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by 1. Physical quantity 2. Base quantities 3. Derived Quantities 4. Scalar quant

ities 5. Vector quantities 6. Accuracy 5. Sensitivity 6. Consistency 7. Zero err
or Statement Physical characteristic that can be measured Quantities that cannot
be defined in terms of other base quantities Quantities that obtained by combin
ing base quantities by multiplication, division or both these operations Quantit
ies that have magnitude but no direction Quantities that have both magnitude and
direction How close the measurement made is to the actual value Ability to dete
ct a small change in the quantity to be measured How little deviation there is a
mong the measurements made when a quantity is measured several times Error due t
o the pointer does not return to zero when not in use
SKILL 2 : UNDERSTANDING Question 1 Accuracy is the ability of the instrument to
give readings close to the actual value. The value determined is accurate if it
is near to the actual value The consistency of a measuring instrument is the abi
lity of instrument to record consistent readings for each measurement with littl
e deviation among readings. The measurement is consistent if the values determin
ed are close to each other.
Question 2 (a) (b) To transfer heat faster from surroundings to the mercury merc
ury does not vaporize/ conducts heat well/ does not wet the sides of the tube/ t
hread opaque
Question 3 (i) No
the reading from Student 2 and 3 out of range (0-3V).
SKILL 3 : CONCEPTUALIZATION Question 1 (a) ampere or A [1 mark] (b) Figure 1(a),
reading of ammeter is 0.9 A and Figure 1(b), reading of ammeter is 0.75 A. Read
ing in Figure 1 (a) has one decimal place, reading in Figure 1(b) has two decima
l places Ammeter in Figure 1(b) has more divisions in scale than in diagram 1(a)
Ammeter in Figure 1(b) can detect a smaller change than in diagram 1 (a) Concep
t : sensitivity [5 marks]
SKILL 4 : PROBLEM SOLVING – QUALITATIVE Question 1 (a) i) External diameter ii) In
ternal diameter Diagram 1 = 2.03 cm Diagram 2 = 1.70 cm Thickness of the glass =
2.03 cm -1.70 cm / 2 = 0.165 cm
[2 marks]
[2 marks]
The zero error has to be subtracted from both the external and internal diameter
In determining the thickness of the glass, the internal diameter is subtracted
from the external diameter, thus the zero error will cancel out [2 marks]
Question 2 Characteristics/ ways/design i) Casing is made from soft material Tra
nsparent covering is made from softer plastic ii) Increase the divisions in the
scale Take a few reading and calculate the average iii) Casing is made from lowe
r density material Reason To reduce impulsive force To reduce impulsive force To
detect smaller change in reading To obtain more accurate reading Lighter to car
ry around
SKILL 5 : PROBLEM SOLVING – QUANTITATIVE Question 1 (i) volume = 15cm x 20cm x 30
cm = 9000 cm3 = 9.0 x 103 cm3 volume = 9.0 x 103 cm3 = 9.0 x 10-3 m3.
[2 marks]
[2 marks]
Density = mass / volume = 15 kg / 9.0 x 10-3 m3 = 1.67 x 103 kg m-3
[2 marks]
Question 2 (i) Thickness = 0.06 mm = 0.06 x 10-3 m = 20 cm x 10 cm = 20 cm2 = 20
x 10-4 m2
[1 mark]
SKILL 6 : DECISION MAKING Question 1 . Characteristic Small range of measurement
Small division on scale High sensitivity No parallax error Decision : M Reason
The estimate measurement is within a few mm only Can give accurate reading Can d
etect small change in measurement To obtain more accurate reading It has small r
ange of measurement, small division on scale, high sensitivity, and no parallax
Question 2
- The length of the rope is approximately same as the length needed so that the
length is not too long or too short. - The density of the rope has to be small t
o make it light - The snapping force is larger to ensure that the rope is not ea
sily break.
