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Atkins has been a significant
contributor to the development
and introduction of Eurocodes
and welcomes their
implementation in the UK

Atkins is one of the world’s leading

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E: Section 1. Introduction
Foreword 5
Introduction 5
Publications Manager View from the UK Committee Chairman 7
Jonathan Silver View from the industry 8
Helius, Brighton and Rochester
W: Section 2. The Eurocode timeline
Media Consultants Eurocodes publication schedule 11
Pro-Brook Publishing Ltd,
Woodbridge, Suffolk Key aspects of the Eurocodes 16
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Printing Section 3. Focus on Eurocode materials

The Charlesworth Group, Wakefield
W: Eurocode: Basis of structural design 19
Eurocode 1: Actions on structures 21
Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures 24
The Eurocodes Companion has been
printed on paper sourced from sus- Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures 29
tainable forests and supplied from
mills certified in accordance with Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures 32
ISO 14001.
Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures 34
Editorial opinions expressed in this
magazine are not necessarily those Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures 36
of the BSI Group. Third party prod-
ucts and services advertised in this Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design 38
publication are not endorsed by or
connected with those of the BSI Group. Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance 39

All rights reserved. Except as per- Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures 41

mitted under the Copyright, Designs
and Patents Act 1988, no part of this
publication may be reproduced, stored
in a retrieval system or transmitted Section 4. Business matters: software and risk
in any form or by any means –
electronic, photocopying, recording
Software to the Eurocodes 43
or otherwise - without prior permis-
Implementing Eurocodes: the benefits of computer-based
sion in writing from the publisher.
training 45
Whilst every care has been taken in
Insurance and the Eurocodes 49
developing and compiling this pub-
lication, BSI accepts no liability for
any loss or damage caused, arising
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BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion 3

Section 1
Foreword / Introduction

Professor John Roberts, Principal, Technical Innovation Consultancy

W elcome to the 2009 BSI Struc-

tural Eurocodes Companion
prepared in readiness for one of the p
contractors and manufacturers
of construction products;
facilitate the marketing and use
are represented on CEN/TC 250
and its subcommittees.
Drafts of the Eurocode parts are
most significant developments in of structural components and elaborated by project teams, which
construction standardization. kits in EU Member States; are selected by the appropriate sub-
Structural Eurocodes are seen as p facilitate the marketing and use committees. A project team consists
leading the way in structural codes. of materials and constituent pro- of about six experts who represent
Their flexibility enables adoption ducts, the properties of which the subcommittee. A vast majority
and use not only within Europe, enter into design calculations; of the project teams include a UK-
but internationally. This feature has p be a common basis for research based expert.
been recognized by several coun- and development, in the con- A Eurocode is subject to exten-
tries outside Europe and they are struction industry; sive consultation before it is
already committed to adopting p allow the preparation of com- adopted. Progressive drafts are dis-
Eurocodes. mon design aids and software; cussed and commented on by CEN
The primary objectives of the p increase the competitiveness of members and their appointed
Eurocodes are to: the European civil engineering experts. A Eurocode part is adopted
firms, contractors, designers only after a positive vote by CEN
p provide common design criteria and product manufacturers in Members.
and methods of meeting neces- their global activities. This BSI Structural Eurocodes
sary requirements for mechanical Companion contains articles from
resistance, stability and resist- Each of the Eurocode parts is pro- leading academics and profession-
ance to fire, including aspects of duced by a subcommittee under als to help you gain an understand-
durability and economy; the guidance and coordination of a ing of the nature of the new codes
p provide a common understand- technical committee (CEN/TC 250). and to ease your integration into the
ing regarding the design of Delegates of the 29 Comité Européen new approach being undertaken. p
structures between owners, de Normalisation (CEN) members
operators and users, designers,

Professor David Nethercot OBE FREng, Chairman, I Struct E, Standing Committee on the Implementation
of Eurocodes

T he Structural Eurocodes have

been a feature of virtually the
whole of my professional life. At
itate their introduction and
In 1976 the UK signed up to the
the Eurocodes, prepared under the
general direction of CEN. We have
now reached the stage where that
my first technical conference held Treaty of Rome. This contained, as prospect has become the reality.
in Paris in 1972 I was introduced to one of its essential tenets, the The suite of Structural Eurocodes
several individuals, who subse- removal of artificial barriers to will contain 58 documents, cover-
quently became key figures in the trade. The existence of national ing all structural materials includ-
preparation of a number of these codes in each of the various mem- ing loading. Collectively they
documents; my research, teaching, ber states for the design of struc- represent the biggest ever change
advisory, professional and BSI tural works was seen as one for our structural engineering com-
activities have taken place against example of such a barrier. Thus munity – more significant than the
the backdrop of the writing of the more than 30 years ago the UK transfer to limit states or the intro-
ENV and EN documents and, more committed to the eventual replace- duction of metric units. Should
recently, I have been involved with ment of its national standards, pre- this be seen as a threat or an
several initiatives intended to facil- pared under the auspices of BSI, by opportunity?

BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion 5

Section 1. Introduction

To adopt an insular, grudging by individuals, that just like any 1. Accept the reality of the situa-
and ‘ignoring as far as possible’ engineering project, it requires tion: Eurocodes are fact, there
attitude would be to convert the planning, resourcing and effort to will be no more British
Eurocodes into a threat. On the make it successful. For companies it Standards.
other hand to adopt a pragmatic, should be regarded as akin to the 2. Understand the difference be-
positive and ‘how can we benefit’ purchase of a new computer sys- tween the legal requirements of
attitude sees the change as an tem or the move to new premises. Building Regulations, Highways
opportunity. Of course, new Struc- For individuals, it represents an Agency requirements, etc. and
tural Codes are always unwelcome: important facet of operating as a the use of Structural Codes.
professional person, i.e. recogniz- 3. Treat migration from a design
The onset of new or revised regula- ing that the operating climate will environment based on British
tions invariably heralds a trying change over time and accepting the Standards to one based on the
period of the unfortunate people imperative to update skills and Eurocodes as a project.
who have to work such regulations. competences and to work with the 4. Recognize that the transition
This applies both to those who have new tools. period will, in reality, extend
to comply with, and those who have over a number of years, with
to administer, such regulations. elements of parallel application.
5. Remember that actual methods
Whilst that quote might be thought “Through substantial of working on structural designs
to be a statement on the Eurocodes, use a portfolio of aides, e.g.
it actually refers to the introduction involvement with the manuals, manufacturers’ infor-
some 50 years ago of a revision to drafting process, including mation, computer software, text-
BS 449 – a document that some chairmanship of several books. Over time Eurocode-
would still regard as a paragon of of the main committees, based material will replace the
all that codes should be. Given that familiar and reassuring current
the Structural Eurocodes have been the UK has ensured that British Standards-based items; this
prepared on a collaborative basis, the documents are far less process is already in place with
they clearly cannot be expected to unfamiliar than might several items available but devel-
reflect the exact requirements of the otherwise have been the oping familiarity needs time.
UK. However, through substantial 6. Remember that code rules are
involvement with the drafting case.” there to assist structural design-
process, including chairmanship of ers not as a prescriptive ‘recipe’
several of the main committees, this approach, and that structural
country has ensured that the docu- engineering knowledge and
ments are far less unfamiliar than The suite of Structural Eurocodes understanding is universal and
might otherwise have been the represent: can be applied in any design
case. There are rules, agreements on environment.
terminology, and structures for the p the most advanced technical 7. Remain sanguine and take a bal-
documents that do have to be fol- views prepared by the best anced view – be particularly
lowed and which, unsurprisingly, informed groups of experts in cautious when reading claims of
do not accord with BSI arrange- their fields across Europe; what ‘must’ be done; the climate
ments. However, within this frame- p the most comprehensive treat- within which structural engi-
work, the material is rather less ment of the subjects, with many neering is practiced in the UK is
‘different’ than might, at first sight, aspects not previously codified far less prescriptive than some
be thought to be the case. now being covered by agreed would have us believe.
The UK is now in the midst of a procedures; 8. Take courage from the example
period of transferring the basis of p a design framework plus detailed of those ‘silver surfers’ who
structural design from an environ- implementation rules valid have found new opportunities
ment based on national standards across Europe and likely to find in the internet; Eurocodes are
to one founded on the Structural significant usage worldwide. not about old dogs learning new
Eurocodes. This is a far from trivial tricks, they are about dogs of all
task. It therefore needs to be What therefore should the struc- ages performing much the same
accepted by UK industry as a body, tural engineering community do? set of tricks but with a new and
by its member organizations and Some suggestions: improved set of equipment. p

6 BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion

View from the UK Committee Chairman

View from the UK Committee Chairman

Howard P. J. Taylor FREng, Chair BSI Committee B525, Structural Design Codes (Mirror Committee to
CEN TC 250)

I am pleased to be able to write an

article for this important publica-
tion. The Eurocodes are a signifi-
mendations for an international
code of practice were published
which were based on CEB and
progressed the work and will con-
tinue to be responsible, now that
the Eurocodes have all been pub-
cant technical achievement as well United States joint activities. The lished, for further development,
as enabling real progress in the introduction to this publication including the maintenance and
opening of the construction market mentions the aspiration for a Euro- revision cycles.
in Europe. pean code of practice. It was this That the work took nearly 50
The process was long and it is work that led to CP110 in 1972. years from a point when the con-
important to understand something By 1980, the European Commis- cept of the process was established
of how the Eurocodes were written sion had a requirement for Euro- and 30 from the time that it became
before a full understanding and pean design standards to fulfil its politically necessary seems disap-
appreciation can be gained. The reg- objectives of an open market for pointing, but there were very many
ulation and codification of construc- construction, construction products great difficulties that the drafters
tion has a long history, the first and for construction design serv- and officials had to overcome.
Building Regulations in the UK ices and turned to the work that European engineering and con-
were issued shortly after the Great was already being carried out by struction cultures are varied, some
Fire of London. Design codes as we countries have a practical approach
understand them were introduced and in others the approach is more
in the beginning of the 20th century mathematical and academic. The
and were based on an understand- position of design codes in the
ing of the underlying engineering “European engineering legal framework in the various
science current at the time. and construction cultures member states is very different.
The approach relied upon the are varied, some countries In some states codes are seen as
proportionality between load and ‘deemed to satisfy’ documents
displacement of elastic materials have a practical approach which are referred to in brief nat-
recorded by Hooke. In the mid-20th and in others the approach ional regulations, in others, codes
century, a new approach was intro- is more mathematical and are written into the countries legal
duced that relied upon the property academic.” code.
of yield and plastic flow of elastic- Europe has undergone two peri-
plastic materials. The two theories ods of enlargement while the work
allowed design rules to be written was being carried out, necessitating
that were able to control service per- the consideration of new input. The
formance (the Elastic theory) and the then extensive network of vol- time taken for the work to come to
give accurate collapse and safety untary practicing engineers and completion has meant that more
predictions (the Plastic theory). This academics. Funding was provided than one generation of engineers
new process called limit state for a period but by 1988 it was clear has passed through the committees.
design was capable of following the that a more structured approach The time has also allowed ideas
performance of a structure from its was required and the Commission from new research and practical
working load to an accurate predic- turned to CEN, the existing organi- experience to be incorporated
tion of collapse. Limit state design zation that coordinated standards Although we still have to over-
was first applied in the UK in the work throughout Europe, and come the problem posed by the
code for the design of concrete charged it with the final production control of safety being the preroga-
structures, CP110 in 1972, and the of the Eurocodes. BSI as the UK tive of the individual member
application to steel and masonry national standards body is a mem- states, which has brought about the
design soon followed. ber of CEN. requirement for national annexes,
The limit state design concept CEN gave the responsibility of the 58 separate documents in the
was developed by various inter- the Eurocode work to one of its Eurocode suite are all identical in
national groups, although one of many committees working on each member state.
which, the Euro International European standards, Committee I believe that this final achieve-
Committee for Concrete (CEB), was TC 250. From that time, TC 250 ment is remarkable. p
particularly active. In 1964 recom- with its many subcommittees has

BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion 7

Section 1. Introduction

View from the industry

Chris Hendy, Atkins plc

T he Eurocodes are widely

regarded as the most techni-
cally advanced suite of structural
2009, which is on a par with or bet-
ter than the progress made by
much of mainland Europe; bridge
series of four-day training courses
to 60 ‘Champions’ across the UK
and ensured that all other staff have
design codes available internation- design should be fully enabled in received a lower level of awareness
ally. Why then is it often perceived the UK by that date. In addition, an training whilst being given access
that progress towards their adop- increasing number of consultants to the detailed training material.
tion has been slow in the UK? are using Eurocodes to form the Other companies are planning sim-
There is undoubtedly still some basis of departures from standards ilar strategies. However, a signifi-
resistance from pockets of the UK in the assessment of existing struc- cant number of companies are only
structural community. Part of the tures because they can improve just starting to consider the issue.
inertia comes from the fact that the predicted load carrying resistance. Designers who are not prepared
UK has extremely good British The state of readiness of industry face a risky transition period. The
Standards already. For example, bodies, software houses and institu- introduction of Eurocodes will pro-
BS 5400 Part 3 is widely considered tions is also excellent by comparison vide a common set of design codes
to be the most comprehensive steel with our other European counter- for use across Europe and, as con-
code of practice in the world but parts. The Concrete Centre and sidered below, in a number of coun-
few would describe it as the most Steel Construction Institute have tries outside Europe. Apart from a
economic. Some in the UK argue that unique national annex (which can
the Eurocode rules go too far and provide very limited information
are, in some isolated cases, unsafe. and will thus be very easy to assim-
There is, however, no evidence of ilate by foreign competitors), a
this, particularly when the UK “In places British Stan- design done in the UK will follow
National Annex has, in a few places, dards are far too conserva- the same set of rules as one done
tightened up requirements where elsewhere in Europe. This will facil-
the Eurocode has permitted this to
tive and are increasingly itate competition by UK designers
be done. Arguments that the being shown to be so … across a wide range of countries
Eurocodes are unsafe because they If we are slow to adapt in but, of course, the reverse will also
give different answers to previous the UK, others will not be be true. If we are slow to adapt in
British codes are simply unsound the UK, others will not be and this
and in places the British Standards
and this brings potential brings potential threats to our
are far too conservative and are threats to our industry.” industry.
increasingly being shown to be so. The threats will not only come
Other resistance stems from the from within Europe. Countries
perceived effort involved in the with an existing reliance on, or
changeover. The Eurocode aware- close link to, British Standards are
ness seminars that have been held produced, and continue to produce, either already committed to adopt-
over the last few years may poten- much guidance and training mate- ing Eurocodes (e.g. Malaysia and
tially have been counter productive. rial. Many of the big software Singapore) or are weighing up the
They have been intended to reas- houses are on top of software benefits of adopting them (e.g.
sure, whilst at the same time demon- upgrades, waiting only for final Hong Kong). In addition, training
strate there is work to do. In some national annexes to finalize is starting in these countries. For
cases, pointing out a long list of dif- releases. The ICE and IStructE are example, the Institution of Engi-
ferences in practice has made the running seminars and training and neers Malaysia commissioned
process of adoption appear more publishing a comprehensive set of Atkins to run a two-day Eurocode
daunting than perhaps it really is. designers’ guides to the various concrete bridge design training
While there may be some resist- Eurocode parts. course for 85 delegates in Kuala
ance from within industry, BSI and Readiness amongst designers is, Lumpur in September 2007, then
the Highways Agency are actively however, more patchy. Some of the commissioned another for steel
driving implementation. The pro- big consultants have strategies in design in March 2008, and two fur-
duction of national annexes is pro- hand for helping their engineers to ther courses ran in East Malaysia in
ceeding at a pace and will be make the transition. Atkins, for July 2008. There is no similar-scale
substantially complete by January example has already rolled out a external training taking place in the

8 BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion

Eurocodes - benefits, threats and UK plc’s state of readiness

UK in bridge design. These coun- and testing. However, designers analysis, may find very consider-
tries may take a keen interest in UK that follow the more complex meth- able improvements in economy.
opportunities. ods of analysis permitted by the high This will be the case, for example,
The introduction of Eurocodes level principles, such as non-linear for slender concrete piers or slender
and the increased technical sophis- steel panels.
tication they bring is timely given So to return to the original ques-
the growing importance of the sus- tion, we shouldn’t consider that
tainability agenda and the drive the performance of UK plc has
for leaner construction. Many of “Eurocodes lead to a been sluggish. We should how-
the basic application rules in the modest but significant ever recognize that the Eurocodes
Eurocodes lead to a modest but improvement in economy bring both opportunities and
significant improvement in econ- threats, and so to maximize the for-
omy compared to existing British compared to existing mer and mitigate the latter now is
Standards. In many cases, this is British Standards.” the time to step up our preparation
derived from more recent research activities. p

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Marketing reference 2159-AF

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Section 2
The Eurocode
Eurocodes publication schedule

Eurocodes publication schedule

The following tables show the publication dates for the Eurocodes and the corresponding UK
National Annexes.

* This schedule is correct at the time of going to print. For the very latest information please go to *

Eurocode. BS EN 1990 – Basis of structural design

Eurocode part Title UK National Annex

publication status

BS EN 1990:2002 Basis of structural design Published

BS EN 1990:2002 Basis of structural design including Amendment A1

Annex A2 for Annex A2 for Bridges Expected 2009

Eurocode 1. BS EN 1991 – Actions on structures

Eurocode part Title UK National Annex

publication status

BS EN 1991-1-1:2002 Actions on structures. General actions. Densities, Published

self-weight, imposed loads for buildings

BS EN 1991-1-2:2002 Actions on structures. General actions. Actions on Published

structures exposed to fire

BS EN 1991-1-3:2003 Actions on structures. General actions. Snow loads Published

BS EN 1991-1-4:2005 Actions on structures. General actions. Wind actions Published

BS EN 1991-1-5:2003 Actions on structures. General actions. Thermal Published


BS EN 1991-1-6:2005 Actions on structures. General actions. Actions Published

during execution

BS EN 1991-1-7:2006 Actions on structures. General actions. Accidental Published


BS EN 1991-2:2003 Actions on structures. Traffic loads on bridges Published

BS EN 1991-3:2006 Actions on structures. Actions induced by cranes Expected 2009

and machinery

BS EN 1991-4:2006 Actions on structures. Silos and tanks Expected 2009

BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion 11

Section 2. The Eurocode timeline

PD 6688-1-1 Proposed title: Background paper to the UK Expected 2009

National Annex to BS EN 1991-1-1

PD 6688-1-2:2007 Background paper to the UK National Annex to Published

BS EN 1991-1-2

PD 6688-1-4 Proposed title: Background paper to the UK National Expected 2009

Annex to BS EN 1991-1-4

PD 6688-1-5 Proposed title: Background paper to the UK National Expected 2009

Annex to BS EN 1991-1-5

PD 6688-1-7 Recommendations for the design of structures to Published

BS EN 1991-1-7

PD 6688-2 Recommendations for the design of structures to Expected 2009

BS EN 1992-2

Eurocode 2. BS EN 1992 – Design of concrete structures

Eurocode part Title UK National Annex

publication status

BS EN 1992-1-1:2004 Design of concrete structures. General rules and rules Published

for buildings Amd 1 in prepara-
tion, expected 2009

BS EN 1992-1-2:2004 Design of concrete structures. Fire design Published

BS EN 1992-2:2005 Design of concrete structures. Concrete bridges. Design Published

and detailing rules

BS EN 1992-3:2006 Design of concrete structures. Liquid retaining and Published

containing structures

PD 6687:2006 Background paper to the UK National Annexes to Published

BS EN 1992-1

PD 6687-1 Background paper to the UK National Annexes to Published

BS EN 1992-1 and BS EN 1992-3 (supersedes
PD 6687:2006)

PD 6687-2:2007 Recommendations for the design of structures to Published

BS EN 1992-2

12 BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion

Eurocodes publication schedule

Eurocode 3. BS EN 1993 – Design of steel structures

Eurocode part Title UK National Annex

publication status

BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 Design of steel structures. General rules and rules for Published

BS EN 1993-1-2:2005 Design of steel structures. General rules. Structural fire Published


BS EN 1993-1-3:2006 Design of steel structures. General rules. Supplementary Expected 2009

rules for cold-formed members and sheeting

BS EN 1993-1-4:2006 Design of steel structures. General rules. Supplementary Expected 2009

rules for stainless steels

BS EN 1993-1-5:2006 Design of steel structures. Plated structural elements Published

BS EN 1993-1-6:2007 Design of steel structures. General. Strength and Expected 2009

stability of shell structures

BS EN 1993-1-7:2007 Design of steel structures. General. Plated structures Expected 2009

subject to out of plane loading

BS EN 1993-1-8:2005 Design of steel structures. Design of joints Published

BS EN 1993-1-9:2005 Design of steel structures. Fatigue strength Published

BS EN 1993-1-10:2005 Design of steel structures. Material toughness and Published

through-thickness properties

BS EN 1993-1-11:2006 Design of steel structures. Design of structures with Published

tension components

BS EN 1993-1-12:2007 Design of steel structures. Additional rules for the Published

extension of EN 1993 up to steel grades S 700

BS EN 1993-2:2006 Design of steel structures. Steel bridges Published

BS EN 1993-3-1:2007 Design of steel structures. Towers, masts and Expected 2009

chimneys. Towers and masts

BS EN 1993-3-2:2008 Design of steel structures. Towers, masts and Expected 2009

chimneys. Chimneys

BS EN 1993-4-1:2007 Design of steel structures. Silos, tanks and pipelines. Expected 2009

BS EN 1993-4-2:2007 Design of steel structures. Silos, tanks and pipelines. Expected 2009

BS EN 1993-4-3:2007 Design of steel structures. Silos, tanks and pipelines. Expected 2009

BS EN 1993-5:2007 Design of steel structures. Piling Expected 2009

BS EN 1993-6:2007 Design of steel structures. Crane supporting structures Expected 2009

BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion 13

Section 2. The Eurocode timeline

PD 6695-1-9 Proposed title: TBA Published

PD 6695-1-10 Proposed title: TBA Published

PD 6695-2 Proposed title: Recommendations for the design of Published

structures to BS EN 1993-2:2006

Eurocode 4. BS EN 1994 – Design of composite steel and concrete structures

Eurocode part Title UK National Annex
publication status

BS EN 1994-1-1:2004 Design of composite steel and concrete structures. Published

General rules and rules for buildings

BS EN 1994-1-2:2005 Design of composite steel and concrete structures. Published

General rules. Structural fire design

BS EN 1994-2:2005 Design of composite steel and concrete structures. Published

General rules and rules for bridges

PD 6696-2:2007 Recommendations for the design of structures to Published

BS EN 1994-2:2005

Eurocode 5. BS EN 1995 – Design of timber structures

Eurocode part Title UK National Annex

publication status

BS EN 1995-1-1:2004 Design of timber structures. General. Common rules Published

and rules for buildings

BS EN 1995-1-2:2004 Design of timber structures. General. Structural fire Published


