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Residential Lighting

Design Guide:

Developed bythe California Lighting TechnologyCenter


New Residential Lighting Standards in 2005
The California Energy Commission (CEC) has technology can save as well as the technology’s
adopted new residential energy standards: reliability, availability, and cost-effectiveness.
2005 Building Energy Efficiency Standards for The code emphasizes energy efficiency mea-
Residential and Nonresidential Buildings. These sures that save energy during peak periods
updates to the Title 24 energy code include of power generation, such as hot summer
comprehensive changes to residential lighting days when air conditioners are running. It
for new and remodeled homes obtaining incorporates recent publicly funded research
permits. These standards will significantly and increases the collaboration with California
reduce lighting energy consumption by utilities to incorporate results of appropriate
requiring the use of new energy-efficient market incentive programs for specific tech-
technologies. nologies.
The code changes were adopted in response The 2005 standards go into effect
to California’s energy crisis in order to reduce October 1, 2005.
energy bills, increase the reliability of energy
When a builder’s permit is applied for prior to
delivery, and contribute to an improved
October 1, 2005, the 2001 code applies; when a
economic condition for the state. The new
permit is applied for on or after October 1, 2005,
code was based on how much energy a
the new 2005 code applies, with no exceptions.

A word from our sponsors


The upcoming changes represent a significant This guide provides a practical “cookbook”
opportunity for increased energy savings and approach to lighting code compliance and
reduced maintenance in residential lighting. design, including a broad array of example
However, these changes also represent designs as well as technical and compliance
new challenges for builders and installation information organized in a step-by-step for-
professionals—new technologies and designs mat. The guide aims to assist in the process
that differ from current practice. of developing compliant, quality lighting
designs.
The 2005 code revisions were developed
through a consensus process, incorporating We believe that this guide will greatly help
changes that require minimal disruption to the building community deliver high-
current practice. Given this collaborative performance, energy-efficient lighting
approach and the potential for implementa- systems to homeowners in a cost-effective
tion challenges, a consortium representing manner for homebuilders.
broad interests developed this design guide
Title 24 Lighting Design Guide

for the builder community.

California Energy Commission - EPA ENERGY STAR - Pacific Gas and Electric
Sacramento Municipal Utility District - San Diego Gas & Electric
Southern California Gas & Electric - Southern California Edison
Table of Contents

Overview of Title 24 Changes in 2005 Pages 2-3


How to Use This Guide Page 4
Purchasing & Selection Guide Page 5
Technology Overview
High-Efficacy Luminaires Pages 6-7
Sensors Page 8
Dimmers Page 9
Design Guide
Kitchens Pages 10-13
Bathrooms Pages 14-17
Other Spaces: Dining, Bedrooms, Hallways Pages 18-19
Outdoor Lighting Pages 20-21
Multi-Family Applications Page 22
Glossary Page 23

Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 1


Inspection & Compliance Guide Pages 24-25
Overview of Title 24 Changes in 2005

2005 Standards 2001 Standards


High efficacy General lighting must be high
OR efficacy (fluorescent) and must be
Up to 50% of the total wattage can be controlled by the primary switch at
low efficacy. the kitchen entrance.
Kitchen
All high-efficacy and low-efficacy Additional luminaires used for
lighting must be controlled separately. decorative effects need not meet
Switch location requirement removed this requirement.

High efficacy Each bathroom containing a shower


Bathroom OR or bathtub must have at least one
Manual-on occupancy sensor fluorescent luminaire.
OR
High efficacy Fluorescent lighting may be
Garage OR installed in a utility room, laundry
Manual-on occupancy sensor room, or garage instead of a
bathroom
High efficacy AND
Laundry Room OR All other lighting must be
Manual-on occupancy sensor fluorescent or equipped with a
motion sensor.
High efficacy If using the alternative option, each
Utility Room OR additional bathroom must have at
Manual-on occupancy sensor least one fluorescent luminaire.
All other interior
rooms (e.g., living High efficacy
room, dining OR
room, bedrooms, Manual-on occupancy sensor No requirements
hallways) except OR
Page 2 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide

closets less than Dimmer


70 sq. ft.
High efficacy
Outdoor lighting
OR
attached to No requirements
Controlled by motion sensor +
buildings
photocontrol
Common areas of
High efficacy No requirements unless used as an
low-rise residential
OR alternate for fluorescent bathroom
buildings with 4 or
Occupancy sensor lighting
more dwelling units
Residential parking
Must meet nonresidential lighting
lots and garages for No requirements
standards
8 or more vehicles
Overview of Title 24 Changes in 2005
The following is the 2005 Title 24 residential lighting code, quoted directly from the
California Energy Commission’s 2005 Building Energy Efficiency Standards, Section 150
(www.energy.ca.gov/title24).
Kitchens
Section 150 (k) 2: Permanently installed luminaires in kitchens shall be high-efficacy luminaires.

Exception: Up to 50 percent of the total rated wattage of permanently installed luminaires in


kitchens may be in luminaires that are not high-efficacy luminaires, provided that these luminaires
are controlled by switches separate from those controlling the high-efficacy luminaires. The
wattage of high-efficacy luminaires shall be the total nominal rated wattage of the installed high-
efficacy lamp(s).

Bathrooms, garages, laundry rooms, and utility rooms


Section 150 (k) 3: Permanently installed luminaires in bathrooms, garages, laundry rooms, and
utility rooms shall be high-efficacy luminaires.

Exception: Permanently installed luminaires that are not high-efficacy shall be allowed provided
that they are controlled by an occupant sensor(s) [sic] certified to comply with Section 119 (d). Such
motion sensors shall not have a control that allows the luminaire to be turned on automatically or
that has an override allowing the luminaire to be always on.

Other spaces
Section 150 (k) 4: Permanently installed luminaires located other than in kitchens, bathrooms,
garages, laundry rooms, and utility rooms shall be high-efficacy luminaires.

Exception 1: Permanently installed luminaires that are not high-efficacy luminaires shall be allowed
provided they are controlled by a dimmer switch.

