INTRODUCTION

Nanotechnology is a generic term for applications that work with matter that is so small that it exists in the atomic and molecular realm. At this size, the substance's physical, chemical and biological properties are different from what they were at the micrometer and larger scales. By harnessing these new properties, researchers have found that they can develop materials, devices and systems that are superior to those in use today. From the way we communicate, to the methods used to diagnose and treat our illnesses, to the speed with which our computers process data, this new technology promises to enhance our lives in almost limitless ways. Nanotechnology currently is being used to improve existing products and processes, for example, by strengthening the material used in golf clubs and bicycle frames, creating stain- and water-repellant clothing and producing wear-resistant paints and coatings. One developing area in nanotechnology is that of self-assembly, whereby materials will be able to grow themselves. Such innovations will not only increase productivity, but also will create new materials in a process known as “dynamic self-assembly.” In the longer term, however, nanotechnology is likely to result in completely revolutionary advances. Promising uses of nanoscale particles may include the cleanup of heavily polluted sites, more effective diagnosis and treatment of cancer and other diseases, lighting that is twice as energy-efficient as what is currently available, cleaner manufacturing techniques and much smaller and more powerful computers. Research indicates that nanotechnology even may help create an alternative fuel to power our automobiles. As optimistic as researchers may be, however, responsible decisions must be made regarding its development and use. Growing evidence suggests that nanoparticles–the basic building blocks of nanotechnology and the tiniest materials ever engineered and produced–may pose environmental, health and safety risks. Consequently, if the insurance industry is to support the myriad positive uses of nanotechnology while not incurring major long-term losses, it must have a thorough understanding of how nanomaterials are produced, stored, used and discarded.

1 Dept. of Electrical Engg.

OVERVIEW OF NANOTECHNOLOGY
Nanotechnology involves both:  The deliberate manipulation of matter by certain chemical and/or physical processes (referred to as “bottom-up” production) to create materials with specific properties that are not displayed in their larger forms.  The use of manufacturing processes such as milling or grinding (called “topdown” production) to produce nanosized particles. These particles may or may not have properties different from those of the bulk material from which they are developed. At the core of any process involving nanotechnology is a nanometer (nm), which is one billionth of a meter and 10,000 times smaller than anything that the human eye can see. Although the trend towards making things smaller is nothing new, the reduction of materials to the size of nanometers results in both new and altered properties. For example, some materials begin to exhibit extraordinary electrical conductance, resistance or new magnetic properties. Some become bactericides, and others demonstrate exceptional strength and waterrepellency. Certain nanomaterials can even interact with biomolecules, which may enable them to improve medical diagnosis and tissue and organ replacement.
 These unique physical, chemical and biological properties general exist for two

reasons: At the scale of nanometers, particles and structures have very high surface-to-mass .This makes them highly reactive compared to their bulk structure, and this reactivity can be channeled to produce superior products.  Nanometers exist in the realm of quantum physics, and quantum properties are similarly valuable in developing enhanced materials.

2 Dept. of Electrical Engg.

NANOTECHNOLOGY
Nanotechnology is engineering at the molecular (groups of atoms) level. It is the collective term for a range of technologies, techniques and processes that involve the manipulation of matter at the smallest scale (from 1 to 100 nm2). The classical laws of physics and chemistry do not readily apply at this very small scale for two reasons. Firstly, the electronic properties of very small particles can be very different from their larger cousins. Secondly, the ratio of surface area to volume becomes much higher, and since the surface atoms are generally most reactive, the properties of a material change in unexpected ways. For example:when silver is turned into very small particles, it takes on anti-microbial properties while gold particles become any colour you choose. Nature provides plenty of examples of materials with properties at the nanoscale such as the iridescence of butterfly wings, the sleekness of dolphin skin or the ‘nanofur’ that allows geckos to walk up vertical surfaces. The Gecko foot pad is covered with aggregates of hair formed from nano fibers which impart strong adhesive properties.

3 Dept. of Electrical Engg.

HISTORY OF NANOTECHNOLOGY 4 Dept. . of Electrical Engg.

