts, if bare-4.572 m
(15ft.)
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 43

(b) For low, medium and high voltage lines up to and i/c 11,000 voltage. If insulated
– 3.963 m (13 ft).
(c) For high voltage lines above 11,000 volts/ - 5.18 mt. (17 ft).
4. For extra high voltage lines, the clearance above ground shall not be less than
5.182 mt. (17 ft) plus 0.305 metres (1 ft) for every 33,000 volts. Or part thereof by
which the voltage of the line exceeds, 33,000 volts.

Provided that the minimum clearance along or across any at street shall not be less
than 6.096 mets. (20 ft.)

I.E. Rule 79.

Clearance from buildings of low and medium voltage lines and service lines.

1. Where a low or medium voltage overheads line passes and or adjacent to or


terminates of any building, the following minimum clearance from any accessible
point, on the basis of maximum sag shall be observed :-
(a) For any flat roof open balcony, veranda roof, and loan to roof.
(i)When the line passes above the building a vertical clearance of 2.435 metres (8
ft.) from the nearest point and
(b) For pitched roof.
(i)When the line passes above the building a vertical clearance of 2.439 mts. (8 ft.)
immediately under the lines and
(ii) When the line passes adjacent to the building a horizontal clearance of 1.219
mts. (4 ft.)
(2)Any conductor so situated as to have a clearance less than that specified in sub-
rule (1) shall be adequately insulated and shall be attached at suitable intervals to a
bare earthed bearer wire having a breaking strength of not less than 317.51 Kg.
(700 Lbs).
(3)The horizontal clearance shall be measured when the line is at a maximum
deflection from the vertical due to wind pressure.

I.E. Rule- 80

(1) Clearance from buildings of high and extra high voltage lines.
Where a high or extra high voltage overhead line passes above or adjacent to any
building or part of a building it shall have on the basis of maximum sag a vertical
clearance above the highest part of the building immediately under such line of not
less than a for high voltage line, up to and i/c 33,000 V- 3,658 mts.

I.E. Rule 81

CONDUCTOR OF DIFFERENT VOLTAGES ON SAME SUPPORT:

Where conductors forming parts of system, at different voltages are erected on the
same supports, the owner shall make adequate provision to guard against danger to linesman
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 44

and others from the lower voltage system being charged above its normal working voltage by
leakage from contact with the higher voltage system and the methods of construction and
clearance between the conductors of the two system shall be subject to the prior approval of the
Inspector.

I.E. Fule 86

Conditions to apply where Telecommunication lines and power lines are carried on
same supports:-
1. Every overheads Telecommunication line erected on supports carrying a power line shall
consist of conductors each having a breaking strength of not less than 272.16 Kg. (600
Lbs.)
2. Every Telephone used on a Telecommunication line erected on supports carrying a power
line shall be suitably guarded against lightning and shall be protected by cut outs.
3. Where a Telecommunication line is erected on supports carrying a high or extra high
voltage power line arrangement shall be made to safeguard any person using the
telephone against injury from contact, leakage or indication between such power and
Telecommunication on lines.

I.E. Rule 87.

Where two lines cross the crossing shall be made as nearly right angles as the nature of
the case admits.

Danger Notice Plates I.S 2551-1963

2.1 Two sizes of danger notice plates are recommended:-


(a) For medium voltage installation 200 x 150 mm
(b) For high voltage & extra high 250 x 200 mm

2.2 The plate shall be made from mild steel at least 1.6mm thick and vitreous enamelled
white with letters, figures and the conventional skull and bones in signal red colour.
Colours for ready mixed paints on the front side. The rear side of the plate shall also
be enamelled.

NOTE:- 1- All letterings should be centrally spaced.


NOTE:-II- All dimensions for the words in district language are mainly for guidance,
however, care should be taken to space them centrally between the edges and the area of
the skull and bones.
NOTE:-III The location of the fixing holes shall be left to the choice of the user.
NOTE:-IV- The corners of the plates should be rounded off.
Danger plate for high and extra voltage as per I.S.
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 45

Galvanised Steel barbed wire for fencing I.S. 278-1962

Materials:

1. The wire shall be manufactured from steel made by the open hearth and electric
process shall not contain sulphur and phosphorous exceeding 0.065 per cent each.
2. The wires shall be coated with zinc of grade 98 of I.S. 205 –1956 specification for
zinc (revised).
3. The general conditions relating to testing, inspection and supply of materials shall
be in accordance with I.S. 1387-1959 General requirements for the supply of
materials and metal products.

Manufacture and sizes (Types)

1.1 The galvanised steel barbed wire shall be of the following types:-

Type Nominal dia. of wire. Nominal distances


Between two barbs.
Line wire Power wire
Mm mm mm
1. 2.50 2.24 75
2. 2.50 2.24 150
3. 2.24 2.24 75
4. 2.24 2.24 150

1.2 The barbed wire shall be formed by twisting together two live wires, one containing
the barbs. The sizes of the line and point wires and barb spacings shall be as
specified in figures.
1.3 Tolerances:- The permissible deviation from the nominal diameter of the line wire
and the point wire shall not exceed + 0.08 mm.
1.4 The barbs shall carry four points and shall be formed by twisting two point wires,
each two turns, tightly round one live wire making altogether four complete turns.
The barbs shall be so finished that the four points are set and locked at right angles
to each other (see figure below). The barbs shall have a length of not less than 13
mm and not more than 18 mm. The points shall be sharp and cut at an angle not
greater than 35 degree to the axis of the wire forming the barbs.