2 2
2 - The diameter of the rope must smaller Occupy a smaller space 2 - The best ch
oice is K because the length is approximately the same as needed, low density, s
napping force is bigger than the load and Smaller diameter
What is meant by 1. Linear motion 2. Scalar quantity 3. Vector quantity 4. Veloc
ity 5. Speed 6. Acceleration 7. Distance 8. Displacement
Statement Motion along a straight line A physical quantity which has only magnit
ude A physical quantity which has both magnitude and direction The rate of chang
e of displacement The rate of change of distance The rate of change of velocity
The total length of the path travelled Displacement is the shortest distance fro
m one point to another point along a specific direction The tendency of an objec
t to resist change to its state of rest or motion. An object will remain at rest
or motion with uniform velocity along a straight line unless it is acted upon b
y an external
9. Inertia 10. Newton’s First law
What is meant by force. 11. Newton’s Second law 12. Newton’s Third law 13. Momentum
14. Principle of conservation of momentum 15. Force
The net force on an object is proportional to the rate of change in momentum. To
every action there is an equal and opposite reaction . The product of mass and
velocity of an object The total momentum of a system is constant if no external
forces act on the system.
A push or a pull that can change the size, shape or velocity of an object.
16. Impulse 17. Impulsive force
Change of momentum. A large force that acts for a short period of time during a
collision or explosion The force of gravity which is exerted on it by earth. The
amount of matter in the object. Free fall occurs when an object falling under t
he force of gravity only without being affected by any other external forces. .
The product of force and the displacement along the direction of the force The c
apacity to do work.
18. Weight 19. Mass 20. Free fall
21. Work
22. Energy
23. Gravitational field
The region in which an object experiences a force due to gravitational attractio
n. The Potential Energy of an object is the energy stored in the object because
of its position or state. The energy of an object when it is stretched or compre
ssed The energy of an object due to its motion Energy cannot be created or destr
oyed. It can be transformed from one form to another, but the total energy in a
closed system is constant. The rate at which work is done or energy is transferr
24. Potential energy
25. Elastic potential energy 26. Kinetic energy 27. The principle of conservatio
n of energy
What is meant by 28. Elasticity
Statement The property of an object that enables it to return to its original sh
ape and dimensions (size) after an applied external force is removed. The extens
ion of a spring is directly proportional to the stretching force provided the el
astic limit is not exceeded. The elastic limit of a spring is the maximum stretc
hing force which can be applied to the spring before it ceases to be elastic. Th
e force constant of a spring is the force per unit extension.
29. Hooke’s law 30. Elastic limit
31. Force constant (spring constant)
No 1 Answers When the boy jumps onto the river bank, his momentum is forward. Us
ing the Principle of conservation of momentum, the total momentum before and aft
er jumping is equal. The boat moves backward to balance the forward momentum. -
Fuel burns in the combustion chamber - Hot gases expelled at high speed backward
s - A large backwards momentum is produced - In accordance to the principle of c
onservation of momentum, The rocket gains forwards momentum of equal magnitude M
ark 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
There are two types of force Attraction and repulsive force between the particle
s of the solid. When the solid is stretched, the molecules displaced away from e
ach other Attractive forces are acting to oppose the stretching When the solid i
s compressed, the molecules displaced closer to each other Repulsive forces are
acting to oppose the compression The inertia of lorry and load is very big when
it is moving The separate compartments make the load divided into smaller mass,
thus reducing the ineatia of each unit. The momentum of lorry and load is very b
ig when it is moving and produce abigger impulsive force. The steel structure wi
ll prevent the loads from smashing into the driver’s compartment during emergency
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Answer Mass x velocity Table 1.1 : Momentum of A and B before collision = 2.7 Mo
mentum of A and B after collision = 2.7 Table 1.2 : Momentum of A and B before c
ollision = 0.42 Momentum of A and B after collision = 0.42 Total momentum before
collision = total momentum after collision Total momentum before collision = to
tal momentum after collision Principle of conservation of momentum Mass x veloci
ty The gas and the jet plane move in opposite directions The momentum of the gas
and the momentum of the jet plane have equal magnitudes. Both the momentum = 0
Principle of conservation of momentum The total momentum is conserved if there a
re no external forces
Marks 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
(i) (ii) (iii)
(a) (b)
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
(a) (b)(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (c)
Change of momentum force on the eggs that strike Surface A is smaller. the time
of impact of the eggs on Surface A is longer. When the time of impact is shorter
the force produced in a collision is bigger sponge, pillow Realise pile hammer
from maximum height. Produce bigger impulse during the collision Product of mass
and velocity Mass of air discharged in diagram 4.2 > diagram 4.1 Balloon B has
bigger velocity. When the mass of air discharged increased, the velocity of the
balloon also increased. The direction of the balloon movement is opposite to the
direction of air discharged. The Principle of conservation of momentum. Displac
ement divided by time Mass is higher // inertia is higher Mass of top 1 is highe
.a) b)
(a) (b) (c ) (i) 5 (ii) (iii) (d) (e)
1 time of rotating for top 1 is longer 1 the higher he mass the longer the time
of rotating 1 The higher the mass the longer the inertia 1. Increase the mass 2.