Exception 2: Permanently installed luminaires that are not high efficacy shall be allowed provided
that they are controlled by an occupant sensor(s) [sic] certified to comply with Section 119 (d). Such
motion sensors shall not have a control that allows the luminaire to be turned on automatically

Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 3


or that has an override allowing the luminaire to be always on.

Exception 3: Permanently installed luminaires that are not high-efficacy luminaires shall be allowed
in closets less than 70 square feet.

Porches and outdoor lighting


Section 150 (k) 6: Luminaires providing outdoor lighting and permanently mounted to a residential
building or to other buildings on the same lot shall be high-efficacy luminaires.

Exception 1: Permanently installed outdoor luminaires that are not high-efficacy shall be allowed
provided that they are controlled by a motion sensor(s) [sic] with integral photocontrol certified to
comply with Section 119 (d).

Exception 2: Permanently installed luminaires in or around swimming pools, water features, or other
locations subject to Article 680 of the California Electric Code need not be high-efficacy luminaires.

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How to Use This Guide
This guide is a resource to help builders This guide is to aid homebuilders in lighting
understand the new 2005 residential lighting design. It is not intended to be used in lieu of the
requirements and integrate these changes into actual Title 24 code.
new home plans. The guide demonstrates ways
to meet the new code with multiple lighting
design examples on common floor plans. Design Tip
Design tips are interwoven throughout this
The code specifically mentions six categories for
guide to show how new technologies can create
residential buildings: (1) kitchens, (2) bathrooms,
aesthetically pleasing lighting designs and also
laundry rooms, utility rooms, and garages,
be code compliant.
(3) other spaces, (4) outdoor spaces, (5) parking
lots and garages, and (6) common areas of low-
rise buildings. The remainder of this guide will
explore these categories in greater depth, with Technology Tip
helpful illustrations of ways to meet the 2005 Technical tips are interwoven throughout this
code. guide to help you apply new technologies.
In each section, the code will be dissected
into bullet points with reference to the floor
plans. The sections will include design tips, Caution Note
technology tips, and caution notes.
Caution notes are interwoven throughout this
guide to alert you to potential misapplications
of technologies or the code.

Bright ideas

Create a warm glow Light output is not always equal


Color temperature is important in homes. A high-efficacy light fixture may replace
Use warm-color fluorescent lamps: typically a non-high-efficacy light fixture. Be
2700K/3000K for compact fluorescent lamps aware that the high-efficacy light fixture
Page 4 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide

(CFLs) and 3000K for linear fluorescent lamps. may actually produce more lumens, or
light output, than the previous low-
efficacy fixture.

Four to one
Most incandescent lamps may be replaced Four-pin not two-pin
with a CFL that is 1/4–1/3 the wattage. The There are two configurations of CFLs:
following list shows common incandescent four-pin and two-pin. Four-pin units
wattages and their CFL equivalents: require an electronic ballast (lighter
Incandescent vs. CFL weight, no blinking or humming) while
40 watt 13 watt two-pin units require a magnetic ballast,
60 watt 18 watt which is not allowed by the new code in
100 watt 26 watt most cases.

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Purchasing & Selection Guide

Fixture labels for compliance and quality


Now more than ever, it is the ENERGY STAR: The ENERGY STAR label guarantees a minimum
responsibility of the builder standard of quality as well as energy performance. The updated
to fully specify compliant ENERGY STAR standards, also going into effect October 2005, have
fixtures to the contractor. been written to fit the new Title 24 requirements to help builders
With the changes in the specify high-efficacy fixtures. ENERGY STAR fixtures manufactured
code, manufacturers are prior to October 2005 may not be Title 24 2005 compliant. During
trying to make it easier for this transition period, be sure to verify that, regardless of label or
builders and contractors to manufacturer, fixtures meet the high-efficacy requirements.
specify compliant fixtures.
Title 24 Label: Some fixtures may feature
The following labels may
a Title 24 label to help builders and inspec-
be helpful in specifying
tors determine whether a fixture meets
high-quality and compliant
the 2005 definition of high efficacy.
fixtures. Be aware that Title
24 applies not only to the Airtight: Title 24 requires that recessed fixtures installed in an
fixture itself but also to the insulated space be certified airtight in accordance with ASTM
application and installation. E283. If the label on the fixture installed in an insulated space does
Here is what to look for: not specify ASTM E283 testing, additional documentation will be
needed to indicate the fixture has been tested and certified in
accordance with ASTM E283.
Note: The ASTM E283 certification is a laboratory procedure
intended to measure only the leakage of the luminaire housing or,
if applicable, of an airtight trim kit, and not that of the installation.
For complete airtight compliance, the installation must also be
airtight with either sealed gasket(s) or caulking, to ensure all air
leaks are sealed between the ceiling and fixture. For more
information see the Residential Compliance Manual, Chapter 6.10.

Make sure manufacturers “Stand By Their Can”


Nearly all new high-output CFL downlights failures occurred within the manufacturer’s

Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 5


should operate for years without any problems. warranty period, the homebuilder would still be
Although concerns have been raised about responsible for the costly labor fees associated
shortened ballast life due to the elevated with replacing failed units. Thus, even a few bal-
temperatures experienced in insulated ceilings, last failures would quickly erode any cost savings
several manufacturers have shown that, with from cheaper downlights.
proper fixture design, ballast temperatures
To address this concern some manufacturers are
can be maintained well within manufacturer
now offering a “parts and labor” warranty. This
guidelines.
warranty will minimize the risk to builders by
However, there is still concern that, in a very providing replacement components as well as
competitive market, some manufacturers might compensation for costs associated with installing
attempt to cut costs in a manner that would lead these components. We strongly urge builders to
to elevated ballast temperatures, and thus prema- specify high-output CFL downlights that carry
ture ballast failures. This could be a nightmare a parts and labor warranty, ideally for five years or
scenario for homebuilders. Even if the ballast longer.

