Parker Danielle Parker Mr. Neuburger English comp.

101-129 09 March 2011 Annotated Bibliography The Holocaust

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"The Rising Tide of Anti-Semitism." American Decades Primary Sources. Ed. Cynthia Rose. Vol. 4: 1930- 1939. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 625-629. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 9 Mar. 2011. http://go.galegroup.com.my.otc.edu:8080/ps/i.do?&id=GALE%7CCX3490200791&v=2.1&u=sp ri43060&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w In the late 1800s and early 1900s, many Jews in Russia and Poland were killed in organized massacres called pogroms. In 1933 Adolf Hitler, the Nazi leader, came to power in Germany and made anti-Semitism an official government policy. The German government deprived Jews of their citizenship, seized their property, and later sent thousands to concentration camps. By the end of World War II (1939±1945) the Nazis had killed about six million Jews in a campaign of mass murder known as the Holocaust. This article really helped me understand the basics of the Holocaust. It pointed out the key points and really explained it in a way that anyone would be able to understand. Browning, Christopher R. "Holocaust, The: History." Encyclopedia of Religion. Ed. Lindsay Jones. 2nd ed. Vol. 6. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 4085-4087. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 9 Mar. 2011. http://go.galegroup.com.my.otc.edu:8080/ps/i.do?&id=GALE%7CCX3424501375&v=2.1&u=sp ri43060&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w With the growing role of Himmler's Schutzstaffel (SS) (a complex and expanding conglomeration of elite party organizations, police forces, and eventually even military formations) in shaping Nazi Jewish policy, one clear vision gradually emerged²a Germany free of Jews through emigration. But it was a vision unrealized. Faced with mounting immigration barriers in a world gripped by economic depression and thus decidedly unsympathetic to impoverished refugees, German Jews were reluctant to abandon career, property, and a country to which they were deeply attached. Emigration proceeded slowly, and the addition of Austrian and Czech Jews in 1938±1939 brought more Jews into the Reich than had emigrated over the past six years. The Kristallnacht had removed any remaining illusions of waiting out the Nazi regime, and almost all German Jews were now desperate to leave. The SS conducted experiments in emigration organized by Adolf Eichmann to get rid of the Austrian and Czech

Parker Jews as quickly as possible. Nevertheless, time ran out. The outbreak of war in September 1939 closed most borders, and the acquisition first of two million Polish Jews and then another half million Jews in western Europe by June 1940 shattered any expectation of a solution to the Jewish question through emigration. I found that this article really helped me to realize where the Nazi¶s got the idea the Holocaust.

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Fasching, Darrell J. "Holocaust." Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics. Ed. Carl Mitcham. Vol. 2. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 931-934. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 9 Mar. 2011. http://go.galegroup.com.my.otc.edu:8080/ps/i.do?&id=GALE%7CCX3434900328&v=2.1&u=sp ri43060&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w The word holocaust is derived from the biblical Greek term holocauston, meaning a "burnt offering" made in sacrifice to God. The term came to be widely used in the early 1970s to refer to the mass extermination of the Jews in the gas chambers of an organized system of death camps initiated by German dictator Adolf Hitler (1889±1945) and the Nazi Party during World War II. In the 1980s, some scholars argued that the word holocaust imputed more meaning to the event than it deserved and began calling it the Shoah, a Hebrew term referring to a time of desolation. The connotations of the latter have come to color even the meaning of the former. I found this article to be very interesting because it talks about why they called it the Holocaust. Sudo, Phil. "The 'Final Solution.' (Nazi Germany's attempt to murder all Jews during World War II)." Scholastic Update 2 Apr. 1993: 4+. Student Edition. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. http://find.galegroup.com.my.otc.edu:8080/gtx/infomark.do?&contentSet=IACDocuments&type=retrieve&tabID=T002&prodId=STOM&docId=A13608540&source=gale&sr cprod=STOM&userGroupName=spri43060&version=1.0 Historians say the Nazis killed Jews, gypsies, communists and even Jehovah's Witnesses during the 1940s' Holocaust. People starved to death in concentration camps and were murdered in death camps. I liked this article because it was short and sweet. It told what the Holocaust was in a short yet informative way.

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