Use greater spinning force 1
(i) (ii)
The compression of the spring is directly proportional to the load Exceed the el
astic limit of the spring/ Spring does not return to its original condition afte
r the applied force has been removed. Connect the spring in parallel Use spring
with larger spring constant. Use spring with smaller diameter.
1 1
Suggested safety features The bonnet should be long and easily crumpled during c
Reasons - will increase the stopping time so as to decrease the impulsive force
2 2 2
Passenger compartment must be built with strong and reinforced frame
- so that the compartment is not easily crumpled and the passengers are safe dur
ing a collisions
2 2 Any other reason able sugges tions and reason s
Air bag that can be inflated within a split of a second is fitted inside the ste
- the air bag acts as cushion to prevent the driver being thrown forward during
a collision. Also increases time to stop. This reduces the impulsive force - to
prevent passengers from hitting into the windscreen.
Broads safety seat belts
The body of the car must be low as - So that the car is more stable and possible
and is fitted with board not easily toppled when taking base the corners tyres
QUESTION (i) 1 (ii) (iii) Distance = 20 x 5 = 100 m 500 N a = F / m = -500 800 -
2 = -25 ms
MARK 2 2 2
(a) 2 (b)
The spring constant = gradient of the graph -1 For P , spring constant = 8 / 0.5
= 16 N cm -1 For Q , spring constant = 3 / 0.5 = 6 Ncm Elastic potential energy
= ½ x 8 x 0.5 x 10 =0.02 J
(i) (ii)
Elastic potential energy
1 1
F , x
3.6 4 k = 0.9 N cm-1
= ½ x 3.6 x 4/100 = 0.072 J
E = ½ Fx (iii)
(iv) i
5 0.9 l = 12 – 5.56 = 6.44 cm x
72 kmh-1
72 x 1000 3600 =
= 20 ms-1
Impulse = mv –mu = 0 – (800 x 20) = 16000 Ns Ans + unit ii.
1 1 1 1 1
16000 Impulsive force = 0.2
= 80000 N 500N (i) 200 sin 300 N (i) 200 cos 300 = 173.2N (ii) 173.2N = 50 a a =
3.464 m s-2 (ii) 200 cos 300 N
(a) (b) © 5
1+1 1 1 1
(d) (e)
500 + 200sin 300 = 600 N Because the total force acting perpendicular to the flo
or is smaller. 1
(a) 6 (b) (c)
(i) 400 N (ii) 40 N In situation (i) the longer the time of impact, the bigger t
he impulsive force.
1 1 1 1
ANSWER Characteristics High spring constant Explanation Stiffer, more potential
energy stored and converted to kinetic energy. The kinetic energy provided pushe
s the competitors higher up in the air. Stronger, can support the competitor All
ows for higher bounces and more complicated stunts.
Steel frame More coiled springs
2 2 2
Q is chosen because it has the highest spring constant, it is made of steel and
has the most number of coiled spring. (ii) 1. 2. Jump harder/ push harder To inc
rease reactive force/ to store more energy Total
1 1 10
Characteristic Density of the material must be small Elasticity must be high Thi
ckness must be thick Air absorption must be high 2
Reasons To make the landing pad lighter / easier to carry Lengthen the time of i
mpact to reduce the impulsive force Better absorb the impact // to reduce the im
pulsive force Release and absorb the air easily
1+1 1+1 1+1 1+1 1 1
- the most suitable material is R Because its density is low, elasticity is high
, it is thick and high absorption of air suitability Reason small enough space f
or the spring to be diameter installed High elastic limit can support motorcylis
t up to 100kg
1 1 1 1 1
higher spring constant small natural frequency
1 small compression of the spring 1 1 to reduce bumping 1 1
D , because has a small diameter , highest elastic limit ,highest spring constan
t and small natural frequency 4 (a) (b) 5N (i) T1 = 4.16N (ii) T2 = 3.13 N Pictu
re in figure (a) because, the tension of the string is higher 1 2 2 2
F2 = 10 cos 30oN = 10 (0.866) N = 8.66 N
x 3 The trolleys move off separately in opposite directions.