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Technology Overview
Understanding the three key energy-efficient lighting technologies
In general, homebuilders will comply with the new Title 24 requirements by installing a mixture of three
energy-efficient lighting technologies. This section is intended to familiarize homebuilders with these
three technologies. We explain how these systems work, what features to look for when purchasing or
specifying them, and which applications are most appropriate for each technology.

The three key energy-efficient lighting technologies for complying with the new code are:
High-efficacy luminaries: These lighting fixtures are designed and built to
operate only energy-efficient light sources, such as fluorescent T8 lamps,
compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), and high intensity discharge (HID) lamps.
Sensors: Occupancy sensors, vacancy sensors, motion sensors, and daylight
sensors are all devices that automatically turn off the lights in response to
conditions that they “sense” or “see.”
Dimmers: Dimmers, which are already common in many residential
applications, allow the room occupants to lower the room lighting
(and thus the power used) as desired.

Homebuilders who have a solid understanding of these three technologies should have little problem
designing and specifying lighting plans that meet the new Title 24 guidelines.

High-efficacy luminaires
While the formal definition is somewhat complicated
(see glossary), high-efficacy luminaires are generally
synonymous with energy-efficient fixtures. The code’s
requirements for high-efficacy luminaires are that “the
lumens per watt for the lamp be above a specified
threshold [see chart below] and that electronic ballasts be
used in certain applications.” Most ENERGY STAR fixtures
will qualify as high-efficacy luminaires, although some
lower-efficacy or magnetically ballasted ENERGY STAR
Page 6 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide

products may not be compliant. Each fixture has to qualify


with the Title 24 standards on its own merit regardless of
what it is labeled.
Four-pin CFL
In general, the following are high-efficacy luminaires: (high efficacy and
Fluorescent and CFL fixtures with electronic code compliant)
ballasts
Fixtures with HID lamps High-Efficacy Lamps
In general, the following are NOT high-efficacy Lamp power Required lamp efficacy
luminaires: Less than 15 watts 40 lumens/watt
Any fixtures with incandescent sockets 15–40 watts 50 lumens/watt
(regardless of the installed lamp) More than 40 watts 60 lumens/watt
Most fluorescent and CFL fixtures with Note: Ballast wattage is not included when determining
magnetic ballasts lamp efficacy

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High-Efficacy Luminaires
High-efficacy luminaire anatomy: Recessed cans and surface mounts

Thermally enhanced electronic


ballast
Electronic ballast

CFL lamps

Junction (“J”) box

Housing: If installed in a ceiling with


insulation, it must be rated to be airtight
(AT-rated) and insulation contact (IC-rated) Diffuser

What to specify
Specify the appropriate light output: high-efficacy luminaires of 13 watts or higher,
Replacing incandescent with fluorescent should improve lighting quality by eliminating
fixtures will often not be a “one-for-one” the flicker and hum associated with some
replacement. In some cases you may install magnetically ballasted systems.
fewer fixtures, while other installations may
Specify thermally managed fixtures:
require more.
Higher CFL wattages can lead to hotter

Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 7


Rule of thumb: You should be able to “lumen operating temperatures for the electronic
match” the incandescent fixtures by specifying ballasts, which if not property controlled
fluorescent systems that use one-third or one- could dramatically shorten ballast life. This
fourth as much power. is particularly true in ICAT (IC-rated, AT-rated)
Specify the appropriate color: applications where the heat produced by the
Unlike incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps downlight is trapped by ceiling insulation.
come in a wide variety of colors, from “cool Several lighting manufacturers have devel-
white” to “warm white.” For most residential oped high-wattage ICAT systems by employing
applications it is most appropriate to specify a ballasts with higher-rated operating ranges
warmer lamp color (CCT = 2700K–3000K), as it (usually up to 90 C) and by heat-sinking the
gives a warmer feel and more closely matches ballast to the downlight housing. The bottom
the look of incandescent lighting. line is that high-wattage downlights can be an
effective choice in insulated ceilings, but only if
Specify electronic ballasts: the products have been properly designed for
Electronic ballasts, which are mandated in all this application.

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Sensors
Occupancy/vacancy sensors
With the exception of kitchens, occupancy To help ensure the installed sensors will function
sensors can be used in lieu of high-efficacy properly, follow these design tips:
luminaires in most applications throughout Install sensors so they can ”view” the space
the house. or area that is to be occupied.
“Vacancy sensor” is a term some manufacturers Avoid using wall box occupancy sensors
are using to describe a manual-on, automatic- in three-way applications, which can
off occupancy sensor because the primary become overly complicated. Wall box
function of the sensor is to turn the lights off sensors are not recommended for
when the room is vacant. these applications without a thorough
Although the new code does not allow the understanding of the technology.
sensor to turn the lights on automatically Feel free to use sensors in bathrooms, toilet
when a person enters a space, the sensor may rooms, closets, laundry and utility rooms,
feature a grace period which will allow the and garages.
lights to automatically turn back on within 30
seconds after they have been automatically Ensure that the sensor’s electrical load
turned off. This helps minimize disturbance requirements are met. For example, if the
by allowing a homeowner to activate the occupancy sensor has a minimum load
lights if they have been turned off due to lack rating of 25 watts and the homeowner
of motion (e.g., during a relaxing bath). changes the lamp to a 13-watt CFL, the
switch may no longer operate the load.