Eric Drexler in his book Engines of Creation discussed the future of nanotechnology. In 1986. presented a talk to the American Physical Society annual meeting entitled There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom. Norio Taniguchi introduced the term ‘nanotechnology’ to represent extra-high precision and ultra-fine dimensions. and also predicted improvements in integrated circuits. of Electrical Engg. particularly the creation of larger objects from their atomic and molecular components. when Richard Feynman. In 1974. provided the real breakthrough and the opportunity to manipulate and image structures at the invented in 1986. K. Feynman presented ideas for creating nanoscale machines to manipulate. control and image matter at the atomic scale. optoelectronic devices. He proposed ideas for ‘molecular nanotechnology’ which is the self assembly of molecules into an ordered and functional structure. . In his talk. This is the so called ‘top-down approach’ of carving small things from large structures. mechanical devices and computer memory devices8. the so called ‘bottom-up approach’9. US physicist and Nobel Prize winner. the origins of nanotechnology did not occur until 1959. allowing imaging of structures at the atomic scale.Nanoparticles of gold and silver have been found in Ming dynasty pottery and stained glass windows in medieval churches. However. C60 image from the Sussex Fullerene Research Centre The invention of the scanning tunneling microscope by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer in 1981 (IBM Zurich Laboratories). 5 Dept.

. CARBON NANOTUBES 6 Dept.Another major breakthrough in the field of nanotechnology occurred in 1985 when Harry Kroto Robert Curl and Richard Smalley invented a new form of carbon called fullerenes (‘buckyballs’). of Electrical Engg. a single molecule of 60 carbon atoms arranged in the shape of a soccer ball.

Till date. It is our pride privilege that the first CNT specimen reported by Iijima was made by one of us (Y. . As viewed from the perspective of green chemistry. Laservaporization technique employs evaporation of high-purity graphite target by high-power lasers in conjunction with high-temperature furnaces . of Electrical Engg. the long-term key of a sustainable society lies in ‘stable economy’ that uses energy and resources efficiently. Apart from immediate concern towards the environment and human health. 8090% of the feed stock goes waste and contributes to the environmental load. And the CNT produced is not more than 10-20% of the raw material used. in which the first CNT was discovered . sustaining the environment implies sustaining the human civilization. Let us examine three popular methods of CNT synthesis. In other words. Having realized its tremendous application potential in nanotechnology. catalyst and support) on a particular experimental set-up. their production yield is very low.Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are supposed to be a key component of this nanotechnology. Although laser-grown CNTs are of high purity. Arc-discharge method. employs evaporation of graphite electrodes in electric arcs that involve very high temperatures (~4000°C). Thus it is obvious that these two methods score too low on account of efficient use of energy and resources. 7 Dept. Although CNTs are just 15 years old. a huge amount of efforts and energy is invested in CNT projects worldwide. Therefore. Ando). Although arc-grown CNTs are well crystallized. crazy success stories are floating in media about this teen-aged heroine of the scientific Hollywood. the art of CNT synthesis lies in the optimization of the preparative parameters for a selected group of materials (carbon source. it is high time to evaluate the existing CNT techniques on these parameters. they are highly impure.

8 Dept. of Electrical Engg. .

a SWNT consists of two separate regions with different physical and chemical properties.Carbon nanotube structure and defects: Many exotic structures of fullerenes exist: regular spheres. nanotubes generally have a length to diameter ratio of about 1000 so they can be considered as nearly one-dimensional structures. The first is the sidewall of the tube and the second is the end cap of the tube. A second rule is the isolated pentagon rule that states that the distance between pentagons on the fullerene shell is maximised in order to obtain a minimal local curvature and surface stress. Catoms placed in hexagons and pentagons form the end cap structures. . such as C60. It can be easily derived from Euler’s theorem that twelve pentagons are needed in order to obtain a closed cage structure which consists of only pentagons and hexagons. Here we will describe some of the most important and best-known structures. As state before. cones. Single Walled Nanotubes (SWNT) can be considered as long wrapped graphene sheets. The end cap structure is similar to or derived from a smaller fullerene. 9 Dept. tubes and also more complicated and strange shapes. resulting in a more stable structure. The animation of a rotating carbon nanotube showing its 3D structure. The smallest stable structure that can be made this way is C60 the one just larger is C70 and so on.5 The combination of a pentagon and five surrounding hexagons results in the desired curvature of the surface to enclose a volume. More detailed. of Electrical Engg.

