TYPES OF LEARNING We have learned this week types of learning. Gagne is an important person for types of learning.

He identified eight types of learning. I want to explain some of them. In fact we know Pavlov s classical conditioning, Skinner s stimulus- response learning. Gagne s five types seem to fit easily into a behavioristic framework. However, he has named them differently. For instance; he said that signal learning, chaining, verbal association etc. These are all can be explained under the title of behaviorism. He has three types, too. These are concept learning, principle learning and problem solving. These are can be explained by Ausubel s or Roger s theories of learning. Some of the language psychologists say that language concept learning. Language is a conditioning says others. I think both are correct. However, both are incorrect, also. Because, language consists of both of them. While teachers teach a language, they should use different methods. They cannot separate human psychology from classical conditioning etc. People have learned with different methods languages. We cannot say that all of the method is wrong. Instead of saying this is wrong, we should use the positive ways of that method. For instance; we say that GTM is a wrong method. However, we use it in many different ways. So we should get the positive parts of methods. Transfer is carry over of previous knowledge to subsequent learning. Transfer can be both positive and negative. If the previous knowledge benefits the learning tasks it is positive transfer. If the previous knowledge disrupts the performance it is negative transfer. For instance, I have learned simple past tense very well. So I have learned past perfect tense easily. This is positive transfer. However, I have learned present simple tense very bad. So, I have difficulty to learn present continuous tense. This is negative transfer. Interference is your native language negatively effects to learn target language. For instance; Turkish has a different system than English. We use SOV (Subject, Verb, Object). However in English SVO (Subject, Verb, Object) is used. This is an important problem in language teaching. Overgeneralization is a negative transfer, too. We generalize many things under a word. For instance, a child might has familiarity with dogs see horse for the first time and overgeneralize the concept of dog and call the horse a dog. In short, I have learned types of learning. I get a perspective of looking methods in a positive way. I have learned the differences between transfer and inferences. In fact I had knowledge about overgeneralization. However, it was good to look it from a different title.

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