Sensor anatomy and what to specify


A compliant sensor must have all of the following
features:
Must be manual-on/automatic-off (can
also be turned off manually)
Time delay cannot be greater than 30
Page 8 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide

minutes
On/off switch
Cannot be locked in a permanent “on”
state (no “on” override)
Outdoor sensors can be automatic-
on/off but must also include a photocell
that keeps the lights off during daylight
hours

Optional features to consider when choosing an


occupancy or vacancy sensor:
Occupancy/vacancy Energy-efficient LED nightlight
sensor Impact-resistant lens and switch

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Dimmers

Dimmers
Dimmers can be used in lieu of high-efficacy luminaires or sensors in many applications throughout
the house. This may often be the least costly code-compliant measure and will increase the lighting
quality by allowing residents much greater control over their environments. The following are some
considerations when using dimmers:
Standard incandescent dimmers will not work with most high-efficacy luminaires or
fluorescent luminaires. Dimming is possible with fluorescent luminaires, but they need to
have special dimming ballasts and compatible dimmers rated for such use.
Compliant applications for dimmers include dining rooms, living rooms, and bedrooms.
Failure to correctly match the dimmer with the electrical lighting load of a fixture may
result in early equipment failure of the dimmer, transformer, ballast, or lamp.
When dimming a low-voltage (e.g., halogen) fixture, additional components are required
in the dimmer to avoid overheating the transformer.
Check the warranty. Most manufacturers offer a one-year warranty. Verify this is true for the
manufacturer you are purchasing from.

Dimmer anatomy and what to specify

Specify for the correct application:


Specific dimmers are created for
line voltage, low voltage and three
way applications, for example in a
hallway or stairway.

Dimming slide Specify the correct fixture load:


Universal dimmers may not be
suitable for every application. It is

Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 9


important to specify a dimmer for
a particular fixture load to preserve
the life of the dimmer and fixture.
Specify the aesthetic quality:
There are many aesthetic choices
in dimmers. Some have a desig-
nated on/off toggle that lets home-
On/off switch owners set the light level and
remains this way until changed.
Other dimmers slide on and off,
allowing homeowners to set the
light level each time they turn on
the lights.

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Kitchens in a Nutshell
High efficacy
2005 Requirements

OR
Up to 50% of the total wattage can be Each and every permanently installed
Kitchen low efficacy. fixture must be included in the total
All high-efficacy lighting must be controlled wattage and must comply with
separately from low-efficacy lighting. the standards.
Switch location requirement removed

Additional code explanation: Fluorescent and incandescent light


fixtures MUST be controlled separately,
50% of the kitchen’s permanently installed lighting
while different types of light fixtures
MUST be high efficacy, typically fluorescent; this can
may also be controlled separately to
include downlights, under-cabinets, over-cabinets,
correspond with the use.
pendants, wall sconces, etc.
The first switch no longer has to control a
Permanently installed lighting fixtures include, but are
fluorescent light fixture.
not limited to, those lighting fixtures installed in, on, or
hanging from the ceilings or walls. Lighting that is part The number of fluorescent light fixtures
of an appliance is not regulated by the code. will vary with each kitchen design. The
quantity of light fixtures is not regulated.
Switching should be designed so the homeowner can
automatically turn off 50% of the lighting power, yet Nook lighting must be on a separate
retain illumination throughout the entire kitchen, with switch to not be counted as part of the
no overly dark areas. kitchen. Nook lighting is then consid-
ered an “other space” and will require a
dimmer, manual-on occupancy sensor, or
Model Kitchen high-efficacy lighting.
If a fixture can accept various lamp
DW wattages, its wattage for the sake of
NOOK
code compliance is the highest relamp-
ing rated wattage designated by the
Page 10 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide

manufacturer on a permanent, factory-


installed Underwriters Laboratory (UL)
label (peel-off labels are not permitted).

Kitchen Definition
As defined by the California Energy
Commission, a room or area used for
PANTRY
cooking, food storage and prepara-
OVN/ REF
MICRO tion, and washing dishes, including
associated countertops and cabinets,
refrigerator, stove, ovens, and floor area.
Adjacent areas are considered kitchen if
the lighting for the adjacent areas is on
the same switch as the lighting for the
kitchen.

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Kitchens: Option #1
Kitchen lit with multiple lighting systems

Guidelines used for the lighting design Further code explanation as applied to the
shown below: lighting plan below:
Use 26-watt compact fluorescent recessed Fluorescent and incandescent light fixtures
cans on 4’ –5’ centers for even illumination. MUST be controlled separately.
Supplement recessed cans with fluorescent The first switch no longer has to control a
under-cabinet and/or over-cabinet light fluorescent light fixture.
fixtures, on separate switches.
Pantries less than 70 sq. ft. have no lighting or
Use 2700K–3000K color temperatures control requirements.
for fluorescent lamps to ensure a warm,
“incandescent” lighting color.

Use aesthetically pleasing light fixtures to Minimize the number of fixtures that
reinforce the design of the kitchen and extend below the ceiling to help eliminate
obtain a quality appearance. visual clutter.

KEY

$D
$ Switch DW
NOOK
$D Dimmer

Surface- or pendant-mounted
incandescent light fixture

26-watt CFL recessed can with


electronic ballast and white or
aluminum reflector and trim

Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 11


Fluorescent under-cabinet
and/or over-cabinet light
fixture with T8 or T5 lamps and
electronic ballast PANTRY
$ $$

OVN/ REF
Note: Applicable fixtures must meet 2005 MICRO
Title 24 high-efficacy requirements
$

Kitchen Fixtures Amount Wattage Total Wattage Kitchen Code Compliant?


Fluorescent 5 26 watts 130 watts Fluorescent = 180 watts
downlights
Incandescent = 120 watts
Under-cabinet 2 25 watts 50 watts
fluorescents Low efficacy less than half
Incandescent 2 60 watts 120 watts of total wattage =
pendants code compliant

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Kitchens: Option #2
Kitchen lit with linear fluorescents

Guidelines used for the lighting design Further code explanation as applied to the
shown below: lighting plan below:
Locate linear fluorescents on 6’–8’ centers Pantries less than 70 sq. ft. have no lighting or
for even illumination, approximately 2’ from control requirements.
cabinets.
Nook lighting on its own switch does not count
Use 32-watt T8 fluorescent lamps with a as kitchen wattage.
3000K color temperature and a CRI (color
rendering index) of 80 or higher for a warm,
“incandescent” feel. General lighting on the counter should
Recess the linear fixtures to help maintain maintain an average of 30 footcandles.
a higher ceiling height and keep the ceiling
uncluttered.
Supplement linear fluorescents with
fluorescent under-cabinet fixtures on Fluorescent fixtures with electronic ballasts
separate switches. meet the high-efficacy requirements;
halogen and incandescent do not.