BS EN 1995-2:2004 Design of timber structures. Bridges Published

Eurocode 6. BS EN 1996 – Design of masonry structures

Eurocode part Title UK National Annex

publication status

BS EN 1996-1-1:2005 Design of masonry structures. General rules for Published

reinforced and unreinforced masonry structures

BS EN 1996-1-2:2005 Design of masonry structures. General rules. Published

Structural fire design

14 BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion

Eurocodes publication schedule

BS EN 1996-2:2006 Design of masonry structures. Design considerations, Published

selection of materials and execution of masonry

BS EN 1996-3:2006 Design of masonry structures. Simplified calculation Published

methods for unreinforced masonry structures

Eurocode 7. BS EN 1997 – Geotechnical design

Eurocode part Title UK National Annex

publication status

BS EN 1997-1:2004 Geotechnical design. General rules Published

BS EN 1997-2:2007 Geotechnical design. Ground investigation and testing Expected 2009

PD 6694-1:2007 Proposed title: Recommendations for the design of Expected 2009

structures subject to traffic loading to BS EN 1997-1:2004

Eurocode 8. BS EN 1998 – Design of structures for earthquake resistance

Eurocode part Title UK National Annex

publication status

BS EN 1998-1:2004 Design of structures for earthquake resistance. Published

General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings

BS EN 1998-2:2005 Design of structures for earthquake resistance. Bridges Expected 2009

BS EN 1998-3:2005 Design of structures for earthquake resistance. No NA to be

Assessment and retrofitting of buildings published

BS EN 1998-4:2006 Design of structures for earthquake resistance. Silos, Published

tanks and pipelines

BS EN 1998-5:2004 Design of structures for earthquake resistance. Published

Foundations, retaining structure and geotechnical

BS EN 1998-6:2005 Design of structures for earthquake resistance. Towers, Published

masts and chimneys

PD 6698:2009 Background paper to the UK National Annexes to Expected 2009

BS EN 1998-1, BS EN 1998-2, BS EN 1998-4,
BS EN 1998-5 and BS EN 1998-6

BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion 15

Section 2. The Eurocode timeline

Eurocode 9. BS EN 1999 – Design of aluminium structures

Eurocode part Title UK National Annex

publication status

BS EN 1999-1-1:2007 Design of aluminium structures. General structural rules Published

BS EN 1999-1-2:2007 Design of aluminium structures. Structural fire design Published

BS EN 1999-1-3:2007 Design of aluminium structures. Structures susceptible Published

to fatigue

BS EN 1999-1-4:2007 Design of aluminium structures. Cold-formed structural Published


BS EN 1999-1-5:2007 Design of aluminium structures. Shell structures Published

Key aspects of the Eurocodes

p The Eurocodes support National ted. Application rules are recom- the national annex will state
Building Regulations and other mended methods of achieving values and classes applicable to
national requirements for regu- the principles but alternative that country, provide value
lated work but remain sub- rules may also be used. where only a symbol is given in
servient to them. the Eurocode and provide
p There are two types of annex in country specific data. The
p National regulations set the ap- the Eurocodes. Normative an- national annex also chooses
propriate level of safety through nexes are part of the require- when alternatives are given in
Nationally Determined Para- ments of the code. the Eurocodes and indicates
meters (NDP). Certain other which informative annexes
parameters can be set by indi- p Informative annexes provide may be used. Finally it refers to
vidual countries. guidance that can be adopted non-contradictory complemen-
or not on a country by country tary information (NCCI).
p The clauses in the Eurocodes are basis.
divided into principles and p An NCCI is a way of introduc-
application rules. Principles are p The national annex is a special ing additional guidance to sup-
identified by (P) after the clause type of informative annex that plement the Eurocodes without
number and cover items for contains the choices made by a contradicting them. p
which no alternative is permit- particular country. Typically

16 BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion

BS 9999:2008 Code of practice for fire safety in the
design, management and use of buildings
BSI British Standards has just published BS 9999:2008 Code of practice for fire safety in
the design, management and use of buildings.
BS 9999 gives recommendations and guidance on the design, management and use of
buildings to achieve acceptable levels of fire safety for all people in and around buildings.

BS 9999 is applicable to the design of new buildings, and to The standard builds on government guidance to legislative
alterations, extensions and changes of use of an existing requirements, providing an advanced approach to fire safety in
building, with the exception of individual homes and with the design, management and use of buildings. It promotes a
limited applicability in the case of certain specialist buildings. more flexible approach to fire safety design through use of
It also provides guidance on the ongoing management of fire structured risk-based design where designers can take account
safety in a building throughout the entire life cycle of the of varying human factors. The guidance on means of escape for
building, including guidance for designers to ensure that the disabled people (in respect of both design and management) is
overall design of a building assists and enhances the greatly expanded within BS 9999 from that in DD 9999 to reflect
management of fire safety. It can be used as a tool for assessing the requirements of the Disability Discrimination Act and the
existing buildings, although fundamental change in line with principles of inclusive design.
the guidelines might well be limited or not practicable.
BS 9999 contributes to the protection of people in buildings by: Who should use BS9999:2008?
• Working to prevent fires occurring in the first place
• Architects • Fire and rescue service
• Being aware of the types of people in the building and any • Designers • Building control officers
special risks or needs (such as disabled people, see BS 8300
• Surveyors • Fire safety engineers
Design of buildings and their approaches to meet the needs
of disabled people. Code of practice) • Facilities/building managers • Fire risk consultants.
• Ensuring that all of the fire safety measures in the building
are kept in working order, and in particular that the means BS 9999 will supersede DD 9999, and the entire BS 5588 series (with the
of escape are always available exception of BS 5588-1), which will be withdrawn on 6 April 2009.

• Training staff and organizing the evacuation plan, to ensure

that occupants leave quickly if a fire occurs
• Taking command in the event of a fire until the fire and rescue
service arrives.

To buy online visit or contact BSI Customer Services quoting marketing reference code 2159-AG
Tel +44 (0)20 8996 9001 Fax +44 (0)20 8996 7001 Email

raising standards worldwide ™

Standards and publications may also be ordered via the BSI shop at *P&P £5.95 UK (inclusive of VAT); £9.95 Rest of the World (+VAT if applicable) – one-off charge
added to your order of 10 items or fewer. FREE P&P to BSI Subscribing Members. Pre-payment is required by non-Members. VAT is applicable to all purchases of PDF downloads, CDs, DVDs, other
electronic products and Conferences and Training Courses. All prices, content and publishing dates may be subject to change. For details of BSI Membership, call +44 (0)20 8996 9001.
© BSI British Standards Institution 2008
Section 3
Focus on Eurocode
Eurocode: Basis of structural design

Eurocode: Basis of structural design

Professor Haig Gulvanessian CBE, Civil Engineering and Eurocode Consultant

B S EN 1990, Eurocode: Basis of

structural design, is the head key
code for the harmonized Structural
every Eurocode part the principles
and requirements for achieving
safety, serviceability and durability
frame housing) all need to use the
principles and rules in BS EN 1990
together with the appropriate Euro-
Eurocodes. BS EN 1990 establishes of structures. codes, thus ensuring a level playing
for all the Structural Eurocodes the BS EN 1990 provides the infor- field, as do the execution standards.
principles and requirements for mation for safety factors for actions To achieve safety, serviceability
safety and serviceability and pro- and combination for action effects and durability for structures
vides the basis and general princi- for the verification of both ultimate BS EN 1990 has requirements to be
ples for the structural design and and serviceability limit states. Its adhered to by the complete Euro-
verification of buildings and civil rules are applicable to the design of code suite and construction prod-
engineering structures (including building and civil engineering uct standards on:
bridges, towers and masts, silos and
tanks, etc.). BS EN 1990 gives guide- p fundamental requirements
lines for related aspects of structural “The principal objective of (safety, serviceability, resistance
reliability, durability and quality to fire and robustness);
control. It is based on the limit state BS EN 1990 is that it sets p reliability management and
concept and used in conjunction out for every Eurocode differentiation;
with the partial factor method. part the principles and p design working life;
As shown in the figure, requirements for achieving p durability;
BS EN 1990 will be used with every p quality assurance and quality
Eurocode part for the design of new safety, serviceability and control.
structures, together with: durability of structures.”
BS EN 1990, as well as being the
p BS EN 1991 Eurocode 1: Actions key Eurocode in setting recom-
on structures; and structures including bridges, masts, mended safety levels, also intro-
p the design Eurocodes BS EN 1992 towers, silos, tanks, chimneys and duces innovative aspects (listed
to BS EN 1999 (Eurocodes 2 to 9). geotechnical structures. below) that encourages the design
Furthermore construction prod- engineer to consider the safety of
This is different to the situation ucts requiring CE marking (e.g. people in the built environment
adopted by the present British precast concrete products, metal together with responsible consider-
Standard codes of practice (e.g. frame domestic houses and timber ations of economy.
BS 8110, BS 5950 and BS 5628)
because with the design Eurocodes
the requirements for achieving Structural safety,
safety, serviceability and durability serviceability and
EN 1990 durability
and the expressions for action
effects for the verification of ultimate
and serviceability limit states and Actions on
their associated factors of safety are EN 1991 structures
only given in BS EN 1990. Unlike
the equivalent British Standard
codes of practice the material Euro-
EN 1992 EN 1993 EN 1994
codes (BS EN 1992, BS EN 1993, Design and
BS EN 1994, BS EN 1995, detailing
BS EN 1996 and BS EN 1999) only EN 1995 EN 1996 EN 1999
include clauses for design and
detailing in the appropriate mate-
rial; they require all the material- Geotechnical and
EN 1997 EN 1998
independent information for the seismic design
design from BS EN 1990.
The principal objective of
BS EN 1990 is that it sets out for The links between the Eurocodes

BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion 19

Section 3. Focus on Eurocode materials

p BS EN 1990 allows reliability either the expressions 6.10 or BS EN 1990 is a fully operative
differentiation based on the con- 6.10a/6.10b for the combination code and the concept of a fully
sequences of failure. of actions for ultimate limit state operative material-independent
p It introduces the concept of verification. This choice pro- code is new to the European design
using the representative values vides opportunities for econ- engineer. It is certainly not a code
of actions and not only the char- omy especially for the heavier that should be read once and then
acteristic values as used for UK materials, and can provide flexi- placed on the bookshelf. It is the
codes of practice. The loads used bility with regard to assessment. key Eurocode that sets the require-
in the BS EN 1990 load combina- p It permits the use of lower fac- ments for design, material, product
tions recognize the appropriate tors of safety for loads com- and execution standards. BS EN 1990
cases where rare, frequent, pared to British Standards. needs to be fully understood as it is
or quasi-permanent occurring Although the effects of actions key to designing structures that
events are being considered according to the Eurocodes are have an acceptable level of safety
with the use of an appropriate lower than UK national codes and economy, with opportunities
reduction coefficient (y) applied for ULS and SLS verification, for innovation.
to the characteristic load values, this should not be a concern to A course and a designers guide
as appropriate. The use of the the industry as the BS EN 1990 for BS EN 1990 are available in the
representative values for actions values are based on better sci- UK through Thomas Telford Ltd of
in the load combination expres- ence and better research. the Institution of Civil Engineers.
sions for ultimate and service- p The use of advanced analytical Regarding implementation of
ability limit state verifications techniques for the designer are BS EN 1990 in the UK, BS EN 1990
are logical and give economies encouraged, as are the use of was published in April 2002 and
for particular design situations. probabilistic methods should the BSI National Annex for Build-
p It provides an alternative load the designer wish to use these ings was published in 2004. The BSI
combination format, giving the for more specialized design National Annex for Bridges is due
choice to the designer of using problems. in 2009. p

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20 BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion

