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GULU UNIVERSITY

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS, 2007/2008

THIRD YEAR SEMESTER ONE EXAMINATIONS FOR THE DEGREE OF


BACHELOR OF SCIENCE EDUCATION

CHE 308: THERMODYNAMICS

DATE: TIME:

TIME ALLOWED: 3 HOURS

Instructions to Candidates

1. Attempt all the FOUR questions.


2. All the questions carry equal marks.
3. Use a fresh page for each new question
4. Illustrate your answers with equations and diagrams where possible
5. Check that this Examination Paper has 4 printed pages

DATA

Universal Gas Constant, R = 8.314 J mol-1 K-1

Avogadro Constant, NA = 6.02 x 1023 mol-1

Planck Constant, h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s

Electronic charge, e = 1.6 x 10-19 C

Electronic rest mass, me = 9.1 x 10-31 kg

Rydberg Constant, RH = 1.097 x 107 m-1

Boltzmann Constant, k = 1.38 x 10-23 J K-1

Velocity of light, in vacuo, c = 3.00 x 108 m s-1

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1. a) The van’t Hoff equation is of the form:

 a products 
∆G = ∆G θ + RT ln 
 a reac tan ts 

Use it to derive the relationship between the standard Gibbs free energy,

∆G θ , and the equilibrium constant, Kth. (8 marks)

b) How does the equilibrium constant of a reaction, Kth, vary with

temperature, T?

Give an equation, defining your symbols. (7 marks)

c) Using the following data calculate the thermodynamics equilibrium

constant, Kth, for the following reaction at 500K.

SO2(g) + 1/2O2(g) SO3(g)

∆Hºf at 298K ∆Gºf at 298K


SO2(g) -206.8 kJ mol-1 -300.2 kJ mol-1
SO3(g) -395.7 kJ mol-1 -371.1 kJ mol-1
(10 marks)
(25 marks)

2. a) State Raoult’s Law. (4 marks)

b) Define the term ideal solution. (4 marks)

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c) Calculate the composition of a benzene-toluene mixture which at

760mmHg boils at 88oC, if the svp’s of benzene and toluene at that

temperature are 957 and 878 mmHg, respectively. (8 marks)

d) An ideal liquid binary mixture consist of xA moles of liquid A and xB

moles of liquid B. The pure constituents have svp’s poA and poB,

respectively, and their partial pressures above the mixture are pA and pB.

Write an expression relating the total v.p., P, to the individual partial

pressures. (9 marks)

(25 marks)

3. a) Define the following as used in mass-energy systems:

i) isolated system,

ii) closed system,

iii) open system. (6 marks)

b) The equation below represents a thermodynamic relationship:

∆G = ∆H − T∆S

i) State what each symbol stands for.

ii) State the conditions under which the following factors are used as

criteria for spontaneity: ∆S , ∆G .

∆H
iii) Under what circumstances can the expression ∆S = be
T

written? (10 marks)

c) The reaction in the manufacture of water-gas proceeds

C(s) + H2O(g) H2(g) + CO(g)

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(∆Hor = +131 kJ mol-1; ∆Sor = +134 J K-1)

Estimate the equilibrium temperature. (9 marks)

(25 marks)

4. a) With reference to specific examples, define the term colligative property

of a solution. (5 marks)

b) Compare and contrast the relative merits and demerits of colligative

properties with those of mass spectrometry as a method for the

determination of relative molecular masses of organic compounds.

(7 marks)

c) Derive, from first principles, the relationship between the change in

freezing point or boiling point of a given pure solvent and the amount of

solute dissolved in it. State the necessary assumption made. (8 marks)

d) The relative molecular mass of naphthalene is 128. By how much would

the boiling point of benzene rise of 50g of naphthalene were dissolved in

2kg of benzene?

(Ebullioscopic constant, Kb, for benzene at 760mmHg is 2.7 K kg mol-1.)

(5 marks)

(25 marks)

END