KEY

$D
$ Switch DW
NOOK
$D Dimmer

Surface- or pendant-
mounted incandescent
light fixture

1’ x 4’ recessed or surface-
mounted fluorescent light
Page 12 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide

fixture with 32-watt T8


lamps and electronic ballast
Fluorescent under-cabinet
light fixture with T8 or T5
lamps and electronic ballast
OVN/ PANTRY
$ $

Note: Applicable fixtures must meet 2005 REF


Title 24 high-efficacy requirements MICRO
$

Kitchen Fixtures Amount Wattage Total Wattage Kitchen Code Compliant?


Surface 2 64 watts 128 watts Fluorescent = 178 watts
fluorescents 1’ x 4’ Incandescent = 0 watts
Under-cabinet 2 25 watts 50 watts Low efficacy less than half
fluorescents total wattage = compliant

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Kitchens: Option #3
Kitchen lit with recessed fluorescent cans
Guidelines used for the lighting design Further code explanation as applied to the
shown below: lighting plan below:
Use 26-watt compact fluorescent recessed Pantries less than 70 sq. ft. have no lighting or
cans on 4’–5’ centers for even illumination. control requirements.
Space recessed cans evenly around the sink All recessed cans installed into insulated ceil-
so that an additional light fixture over the ings are required to be ICAT rated, i.e., rated for
sink is not needed. insulation contact (IC-rated) and airtight (AT-
rated) to prevent conditioned air loss into the
Supplement recessed cans with high-
attic or ceiling. All air leaks must be sealed with
efficacy under-cabinet light fixtures on
gaskets and caulking between the can housing
separate switches.
and ceiling.
Locate recessed cans at the edge of the
counter to reduce shadows that may be
caused by the occupant.
Light the countertops more than the
Although only one switch is required, walkway. Place the lighting where it is
provide three for versatility. needed.
$D

DW KEY
NOOK
$ Switch

$D Dimmer

26-watt CFL recessed


(ICAT) can with an
electronic ballast and
white or aluminum

Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 13


reflector and trim

Surface-mounted
incandescent light
fixture
Note: Applicable fixtures must
meet 2005 Title 24 high-efficacy
requirements
PANTRY
$ $$

OVN/ REF
MICRO
Kitchen Code Compliant?
$

Fluorescent = 206 watts


Kitchen Fixture Amount Wattage Total Wattage
Incandescent = 0 watts
Fluorescent 6 26 watts 156 watts
downlights Low efficacy less than half
Under-cabinet 2 25 watts 50 watts of total wattage =
fluorescents code compliant

Forget anything? View the check-off list here. Back to top


Bathrooms in a Nutshell
High-efficacy
Bathroom OR Each and every permanently installed fixture
2005 Requirements

Manual-on occupancy sensor must comply with the standards, by means of being
high-efficacy or controlled by a manual-on
High-efficacy
Garage OR occupancy sensor.
Manual-on occupancy sensor
High-efficacy Using fluorescent light fixtures with regular
Laundry Room
OR switches for most of the bathroom helps
& Utility Room Manual-on occupancy sensor eliminate any possibility of a homeowner
stranded in a dark bathroom due to a
Code explanation and design suggestions: lack of motion (e.g., during a relaxing bath).
Fluorescent and incandescent light fixtures Use 26-watt CFL recessed cans, similar to
MUST be controlled separately. the kitchen, so the homeowner will not be
confused when purchasing replacement
The first switch no longer needs to control a
parts.
fluorescent light fixture.
The number of fluorescent/incandescent
Occupancy sensors must be manual on/off and
light fixtures will vary with each design.
automatic off. The maximum time delay to turn
Quantity of light fixtures is not addressed by
off is 30 minutes after the last detected motion.
the code.
Sensors cannot have an override allowing the
light fixture to be continuously on.

Model Master Bath Bathroom Definition


As defined by CEC, a room containing a
shower, tub, toilet, or a sink that is used
for personal hygiene.
If a sink used for personal hygiene is in
a room other than a bathroom where
no doors, walls, or other partitions
separate the sink area from the rest of
Page 14 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide

the room, and the lighting for the sink


area is switched separately from room
area lighting, only the luminaire(s) that
are lighting the sink area must meet the
bathroom lighting requirements.

Model Standard Bath

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Bathrooms: Option #1
Bathroom lit with fluorescent lighting only

Guidelines used for the lighting design


shown below: General lighting on the counter should
maintain an average of 30 footcandles.
Use a decorative linear fluorescent light
fixture over the mirror.
Use 26-watt CFL recessed cans with elec-
tronic ballasts (or exhaust fan combination)
Use a color rendering index (CRI) greater
over the toilet area, tub, and walkways.
than 80 for the light fixture over the
Provide separate switches for versatility in mirror.
the lighting environment.
Use 2700K or 3000K color temperature
lamps for a warm, “incandescent” feel.
One switch can be used for this layout
instead of two as shown.

Master Bath KEY


$ Switch
Fluorescent vanity light fixture
$

with T8 lamps and electronic


$

ballast
$

26-watt CFL recessed can with


electronic ballast and white or
aluminum reflector and trim

Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 15


Surface-mounted decorative
incandescent light fixture
Note: Applicable fixtures must meet 2005 Title
24 high-efficacy requirements

Standard Bath
$
$$

Closet
less than 70 sq. ft. = no requirement

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Bathrooms: Option #2
Bathroom lit with incandescent and fluorescent lighting

Guidelines used for the lighting design Further code explanation as applied to the
shown below: lighting plan below:
Over or alongside the mirror, use incandescent Fluorescent and incandescent light fixtures
vanity light fixtures controlled with a manual- MUST be controlled separately.
on, automatic-off occupancy sensor.
The occupancy sensor must be in the direct
Use 26-watt CFL recessed cans with electronic line of sight of the occupant, not hidden,
ballasts (or exhaust fan combination) over the around the corner, or in another room.
toilet area, tub, and walkways.

