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# GULU UNIVERSITY

## THIRD YEAR SEMESTER ONE EXAMINATIONS FOR THE DEGREE OF

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE EDUCATION

DATE: TIME:

## TIME ALLOWED: 3 HOURS

Instructions to Candidates

## 1. Attempt all the FOUR questions.

2. All the questions carry equal marks.
3. Use a fresh page for each new question
5. Check that this Examination Paper has 4 printed pages

DATA

## Velocity of light, in vacuo, c = 3.00 x 108 m s-1

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1. a) The van’t Hoff equation is of the form:

 a products 
∆G = ∆G θ + RT ln 
 a reac tan ts 

Use it to derive the relationship between the standard Gibbs free energy,

temperature, T?

## ∆Hºf at 298K ∆Gºf at 298K

SO2(g) -206.8 kJ mol-1 -300.2 kJ mol-1
SO3(g) -395.7 kJ mol-1 -371.1 kJ mol-1
(10 marks)
(25 marks)

## b) Define the term ideal solution. (4 marks)

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c) Calculate the composition of a benzene-toluene mixture which at

## d) An ideal liquid binary mixture consist of xA moles of liquid A and xB

moles of liquid B. The pure constituents have svp’s poA and poB,

respectively, and their partial pressures above the mixture are pA and pB.

## Write an expression relating the total v.p., P, to the individual partial

pressures. (9 marks)

(25 marks)

## 3. a) Define the following as used in mass-energy systems:

i) isolated system,

∆G = ∆H − T∆S

## i) State what each symbol stands for.

ii) State the conditions under which the following factors are used as

## criteria for spontaneity: ∆S , ∆G .

∆H
iii) Under what circumstances can the expression ∆S = be
T

## C(s) + H2O(g) H2(g) + CO(g)

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(∆Hor = +131 kJ mol-1; ∆Sor = +134 J K-1)

(25 marks)

## 4. a) With reference to specific examples, define the term colligative property

of a solution. (5 marks)

(7 marks)

## c) Derive, from first principles, the relationship between the change in

freezing point or boiling point of a given pure solvent and the amount of

2kg of benzene?

(5 marks)

(25 marks)

END