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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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16.885J/ESD.35J

Aircraft Systems Engineering

Aerodynamics Primer

16.885J/ESD.35J - Sept 2003

Topics

• Geometry jargon

• Standard atmosphere

• Airflow variables

• Forces acting on aircraft

• Aerodynamic coefficients

• Lift curve

• Drag polar

McGraw Hill, 3rd ed. 1989. All figures in this primer are

taken from this source unless otherwise noted.

• Note: other sources need to be added.

16.885J/ESD.35J - Sept 2003

t = thickness

c = chord

t/c is an airfoil

parameter

V t

8

c

16.885J/ESD.35J - Sept 2003

ct

• b = wing span

/

• S = wing area

• AR = aspect ratio=b2/S

– For cavg = S/b, AR= b/cavg

• O = ct/cr = taper ratio cr b

• / = leading edge sweep angle

• Twist is the difference in the

angle of the tip and root airfoil

section chord lines . S

16.885J/ESD.35J - Sept 2003

for Aircraft Design

• The “standard atmosphere” is a

reference condition.

– Every day is different.

• Temperature T, pressure p,

density U are functions of

altitude h.

• Standard sea level conditions

– p = 1.01325x105 N/m2 = 2116.2 lb/ft2

– T = 288.16 0K = 518.7 0R

– U = 1.2250 kg/m3 = 0.00278 slug/ft3

• Handy calculator

http://aero.stanford.edu/StdAtm.html

16.885J/ESD.35J - Sept 2003

Flow Velocities

– Units ft/sec, mph (1 mph = 1.47 fps), knot (1 kt = 1.69 fps=1.151 mph)

• a = speed of sound

– Function of temperature: a1/a2 = sqrt(T1/T2 )

– Function of altitude (standard sea level a = 1116.4 ft/sec)

• Mach number is ratio of velocity to speed of sound, M=V/a

– Mf = Vf/ af

– Mf < 1 is subsonic flight, Mf > 1 is supersonic flight

– Mf close to 1 (approx 0.8 to 1.2) is transonic flight

16.885J/ESD.35J - Sept 2003

Pressures

1 2

related by Bernoulli equation

– For M > 0.3, pressure and velocity (or Mach number)

are related, but equation is more involved

– Further restricted to no losses due to friction.

• p1 + 0.5UV12 = p2 + 0.5UV22 = p0

– p called static pressure

– 0.5UV2 called dynamic pressure = q

– p0 called stagnation pressure

– p + q somewhat like potential plus kinetic energy

16.885J/ESD.35J - Sept 2003

Pressure Coefficient

Lift proportional • Due to geometry of airfoil, the

to area under velocity, and therefore the

curve pressure, vary.

Cp – Manifestation of lift

-2

• It is convenient to express this

as a pressure coefficient

-1 Cp = (p - pf)/ qf

Upp

er surf

ace

• From Bernoulli Eq and

Lower surface

1

x/c

assuming density is constant

0

(ok for M < 0.3),

Cp = 1 - (V/ Vf)2

+1

• Pick out some features on

Pressure coefficient for a figure at left

conventional airfoil: NACA 0012

airfoil at D = 30.

16.885J/ESD.35J - Sept 2003

Forces

upward force on wing generating lift.

Lift = Weight for steady level flight.

Drag is balanced by thrust for non-accelerating flight.

Aerodynamic

Aerodynamicleverage

leverage--lift

liftisis10-30

10-30times

timesbigger

biggerthan

thandrag!

drag!

For

For11pound

poundof

ofthrust

thrustget

get10-30

10-30pounds

poundsof

oflift.

lift.

16.885J/ESD.35J - Sept 2003

L, D Definitions

• Resultant force on

body resolved into

L

Lift L and Drag D

V

• By definition,

8

c/4

D

– L is perpendicular to

α

relative wind

– D is parallel to

Relative wind

relative wind

16.885J/ESD.35J - Sept 2003

Force Coefficients

• It is convenient to use non-dimensional forms of the

forces, called coefficients

L D 1

CL , CD where q U fVf2

qS qS 2

• Allows scaling between different size aircraft (wind tunnel

models vs full scale), different velocities, altitudes, etc.

• Can use different ways, e.g.

– If CL, S, q are known, then L = CLSq

– If L=W and CL, S are known, then flight speed which

gives level flight is Vf 2W

UfC S

L

16.885J/ESD.35J - Sept 2003

Lift Curve

Cl

Cl, max

dC αl

d

e =

l o p

t s

Lif

αL=0

α

αstall

16.885J/ESD.35J - Sept 2003

For wing to

generate Lift

Low Pressure

High Pressure

an unrecoverable loss called drag due to lift, or induced drag.

16.885J/ESD.35J - Sept 2003

surface of aircraft causes a skin friction drag.

16.885J/ESD.35J - Sept 2003

Drag

• Independent of Lift C f (Re,Mf,shape)

D

0

– Skin friction

– Pressure changes due to boundary layer

– Flow separation due to shock (lecture 5)

– Shock wave drag (lecture 5)

• Plus lift dependent C2

– Induced (vortex drag) CD L , e <1

i S AR e

2

– Viscous and wave drag to do lift CD kCL f (D,Mf,Re)

• Total Drag C2

C C L kC2

D D S AR e L

0

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