one of which servers the role as origin. of Electrical Engg. Quantum dots and artificial atoms : Quantum dots are small devices that contain a tiny droplet of free electrons. compared with a graphene sheet. quantum electronics. As the result is cylinder symmetric we can only roll in a discreet set of directions in order to form a closed cylinder. (Figure 1-2). Two atoms in the graphene sheet are chosen. The sheet is rolled until the two atoms coincide. photonics and the possibility of tamper-proof data transmission.Another property is that all fullerenes are composed of an even number of C-atoms because adding one hexagon to an existing structure means adding two C-atoms. Therefore. The vector pointing from the first atom towards the other is called the chiral vector and its length is equal to the circumference of the nanotube. Chemical reactivity: The chemical reactivity of a CNT is. . The other structure of which a SWNT is composed is a cylinder. Carbon nanotube reactivity is directly related to the pi-orbital mismatch caused by an increased curvature. They are fabricated in semiconductor materials and have typical dimensions between nanometres to a few microns (10^-6m). new biosensors. The technology also highlights the important regulatory and safety issues that must be addressed before widespread application of such disruptive technologies Properties of Carbon Nanotubes : Electronic. enhanced as a direct result of the curvature of the CNT surface. but unlike their natural counterparts. quantum dots can be easily connected to electrodes and are therefore excellent tools to study atomic-like properties. The most important properties of CNTs and their molecular background are stated below. It is generated when a graphene sheet of a certain size that is wrapped in a certain direction. A quantum dot can have anything from a single electron to a collection of several thousands. molecular and structural properties of carbon nanotubes are determined to a large extent by their nearly one dimensional structure. The physics of quantum dots show many parallels with the behaviour of naturally occurring atoms. The potential applications are enormous such as counterfeit-resistant inks. 10 Dept. The capability to make artificial atoms is revolutionary. a distinction must be made between the sidewall and the end caps of a nanotube.

Optical activity: Theoretical studies have revealed that the optical activity of chiral nanotubes disappears if the nanotubes become larger11. DNA is used as a structural material rather than as a carrier of genetic information. 11 Dept. DNA Nanotechnology DNA nanotechnology is a branch of nanotechnology which uses the molecular recognition properties of DNA and other nucleic acids to create designed. Electrical conductivity: Depending on their chiral vector. The differences in conductivity can easily be derived from the graphene sheet properties. DNA nanotechnology considers DNA solely as a chemical and as a material.8 It was shown that a (n. DNA nanotechnology has applications in molecular selfassembly and in DNA computing. Although DNA is usually considered in the context of molecular biology as the carrier of genetic information in living cells. and is usually pursued outside of any biological context.Therefore. the solubility of CNTs in different solvents can be controlled this way. of Electrical Engg. it is expected that other physical properties are influenced by these parameters too. . carbon nanotubes with a small diameter are either semiconducting or metallic. DNA nanotechnology attempts to rationally designsets of DNA strands so that desired portions of each strand will assemble in the correct positions to for some desired target structure.m) nanotube is metallic as accounts that: n=m or (nm) = 3i. a smaller nanotube diameter results in increased reactivity. DNA nanotechnology makes use of the fact that. Use of the optical activity might result in optical devices in which CNTs play an important role. general information on electron conductivity is referred to a review by Ajayan and Ebbesen10. where i is an integer and n and m are defining the nanotube. making it an example of bionanotechnology.For the same reason. In this field. artificial structures out of DNA for technological purposes.9 For more. For example. only portions of the strands which are complementary to each other will bind to each other to form duplex DNA. Covalent chemical modification of either sidewalls or end caps has shown to be possible. The resistance to conduction is determined by quantum mechanical aspects and was proved to be independent of the nanotube length. The differences in conducting properties are caused by the molecular structure that results in a different band structure and thus a different band gap. due to the specificity of WatsonCrickbase pairing. direct investigation of chemical modifications on nanotube behaviour is difficult as the crude nanotube samples are still not pure enough. Though.