Eurocode 1: Actions on structures

Eurocode 1: Actions on structures

Professor Haig Gulvanessian CBE, Civil Engineering and Eurocode Consultant

B S EN 1991, Eurocode 1: Actions

on structures, provides compre-
hensive information and guidance
BS EN 1991-1-2, Actions on
structures exposed to fire
are some differences: BS EN 1991-1-3
does not apply to sites at altitudes
above 1500 m (the limit in BS 6399-2
BS EN 1991-1-2 covers the actions to
on all actions that are usually neces- is 500 m). In the BS EN 1991-1-3
be used in the structural design of
sary to consider in the design of build- snow map, the UK is divided into a
buildings and civil engineering
ing and civil engineering structures. number of zones. An expression is
works where there is a requirement
BS EN 1991 comprises 10 differ- given to determine the snow load
to give adequate performance in fire
ent EN parts (see p. 12). These Parts on the ground which depends upon
exposure. It is intended for use with
will provide the characteristic val- the zone and the altitude of the site.
BS EN 1990 and with the parts on
ues for actions for use with
structural fire design in Eurocodes 2
BS EN 1990, Eurocode: Basis of struc-
to 6 and 9. For fire design, fire BS EN 1991-1-4, Wind actions
tural design, and BS EN 1992 to
actions are the dominant action.
BS EN 1999 as appropriate, for
The national annex to BS EN1991-1-4 is applicable to:
design and verification on the basis
BS EN 1991-1-2 will refer to a com-
of the overall principles that are
plementary document, PD 6688-1-2, p building and civil engineering
given in BS EN 1990.
which will provide background works with heights up to 200 m;
The following is a brief summary
information to the national annex. p bridges with spans of not more
of the scope, field of application
than 200 m (subject to certain
and difference with UK practice for
limitations based on dynamic
each part of BS EN 1991.
response criteria);
“BS EN 1991 gives unique p land-based structures, their com-
BS EN 1991-1-1, Densities, self-weight ponents and appendages.
and imposed loads for buildings
guidance on a particular
type of action.” The specific exclusions are:
BS EN 1991-1-1 covers the assess-
ment of actions for use in structural
design due to: p lattice towers with non-parallel
BS EN 1991-1-3, Snow loads p guyed masts and guyed chimneys;
p the density of construction ma-
terials and stored materials; BS EN 1991-1-3 provides guidance p cable supported bridges;
p the self-weight of structural ele- for the calculation of: p bridge deck vibration from
ments and whole structures, and transverse wind turbulence;
some fixed non-structural items; p snow loads on roofs, which occur p torsional vibrations of buildings;
p imposed loads on floors and in calm or windy conditions; p modes of vibration higher than
roofs of buildings (but exclud- p loads on roofs that occur where the fundamental mode.
ing snow, which is covered by there are obstructions, and by
BS EN 1991-1-3, Snow loads). snow sliding down a pitched The scope of BS EN 1991-1-4 is
roof onto snow guards; much wider than BS 6399-2, as it
The scope of BS EN 1991-1-1 is p loads due to snow overhanging includes wind actions on other
greater than for the appropriate UK the cantilevered edge of a roof; structures, which in the UK are
national codes (BS 6399-1 and p snow loads on bridges. given in a number of other British
BS 648). There remain some topics Standards and design guides. In
(e.g. vertical loads on parapets BS EN 1991-1-3 applies to: some cases, there is no equivalent
and values for actions for storage UK standard, e.g. dynamic re-
and industrial use) that are not p snow loads in both maritime (i.e. sponse of certain buildings. The
covered as comprehensively in UK) and continental climates; national annex to BS EN 1991-1-4
BS EN 1991-1-1 when compared p new buildings and structures; will refer to a complementary doc-
to BS 6399, and these topics will p significant alterations to existing ument, PD 6688-1-4, which will
feature in a complementary docu- buildings and structures. give background information to
ment published by BSI, PD 6688-1-1, the national annex and other essen-
which will also provide back- The scopes of BS EN 1991-1-3 and tial advice.
ground information. BS 6399-2 are similar. However, there

BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion 21

Section 3. Focus on Eurocode materials

BS EN 1991-1-5, Thermal actions accidental actions from impact and BS EN 1991-3, Actions induced by
explosion; it gives design models cranes and machinery
BS EN 1991-1-5 gives principles, rules
and detailed provisions that may be
and methods of calculating thermal BS EN 1991-4 specifies actions, self-
used as alternatives to design veri-
actions on buildings, bridges and weights and imposed loads (models
fications. It also provides more
other structures including their and representative values) associ-
advanced impact and explosion
structural components. Principles ated with hoists, crabs and cranes
design concepts than which were
for determining thermal actions for on runway beams, and static and
found in British Standards.
claddings and other appendages on dynamic actions induced in sup-
External explosions, warfare,
the building are also provided. porting structures by machinery.
sabotage or risk scenarios due to
Characteristic values of thermal
natural phenomena, such as torna-
actions are provided for the design
does, extreme erosion or rock falls, BS EN 1991-4, Actions in silos and
of structures that are exposed to
are not in the scope of this tanks
daily and seasonal climatic
Eurocode part.
changes. Structures in which ther- BS EN 1991-3 gives general princi-
Although aspects of accidental
mal actions are mainly a function of ples and rules for determining
actions are covered in BS 6399-1 and
their use (e.g. chimneys, cooling actions arising from the storage of
BS 5400, BS EN 1991-1-7 compre-
towers, silos, tanks, warm and cold bulk materials and liquids in silos
hensively covers the topic of acci-
storage facilities, hot and cold serv- and tanks. The scope is restricted to:
dental actions in one document. A
ices) are also treated. The character-
istic values of isotherms of national categorization scheme concerning
p silos with limited eccentricity of
minimum and maximum shade air the robustness of buildings, which inlet and outlet, with small
temperatures are provided in the has also been used in Approved impact effects caused by filling,
form of maps. Document A of the Building Regu- and with discharge devices that
The guidance in this part, in par- lations, is introduced in BS EN 1991- do not cause shock or eccentric-
ticular the guidance relating to 1-7. The UK design engineer will be ities beyond the given
building structures, is not covered familiar with the design require- limitations;
in UK loading standards. The ments of this part although risk
p silos containing particulate
national annex to BS EN 1991-1-5 assessments will be required for materials which are free-flowing
will refer to a complementary doc- some categories of structures. and have a low cohesion;
ument, PD 6688-1-5, which will The national annex to p tanks with liquids stored at nor-
provide background information to BS EN 1991-1-7 will refer to a com- mal atmospheric pressure.
the national annex. plementary document, PD 6688-1-7,
which will give background infor-
mation to the National Annex, in Difference between
BS EN 1991-1-6, Actions during particular to risk assessments on BS EN 1991 and the UK
execution impacts to supporting structures system of loading codes
BS EN 1991-1-6 covers assessment for bridges. Each part of BS EN 1991 gives
of actions, combinations of actions unique guidance on a particular
and environmental influences dur- BS EN 1991-2, Traffic loads on type of action. Within each part
ing the execution stage, including bridges guidance is provided for buildings
those actions applied to auxiliary and other construction works (e.g.
construction works, e.g. scaffold- BS EN 1991-2 specifies imposed bridges). This is different to the BSI
ing, propping and bracing, for use loads (models and representative system of loading codes where the
in structural design of buildings values) associated with road traffic, codes are based on the ‘type’ of
and bridges. The safety of people pedestrian actions and rail traffic, structure, e.g. BS 6399 for buildings
on construction sites due to con- that include, when relevant, and BS 5400 for bridges.
struction accidents is not within the dynamic effects and centrifugal,
scope of this Eurocode part. braking, acceleration and acciden-
The guidance in this part is not tal forces. It also includes guidance Industry initiatives
covered in UK loading standards. on combinations with non-traffic A course for BS EN 1991 is available
loads on road and railway bridges, in the UK through Thomas Telford
and on loads on parapets. Ltd of the Institution of Civil Engi-
BS EN 1991-1-7, Accidental actions The national annex to neers. Two designers’ guides, the
BS EN 1991-1-7 describes safety BS EN 1991-2 will refer to a comple- first covering Actions on Buildings
strategies for accidental design sit- mentary document, PD 6688-2, and the second covering Actions on
uations. It recommends design val- which will give background infor- Bridges will be published in 2009 by
ues for the most common cases of mation to the national annex. Thomas Telford Ltd. p

22 BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion

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Free national helpline CPD seminars and courses In your office

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queries relating to the design, use and of concrete issues and developments, materials staff can provide bespoke project advice and
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Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures

Eurocode 2: Design of concrete

Dr Andrew Minson, The Concrete Centre

T he Eurocode process began over

30 years ago and is nearing full
implementation. The concrete sec-
introduces a new classification of
masonry units and also a new
design approach for masonry mem-
material Eurocodes, such as basis of
design, actions, geotechnics, is a big
enough challenge itself, therefore to
tor has been leading the way with bers in compression. do this alongside just one material
the new codes. Designers and engi- Despite the cost of changing to is a much simpler proposition.
neers can now design using the new codes, there will be eco- Concrete lends itself to being the
Eurocode 2. The full package of the nomic benefits to be gained from trailblazer material for a number of
code, including all its national their use. In concrete design it is reasons. Firstly, Eurocode 2 for con-
annexes and supporting documen- expected that there will be material crete has only four parts, secondly,
tation, is in place and is being used cost savings of up to 5% compared the national annexes are all pub-
on projects. The UK committee is with using BS 8110. Furthermore, lished and guidance on them is
no longer supporting BS 8110. the Eurocodes are organized to readily available and thirdly, almost
Like it or not, the introduction of avoid repetition, they are techni- every project has concrete in it
the Eurocodes is inevitable so it cally advanced and should offer somewhere.
seems best to accept this and resolve more opportunities for UK design- Another early decision is whether
to make the change as easy as possi- ers to work throughout Europe. to train an individual or two, a
ble. With this in mind, The Concrete Plus any delay in implementing the group, or the majority of staff. In-
Centre as part of the Concrete Eurocodes will diminish the ability house ‘experts’ can be sent on in-
Industry Eurocode 2 Group has not of UK designers and engineers to depth external courses and then
only developed a transition strategy relay the knowledge gained by act-
but has delivered this via a wide ing as a conduit for Eurocode
range of resources. These include a related queries within the office
companion guide Concise Eurocode 2,
“In concrete design it is and subsequently training their col-
and a series of guides under the ban- expected that there will leagues. The risk with this strategy
ner How to design concrete structures be material cost savings is that the expert may not be up to
using Eurocode 2. The series of How of up to 5% compared the task, they may leave the prac-
to... leaflets was released in early tice, or simply will not have the
2006 and have now been gathered
with using BS 8110.” time to act as a mentor to the whole
together and published as a com- practice. The additional issue of
pendium, which includes new chap- who to choose as the potential
ters on Retaining Walls and work on projects in the rest of Eurocode expert can be such a
Detailing. Precast Eurocode 2: Design Europe whilst permitting firms problem that this approach is often
Manual and Precast Eurocode 2: from Continental Europe to work rejected.
Worked Examples, have been pub- over here. Some practices are instead choos-
lished by British Precast. Concise Moving over to Eurocode design ing to pioneer the Eurocodes
Eurocode 2 for Bridges will be pub- is going to be a huge commitment through specific projects. This
lished by the Concrete Centre in but when designers want to make enables a broad base of expertise to
early 2009. In addition, a dedicated the transition the concrete industry develop and chooses the experts by
website has is ready to help. The Concrete Cen- default. Those sent on training
been set up. This site contains expla- tre’s regional technical team have courses can apply their knowledge
nations, news, key information and noticed that practices are adopting at once on real life projects with
downloads, and, in particular, a an arrangement of Eurocode imple- help readily available from the
series of detailed worked examples. mentation strategies. structural engineering department
The Concrete Centre together The initial decision for a practice at The Concrete Centre. Using
with the Modern Masonry Alliance to make is whether to implement all Eurocodes for specific projects pro-
has jointly published a series of the material Eurocodes at once or to vides a broader base of expertise
three guides called How to Design choose one single material as the compared with having a single
Masonry Structures Using Eurocode 6 trailblazer. The advantage of this is champion. A further advantage is
explaining Eurocode 6. Eurocode 6 that wrestling with all the non- that focusing on specific projects

BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion 25

Section 3. Focus on Eurocode materials

limits the practice’s exposure to The Concrete Centre to meet the CPD-certified training for
Eurocodes until more confidence demands of face-to-face training Building Design to Eurocode 2
and knowledge is gained. In the (see box).
short term, this approach limits the An alternative is to have a period
p Essential elements. 3.5 CPD
inevitably increased design time to of distance self-learning, using hours
a single project, allows lessons to be guidance and publications of
p Theory and background.
learnt and permits an understand- worked examples with access to a 6 CPD hours
ing on how to effectively train staff. helpline. This could prove benefi-
p Theory and worked exam-
The final option is to train all staff cial if sandwiched between ‘intro- ples. 6.5 CPD hours
and implement on all projects com- duction’ and ‘lessons learnt’
p Theory and hands-on work-
mencing after a certain date. face-to-face sessions. shop. 13 CPD hours
Whatever strategy is imple- The new Eurocodes should be
mented in the office, employees viewed as a challenging opportu- For further information email:
will need to be trained. This may be nity and the concrete sector has or
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26 BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion

Eurocode 2 Resources

To assist designers with the application of Eurocode 2, a range of technical

design guidance is available from the cement and concrete industry.
For more information visit

Concise Eurocode 2 How to Design Concrete Structures to Eurocode 2
Published by The Concrete Centre Published by The Concrete Centre
This publication summarises the information that will be commonly used This publication aims to make the transition to Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete
in the design of reinforced concrete framed buildings to Eurocode 2 and its Structures and its National Annex as easy as possible by drawing together in
UK National Annex and provides explanations to all necessary clauses. With one place the key information and commentary required for the design of
extensive clause referencing to Eurocode 2 and other relevant Eurocodes, typical concrete elements. Chapters include: Getting Started; Foundations;
design tables and column charts, the publication is self-sufficient and also Slabs; Flat slabs; Beams; Deflections; Columns; Retaining walls and Detailing.
acts as a manual to the code.
Properties of Concrete for use in Eurocode 2
Precast Eurocode 2 Part 1: Design manual Published by The Concrete Centre
Precast Eurocode 2 Part 2: Worked examples In the design of concrete structures, engineers have the flexibility to specify
Published by British Precast particular concrete type(s) aimed at meeting the specific performance
Part 1 provides a summary of the basis of precast concrete design to Eurocode 2 requirements for their project. This guide is aimed at design engineers to
and offers guidance through the new code, the UK National Annex and other provide them with a greater knowledge of concrete behaviour, so that they
relevant Eurocodes. The sister publication, Part 2, complements Part 1 and can optimise the use of the material aspects of concrete in their design.
together they aim to promote an understanding of Eurocode 2 for precast Guidance is given on the properties of concrete for design to Eurocode 2 and
concrete. Designers will find them useful companion documents to the new the corresponding UK national annex.
code both during the transition period and beyond.

Software Training and CPDs

RC Spreadsheets The Concrete Centre provides various Eurocode 2 training courses - which
Published by The Concrete Centre range from half-day courses for those already familiar with the design of
The release of Version 3 of the spreadsheets follows the publication of concrete buildings to a comprehensive two-day workshop which covers all
Eurocode 2 plus its UK National Annex and the publication of sections of the new code and explores its practical application with worked
Amendment 3 to BS 8110 Part 1: 1987. The spreadsheets allow the rapid examples. Visit for further information.
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Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures

Eurocode 3: Design of steel

David Brown, Deputy Director, Steel Construction Institute

Introduction horizontal loads (EHF), appear in on 1/200, which is of course the

every load combination and in 0.5% of BS 5950.
T he primary encouragement to
UK designers is that the struc-
tural mechanics has not changed –
addition to the heavier wind loads.
Cross sectional resistance
the steel behaves in the same way, Resistance As expected, there are no signifi-
no matter which code is used to check Three noticeable general changes are: cant changes here. Shear resistance
resistance. The second encourage- has almost trivial changes, with a
ment is that familiarity with the modest change in the shear area. In
p the different nomenclature in EC3;
Eurocode 3 (BS EN 1993-1-1) will BS 5950, the shear resistance
p the layout of the standard,
bring the realization that the same which is arranged by structural involves a factor of 0.6 – in EC3 the
design checks are being executed in phenomena, not design process factor is 1/÷3, which is 0.577. This
BS 5950 and Eurocode 3, although and thus will be unfamiliar; illustrates that, often, the differences
the presentation may be slightly p the presentation of code checks are very small.
different. by equation, rather than in look-
up tables, and a lack of charts.
In both strut buckling and lateral
Although this article primarily con- torsional buckling, UK designers
cerns resistance, the loading side of
“The same design checks
will find a different presentation.
the relationship is also important. are being executed in Slenderness for strut buckling is
Load combinations are found in BS 5950 and Eurocode 3,  calculated as l
called l  = ÷(Aft/Ncr)
EN 1990, and together with the although the presentation where Ncr is the Euler buckling load.
national annex for that code, the It can be demonstrated algebraically
results will bring benefits to UK
may be slightly different.”  is inextri-
that the expression for l
design. For strength design, most cably linked to l/ryy as calculated in
economy will be realized by using national standards – the Eurocode
expression 6.10b (the nomenclature All are issues of presentation, and slenderness is l/ryy divided by a
will become familiar in time) which will be managed as designers factor – approximately 90. Either
will be the key expression in most become familiar with the standard. approach may be used to calculate
circumstances. Under this load Engineers will recognize a close and the EC3 slenderness. Having calcu-
combination, elements that only transparent link with the underly- lated the slenderness, there is no
experience vertical loads, such as ing structural mechanics (which absolute value of design stress cal-
floor beams, will be designed for was often opaque in BS 5950), using culated in the Eurocode. The resist-
1.25 × permanent actions + 1.5 × values such as the Euler load, for ance is always based on a reduction
variable actions. This is an immedi- example. In many cases simple factor, multiplied by the yield
ate attraction compared to BS 5950, spreadsheets can be used to re- strength. This means that a multi-
which would have floor beams create look-up tables if needed. tude of tables displaying values of
designed for 1.4 × dead loads + pc and pb are not required – just two
1.6 × imposed loads. single expressions.
Systems carrying wind loads, such Frame stability For strut buckling, values are
as bracing, will experience larger This is almost the same as BS 5950. very close to those determined in
design loads, because in load com- lcr of BS 5950 becomes acr in EC3, accordance with BS 5950. For lateral
binations where the ‘leading’ vari- with a very similar calculation. The torsional buckling (LTB), the resist-
able action is identified as the wind, familiar limit of 10, above which ances according to the Eurocode are
it will attract a load factor of 1.5. second order effects are small generally significantly higher –
Additionally, the Eurocode equiva- enough to be ignored, and below approximately 25% for middle
lent to BS 5950’s notional horizontal that an amplifier, which is the same range Universal Beams. Although
loads (NHF) – known as equivalent in both standards. EHF are based LTB does not govern all members,

BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion 29

Section 3. Focus on Eurocode materials

the Eurocode has a valuable advan- erned by shear in the beam web, for significant task, as this includes the
tage when it does. example. The major change is in the many parts of the Eurocodes, the
bearing resistance of bolts, which is national annexes and other support
Combined axial load and significantly higher than the information), and familiar with the
bending national standard. layout of the clauses within the
Standard, the process will be reas-
With an axial term, a mayor axis suringly similar to design to
bending term and a minor axis
Support tools
BS 5950. This general observation
bending term, the expressions in Like most sectors, the steel commu-
has some exceptions, such as com-
the Eurocode look innocent. nity has been very active in preparing
bined axial loads and bending, but
Designers will find the interaction support materials. The ubiquitous
with some thought, it is easy to see
factors that precede the bending ‘Blue Book’ will be available, along-
that the underlying principles of
terms appear far from straightfor- side a whole series of other guides,
structural mechanics are the same
ward, but spreadsheets are already including worked examples, a con-
in both standards. In many ways,
available to ease the calculation cise guide, connection guides and a
more recent versions of BS 5950
( guide to multi-storey frames. These
have done a good job of introduc-
are the first of many that will be
produced ( ing designers to issues such as
Connections frame stability, which will be seen
Significant resources are available
With one exception, no significant online ( and in a very similar format in the
changes will be found in connec- software will be available. Eurocode.
tion design. Bolts have very similar The steel knows no different, and
shear and tensile resistances, and the structural mechanics has not
Conclusions changed. In time, this new standard
weld strengths are similar to those
in BS 5950. The resistance of stan- For the steel designer, once familiar for steel design will become a
dard flexible end plates is still gov- with the appropriate documents (a familiar friend. p

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Section 3. Focus on Eurocode materials

Eurocode 4: Design of composite

steel and concrete structures
Dr Stephen Hicks, Manager Structural Systems, Heavy Engineering Research Association, Manukau City,
New Zealand (formerly Senior Manager Building Engineering, Steel Construction Institute, UK)

E urocode 4 brings both benefits

and challenges to UK designers
who are familiar with the earlier nat-
of worked examples that illustrate
the use of a particular clause. In
addition, background information
ance for both normal and fire con-
ditions, have not been widely used
in UK buildings to date.
ional standards for composite steel is freely available through the Following the publication of the
and concrete structures. Eurocode 4 Eurocodes website of the European UK NAs, the Steel Construction
consists of three parts: Part 1-1, Commission Joint Research Centre Institute (SCI) will be issuing a
General rules and rules for buildings; ( suite of design guides that provide
Part 1-2, General rules – Structural One of the major changes for UK advice on designing structural ele-
fire design; and Part 2, General rules designers familiar with composite ments and frames using the
and rules for bridges. To enable Euro- construction is that the Eurocodes Eurocode provisions, together with
code 4 to be used, designers also make greater use of first principles a full set of worked examples. In
need to make reference to the Euro- and, owing to the fact that there addition to the design guides, the
codes dealing with the design of con- is little duplication of material, European steel industry’s multi-
crete and steel structures, BS EN 1992 a number of standards and their lingual Eurocode 3 and Eurocode 4
and BS EN 1993, respectively. corresponding NAs will need to website, Access Steel (www.access-
Before the Eurocodes can be be consulted when designing a, provides free access to
used, designers need another docu- structural element. However, due 50 interlinked modules on detailed
ment called the national annex to their much wider scope, the design of elements, free element-
(NA) which specifies the appropri- Eurocodes bring a number of ad- design software, and interactive
ate partial safety factors that need vantages to designers when com- worked examples. To complement
to be used for structures built in a pared to earlier national standards. the design guides and electronic
particular country. In addition to For example, asymmetric steel sec- resources, training courses on
partial safety factors, there are some tions that possess a much larger Eurocode 4 are being provided by
choices given in the Eurocodes to bottom flange in relation to the top The Institution of Civil Engineers,
allow different nations to control flange are very efficient when used The Institution of Structural Engi-
the design methods used in their in composite beams. As opposed to neers and SCI.
territory; these parameters are the earlier national standard for
called Nationally Determined Para- buildings, BS EN 1994-1-1 permits
meters (NDPs). The NA may also the designer to use steel sections of References
include reference to non-conflicting this type through rules for compos-
[1] Johnson, R.P. and Anderson, D.
complementary information (NCCI), ite beams with partial shear con- Designers’ Guide to EN 1994-1-1:
which provides designers with nection. Moreover, for composite Eurocode 4: Design of Composite Steel
information that is not given in bridges, pilot studies undertaken and Concrete Structures, Part 1-1:
Eurocodes themselves, such as for the Highways Agency have General Rules and Rules for Buildings,
material from earlier national stan- indicated that the new structural Thomas Telford, London, 2004
[2] Moore, D., Bailey, C., Lennon, T.
dards or design guides. For the Eurocodes produce more economic and Wang, Y. Designers’ Guide to
design of steel structures, the web- designs compared to those using EN 1991-1-2, EN 1992-1-2, EN 1993-
site will be the earlier national standards [4]. 1-2 and EN 1994-1-2, Thomas
listed in the UK NA to Eurocode 3 As well as improving on rules Telford, London, 2007
and Eurocode 4, and will provide contained in the earlier national [3] Hendy, C.R. and Johnson, R.P.
Designers’ Guide to EN 1994-2
all the necessary NCCI to these standards, the Eurocodes also per- Eurocode 4: Design of Composite Steel
Eurocodes. mit designs to be undertaken on and Concrete Structures Part 2, General
To assist designers in under- structures where there previously Rules and Rules for Bridges, Thomas
standing Eurocode 4, references [1], had been an absence of codified Telford, London, 2006
[2] and [3] provide background rules. This is particularly true for [4] Hendy, C.R. ‘Implications of the
change to Eurocodes for bridge
information on the origin and composite columns, which, although design’, Proceedings of the Institution
objectives of the code provisions; popular internationally due to their of Civil Engineers: Bridge Engineering,
this is supplemented by a selection slender lines and enhanced resist- 161, March 2008, pp3-10 p