Details of barbed wire


6.5 Coating Test- The uniformity of zinc coating shall be tested by the method specified
in I.S. 429-1954 Methods for Testing weight and uniformity of Coating on
Galvanised Iron and steel wires and steel sheets. The line and point wires shall
withstand the number of dips specified below:-
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 46

Size of Wire 1-Minute Dip ½ Minute Dip


Mm
Line Wire (2.50 3 1
(2.24 3 1
Point Wire 2.24 1 --

6.6 If 20 per cent of more of the samples tested for zinc coating specified under 6.5 fail
to comply with the requirements, additional tests shall be made on samples cut from
four other reels selected at random from each lot of 50 reels or fraction thereof
presented for inspection. If any one of the additional samples fail to stand the test,
the entire let presented by the samples shall be rejected, as not complying with this
standard. But if all the retest samples pass the test, the consignment shall be
accepted.

Weight (Barbed Wire)

The lengths per 100 Kg. Of the barbed wire shall be as given below:-

Type Nominal Meter Min. Meter Maximum Meter.

1 1000 934 1066


2 1134 1066 1200
3 1575 1490 1668
4 1890 1778 2000

Making (Barbed Wire)

1. Every reel of barbed wire shall be marked legibly with attest the name of the
manufacturer, diameters of the line and point wires, barb spacing and length and
weight of the reel. 1.2 barbed wire may also be marked with ISI certification mark.

Coiling and Packing.

1. Unless otherwise agreed to between the supplier and the purchaser the barbed wire
shall be supplied in metal or wooden reels weighting maximum gross weight of 15
kg.
2. Each reel of barbed wire shall be wound and fastened compactly.

I.E. Rule 76.

1. The minimum factor of safety for stay wires, guard wires or bearer wires shall be 2.5
based on the ultimate to tensile strength of the wire.

I.S. 1255 – 1967.

Testing paper insulating for the presence of moisture:


R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 47

Before jointing paper insulated cable, the power insulation should be tested for the
presence of moisture by immersion in hot compound or paraffin wax at a temperature
between 120 to 140 Degree Cel. The presence of moisture is indicated by the formation of
bubbles when a piece of paper is immersed in hot compound, only a single strip of paper
gripped by a pair of tweezers should be used for the test since if several thickness of
paper are immersed, the escape of a occluded air between the layers may be mistaken for
the presence. Of moisture. Particular attention should be paid to the paper next to the
sheath and to that next the conductor, as it is in these positions that moisture is most likely
to be found. The samples of paper should be handled as little as possible to avoid
contamination particularly by perspiration.

Methods for testing weights and uniformity of coating on Galvanised iron and steel wires
and steel sheets.

Determination of uniformity of coating (Presence Test)

5. SAMPLING
5.1 Steel sheets- samples shall be drawn as specified in the material
specifications.
5.2 Wires- A length of more than 12 in. (or 305 mm) shall be cut from one
or both ends of the selected coil. If the ends of the coil are obviously
damaged, a length between one and two yards shall be cut off before
the samples are taken. The sample shall be wound on a mandrel so
that a length of at least 12 in. (or 305 mm) is fully coiled. In case of
galvanised line wire for telegraph and telephone purposes; the
mandrel shall have a diameter eight tames that of the wire if the wire
is tested before being used for armouring, stranding or any other
similar process, and eight times that of the wire if the wire is tested
after being subjected to any such process. The sample shall then be
unwound, roughly straightened and a length of 6 in. ( or 152 mm) cut
from the middle of the portion that has been coiled and uncoiled.
5.3 The samples shall be clean. If necessary, they shall be washed with
solvent naphtha or any suitable solvent, then with alcohol and finally
dried thoroughly.
18. 6. REAGENTS

6.0 The following reagents are required.


6.1 Copper sulphate solution – Sp-gr 1.170 at 60 Degree F. Dissolve
approximately 33 g of crystalline copper sulphate (Cu SO4, SH20) in 100 ml
of distilled water, shake the solution with an excess of copper carbonate of
copper hydrate. Filter or allow to settle before use.
6.2 Rectified spirit (conforming to I.S. 323-1952) or petrol.
R. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 48

7. PROCEDURE

7.1 Subject the clean sample to as many successive dips as specified in the
material specification in the copper sulphate solution having a uniform
temperatures of 30 Degree + 1 Degree F- After each dip withdraw the
sample, rinse it immediately in clean running water, wipe dry with a clean soft
cloth, and except after the final dip, return immediately to the solution.
7.2 At the end of the specified number of dips when the sample is finally rinsed
and wiped dry, it shall not show any red deposit of copper upon the base
metal. In the case of wire, any deposit of metallic copper within one inch of
the cut end of the sample shall be disregarded.

Note:- The depth of the solution shall be not less than 4 in. ( or 102 mm) and the
internal diameter of the container shall in no case be less than 5 in. (63.5 mm) and
in the case of wire samples of diameter larger than 1.252 in. (3 SWG) the internal
diameter of the of the container shall be not less than 10 times the diameter of the
sample. The container in which tests are to be made shall be of material inert to
copper sulphate. Not more than three samples shall be immersed in the solution at
one time and care shall be taken that the samples do not come in contact with one
another or the sides of the container. There shall be no agitation of the solution
during the immersion period. The solution shall be changed for unused solution
after six samples have been tested in it.