Because the formation of correctly matched base pairs is energetically favorable. This property. the four bases used are adenine (A). meaning that they form matching sequences of base pairs. DNA nanotechnology creates complex structures out of nucleic acids by making use of the specificity of base pairing in nucleic acid molecules. Nucleic acid double helices will only form between two strands ofcomplementary sequences. Nucleic acids have the property that two molecules will bind to each other to form a double helix only if the two sequences are complementary. where the bases are matched into only A-T or G-C pairs. and C's only to G's. of Electrical Engg. nucleic acid strands are expected in most cases to bind to each other in the conformation that maximizes the number of correctly paired bases. and structures incorporating these have been made. that the sequence determines the pattern of binding and the overall structure. . its principles apply equally well to other nucleic acids such as RNA and PNA. guanine (G).Although the field is usually called DNA nanotechnology. In DNA. The structure of a nucleic acid molecule consists of a sequence of nucleotides. Fundamental concepts Chemical structure of DNA. with A's only binding to T's. is used by the field of DNA 12 Dept. For this reason the field is occasionally referred to as nucleic acid nanotechnology. distinguished by whichnucleobase they contain. and thymine (T). cytosine (C).

Unlike in natural Holliday junctions. 13 Dept. This molecule has the advantage that the junction points are now constrained to a single orientation as opposed to being flexible as in the four-arm junction. the base sequence of each arm is different. Junctions can be used in more complex molecules. on the These four strands associate into a DNA left and the right in this image. A DX molecule can be thought of as two DNA duplexes positioned parallel to each other. 2004. One of the more widely-used of these is the "double-crossover" or DX motif. There are two four-arm junction because this structure crossover points where the strands cross from maximizes the number of correct base one domain into the other. and the first made. This makes the DX motif suitable as a structural building block for larger DNA complexes. of Electrical Engg. . Each junction point is itself topologically a four-arm junction. 2004. Image from Mao. with two crossover points where strands cross from one duplex into the other. pairs. Nearly all structures in DNA nanotechnology make use of branched DNA structures containing junctions. in the artificial immobile four-arm junction shown below. with A's matched toT's and C's matched to G's. meaning that the junction point is fixed in a certain position. A double-crossover (DX) molecule.nanotechnology in that sequences are rationally designed so that a desired structure is favored to form. is a four-arm junction which can be made using four individual DNA strands which are complementary to each other in the correct pattern. as opposed to most biological DNA which exists in a lineardouble helix form. Image from Mao. One of the simplest branched structures. This molecule consists of five DNA single strands which form two double-helical domains.

the specification of the identity of each individual base. This allows the creation of two-dimensional shapes at the nanoscale using DNA. Demonstrated designs have included the smiley face and a coarse map of North America. long DNA strand of arbitrary sequence which is folded into the desired shape by using shorter. DNA origamiwas the cover story of Nature on March 15. there has been interest in controlling the kinetics of DNA self-assembly. . deciding which parts of which nucleic acid molecules should bind to each other. and primary structure. Recently.Design DNA nanostructures must be designed so that they will assemble into the desired structures. There are several approaches which have been demonstrated: Sequence symmetry minimization.  Sequence design Main article: Nucleic acid design 14 Dept. Most design in DNA nanotechnology focuses on designing sequences so that the target structure is a thermodynamic minimum. of Electrical Engg. so that transient dynamics can also be programmed into the assembly. Such a method also has the advantage of proceeding isothermally and thus not requiring a thermal annealing step required by solely thermodynamic approaches. and mis-assembled structures have higher energies and are thus disfavored. An alternative to the tile-based approach. This design step thus determines the secondary structure of the nucleic acid complex which will assemble into the desired shape. two-dimensional DNA structures can be made from a single. 2006. Structural design The first step in a designing a nucleic acid nanostructure is to decide how a given structure should be represented by a specific arrangement of nucleic acid strands. "staple" strands.  Folding structures. This includes both the design of secondary structure.  Kinetic assembly.

an actual sequence of nucleotides must be devised which will form into the desired structure. Image from Mao. the sequence of monomers is designed to favor the desired folded or associated structure and to disfavor alternate structures. Nucleic acid design has the advantage of being a much computationally simpler problem. Each bar represents a double-helical domain ofDNA. since the simplicity of Watson-Crick base pairing rules leads to simple heuristic methods which yield experimentally robust designs. The DX molecule at top will combine into the two-dimensional DNA array shown at bottom. . Nucleic acid design is the process of generating a set of nucleic acid base sequences that will associate into a desired conformation (see. 2004. for example. Nucleic acid design is central to the field of DNA nanotechnology. RNA structure). This is an example of the tilebased strategy for designing DNA nanostructures.After any of the above approaches are used to design the secondary structure of a target molecule. of Electrical Engg. Periodic lattices Assembly of a DX array. nucleic acid structures are less versatile than proteins in their functionality. However. Types of structures Many structures made from DNA have been synthesized and characterized. with the shapes representingcomplimentary sticky ends. 15 Dept. Nucleic acid design has similar goals to protein design: in both.