The primary switch no longer needs to When three-way switching is desired,


control the high-efficacy (fluorescent) use fluorescent lighting with a standard
light source. three-way switch.

Master Bath KEY


$ Switch
$oc Occupancy sensor
26-watt CFL recessed can
with electronic ballast and
$

white/aluminum reflector
$
c

and trim
$o

Surface-mounted
incandescent vanity light
fixture
Page 16 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide

Surface-mounted
decorative incandescent
light fixture
Note: Applicable fixtures must meet 2005
Title 24 high-efficacy requirements

$ Standard Bath
$$oc

Closet
less than 70 sq. ft. = no requirement

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Bathrooms: Option #3
Bathroom lit with incandescent lighting only

Guidelines used for the lighting design Further code explanation as applied to the
shown below: lighting plan below:
Use incandescent vanity light fixtures over The occupancy sensor must be in the direct
the mirror or on the sides of the mirror, line of sight of the occupant, not hidden,
controlled with a manual-on, automatic-off around the corner, or in another room.
occupancy sensor.
The number of light fixtures will vary with
Use incandescent recessed cans or decora- each design and is not addressed in the
tive surface-mounted fixtures controlled by code.
occupancy sensors over the toilet area, tub,
and walkways.
Control all incandescent lighting with one If the occupancy sensor controls all the
occupancy sensor, as long as the sensor can light fixtures in the space and turns off
always “view” or “see” the occupant. the lights prematurely, the occupant
could be in total darkness.

KEY
Master Bath
$ Switch
$oc Occupancy sensor
$o
c Recessed incandescent can
(ICAT if located in an
c
$o

insulated ceiling)
c
$o

Surface-mounted
incandescent vanity light
fixture

Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 17


Surface-mounted decorative
incandescent light fixture
Note: Applicable fixtures must meet 2005
Title 24 high-efficacy requirements

Standard Bath
$
$oc

Closet
less than 70 sq. ft. = no requirement

Forget anything? View the check-off list here. Back to top


Other Spaces: Bedrooms & Hallways
2005 Requirements

All other interior High efficacy


rooms (e.g., living OR
room, dining room, Manual-on occupancy sensor
bedrooms, hallways,) OR
except closets less Dimmer
than 70 sq. ft.

Note: Each and every permanently installed lighting fixture


must comply with the standards, by means of being high
efficacy, controlled by a manual-on occupancy sensor, or
controlled by a dimmer.

Bedrooms

$
Use fluorescent light fixtures with one or more Bedroom

$
regular switches.
OR
Use incandescent light fixtures with dimmers or
occupancy sensors. KEY
When using ceiling fans with fluorescent light kits, $ Switch
provide one regular switch for the fan and one Switch (three-way switch in
$3
regular switch for the lights (as shown). hallway)
When using ceiling fans with incandescent light 26-watt CFL recessed can with
kits, provide one regular switch for the fan and one electronic ballast and white or
dimmer for the light. aluminum reflector and trim
Switched outlets (half hots) do not require special Ceiling fan with CFLs and fan
controls. motor on separate switches
Note: Applicable fixtures must meet 2005 Title 24
When installing a switched ceiling box and no high-efficacy requirements
fixture, provide two switch wires so homeowners
can comply with the 2005 requirements
Page 18 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide

should they install a ceiling fan with a light


fixture.

$3
Entry area, foyer, and hallways
4
$

Use fluorescent light fixtures with regular


three-way switching (as shown).
OR
Use incandescent light fixtures with
three-way dimmers.
Choose from three types of incandescent
dimmers: line voltage, low-voltage with $3
magnetic transformers, and low-voltage
Hallways
with electronic transformers. Specify the
correct dimmer for the incandescent load.

Back to top
Living Room, Dining Room & Attic

Living room
Use fluorescent light fixtures with one or
more regular switches.
OR $D
Use incandescent light fixtures with
dimmers.
When using ceiling fans with fluorescent
light kits, provide one regular switch for
the fan and one regular switch for the DINING ROOM
light.
When using ceiling fans with
incandescent light kits, provide one
regular switch for the fan and one
dimmer for the light.
Switched outlets (half hots) do not
require special controls.
LIVING ROOM
Dining room
For a more decorative option, use ENTRY
incandescent light fixtures with
dimmers.

$ $ $D
Enclosed patio
An enclosed (unconditioned) patio is
considered an “other space.” Each fixture
must be high efficacy or controlled by a

Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 19


dimmer or occupancy sensor. KEY
$ Switch

Attic $D Dimmer
Switched (half hot) outlet
Regardless of the square footage, attics are considered
“other spaces” and must use fluorescent light fixtures 26-watt CFL recessed can
with a regular switch OR incandescent fixtures with a (ICAT in insulated ceiling) with
dimmer or occupancy sensor. The fluorescent option electronic ballast and white or
is recommended with a normal switch. The occupancy aluminum reflector and trim
sensor option is recommended only if the sensor can Surface- or pendant-mounted
“see” the entire attic; otherwise it may be a liability if incandescent light fixture
the occupant is left in the dark.
Note: Applicable fixtures must meet 2005 Title 24
high-efficacy requirements

Forget anything? View the check-off list here. Back to top


Outdoor Lighting
Requirements
High efficacy
Outdoor lighting OR Note: Each and every
2005

attached to buildings Controlled by motion permanently installed lighting fixture


sensor + photocontrol must comply with the standards.

