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White box testing involves looking at the structure of the code. When you know the internal structure of a product, tests can be conducted to ensure that the internal operations performed according to the specification. And all internal components have been adequately exercised. White Box Testing is coverage of the specification in the code. Code coverage: Segment coverage: Ensure that each code statement is executed once. Branch Coverage or Node Testing: Coverage of each code branch in from all possible was. Compound Condition Coverage: For multiple condition test each condition with multiple paths and combination of different path to reach that condition. Basis Path Testing: Each independent path in the code is taken for testing. Data Flow Testing (DFT): In this approach you track the specific variables through each possible calculation, thus defining the set of intermediate paths through the code.DFT tends to reflect dependencies but it is mainly through sequences of data manipulation. In short each data variable is tracked and its use is verified. This approach tends to uncover bugs like variables used but not initialize, or declared but not used, and so on. Path Testing: Path testing is where all possible paths through the code are defined and covered. Its a time consuming task. Loop Testing: These strategies relate to testing single loops, concatenated loops, and nested loops. Independent and dependent code loops and values are tested by this approach. Why we do White Box Testing? To ensure: y That all independent paths within a module have been exercised at least once. y All logical decisions verified on their true and false values. y All loops executed at their boundaries and within their operational bounds internal data structures validity. Need of White Box Testing? To discover the following types of bugs: y Logical error tend to creep into our work when we design and implement functions, conditions or controls that are out of the program
Integration.It is difficult to identify all possible inputs in limited testing time. These tools are used for regression testing that to check whether new build has created any bug in previous working application functionality. By selecting important logical paths and data structure for testing is practically possible and effective.Tester can be non-technical. Main focus in black box testing is on functionality of the system as a whole. System. Black box testing occurs throughout the software development and Testing life cycle i. There are some bugs that cannot be found using only black box or only white box. . Acceptance and regression testing stages.Test cases can be designed as soon as the functional specifications are complete Disadvantages of Black Box Testing . .e in Unit. Knowledge of programming languages and logic. Java script. For this we need to know the program well i. Or in other words the Test engineer need not know the internal working of the ³Black box´ or application. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn¶t strictly forbidden. Perl. Majority of the applicationa are tested by black box testing method. so it doesn¶t explicitly use Knowledge of the internal structure or code. We need to cover majority of test cases so that most of the bugs will get discovered by blackbox testing. So writing test cases is slow and difficult . . These record and playback tools records test cases in the form of some scripts like TSL. Tools used for Black Box testing: Black box testing tools are mainly record and playback tools.The design errors due to difference between logical flow of the program and the actual implementation y Typographical errors and syntax checking Skills Required: We need to write test cases that ensure the complete coverage of the program logic. We should know the specification and the code to be tested.e. The term µbehavioral testing¶ is also used for black box testing and white box testing is also sometimes called µstructural testing¶.Used to verify contradictions in actual system and the specifications. Each testing method has its own advantages and disadvantages. but it¶s still discouraged. VB script. This means exhaustive testing is impossible for large systems.Chances of having unidentified paths during this testing Methods of Black box Testing: . Advantages of Black Box Testing . y Black box testing treats the system as a ³black-box´. Limitations of WBT: Not possible for testing each and every path of the loops in program.The test inputs needs to be from large sample space. This does not mean that WBT is not effective.
Min. These standards can be for Coding. minimum. just inside/outside boundaries. Dynamic Testing: Dynamic Testing involves working with the software. max. Integrating and Deployment. one valid and one two invalid classes are defined. From this object graph each object relationship is identified and test cases written accordingly to discover the errors. Difference between Static or Dynamic testing? Static Testing: The Verification activities fall into the category of Static Testing.e boundary. writing the test cases that cover all the application paths. Boundary Value Analysis: Many systems have tendency to fail on boundary. giving input values and checking if the output is as expected. If an input condition is Boolean. Boundary Value Analysis (BVA) is a test Functional Testing technique where the extreme boundary values are chosen. typical values BVA techniques: 1. Max -1. you have a checklist to check whether the work you are doing is going as per the set standards of the organization. 4. Inspection's and Walkthrough's are static testing methodologies. If an input condition specifies a member of a set. How is this partitioning performed while testing: 1. min-1. Kinds of ranges Generalizing ranges depends on the nature or type of variables Advantages of Boundary Value Analysis 1. Extends equivalence partitioning Test both sides of each boundary Look at output boundaries for test cases too Test min. For this technique there are no specific tools. All such objects are identified and graph is prepared. 2. During static testing. . and error values. Min ± 1. Number of variables For n variables: BVA yields 4n + 1 test cases. Boundary values include maximum. Max +1 3. Error Guessing is the art of guessing where errors can be hidden. one valid and two invalid equivalence classes are defined. one valid and one invalid class is defined. Equivalence Partitioning: Equivalence partitioning is a black box testing method that divides the input domain of a program into classes of data from which test cases can be derived. 3.Graph Based Testing Methods: Each and every application is build up of some objects. Nom. one valid and one invalid equivalence class is defined. max+1. Forces attention to exception handling Limitations of Boundary Value Analysis Boundary value testing is efficient only for variables of fixed values i. Min +1. So testing boundry values of application is important. Review's. 2. typical values. Error Guessing: This is purely based on previous experience and judgment of tester. If an input condition requires a specific value. Max. Robustness Testing ± Boundary Value Analysis plus values that go beyond the limits 2. If an input condition specifies a range.