[13] Nanotubes In addition to flat sheets. DX. an atomic force micrographof the assembled lattice. . making them one platform for DNA computing. a model of a DNA tile used to make a two-dimensional periodic lattice. Success in constructing three-dimensional DNA lattices was finally reported in 2009 using a motif based on the concept of tensegrity. Creating three-dimensional lattices out of DNA was the earliest goal of DNA nanotechnology. including the Holliday junction rhombus array as well as various DX-based arrays in the shapes of triangles and hexagons. molecules can be equipped with sticky ends in order to combine them into a two-dimensional periodic lattice. This method has the advantage of being able to conceptually separate the stronger interactions which form each tile from the assembly of the larger complete structure. DX arrays have been made to form hollow nanotubes of 420 nm diameter. The earliest method for creating DNA nanostructures was to construct them out of smaller discrete units. It is often used to make periodic lattices. and these can be equipped with sticky ends that program them to combine into a specific pattern. a balance between tension and compression forces. 2004.Image from Strong. but can also be used to implement algorithmic self-assembly. They thus form extended flat sheets which are essentially twodimensional crystals of DNA. but proved to be one of the most difficult to realize. Right. Each DX molecule has four termini. one at each end of the two double-helical domains. of Electrical Engg.Left. More than one type of DX can be used which can be made to arrange in rows or any other tessellated pattern. Two-dimensional arrays have been made out of other motifs as well. or Double Crossover. These DNA nanotubes are somewhat similar in size and shape to carbon 16 Dept.

. Polyhedra A number of three-dimensional DNA molecules have been made which have the connectivity of a polyhedronsuch as an octahedron or cube. the DNA duplexes trace the edges of a polyhedron with a DNA junction at each vertex. but the carbon nanotubes are stronger and better conductors. whereas the DNA nanotubes are more easily modified and connected to other structures. Arbitary shapes DNA structures with solid faces have also been constructed. In other words. More recent work has yielded polyhedra whose synthesis is much easier.nanotubes. The earliest demonstrations of DNA polyhedra involved multiple ligations and solidphase synthesis steps to create catenated polyhedra. of Electrical Engg. 2005. and each vertex is a three-arm junction. A model of a DNA tetrahedron described in Goodman. Each edge of the tetrahedron is a 20 base pair DNA duplex. as well as a tetrahedron which can be produced from four DNA strands in a single step. These include a DNA octahedron made from a long single strand designed to fold into the correct conformation. making them potentially useful as programmable molecular cages. using the DNA origami method. 17 Dept. These can be programmed to open and release their cargo in response to a stimulus.

of which 80% were start-ups. Japan. Some 1500 companies have announced nanotechnology R&D plans.  Government annual spending on nanotechnology more than quadrupled between 2000 and 2004.  Global sales of products derived from emerging nanotechnologies are estimated to escalate to over US$2 trillion per annum in the next ten years. of Electrical Engg. China. with similar growth in the number of patents filed in this field. 18 Dept. Total spending in 2004 including government.5 billion. from approximately US$1 to US$4. European Union. Taiwan and UK.  Lux Research (USA) projects that internationally.  Major public sector R&D initiatives on nanotechnology were announced over the past 5 years in the USA.NANOTECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT IN LAST FEW YEARS (1994-2004)  Overall investment in nanotechnology increased 10-fold during this decade. Korea. private sector spending will exceed that of governments after 2004. with between 1 and 2 million new jobs generated.6 billion. . companies and venture capital was US$8.