Further code explanation as applied to the


lighting plan below:
This part of the code covers all exterior Outdoor sensors must comply with
lighting EXCEPT landscape lighting not the 30-minute shutoff requirement.
attached to the building and residential
The sensor must be installed so it
parking lots or garages for eight or more
views or covers the area that is to be
vehicles.
illuminated by the fixture.
Outdoor motion sensors must have
automatic-off operation, but unlike interior
occupancy sensors they may have automatic-
on operation. In addition, exterior motion
sensors must include a photocontrol to keep Pay attention to the electrical load require-
lights off during daylight hours. ments of the sensor selected. If the sensor
In addition to the motion sensor and rating calls for a minimum load, make sure
photocontrol, the homeowner must still be that this load is met by all fixtures. If the
provided with a regular switch to turn the homeowner changes the lamp to a lower
lights on and off manually. wattage, below the minimum load, the
switch may no longer operate.
Page 20 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide

KEY
$

$ Switch

Exterior
fluorescent
FRONT PORCH
sconce
Note: Applicable fixtures
must meet 2005 Title 24
high-efficacy requirements

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Outdoor Lighting
Outdoor Lighting
Carefully decide which technology to use in different applications because each has different
advantages and disadvantages.

Benefits of high-efficacy outdoor light Benefits of incandescent light fixtures


fixtures: with photocell motion sensors:
Lights can be left on for an extended period Lights are not left on unintentionally
No need to be concerned with the place- Lights turn on automatically; no need for a
ment of motion sensors free hand to flip a switch
No need to worry about motion sensors Added home security
turning lights on and off at undesired times
Can use standard incandescent lamps

Recommended Uses: Recommended Uses:


Entry porch: freedom to leave lights on for Anywhere the light would not be in direct
an extended period of time sight of a bedroom: motion sensors may
be triggered (on/off ) as, for example, a pet
Near bedroom windows: homeowners may walks by in the middle of the night
be distracted when lights are triggered by
a motion sensor as a pet walks by in the Near the garage and trash can: this tran-
middle of the night sitional space benefits from lights being
controlled by motion sensors

Motion sensor coverage should not be


too large, or lights will be triggered by street
traffic or a neighbor’s motion. Most sensors
have a sensitivity control to adjust the degree
of motion and light that triggers them.

Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 21


KEY
Exterior Trash & Recycling
incandescent Side Yard
sconce with Front Yard
motion sensor
and photocell
Note: Applicable fixtures $
must meet 2005 Title 24
high-efficacy requirements Garage

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Multi-Family Applications
Requirements
Common areas of Note: Each and every
High efficacy
low-rise residential permanently installed lighting
2005

OR
buildings with 4 or more fixture must comply with the
Occupancy sensor
dwelling units standards.

Common areas of low-rise


residential buildings with four Do not use occupancy sensors with HID
or more dwelling units lamps such as metal halide or high-pressure
sodium.
Additional code explanation:
Buildings three stories or less are classified as
low rise.
“Common areas” of low-rise buildings include Use passive infrared occupancy sensors
exercise rooms, hallways, lobbies, corridors, located in the direct line of sight of the path/
and stairwells. people. Use a set point of 15–30 (30 max)
minutes to turn off lights when not in use.
Use high-efficacy lighting (fluorescent, metal
halide, or high-pressure sodium), preferably on
a photocontrol or time clock.
OR
Use any other light source with an occupancy Occupancy sensors should be rated for damp
sensor. locations when installed under a canopy
and wet locations when directly exposed to
Occupancy sensors must be in the direct line of
weather elements.
sight of the walkway.

Residential parking lots for eight or more vehicles


Page 22 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide

Additional code explanation:


Lamps rated over 100 watts must have a The installation must meet the power density
lamp efficacy of at least 60 lumens per watt limits for nonresidential lighting standards. For
OR be controlled by a motion sensor. more information, see 2005 Building Energy
Efficiency Standards, Section 147.
Fixtures with lamps rated over 175 watts shall
be designated as “cutoff,” limiting the light The owner must be able to automatically turn
emitted upwards. Both “cutoff ” and “full-cut- off 50% of the lighting power in a reasonably
off ” fixtures can be used to meet this require- uniform pattern, so that the entire area retains
ment. some illumination (no dark spots).
Light fixtures must be controlled by a photo-
control or an astronomical time switch that
turns lights off when daylight is available. Uniform lighting helps to eliminate shadows
in corners and provide a sense of safety.

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Glossary
ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials. Kelvin (K): The unit of temperature used to designate
the color temperature of a light source. Temperature:
ASTM E283: A standard testing method for measuring 2700K (warm color index), 3000K, 3500K, 4100K (cooler
the rate of air leakage. As noted in the California Title color index).
24 - 2005 Building Efficiency Standards, Sub-Chapter 7,
Section 150, (K), (5): [Recessed luminaires in insulated Kitchen: As defined by CEC, a room or area used for
ceilings] “shall include a label certifying air tight (AT) or cooking, food storage and preparation, and washing
similar designation to show air leakage less than 2.0 CFM dishes, including associated countertops and cabinets,
at 75 Pascals (or 1.57 lbs/ft2) when tested in accordance refrigerator, stove, ovens, and floor area. Adjacent areas
with ASTM E283.” are considered kitchen if the lighting for the adjacent
areas is on the same switch as the lighting for the kitchen.
Bathroom: As defined by CEC, a room containing a
shower, tub, toilet, or a sink that is used for personal Lamp: Light bulb.
hygiene.
Low efficacy: Opposite of high-efficacy lighting.
CCT: Correlated color temperature. See Kelvin. Typically incandescent, halogen, and mercury vapor.

CEC: California Energy Commission. LPW: Lumens per watt (efficacy of a light fixture).