32 BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion

Structural Design Eurocodes
We’ll guide you through

Corus and our partners in the UK steel

construction industry are ready to help
designers through the transition from
British Standards to EC3 and EC4,
providing practical design guidance,
technical support and training courses.

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Section 3. Focus on Eurocode materials

Eurocode 5: Design of timber

Arnold Page, Structural Timber Engineering Consultant

Introduction by being able to use the same complex, particularly for the
timber design code in many dif- design of connections, floors,
B S EN 1995 is in three parts: ferent countries both within and
outside Europe [1].
deflections and fire.
p The loss of much helpful guid-
p Part 1-1: General. Common rules p Using a similar design format to ance such as standard bracing
and rules for buildings that used for other structural for trussed rafter roofs, stable
p Part 1-2: General. Structural fire materials will help to make tim- depth-to-breadth ratios for
design ber design more accessible. beams, and the wind shielding
p Part 2: Bridges p The separation of ultimate and effect of masonry attached to
serviceability design states per- timber frame buildings, means
With BS EN 1990 and three stan- mits the use of more rational that supporting publications
dards which provide essential design limits – a Buro Happold will be required.
material properties (BS EN 338, engineer stated that the award- p No guidance for the design of
Structural timber – Strength classes, winning Sheffield Winter Gar- glued joints is provided – values
BS EN 1194, Timber structures – den glulam roof could not have have to be obtained from tests.
Glued laminated timber – Strength been designed to BS 5268. p The code and its numerous sup-
classes and determination of character- porting standards will cost con-
istic values, and BS EN 12369, Wood- siderably more.
based panels – Characteristic values for
“Major changes in timber
structural design) Eurocode 5 will
replace BS 5268, Parts 2, 3, 4 and 6. usage and specification Challenges
are unlikely”
Some challenges for designers will
Key changes be:
The key changes for designers p The separation of principles and
familiar with BS 5268 will be: application rules allows the p learning the new symbols;
engineer more freedom but p determining the critical load
case for combined loads of dif-
p the differentiation between ulti- requires more understanding on
mate, serviceability and acci- ferent durations;
his or her part.
dental limit states; p remembering which material
p The direct use of characteristic
modification factors to use (in
p the partial factor format, which test values simplifies the adop-
requires safety factors to be particular reducing the tabulated
tion of new timber materials
applied manually to both loads characteristic values to allow for
and components.
and material properties, rather load duration);
p The connection design formulae
than having them all built into can cater for LVL, OSB and chip- p designing trussed rafter roofs,
tabulated grade or basic values; board as well as for solid timber which involves dozens of differ-
ent load combinations and load
p new symbols and material materials.
strength modification factors; cases;
p The dedicated timber bridge
p that BS EN 1995 is a theoretical design code should facilitate p demonstrating the strength and
design code rather than a code and encourage the use of timber stability requirements for timber
of best practice, so formulae in lightweight bridges. frame walls with only minimal
replace tabulated values and guidance;
p The formulaic approach facili-
most of the helpful advice given tates the development of spread- p calculating the design resistance
in BS 5268 has disappeared. sheets and software. of connections.

Principal benefits Chief disadvantages Effects on the timber industry

p As with other Eurocodes, multi- p Structural calculations to EC5 Major changes in timber usage and
national companies will benefit are generally considerably more specification are unlikely. However:

34 BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion

Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures

p characteristic strength proper- in the UK, and many of these information for use with Eurocode 5
ties for panel products and com- are listed on the Eurocodes Expert (PD 6693).
ponents such as timber I-joists website [2] under ‘Timber/Pub-
and metal hardware must now lications’. STEP, which is a two-
be obtained in accordance with volume publication written by Summary
CEN testing standards; European experts, provides excel-
lent background material and use- With supporting information Euro-
p floors may have to be a little
ful design examples. TRADA runs code 5 is a workable design code
stiffer (i.e. more timber);
courses on Eurocode 5 in conjunc- which is particularly useful for
p large roof structures without
tion with the Institution of Struc- multi-national companies and the
brittle finishes may not require
tural Engineers, and during 2009 it designers of larger engineering
so much timber;
will be completely updating its structures and bridges.
p there will have to be yet more
reliance on software for the existing Eurocode 5 design aids,
design of trussed rafters, con- design examples and software.
nections and timber frame Manual for the design of timber build- References
walls. ing structures to Eurocode 5 [3] [1] The Structural Engineer, 18 September
includes a CD which has spread- 2007. The Institution of Structural
sheets for connection design. Engineers, London
General guidance and Finally BSI intends to preserve the [2]
publications guidance in BS 5268, which would
[3] Manual for the design of timber build-
ing structures to Eurocode 5, The
Various manuals and guidance otherwise be lost, by producing a Institution of Structural Engineers/
documents have been published new publication of complementary TRADA, December 2007 p

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Section 3. Focus on Eurocode materials

Eurocode 6: Design of masonry

Professor John Roberts, Principal, Technical Innovation Consultancy

E urocode 6 (BS EN 1996) follows

the general presentation of the
material Eurocodes in that Part 1-1
ration based on strength rather
than mix proportions. Thus an M12
mortar may be expected to have a
and suitable values of partial safety
factors have been introduced.
Fire design will largely remain in
covers the design of plain and rein- strength of 12 N/mm2. the form of tables similar to those
forced masonry whilst Part 1-2 A key aspect of the standards contained in BS 5628-3. The fire
deals with structural fire design. supporting Eurocode 6 is that only resistance of a load-bearing wall
There are two further parts: Part 2 masonry units are referred to, leav- now comprises two values depend-
which deals primarily with the ing the various UK National ing upon how highly loaded the
selection of materials and execution Annexes to specify standard sizes wall is and is further enhanced if
of masonry and Part 3, which covers for bricks and blocks and how to the wall is plastered.
simplified calculation methods for specify, using performance stan- Part 2 of Eurocode 6 (BS EN 1996-
unreinforced masonry structures. dards, such things as engineering 2) contains limited information of a
BS 5628 was the first limit state bricks. very general nature on materials
design code for masonry in the and execution. Five new exposure
world and UK designers are very classifications MX1 to MX5 are
familiar with the principles that defined. Part 2 is not, however, a
have now been encapsulated in replacement for the extensive guid-
Eurocode 6. There are, however, a “BS 5628 was the first ance provided in BS 5628 and it is
few major changes that UK designers intended that this information,
will need to become familiar with.
limit state design code together with some guidance gar-
During the drafting of Eurocode for masonry in the world nered from BS 5628-1 and -2, will
6, a way had to be found to deal and UK designers are form the basis of a PD to be pub-
with the wide range of masonry very familiar with the lished by BSI.
units used across Europe. This Part 3 (BS EN 1996-3) deals with
range not only includes different
principles which have simplified calculation methods for
material such as clay, concrete and now been encapsulated unreinforced masonry but it is not
stone, but also a variety of configu- in Eurocode 6.” anticipated that this will be widely
rations based upon the proportion used in the UK where other guid-
and direction of any holes or perfo- ance, for example Approved Docu-
rations, web thickness etc. This has ment A of the Building Regulations
resulted in four groupings of for England and Wales, is likely to
masonry units. The UK only has A further area of change for ver- produce more cost effective
experience of Group 1 and Group 2 tical load relates to the treatment of outcomes.
masonry units but no doubt eccentricity where a frame analysis UK consultants have responded
Group 3 and Group 4 units will approach is used rather than the positively to the introduction of
find their way to the UK. BS 5628 approach of assuming that Eurocode 6 and a number of short
The characteristic compressive any eccentricity at the top of the courses have been run to update
strength of masonry is no longer wall is zero at the bottom of the designers with the requirements.
presented in the form of tables but wall. The concept of an initial The Institution of Structural Engi-
as an equation. This equation eccentricity to allow for any inaccu- neers have produced a concise
includes the normalized strength of racies in the construction of the design guide for plain masonry
the masonry and the strength of the masonry is also introduced. Con- buildings designed to Eurocode 6
mortar. The normalized strength is centrated loads are also handled and The Concrete Centre, along
new to the UK and relates the com- differently in Eurocode 6. Fortu- with the Modern Masonry Alliance,
pressive strength of the unit deter- nately lateral load design is based have produced three guides on
mined by test to a standardized on the BS 5628 approach and will design to Eurocode 6. A website,
shape and moisture content. The be very familiar to UK designers., has been set up
designation of mortars has also Ancillary components are now to support users of Eurocode 6. p
changed with the need for a decla- dealt with in a more coherent way

BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion 36



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Section 3. Focus on Eurocode materials

Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design

Andrew Harris, Director, and Dr Andrew Bond, Director, Geomantix Ltd

E urocode 7 covers geotechnical

design and is provided in two
parts: Part 1 – General rules
approach to all structural materials
and should lead to less confusion
and fewer errors when considering
Unfortunately, many engineers’
initial reaction to Eurocode 7 is to
bury their heads in the sand and
(BS EN 1997-1) and Part 2 – Ground soil-structure interaction. hope it will go away. The views of
investigation and testing (BS EN 1997-2). Limit states should be verified by many engineers are based on lim-
Part 1 is divided into twelve sec- calculation, prescriptive measures, ited knowledge of the Eurocodes
tions and nine annexes and pro- experimental models and load and even less experience of using
vides a general framework for tests, an observational method, or a them in practice. However, the
geotechnical design, definition of combination of these approaches. Eurocodes provide a unified
ground parameters, characteristic Not every limit state needs to be approach to civil and structural
and design values, general rules for checked explicitly: when one engineering design and bring
site investigation, rules for the clearly governs, the others may be greater consistency to our treat-
design of the main types of geo- verified by a control check. ment of the ground and other struc-
technical structures, and some BS EN 1997-2 refers extensively to tural materials (such as steel and
assumptions on execution proce- a new suite of international and Euro- concrete). As engineers become
dures. Part 2 is divided into six sec- pean standards, prepared jointly by familiar with the numerous docu-
tions and twenty-four annexes and ISO technical committee TC 182 and ments involved, any antipathy
provides detailed rules for site CEN TC 341. Two of these groups of towards them is likely to dissolve.
investigations, general test specifi- standards (BS EN ISO 14688 and In order for the Eurocodes to
cations, derivations of ground BS EN ISO 14689) are concerned with become accepted and their princi-
properties and the geotechnical the identification and classification ples to be understood and applied
model of the site, and examples of correctly, there needs to be an on-
calculation methods based on field going programme of education and
and laboratory testing. training. Over the next few years a
For many geotechnical engineers “Eurocode 7 represents a series of publications will become
across Europe, Eurocode 7 repre- major change in design available to explain the application
sents a major change in design phi- philosophy” of the Eurocodes. These will include
losophy, away from the traditional books, open lectures, teaching mate-
allowable (a.k.a. permissible) stress rials, case studies and research
design involving a single, lumped papers. Each document will pro-
factor of safety. The use of a single of soil and rock. Four of the groups vide fresh levels of insight into the
factor to account for all uncertain- of standards (EN ISO 22282, subject and will help to uncover any
ties in the analysis – although con- BS EN ISO 22475, BS EN ISO 22476 inconsistencies. It is very unlikely
venient – does not provide a proper and EN ISO 22477) cover field test- that one publication or suite of train-
control of different levels of uncer- ing. Finally, one group of standards ing events will cater for all needs.
tainty in various parts of the calcu- (EN ISO TS 17892) deals with labo- There will be pressure on geo-
lation. A limit state approach forces ratory testing. Each of the standards technical software houses to make
designers to think more rigorously within each group is divided into a their computer programs compati-
about possible modes of failure and number of parts. The entire suite ble with BS EN 1997. This task is
those parts of the calculation comprises nearly 50 standards or made more difficult by ongoing
process where there is most uncer- specifications and over the next few debate about how partial factors
tainty. This should lead to more years will replace equivalent British should be applied to water pres-
rational levels of reliability for the Standards such as BS 5930, Code of sures, passive earth pressures, etc.
whole structure. The partial factors practice for site investigation, BS 1377, There will inevitably be a delay
in Eurocode 7 have been chosen to Methods of test for soils for civil engi- before fully consistent and reliable
give similar designs to those neering purposes, BS 8002, Code of programs become available.
obtained using lumped factors – practice for earth retaining structures, For a detailed explanation of Euro-
thereby ensuring that the wealth and BS 8004, Code of practice for foun- code 7 and its application to struc-
of previous experience is not lost dations. The Eurocodes will take tural engineering reference may be
by the introduction of a radically precedence where there is any con- made to Bond, A. J. and Harris, A. J.
different design methodology. flict between the requirements of the Decoding Eurocode 7, Taylor & Fran-
The Eurocodes present a unified Eurocodes and British Standards. cis, ISBN 10 0-415-40948-9, 2008. p

38 BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion

Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance

Eurocode 8: Design of structures for

earthquake resistance
Edmund Booth, Consulting Engineer

T he six parts of Eurocode 8 form

a comprehensive set of require-
ments that provide a unified
nature of many of its procedures
will also assist designers.
Guidance material on Eurocode 8
aspects of their design that are not
covered. However, many features of
Eurocode 8 are still relevant, and it
approach to the seismic design of includes the IStructE manual [1] and is likely that Eurocode 8 will influ-
structures and their foundations. the Designers’ Guide [2]. The Society ence the practice of UK designers
Eurocode 8 covers not only build- for Earthquake and Civil Engineering undertaking nuclear and dam
ing structures, but also bridges and Dynamics (, in design work. Certain petrochemical
other facilities such as chimneys, association with Imperial College facilities, such as liquified natural
towers, tanks and pipelines (both London, runs a regular series of gas (LNG) tanks and high pressure
buried and above ground). Con- two day courses on Eurocode 8. gas pipelines, and important
crete, steel, steel-concrete compos- Eurocode 8 is mainly intended for bridges are other examples where
ite, timber and masonry con- design in areas of high to moderate seismic design has been carried out
struction is covered. There is also a seismicity, such as parts of southern in the past, and Eurocode 8 covers
part dealing with the assessment Europe or Turkey, and it is likely seismic aspects of their design. The
and retrofit of existing buildings, that UK designers will make most UK National Annexes to Eurocode 8
which is an important issue for seis- use of it for projects in such regions. advise that seismic loading should
mic regions of the world, where For areas of low or very low seis- be considered in consequence cate-
there are many buildings for which micity, including the UK, seismic gory CC3 structures, which are
construction predated modern seis- design is only likely to be required defined in BS EN 1990 as those hav-
mic design codes or is seismically in structures where there are very ing high consequences of failure,
inadequate in other ways. The use severe consequences of failure. The while the normal and low conse-
of base isolation bearings to pro- UK National Forewords to all parts quence categories CC1 and CC2 can
vide seismic protection is also cov- of Eurocode 8 state: be considered as adequately cov-
ered. Dams, nuclear power stations ered by the robustness provisions of
and long span suspension bridges There are generally no require- other parts of the Eurocode.
are however specifically excluded ments in the UK to consider seismic PD 6698: 2008 [3] gives further
from its scope. loading, and the whole of the UK advice on seismic design to
Eurocode 8 therefore provides a may be considered an area of very Eurocode 8 in the UK and (for the
unified approach to the seismic low seismicity in which the provi- first time) provides seismic hazard
design of a very wide range of sions of EN 1998 need not apply. zoning maps of the UK suitable for
structural types and construction However, certain types of structure, code based designs.
materials. It covers the selection of by reason of their function, location
design ground motions, seismic or form, may warrant an explicit
analysis, special seismic detailing consideration of seismic actions.
requirements and geotechnical Further guidance on the circum- References
issues such as design of retaining stances where an explicit seismic [1] Institution of Structural Engineers.
walls and assessment of the lique- design should be considered is pro- Manual for the seismic design of steel
faction potential of soils. Eurocode vided in PD 6698: 2008. and concrete buildings to Eurocode 8,
8 is of course fully integrated with London, publication expected 2009
the rest of the Eurocode suite, to Nuclear power plants are the [2] Fardis M., Carvalho E., Elnashai A.,
Faccioli E., Pinto P. and Plumier A.
which reference is needed for non- prime example of ‘high conse-
Designers’ guide to EN 1998-1 and
seismic aspects of design. The com- quence of failure’ structures, and 1998-5. Eurocode 8: Design Provisions
prehensive scope of Eurocode 8, have been designed seismically in for Earthquake Resistant Structures,
and its ability to form part of a uni- the UK since the 1980s; major dams Thomas Telford, London, 2005
form basis for all aspects of design, have also been subject to seismic [3] PD 6698:2009, Background paper to the
UK National Annexes to BS EN 1998-
is an important feature of the code checks for many years. Both types
1, BS EN 1998-2, BS EN 1998-4,
that will be of benefit to UK design- of structures are specifically BS EN 1998-5 and BS EN 1998-6.
ers. The clear and rational basis for excluded from the scope of Euro- British Standards Institution,
its provisions and the advanced code 8, because there are particular London p

BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion 39

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Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures

Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium

Phil Tindall, UK Technical Director (Bridges), Hyder Consulting

E urocode 9 has five parts; in the UK. These are PD 6702-1 and
PD 6702-2. These documents give
important guidance on matters
each material/application in British
Standards added a layer of
p Part 1-1 gives general structural where choice is given in Eurocode 9 BS EN 1999-1-2 gives comprehen-
rules and is largely equivalent to or BS EN 1090-3, together with sive rules for determining the fire
BS 8118-1; additional background data resistance of aluminium members
p Part 1-2 gives design for fire referred to in the national annexes. in structures. This is a welcome
resistance, which was not cov- The BSI committee responsible addition as the subject was not pre-
ered by a British Standard; for Eurocode 9 considered that viously covered by British Stan-
p Part 1-3 relates to structures sus- some of the fatigue detail categories dards and the detailed knowledge
ceptible to fatigue and was in BS EN 1999-1-3 could be subject of fire resistance was confined to a
included in BS 8118-1; to misinterpretation, or could give small group of experts.
p Parts 1-4 and 1-5 give design fatigue safe lives that are only Applications that need extended
rules for cold-formed structural achievable with unrealistic expecta- fire resistance should have insula-
sheeting and shell structures tions regarding internal defects. tion applied in a similar manner to
respectively; neither subject was The published guidance document steel structures.
covered by a British Standard in gives alternatives to the informa- BS 8118 calculated fatigue design
any great detail. tive annexes in Eurocode 9. The based on ‘safe life’ principles.
alternative category information BS EN 1999-1-3 uses a similar
Eurocode 9, in common with other uses data previously issued in methodology for calculating a
Eurocodes, makes considerable prENV 1999-2, published in the UK fatigue safe life. The UK recom-
cross-reference to other European in 2000 as a Draft for Development. mendation is not to use the detailed
standards. In particular, it is based categories contained in the inform-
on the principles contained in ative annexes.
BS EN 1990 and refers to Eurocode 1
Opportunities and The Eurocode also allows a
for loading. BS EN 1090-3 gives
challenges damage-tolerant approach to
rules for execution (fabrication and Many of the Eurocode 9 rules are fatigue design, i.e. some cracking is
erection) and will replace BS 8118-2. similar to those in BS 8118, albeit allowed to occur in service, pro-
The Eurocodes are more theoreti- they are more extensive and allow vided that there is stable, pre-
cal than British Standards and have greater refinement of the design, dictable crack growth and a
the advantages in allowing design- which can lead to more economical suitable inspection regime in place.
ers, where necessary, to go back to structures. In common with other The damage tolerant approach
first principles. This can result in Eurocodes, the additional clauses should only be used in conjunction
higher allowable loads and more and the need to reference other with the approval of the owner of
economical structures. Presently standards increases the required the structure. This approval can, in
many designers use commercial design effort. Comparative exer- certain circumstances, be beneficial.
software or in-house spreadsheets cises between Eurocode 9 and BS EN 1999-1-4 is a welcome
for code compliance checking, con- BS 8118 show that the difference in addition due to the increasing
sequently more complex checks are allowable loads for static design of design requirements for cold-
now not necessarily an issue. typical members and details are formed structural sheeting that has
The national annexes to Euro- small. a light weight and excellent corro-
code 9 give UK-specific partial fac- The use of Eurocode 1 for loading sion resistance.
tors and choices. The use of the UK and a common philosophy for load BS EN 1999-1-5 has a series of
National Annexes is a prerequisite factors and partial safety factors, very complex analyses for shell
for the use of Eurocode 9. irrespective of whether working in structures. This Part 1-5 requires
It is anticipated that BS 8118 will steel, aluminium, timber, concrete, considerable expertise in shell struc-
be withdrawn in 2010. on a building, a bridge or on foun- tures and the ability of the designer
BSI is issuing two documents to dations, will be welcomed by to use correctly complex finite ele-
assist UK designers using Eurocode 9 designers. The different factors for ment computer software. p

BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion 41

Section 4
Business matters:
software and risk
Software to the Eurocodes

Software to the Eurocodes

Alan J Rathbone, Chief Engineer CSC(UK) Ltd

C hoosing the right moment to

release design software for the
Eurocodes is a matter of judge-
It is clear that developing, testing
and documenting new software for
Eurocodes is a massive and costly
Almost certainly it will be possi-
ble to run Eurocode and BS codes in
parallel and importantly this is
ment. In reality it makes no sense to task for each software house. Com- exactly what you should do but
make software available (other mercially this cannot simply be NOT on a live job. The probable
than perhaps for training purposes) absorbed but how it is passed on advice from the software houses
before all the appropriate national will no doubt depend upon the would be to start on a small, simple
annexes are available. For some software house and the type of building that has already been
materials these are ready, whilst for package on offer. designed to British Standards. This
steel the latest proposed publica- The amount of training required is downtime for the designer; it is
tion date for the main ones is the following the introduction of the not fee-earning but will pay divi-
end of 2008. Across the whole range new Eurocode software will also dends later.
of Eurocodes there are some depend upon the type of software New software is likely to be reli-
national annexes that will not be on offer. For example, probably no able although it must be recognized
ready until 2009. training will be necessary for a sim- that with any new major software
The question of need is a serious ple steel beam calculation used to development there may be some
one. In bridge design where there assist understanding and to com- snags. CSC has robust procedures
are a few, strong clients keen to pare results between British Stan- for testing software, for reporting
move forward, some software is ‘bugs’ and for updating software.
already available. It is anticipated Hence, it is (always) important
that the bridge fraternity will con- “It is a massive task to that you keep the programs up to
sider proposals for design using the redevelop all software to date with the latest versions or
Eurocodes once all the appropriate allow for Eurocode downloads. Of more concern than
national annexes are available. In bugs should be snags associated
building design with a mixed client
design … it is likely that with changes in approach within
base there is less incentive. For software will not be ready Eurocodes – for example both
some material sectors an economic at one instant in time but cylinder and cube strength are used
advantage can be seen whilst in will be phased.” to define concrete strength. This
others the reverse is more likely. could easily trip up (or snag) the
This is not a climate for rapid unwary.
uptake. To allow all of the support- dard and Eurocode designs. In this If you wish to continue to use
ing documents to be in place (not case, individuals should be able to your in-house software then it will
just the national annexes but other work out how to use the software need to be modified or perhaps,
industry produced guidance) and a and determine how the answers are particularly in the case of spread-
period of ‘settlement’ it is antici- derived. On the other hand inte- sheets, completely rewritten. In
pated that software for integrated grated building design software both cases you should follow a
building design will start to become will almost certainly require users quality process – define what the
available in 2009. It is a massive to undertake some training – not in software/spreadsheet should do,
task to redevelop all software to the use of the software since much do it, and then test that it does what
allow for Eurocode design – CSC of the user interface will not change it should.
have estimated that updating the but in setting up the model and in Perhaps this is a time to review
full suite of Fastrak, Orion and interpreting the results. Diligent your strategy for the develop-
TEDDS is of the order of 20–25 man software houses will provide this ment of in-house software/spread-
years – so it is likely that all of the training to run alongside and be sheets, and, if necessary, turn to
software will not be ready at one complimentary to training pro- alternatives from commercial soft-
instant in time but will be phased. vided by industry bodies. ware houses. p

BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion 43

Training and Exploring the Eurocodes

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Implementing Eurocodes: the benefits of computer-based training

Implementing Eurocodes: the

benefits of computer-based training
Chris Austin, Bestech Ltd

T here is no doubt that imple-

menting Eurocodes will cost
every organization both in terms of

Productivity ratio
time and of money. The key is to 1.0
reduce them to a minimum. In
a hypothetical example, let us
assume that the steepness of engi- 0.8
neers’ learning curves vary with
time, and so as a result their pro-
ductivity compared with their 0.6
normal productivity (‘productivity
ratio’) gradually approaches unity
as time progresses, as in Example 1. 0.4
At the same time, the additional
cost of these engineers goes from
one times usual cost (i.e. no gener- 0.2
ated revenue) to zero (i.e. full rev- Additional cost
enue). The total additional cost is

0 2 4 6 8 10
“There is no doubt that Time
implementing Eurocodes Example 1 – Natural learning
will cost every organiza-
tion both in terms of time
and of money. The key 1.2
is to reduce them to a Productivity ratio
minimum.” 1.0

the area under the Additional Cost 0.8

curve, which in this case is approx-
imately 4.5 units.
One way to accelerate the learn-
ing curve is to ‘Minimize the
Novel’, and one technique is to run
a pilot design on a project that has
been done before in another code:
obviously one would want to select 0.2
a small project! During the time of
the pilot, the productivity ratio will Additional cost
be zero, but afterwards the learning
will start with a higher productivity
ratio, and will take less overall 0 2 4 6 8 10
time, and in Example 2 the total
additional cost has been reduced to Time
about 3.7 units. Example 2 – Pilot project

BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion 45

Section 4. Business matters: software and risk

1.2 However, if the lecture is based

around a carefully chosen set of
Productivity ratio examples that are worked out by
1.0 software, then many simple exam-
ples can be covered in a lecture,
each with a small number of learn-
0.8 ing points. If the software is suffi-
ciently well written, most queries
on the operation of the new design
0.6 code will be handled by the online
help system, thus freeing up the
lecturer for really important queries
0.4 such as code interpretation issues.
By definition, hand worked
examples can take time to perform,
0.2 and so it is difficult to assess the
Additional cost importance of various assump-
tions, but with software the calcula-
0.0 tions are instantaneous (almost)
0 2 4 6 8 10 and it is easy to see the effect of
changing the value of a parameter
Time from (say) 1.15 to 1.25, and so the
Example 3 – Pilot project plus computer-based training students can quickly develop the
experience of knowing which
parameters are important (or sensi-
tive) or not so important (or insen-
In both the preceding examples, for themselves, and in the work sitive). This makes the experience
the productivity ratio increases as a environment this means either quicker and easier to acquire.
result of experience, formal train- doing homework (literally), or The lectures not only deliver
ing, external conferences and waiting until the need arises and knowledge about the Eurocodes,
courses, etc. If it was possible to trying desperately to remember but also they inspire confidence in
make the experience easier to which lecture covered the issue at the use of the software, and this
acquire, and the training more means that the software can be
effective, then the pilot project used immediately on real projects.
would take less time, and the learn- With the online help system giving
ing curve would be even steeper,
“Making training more day-to-day guidance, the learning
so full productivity would be effective and the experi- process becomes available full time,
achieved in less time and at less ence easier to acquire is and the total learning time is dra-
total additional cost, which in relatively easy provided matically reduced. In fact, one
Example 3 is down to approxi- could proceed with a design with-
mately 2.5 units.
that the right software is out having full knowledge of the
Making the training more effec- available.” code, because one could be confi-
tive and the experience easier to dent that most queries could be
acquire is relatively easy provided handled quickly and easily online.
that the right software is available. hand, and what the recommenda- Of course overall guidance would
Formal training often consists of tion was. If students do the exam- still be required, but it could be
a lecture, and maybe some worked ples during the lecture, then much given in bigger and higher level
examples, as in the typical univer- time is wasted as the lecturer han- chunks and at shorter intervals,
sity lecture on the theory of struc- dles queries on a one-on-one basis, because the details could be cov-
tures. The ‘students’ do not learn and much less material can be ered simply and easily whilst doing
very much until they come to try it covered. productive work. p

46 BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion


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Insurance and the Eurocodes

Insurance and the Eurocodes

Peter Sharp, Aon Ltd

Construction professionals must en- Eurocodes is that they will encour- are from the current British Stan-
sure that they use the new Euro- age the free movement of construc- dards and how the changes can be
codes when required to do so by tion products and services around incorporated in their risk manage-
their clients, as failure to keep up to the European Union. This will im- ment procedures and internal IT
date could impinge on their future prove competitiveness both within systems. Good risk management
professional indemnity costs. European Member States and also practice should ensure that the pos-
As has been outlined earlier in for European firms working out- sibility of making a mistake from
this publication, Structural Euro- side Europe recognizing the critical the use of an old standard is mini-
codes for the construction industry role that the construction sector has mized. Making a start now can fur-
are the European Union’s replace- throughout Europe. ther reduce the risk while the
ment for national design standards, The changeover may, however, British Standards and Structural
such as those published by the present a problem to construction Eurocodes are going through a
British Standards Institution. As the consultants who will be used to period of co-existence.
Eurocodes are integral to the Build- complying with the old British Stan-
ing Regulations, consultants in the dards and may not be aware that
construction industry will usually they could face significant financial
Avoiding claims
need to make sure that their work penalties from negligence claims if In the past, claims have been made
meets the new Eurocode standards. they do not incorporate the new under professional indemnity
These changes will affect architects, Structural Eurocodes in their work insurance policies against consult-
engineers, chartered surveyors and ants who have failed to adhere to
also design and build contractors. existing British Standards. This is
Failure to use the new standards often when a British Standard has
could result in an increased risk of
“Eurocodes will encour- changed but a failure of internal
being sued for negligence if an old age the free movement of procedures has meant that it was
British Standard has been used and construction products and not updated within the practice’s
work is required to rectify any mis- services around the Euro- procedures. It is likely that the intro-
takes. This could lead to an increase duction of the Structural Eurocodes
in claims against consultants’ and
pean Union.” will make this scenario more of a
contractors’ professional indemnity risk and could result in a correspon-
insurance which in turn could ding rise in the number of claims.
prompt a possible rise in the cost when required to do so by their clients. Whilst professional indemnity
of insurance, bigger excesses and/ So how can the professional consult- insurance will provide indemnity
or additional restrictions in their ant prepare to minimize the impact under these circumstances under-
policy terms and conditions. on their business both from a cost writers keep a keen eye on those
and an operational perspective? areas that produce large numbers of
claims. Consultants and contractors
Promoting free movement with a poor claims record where
Take responsibility
As a replacement for the British they have failed to maintain up-to-
Standards, which currently provide It is the consultant’s responsibility date standards may well see insur-
the UK’s codes of practice, the to ensure that all their designs, ance costs rise or face getting less
Structural Eurocodes are a pan specified materials and products cover for a higher premium.
European initiative that establish a meet the required standard. Fortu- If you are involved in a profes-
set of codes for construction. Cov- nately due to the comparatively sional role in the construction sec-
ering 57 design standards they high benchmark of the existing tor, 2010 represents a significant
include a number of key areas such British Standards to the rest of milestone and a useful deadline for
as the basis of structural design, Europe, it is possible that consult- updating your standards. Failure to
steel, concrete, timber, masonry, alu- ants in this country will be near to ensure the new standards are incor-
minium, specialist glass, geotechni- achieving the required standard. porated will not only impact on
cal and seismic design, and will This does not mean they can be your clients and your reputation
ensure that construction standards complacent or ignore the change. but could also have an adverse
across Europe will be harmonized. A sensible start point would be an effect on your professional indem-
The thinking behind the Structural assessment of what the differences nity cover in the future. p

BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion 49


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Structural Eurocodes – what they say

Structural Eurocodes –
what they say
“The Eurocodes are recognized as the most technically advanced suite of civil and structural
engineering codes in the world and they will present significant opportunities to the UK
Construction Industry.”

Professor Haig Gulvanessian CBE, Civil Engineering and Eurocode Consultant

“The structural eurocodes are the culmination of many years work by hundreds of experts
throughout Europe and will enable designers to work with consistent codes across the borders
between European Countries.”

Barry Haseltine MBE, UK delegate to TC 250 and past Chairman of CEN/TC 250/SC 6
“Design of Masonry Structures”

“Structural Eurocodes form a coherent package of codes that are technically up to date and internally
consistent. They are rigorous and yet flexible allowing their adoption not only within Europe but
also internationally.”

Professor Nary Narayanan, past Chairman of CEN/TC 250/SC 2 “Design of Concrete

Structures Committee”

“Managing the transition from working to British Standards to the adoption of the new Eurocodes
will of course represent a challenge but one that should provide new and enhanced markets for UK
Structural Engineering.”

Professor David Nethercot OBE, Chair of the IStructE Eurocodes Implementation


“Eurocodes contain the most up to date design information covering all civil engineering structures.
For the first time there will be uniform design rules across Europe. The sooner we start using
Eurocodes, and face the challenges of a new set of standards, the more equipped we will be to grab
the opportunities of a wider European Market.”

Sibdas Chakrabarti, formerly, the Highways Agency Eurocodes Project Manager

BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion 51

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52 BSI Structural Eurocodes Companion

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