Finally there is a conceptual aspect of nanotechnology. as in living system.by indirect is mean the progressive miniaturization of exciting technologies. indirect and conceptual. either to enhance the performance of exciting process and materials. its structure and its process. Entirely novel integrated manufacturing life cycles await development in which extreme economy energy and the absence of unpleasant waste product will be prominent. The artificial counterpart of this process is largely untouched temitory. Furthermore. in which complicated molecules are broken down into there constitutes amino acids which are than used for templates syntheses of new protein. Direct refer to the application of novel. . which open up new area of application of those technologies. of Electrical Engg.WHAT NANOTECHNOLOGY DO FOR US There are three distinct aspect : Direct. the conceptual nano view point offers the possibility of a new understanding of the world. in which all materials and process are considered from a molecular and even atomic view point. or for wholly novel purposes. nanoengineered artifacts. 19 Dept.

of Electrical Engg. .Branches of nanotechnologies 20 Dept.

discretes. Technology platforms thus developed. Nanotechnology should only be applied where there is an economic advantage coupled to a performance advantage. 21 Dept. DVD vs. crystallinity. This tends to lead to leading edge products with very limited immediate commercial potential. in the industrial field embedded capacitors vs. An example in the consumer field is VCR vs. can be applied to several other business areas in addition to pure electronics. such as metal powders. structure or surfaces. It gives us tools that allow us to make nanomaterials with special properties modified by ultra-fine particle size. is to take a parallel track. A more balanced approach followed by a number of successful companies. DVR. of Electrical Engg. life sciences or energy. This is seen in industrial processes as well as consumer goods where a “luxury” new technology becomes the standard once the existing technology is reaching its limits and the new technology starts to take hold.APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY Real Life Applications of Nanotechnology In Electronics Nanotechnology is like a toolkit for the electronics industry. On the other hand. DVD-R vs. These will become commercially important when they give a cost and performance advantage over existing products or allow us to create new products. Many nano materials have been developed because of their interesting properties and companies have been founded on products for which there is limited market demand. such as structural engineering. Carbon nanotubes or atomic cluster deposition. diamond-like coatings. . constantly reviewing technology choices on a portfolio basis and applying them to market needs. In each case the shape of the graph may differ but the important point is that there is a “crossover” which marks the start of market adoption of thenew product. the approach of many established companies has been the Market Pull approach where existing solutions are sought for market. This conservative approach can result in a very small increment in performance which may not show a costbenefit improvement for that particular application.

. a spin off technology for high precision control of particle deposition in the sub-monolayer regime. There is a large number of potentialroutes to new computing. Deposition control systems. the need for different structures is becoming apparent. storage and optical devices. Imagine trapping atoms inside a nanotube and using the electron spin to create a quantum computing device. including Hydrogenand glucose sensors. Read heads for hard disk drives. . interconnects and integrated circuits (semiconductingand conducting wires). coating it with differently doped materials. The technology results from the convergence of two well established technologies. of Electrical Engg. As the semiconductor roadmaps look out towards 2015 and below 20 nm features.Semiconductors Some of the most revolutionary applications in nanotechnology are in the semiconductor areas. atomic cluster deposition and the type of lithography currently used in semiconductor manufacture. there is nowhere to go (in a practical sense) to image ultra small features.once we move to ultraviolet and then Xray lithography. Applications include: • Chemical sensors. • • Transistors. 22 Dept. The devices we are making now are quite clumsy compared with established semiconductor technology.. But they will surely improve! One example of a semiconductor technology that is generating great interest is the atomic cluster deposition technology pioneered by Nano Cluster Devices (NCD) of Christchurch. Imagine creating quantum dots that can store a single electron charge. assembling it (preferably self-assembling it) in an array. New Zealand. • • Photosensors. Imagine doping a Carbon or Silicon nanotube.

S. when former President Bill Clinton announced the founding of the U. Japan.How can nanotechnology improve the capabilities of electronic components? Nanoelectronics holds some answers for how we might increase the capabilities of electronics devices while we reduce their weight and power consumption.” he says. . This involves reducing power consumption while decreasing the weight and thickness of the screens. National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI). of Electrical Engg. a body of the European Union (EU) that funds about 24% of the publicly financed research in the EU. and others remain more a vision that a reality. Some of these products have entered the marketplace. Rolf Allenspach. The European Commission. We are concerned with the organization of molecules in larger functional complexes.2 million in the United States and between $270 and $315 million in the EU. Definitions of nanotechnology are as diverse as the applications that are available.” George Robillard. more are on the verge of doing so.” 23 Dept. including $40. and other Asian nations have responded with competitive investments in national nanoprograms. proposed budgets amount to $710. Some of the nanoelectronics areas under development. Since 2000. Improving display screens on electronics devices. For example a complex that can deliver a protein to a certain site in the body. who leads research on the physics of nanoscale systems at the IBM Zurich Research Laboratory in Switzerland. has a more focused definition: “The core of nanotechnology consists of systems in the size range of nanometers. governments in Europe. “You could say a drug-delivery system is nanotechnology. director of the Biological Materials and Devices (BIOMADE) research center at the University of Groningen in The Netherlands. which you can explore in more detail by following the links provided in the next section. For FY 2003.8 million for the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Biomedical Applications of Nanotechnology Private and public research efforts worldwide are developing nanoproducts aimed at improving health care and advancing medical research. include the following topics. The NNI budget for fiscal year (FY) 2002 is $604 million. defines nanotechnology as “the ability to design and control the structure of an object at all length scales from the atom up to macro scale. and the Union’s 15 member nations will spend about $180 million (200 million euros) on nanotechnology in 2002.