SKILL 1 : KNOWLEDGE 1. 2. 3. Pressure is force acting normally per unit area //
P Density is the mass per volume Pascal’s Principle states that pressure exerted o
n an enclosed liquid is transmitted equally through the liquid Archimedes’ Princip
le states that, an object which is completely or partially immersed in a fluid,
is acted on by a buoyant force, which is equal to weight of the fluid displaced.
Bernoulli’s Principle states that, in a steady flow of a fluid, the pressure of t
he fluid decreases when the velocity of the fluid increases.
Force Area
1 1 1
SKILL 2 : UNDERSTANDING 1 (a) (b) Archimedes Principle 1. Total density of ship
< density of water 2. Buoyant Force = Total weight of ship To ensure the ship wi
ll not be overload // ensure the safety of ship To enable the ship to travel saf
ely in different densities of sea water 1 1 1 1 1
(c) (i) (ii)
SKILL 3 : CONCEPTUALIZATION 1. (a) Mass divide by volume (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
(v) Density sphere A less than B Weight A less than B The weight of water displ
aced by A less than B Larger weight of sphere, displaced bigger weight of water
Weight of water displaced = upthrust // When the weight of water displaced incre
ase, upthrust increase Archimedes’ principle Submarine
1 1 1 1 1 1
(c) (d)
1 1
Modification Cylinder with a bigger bulb bulb with lead shots at the bottom smal
l capillary tube longer stem The hydrometer float in alcohol, The hydrometer flo
at in higher density liquid, Explanation to avoid overturn to avoid overturn sma
ll reading scale can be incorporated the stem can stil visible in avery low dens
ity of liquid mark the liquid level (upper level)
mark the liquid level (lower level)
(e) (i)
Volume of water displaced = Volume of wooden block =m ρ 3 = 800 = 3.75 x 10-3 m3 W
eight of load + Weight of wooden block = weight of wate displaced Weight of loa
d + Weight of wooden block = ρ V g Weight of load + (3 x 10) = 1000 x 3.75 x 10-3
x 10 Weight of load + (3 x 10) = 37.5 Weight of load = 37.5 – 30 = 7.5 N Mass of l
oad = 0.75 kg
1 1
1 1 1
1 Cha acte istics St eamlined shape High st ength of metal Wide base c oss secti
on a ea High volume of ai space in the ship St uctu e P Reason To educe wate
esistance To withstand high wate p essu e So that ship can float//p event f om
ove tu n // ship mo e stable // ship not sink deepe P oduce ai buoyant fo ce/
/ ship can float St eamlined shape, High st ength of metal, Wide base c oss sect
ion a ea, High volume of ai space in the ship
What is meant by 1. Heat 2. Tempe atu e 3. The mal equilib ium Heat is a fo m of
ene gy Tempe atu e is the deg ee.of hotness of a body The mal equilib ium is e
ach when the net ate of heat t ansfe between the two bodies is ze o and its e
ach the same tempe atu e. Statement
4. Specific heat Capacity , c
Specific heat capacity is defined as the amount of heat equi ed to inc ease the
tempe atu e of a mass of 1 kg by 1° C o 1° K. c= Q mθ , SI unit for c = J kg-1° C-1
5. Specific latent Heat of fusion
Specific latent heat of fusion is defined as the uantity of heat energy reuire
d to change 1 kg of a substance from the solid state to the liuid state, withou
t a change in temperature Lf= Q m , SI unit for L= J kg-1
6. Specific latent heat of vaporization
Specific latent heat of vaporization is defined as the uantity of heat energy r
euired to change 1 kg of a substance from the liuid state to the gaseous state
, without change in temperature Lw= Q m , SI unit for L= J kg-1
7. Boyle’s Law 8.Charle’s Law 9. Pressure Law
Boyle’s Law states that for a fixed mass, at constant temperature, the pressure of
gas is inversely proportional to its volume. Charle’s Law states that for a fixed
mass at constant presure, the volume of gas is directly proportional to its abs
olute temperature. Pressure Law states that for a fixed mass at constant volume,
the pressure of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. .
No Answers Mark
Thermometer is placed in the mouth of patient, Heat is transferred from patient’s
body to the thermometer Thermal euilibrium between the thermometer and patient’s
body is reached when the net rate of heat transfer is zero. The thermometer read
ing shows the temperature of the patient’s body. No Answers During the day,the lan
d and the sea receive the same amount of heat from the sun. Water has a higher s
pecific capacity than the land The land is heated to a higher temperature than t
he sea/The density of the air above the sea is higher than the density of the ai
r above the land. The air above the land flows up and the air above the sea flow
s towards the land.