CFL: Compact fluorescent lamp. Lumen: The unit that quantifies the total amount of light
emitted by a source.
CRI (color rendering index): A measure of the degree
of color shift objects undergo when illuminated by the Luminaire: A complete light fixture consisting of a lamp
light source as compared with those same objects when or lamps and ballast(s) together with the parts designed
illuminated by a reference source of comparable color to distribute the light, to position and protect the lamps,
temperature. Higher CRI ratings indicate better color and to connect the lamps to the power supply (reflectors,
rendering. Scale 0–100; 80+ signifies high-quality color housing, lenses, etc.).
rendering.
Maximum rated: The wattage listed on the label of
Dimmer: A device used to control the intensity of light the light fixture. Fixture with a screw-in base may have a
emitted from a luminaire by controlling the voltage or maximum-rated relamping wattage as high as 300 watts.
current available to it.
Motion sensor: A switching device used to automati-
Fluorescent: A low-pressure mercury electric-discharge cally turn on light fixtures with a sensor that automatically
lamp in which a phosphor coating transforms some of the turns off lighting fixtures after 30 minutes (maximum)
UV energy generated into visible light. from when the last motion is detected (for outdoor
applications only).
Footcandle: A unit for illuminance (the amount of light
that falls on a surface); equal to the number of lumens Nook: As defined by CEC, an area adjacent to the
striking a surface, divided by the area of the surface. kitchen not on the same switch. This area falls under
the “other spaces” code requirements and not under
Half hot: A switched outlet. the wattage requirements for the kitchen.

Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 23


HID: High-intensity discharge lamp such as metal halide Occupancy sensor: A switching device used to
or high-pressure sodium. manually turn on light fixtures with a sensor that auto-
High efficacy: As defined by CEC: matically turns off lighting fixtures after thirty minutes
• For lamps 15 watts or less—minimum of 40 lumens (maximum) from when the last motion is detected (for
per watt indoor applications only).
• For lamps 15 to 40 watts—minimum of 50 lumens Other rooms: As defined by CEC these include entry
per watt areas, foyers, hallways, living rooms, dining rooms, family
• For lamps over 40 watts—minimum of 60 lumens rooms, bedrooms, attics, and enclosed patios.
per watt
High-efficacy interior lighting is mostly fluorescent; high- Photocontrol: A device used to automatically turn on
efficacy exterior lighting can be fluorescent or HID. light fixtures at dusk and automatically turn them off at
dawn.
ICAT: A luminaire installed in an insulated ceiling
meeting the insulation contact and airtight rating Relamping wattage: The maximum allowable wattage
requirements. specified by the luminaire label.

IESNA: Illuminating Engineering Society of North Sconce: A decorative wall light fixture.
America.
Watt: The unit of measure for the energy used by a
Illuminance: Light arriving at a surface. lamp or fixture.

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2005 Title 24: Inspection & Compliance Guide
Kitchen
At least 50% of the total wattage is high efficacy:
Fixture Type High efficacy Relamping x Quantity = High-efficacy or Low-efficacy
(y/n) wattage wattage wattage

__________ __________ ________ x _______ = __________ or _________


__________ __________ ________ x _______ = __________ or _________
__________ __________ ________ x _______ = __________ or _________
__________ __________ ________ x _______ = __________ or _________
(Complies if A > B) Total: A: __________ B: _________
Compliant? YES NO
Additional requirements YES N/A NO
Recessed fixtures installed in insulated ceilings are rated ICAT and certified
ASTM E283 or equivalent. Installation is airtight (caulking, gaskets).
High-efficacy and low-efficacy fixtures are switched separately.

Bathroom(s) YES N/A NO


All light fixtures are high efficacy.
Incandescent fixtures are switched with manual-on/automatic-off occupancy
sensors.
Recessed fixtures installed in insulated ceilings are rated ICAT and certified
ASTM E283 or equivalent. Installation is airtight (caulking, gaskets).
High-efficacy and low-efficacy fixtures are switched separately.

Laundry Room / Utility Room YES N/A NO


All light fixtures are high efficacy.
Page 24 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide

Incandescent fixtures are switched with manual-on/automatic-off occupancy


sensors.
Recessed fixtures installed in insulated ceilings are rated ICAT and certified
ASTM E283 or equivalent. Installation is airtight (caulking, gaskets).
High-efficacy and low-efficacy fixtures are switched separately.

Garage YES N/A NO


All light fixtures are high efficacy.
Incandescent fixtures are switched with manual-on/automatic-off occupancy
sensors.
Recessed fixtures installed in insulated ceilings are rated ICAT and certified
ASTM E283 or equivalent. Installation is airtight (caulking, gaskets).
High-efficacy and low-efficacy fixtures are switched separately.

Back to top
2005 Title 24: Inspection & Compliance Guide

Bedroom(s) YES N/A NO


All light fixtures are high efficacy.
Incandescent fixtures are switched with manual-on/automatic-off occupancy
sensors OR dimmer switch.
Recessed fixtures installed in insulated ceilings are rated ICAT and certified
ASTM E283 or equivalent. Installation is airtight (caulking, gaskets).
High-efficacy and low-efficacy fixtures are switched separately.

Living Room / Dining Room YES N/A NO

All light fixtures are high efficacy.


Incandescent fixtures are switched with manual-on/automatic-off occupancy
sensors OR dimmer switch.
Recessed fixtures installed in insulated ceilings are rated ICAT and certified
ASTM E283 or equivalent. Installation is airtight (caulking, gaskets).
High-efficacy and low-efficacy fixtures are switched separately.

Hallway(s) YES N/A NO

All light fixtures are high efficacy.


Incandescent fixtures are switched with manual-on/automatic-off occupancy
sensors OR dimmer switch.
Recessed fixtures installed in insulated ceilings are rated ICAT and certified
ASTM E283 or equivalent. Installation is airtight (caulking, gaskets).
High-efficacy and low-efficacy fixtures are switched separately.

Entry Area / Foyer YES N/A NO

Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 25


All light fixtures are high efficacy.
Incandescent fixtures are switched with manual-on/automatic-off occupancy
sensors OR dimmer switch.
Recessed fixtures installed in insulated ceilings are rated ICAT and certified
ASTM E283 or equivalent. Installation is airtight (caulking, gaskets).
High-efficacy and low-efficacy fixtures are switched separately.

Outdoor Space(s) YES N/A NO

All light fixtures are high efficacy.


Incandescent fixtures are controlled by motion sensor with a manual-on/off switch
AND photocontrol.

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For more information, contact:
Title 24 Background & Reference
California Energy Commission
www.energy.ca.gov/title24
916-654-5200

Residential L
ighting Design Guide
Sponsors
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