In fact. Consumer products Recently. and the construction of a single desktop computer consumes ten times its weight in fossil fuels. dishes. we are using fossil fuels faster than we are finding them. Our food is produced by high-tech. There is a limited supply of fossil fuels and they are nonrenewable. syringes. Inc. drains. This makes for a powerful tool that can be used in consumer products from biological weapons protection to industrial chemical separations. a product developed by the Dais Analytic Corporation. According to the American Chemical Society. Today.ENERGY The majority of the world’s energy comes from fossil fuels – primarily coal.500 miles before it reaches the grocery store.5 pounds of fossil fuels to make a single 32 megabyte DRAM computer chip. tubes. We rely on fossil fuels for much more than gasoline to power our cars. and Oxane Materials are focusing on nanomaterials as a way to develop and improve upon older methods for the capture. the Oil Depletion Analysis Center (ODAC) predicts that in the near future the demand for fossil fuels will far exceed the Earth’s supply. of Electrical Engg. tremendous amounts of oil are required to produce all plastics. The polymer membrane was specifically configured for this application by selectively engineering the size of the pores in the membrane to prevent air from passing. uses nanoscale polymer membranes to increase the efficiency of heating and cooling systems and has already proven to be a lucrative design. Conserv. 24 Dept. needles. which is made from natural gas. all computers and high tech devices. . For example. anesthesia bags. it takes 3. Fuels are needed to make many medical devices and supplies such as life-support systems. heart valves. gloves. All three were formed on Earth about 360 million years ago during the Carboniferous Period and long before the age of the dinosaurs. Pesticides are made from oil. Polymer membranes can be designed to selectively allow particles of one size and shape to pass through while preventing others of different dimensions. transfer. and natural gas. while allowing moisture to pass through the membrane. oil-powered industrial methods of agriculture. catheters. and commercial fertilizers are made from ammonia. and in the US each piece of food travels about 1. and storage of energy for the development of consumer products. oil. previously established and entirely new companies such as BetaBatt.

Light-emitting diodes or LEDs. changing molecular structure for better management of temperature.A New York based company called Applied NanoWorks. . and air conditioning. Researchers have now begun to utilize nanotechnology for battery technology. use only about 10% of the energy that a typical incandescent or fluorescent light bulb use and typically lasts much longer. This is called electroluminescence. which create an anode and a cathode. ventilation. In traditional light bulbs. light is generated when electricity passes through the two organic layers. Research for longer lasting batteries has been an ongoing process for years. Inc. this company and others like it have been developing a special variant of LED called the white LED. While LEDs have been around for decades. which makes them a viable alternative to traditional light bulbs. of Electrical Engg. White LEDs consist of semiconducting organic layers that are only about 100 nanometers in distance from each other and are placed between two electrodes. Using metal generates a great deal of heat and therefore lowers efficiency. The semiconductor properties of the organic layers are what allow for the minimal amount of energy necessary to generate light. This control prevents reactions in the battery by separating the electrolytic liquid from the anode and the cathode when the battery is not in use and joining them when the battery is in need of use. a metal filament is used to generate light when electricity is run through the filament. This gives more control to the designer of the battery. mPhase Technologies in conglomeration with Rutgers University and Bell Laboratories have utilized nanomaterials to alter the wetting behavior of the surface where the liquid in the battery lies to spread the liquid droplets over a greater area on the surface and therefore have greater control over the movement of the droplets. Thermal applications also are a future applications of nanothechonlogy creating low cost system of heating. 25 Dept. has been developing a consumer product that utilizes LED technology to generate light. When voltage is applied to the system.