"Who to Test". developed by the Test Lead. These Test Scenario was deal by the Test Enggineer. Severity is given by Testers Priority: Determines the defect urgency of repair. 2. High Severity & High Priority : In the above example if there is a fault while calculating weekly report. This is a high severity fault but low priority because this fault can be fixed in the next release as a change request. 3. Cyclomatic Complexity Cyalomatic Complexity is part of software metrics. which contains "What to Test". These Test Cases are deal by the Test Enggneer Define the Severity and Priority Severity: Severity determines the defect's effect on the application. It should be fixed urgently. High Severity & Low Priority : For example an application which generates some banking related reports weekly. developed by the Project manager. System Test Plan y what is the purpose of software testing's .Bug removal. System Tests and Acceptance Tests are few of the Dynamic Testing methodologies. Unit Tests. "When to Test". Low Severity & High Priority : If there is a spelling mistake or content issue on the homepage of a website which has daily hits of lakhs. quarterly & yearly by doing some calculations.These are the Validation activities. If there is a fault while calculating yearly report. Integration Tests. though this fault is not affecting the website or other functionalities but ."How to Test". which contains what type of technique to follow and which module to test. monthly. Test Scenario: A name given to Test Cases is called Test Scenario.by using this the logical complexity of an application can be measured STLC(Software Testing Life Cycle) Order of STLC: y y Test Strategy what is the purpose of software testing's . System Test Scenario y Test Case Test Strategy: Test Strategy is a Document. Test Cases: It is also document and it specifies a Testable condition to validate a functionality.Bug removal.Priority is given by Test lead or project manager 1. In this case. Test Plan: Test plan is a Document. This is a high severity and high priority fault because this fault will block the functionality of the application immediately within a week.
. contractual agreements. 4. This fault can be considered as low severity and low priority. The truth of the assertions is determined as the program executes. The field only takes meaning when owner of the bug P1 Fix in next build P2 Fix as soon as possible P3 Fix before next release P4 Fix it time allow P5 Unlikely to be fixed Default priority for new defects is set at P3 Difference between varification and validation verification: Verification ensures the product is designed to deliver all functionality to the customer. standards. Acceptance testing: Testing conducted to determine whether or not a system satisfies its acceptance criteria and to enable the customer to determine whether or not to accept the system. as defined in requirements. code. this can be done with checklists. plans. validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed Audit: An independent examination of a work product or set of work products to assess compliance with specifications. issues lists.considering the status and popularity of the website in the competitive market it is a high priority fault. The software is used by the customer in a setting approximating the target environment with the developer observing and recording errors and usage problems. Low Severity & Low Priority : If there is a spelling mistake on the pages which has very less hits throughout the month on any website. requirements and specifications. it typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents. walkthroughs and inspection meetings. is the intended behavior of the product. Assertion Testing: A dynamic analysis technique which inserts assertions about the relationship between program variables into the program code. Alpha Testing: Acceptance testing performed by the customer in a controlled environment at the developer's site. Priority is used to organize the work. validation: Validation ensures that functionality. or other criteria.