1 1 1 1 Mark 1 1 1 1
ANSWER 1. Air molecules are in continuous random motion. 2. Air molecules collid
e with the wall of the glass tube and bounces back. 3. This result in change in
momentum and a force is exerted on the wall. 4. Force per unit area is the press
ure of the air. Length of trapped air in condition Q is higher than in condition
P. Volume of trapped air in condition Q is higher than in condition P Pressure
in condition P is bigger than that in condition Q. Length of trapped air is dire
ctly proportional to the volume of trapped air. The volume of trapped air is inv
ersely proportional with pressure Boyle’s law.
(b) i ii iii (c) i ii (d)
1 1 1 1 1 1
QUESTION (a)i Ii (b) i ii
ANSWER The uantity of heat in water and cooking oil is eual The temperature of
the water is lower than the temperature of the cooking oil Specific heat capaci
ty The higher the specific heat capacity of a material,the rate of increase of t
emperature slower.
MARK 1 1 1 1
QUESTION Lower fixed point The thermometer is placed in pure melting ice When th
e mercury level is steady, its position in glass stem of the thermometer is mark
ed as 0oC . Upper fixed point The thermometer is placed in a container that is s
urrounded by steam of boiling water at ordinary atmospheric pressure When the me
rcury level is steady, its position on the glass stem of the thermometer is mark
ed as 100oC . The distance on the stem of the thermometer between 0oC and 100oC
is measured, then divided eually into 100 parts. (Each part represents 1oC) L -
Lo L100 - Lo (ii) x 100 oC x 100 oC 1 1
1 1
1 1 1
= 10.0 - 2.5 13.8 – 2.5
1 1 1
(i) (ii) 2
= 66.37 oC Heat is absorbed by the metal block The rate of heat flows between me
tal block and the water is the same. The water and the metal block achieve therm
al euilibrium.
1 1
mwater x cwater x θwater = mmetal block x cmetal block x θmetal block cmetal block =
0.1 x 4200 x (48-28) (iii) 0.5 x (48-28) = 840 J kg-1 C-1
1 1
(i) 3
Modifications thermometer is made from transparent glass that is strong the ther
mometric liuid chosen is mercury the capillary tube is made narrow and thin the
shape of the thermometer is round the thermometer is placed in melting ice to o
btain the lower point
Reason so that it is not easily broken because it easily expands uniformly so th
at it is more sensitive so that it has a magnifying effect the thermometer is pl
aced in steam from boiling water to obtain the upper point Total
2 2
2 2
QUESTIO N (i) P = Patm + Pwater = 10 + 0.5 = 10.5 m water P1V1 = P2V2 V1 = P2V2
P1 = 10.5 x 0.5 10 = 0.525 cm3
1 (ii)
L = (a)
Pt m
= 0.1 x 10 3 x 156 0.05 = 312000 J kg-1
2 t = 72 s (from graph) (b) c = Pt mθ = 0.1 x 10 3 x 72 0.05 x 140 = 1028.57 J kg-
1 °C
1 1
SKILL 6 : DECISION MAKING QUESTIO N NO. Characteristics High boiling point MA RK
(i) 1
Explanation It will not boil easily when absorbing heat from the engine Low free
zing point It will not freeze during cold weather//can flow at low temperature H
igh specific heat It can transfer a big uantity of heat with small capacity ris
e in temperature A low ability to react The metal parts of the engine will not c
orrode with metals easily K is the most suitable liuid Because of its low freez
ing point, high boiling point, high specific of heat capacity and low ability to
react with metals Total
2 2
2 1 1 10
QUESTIO N NO. Characteristics Low specific heat capacity of ice cream box Smalle
r size of ice cream box Plastic PVC Bright colour of outer box
Explanation Easy get cold // becomes cool uickly
Easier to carry // easy too become cool
2 2
(i) 2
R is Poor conductor of heat chosen Does not absorb heat from surrounding because
uickly Low specific heat capacity of ice cream box, Smaller size of ice cream
box, Plastic PVC, Bright color of outer box
2 1 1 10
Miscellaneous 1 2 Rate of change of momentum of the molecules increases
1 V
3 Aluminium contains more heat energy than Copper