path.Boundary Value: (1) A data value that corresponds to a minimum or maximum input. In a situation where the developed software replaces an already working program. and just above. Contrast with testing. Compatibility Testing: The process of determining the ability of two or more systems to exchange information. Bug: A fault in a program which causes the program to perform in an unintended or unanticipated manner. The input and output domains are partitioned into classes and analysis is performed to determine which input classes cause which effect. See: branch coverage. etc. the defined limits of an input domain. Boundary Value Testing: A testing technique using input values at. internal. and with input values causing outputs to be at. the defined limits of an output domain. and just above. or output value specified for a system or component. or just inside or just outside a specified range of valid input and output values. and trivial values or parameters. Beta Testing: Acceptance testing performed by the customer in a live application of the software. Branch Testing: Testing technique to satisfy coverage criteria which require that for each decision point. data structures. Boundary Value Analysis: A selection technique in which test data are chosen to lie along "boundaries" of the input domain [or output range] classes. just below. Choices often include maximum. minimum. Cause Effect Graph: A Boolean graph linking causes and effects. Cause Effect Graphing: This is a Test data selection technique. Branch Coverage: A test coverage criteria which requires that for each decision point each possible branch be executed at least once. procedure parameters. in an environment not controlled by the developer. statement. each possible branch [outcome] be executed at least once. (2) A value which lies at. just below. The graph is actually a digital-logic circuit (a combinatorial logic network) using a simpler notation than standard electronics notation. testing. an investigation should be conducted to assess possible comparability problems between the new software and other programs or systems. A minimal set of inputs is chosen which will cover the entire . at one or more end user sites.
observed. or other item has on the development or operation of a system. to analyze the programmer's logic and assumptions. The selection criterion is to pick values that seem likely to cause errors. or other interested parties for comment or approval. or measured value or condition and the true. The cyclomatic complexity of a program is equivalent to the number of decision statements plus 1. Error Guessing: This is a Test data selection technique. path. managers. It is a systematic method of generating test cases representing combinations of conditions. Coverage analysis is useful when attempting to execute each statement. users. error. Crash: The sudden and complete failure of a computer system or component. Code Inspection: A manual [formal] testing [error detection] technique where the programmer reads source code. specified. Cyclomatic Complexity: The number of independent paths through a program. Error: A discrepancy between a computed. Coverage Analysis: Determining and assessing measures associated with the invocation of program structural elements to determine the adequacy of a test run. analyzing the code with respect to a checklist of historically common programming errors.effect set. and analyzing its compliance with coding standards. while the state of program variables is manually monitored. Criticality: The degree of impact that a requirement. . to a group who ask questions analyzing the program logic. fault. or theoretically correct value or condition. failure. Code Walkthrough: A manual testing [error detection] technique where program [source code] logic [structure] is traced manually [mentally] by a group with a small set of test cases. statement by statement. or iterative structure in a program. branch. Code Review: A meeting at which software code is presented to project personnel. customers. module.
Exception: An event that causes suspension of normal program execution. protection exception. Operational Testing: Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component in its operational environment. Integration Testing: An orderly progression of testing in which software elements. (2) Testing conducted to evaluate the compliance of a system or component with specified functional requirements and corresponding predicted results. Types include addressing exception. to evaluate their interactions. Mutation Testing: A testing methodology in which two or more program mutations are executed using the same test cases to evaluate the ability of the test cases to detect differences in the mutations. Exhaustive Testing: Executing the program with all possible combinations of values for program variables. Functional Testing: Testing that ignores the internal mechanism or structure of a system or component and focuses on the outputs generated in response to selected inputs and execution conditions. until the entire system has been integrated. This type of testing is feasible only for small. Interface Testing: Testing conducted to evaluate whether systems or components pass data and control correctly to one another. Contrast with mutation analysis. Failure: The inability of a system or component to perform its required functions within specified performance requirements. operation exception. and underflow exception. or both are combined and tested. hardware elements. or data definition in a computer program which causes the program to perform in an unintended or unanticipated manner. . simple programs. and estimating the number of faults remaining in the program. Fault: An incorrect step. overflow exception.Error Seeding: The process of intentionally adding known faults to those already in a computer program for the purpose of monitoring the rate of detection and removal. data exception. process.
which includes input. Path Testing: Testing to satisfy coverage criteria that each logical path through the program be tested. . Often paths through the program are grouped into a finite set of classes. formal qualification review. One path from each class is then tested. Risk: A measure of the probability and severity of undesired effects. or system conforms to established technical requirements. test readiness review. users. Regression Testing: Rerunning test cases which a program has previously executed correctly in order to detect errors spawned by changes or corrections made during software development and maintenance. The other system is considered as the standard of comparison. to demonstrate that the software meets its specified requirements. Types include code review. procedures. Qualification Testing: Formal testing. managers.Parallel Testing: Testing a new or an altered data processing system with the same source data that is used in another system. and systematic actions established in an enterprise for the purpose of providing and maintaining some degree of confidence in data integrity and accuracy throughout the life cycle of the data. manipulation. (3) The policy. Review: A process or meeting during which a work product or set of work products. Quality Control: The operational techniques and procedures used to achieve quality requirements. customers. and output. to provide confidence that all systems and components that influence the quality of the product are working as expected individually and collectively. is presented to project personnel. Performance Testing: Functional testing conducted to evaluate the compliance of a system or component with specified performance requirements. or other interested parties for comment or approval. update. module. planned and performed. Quality Assurance: (1) The planned systematic activities necessary to ensure that a component. (2) All actions that are taken to ensure that a development organization delivers products that meet performance requirements and adhere to standards and procedures. design review. requirements review. usually conducted by the developer for the consumer. (4) The actions.
Testability: The degree to which a system or component facilitates the establishment of test criteria and the performance of tests to determine whether those criteria have been met. Types include branch testing. documentation is also called as Static Analysis. This evaluation follows a formal process. Statement Testing: Testing to satisfy the criterion that each statement in a program be executed at least once during program testing. Structural Testing: Testing that takes into account the internal mechanism [structure] of a system or component. static analysis Static Analysis: Analysis of a program that is performed without executing the program. content. statement testing. code review. . path testing. Syn: software audit. Test: An activity in which a system or component is executed under specified conditions. specification analysis. the results are observed or recorded and an evaluation is made of some aspect of the system or component. code inspection. Storage Testing: This is a determination of whether or not certain processing conditions use more storage [memory] than estimated.Risk Assessment: A comprehensive evaluation of the risk and its associated impact. Such testing may be conducted in both the development environment and the target environment. design review. (2) Testing to insure each program statement is made to execute during testing and that each program statement performs its intended function. structure. Software Review: An evaluation of software elements to ascertain discrepancies from planned results and to recommend improvement. Stress Testing: Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements. code walkthrough. The process of evaluating a system or component based on its form. System Testing: The process of testing an integrated hardware and software system to verify that the system meets its specified requirements. See: code audit.
Testcase: Documentation specifying inputs. test log. or data structure definitions. required. Test Phase: The period of time in the software life cycle in which the components of a software product are evaluated and integrated. and. and schedule of intended testing activities. Test Incident Report: A document reporting on any event that occurs during testing that requires further investigation. often. test report. test incident report. and evaluation of the results for each defined test. the testing of a system or component. responsibilities. the features to be tested. Test Plan: Documentation specifying the scope. approach. test criteria. Types include test case specification. It identifies test items. Test Documentation: Documentation describing plans for. operation. sometimes. and the software product is evaluated to determine whether or not requirements have been satisfied. or results of. and a set of execution conditions for a test item. the testing tasks. uses these inputs to generate test input data. and any risks requiring contingency planning. and report test results. provide test inputs. specifications. validation protocol. predicted results. See: test design. Test Procedure: A formal document developed from a test plan that presents detailed instructions for the setup. Testcase Generator: A software tool that accepts as input source code. control and monitor execution. Test Log: A chronological record of all relevant details about the execution of a test. resources. test plan. Test Driver: A software module used to invoke a module under test and. . Test Design: Documentation specifying the details of the test approach for a software feature or combination of software features and identifying the associated tests. resources. test procedure. Test Item: A software item which is the object of testing. determines expected results.
(2) The process of analyzing a software item to detect the differences between existing and required conditions. Usability: The ease with which a user can learn to operate. Traceability Matrix: A matrix that records the relationship between two or more products. prepare inputs for. observing or recording the results. Verification and Testing: Used as an entity to define a procedure of review.g. See: traceability. i. and interpret outputs of a system or component. and for satisfaction of its requirements (or) Testing conducted to verify the implementation of the design for one software element. bugs.Test Report: A document describing the conduct and results of the testing carried out for a system or system component. formatting. syntactic.g. analysis. . Validation: Establishing documented evidence which provides a high degree of assurance that a specific process will consistently produce a product meeting its predetermined specifications and quality attributes. e. for correct implementation of its design. Validation. e.e. and to evaluate the features of the software items. and logical errors. and printing.. Usability Testing: Tests designed to evaluate the machine/user interface. determine functionality. and making an evaluation of some aspect of the system or component. Testing: (1) The process of operating a system or component under specified conditions. and ensure the production of quality software. Unit Testing: Testing of a module for typographic. traceability analysis.. a unit or module. Test Result Analyzer: A software tool used to test output data reduction. and testing throughout the software life cycle to discover errors. a matrix that records the relationship between the requirements and the design of a given software component. or a collection of software elements.
. This type of testing also evaluates a system's ability to handle overload situations in an orderly fashion.Volume Testing: Testing designed to challenge a system's ability to manage the maximum amount of data over a period of time.
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