. In near future we will be acquainted with notions like: Cell Pharmacology: Delivery of drugs by medical nano-machines to exact location in the body. and nanoscale building blocks that help repair skin. Investigators are looking to nanotechnology to develop highly sensitive disease detectors. and/or bone. Nanomedicine: Bunch of non –replicating nanorobots with a specified medical task such as cleaning and closing a would and many more. cartilage.Medicine The health care industry is predicted to receive the first significant benefits of nanotechnology. Microbivore Artificial WBC: This will destroy microbiological agent causing disease found in human bloodstream using a digest and discharge protocol. There is also speculation that nano-robots would show on even reverse the aging process and life expectancy could increase significantly. drug delivery systems that only target the disease and not the surrounding healthy tissue. Reciprocytes: Mechanical Artificial RBC: A blood borne spherical 1 Micron diamonded 1000 atm pressure vessel with active pumping powered by endogenous serum glucose. National Nanotechnology Initiative has identified the detection. The U. diagnosis and treatment of disease as “grand challenges” for nanotechnology.S. Ribosome: Naturally occurring molecular machine that manufactures proteins according to instructions derived from cell’s genes. 26 Dept. Cell Surgery: Modifying cellular structures using medical nano-machines. able to delver 236 times more oxygen to tissues per unit volume than national red cells and to manage carbonic acidity. The driving force behind this prediction is that biological structures are within the size scale that researchers are now able to manipulate and control. of Electrical Engg.

Nuclear weapons have high long term cost of use that would be much lower with nanotech weapons. Our dependence an non-renewable sources would diminish with nano-technology. Aerospace hardware would be far lighter and higher performance. it would be such harder to spot radar. which can be tracked more easily than nanotech weapons. Also unless nanotech is tightly controlled the number of nanotech nations in the world could be such higher than the number of nuclear nations increasing the chance of a regional conflict blowing.structures in bulk can yield much better versions of most conventional weapons e. guns can be made lighter. treatment and remediation. .Nuclear weapons require massive research effort and industrial development.g. Nanotechnology and Environment : Nano technology has the potential to substantially benefit environment through pollution prevention. fire self guided bullets. easy more ammunition.Nuclear weapons can be credited to prevent major wars since their inventions. Greater uncertainty of capabilities of the adversary less response time to an attack and better targeted destruction of enemy’s resources during an attack all make nanotech arm races less stable. Nanotech weapons would be extremely powerful and could lead to a dangerously to an arm race.Embedded computer would allow remote activation of any weapon and more compact power handling would allow greatly improved robotics. incorporate multispectral gun sights or even fire themselves when an enemy is detected. Auborne nano robots can be programmed to rebuild the removed from water sources and oil spills can be cleaned up instantly. 27 Dept.Nanotechnology & International Security The possible applications of Nanotechnology to advanced weaponry are fertile ground for fantasy. Many resources can be developed by nano-machines. It is obvious that 3-D assembly of nano. built with minimal or no metal. of Electrical Engg.

28 Dept. .Fig6. However use of NT is scaled up emissions to environment may also increase and perhaps a whole new class of toxins or other environment problems may be created. of Electrical Engg. Nanotectnology making transortation easy.

Such systems are commercially available and have components on length scales of many microns – the acceleration 29 Dept. How revolutionary the impact of these new technologies will be is difficult to say. Grey goo and radical nanotechnology Even if the most extreme visions of the nanotechnology evangelists do not come to pass. But which design philosophy of radical nanotechnology will prevail – Drexler’s original “diamondoid” visions or something closer to the marvellous contrivances of cell biology? One way of finding the answer would be to simply develop the existing technologies that have driven the relentless miniaturization of microelectronics. Similarly. This “top-down” approach. there is no point being dismissive about the fact that lots of early applications of nanotechnology will be essentially toys – whether for children or adults – just as data-storage technology is currently being driven forward by the needs of digital TV recorders and portable music players like Apple’s iPod. But the experience we will gain in manipulating matter on the nano-scale in industrial quantities is going to be invaluable. of Electrical Engg.we find Dorian Gray and his friends looking across rows of Dewar flasks. but not in a way that most scientists will like. Scientists almost always greatly overestimate how much can be done over a 10 year period. has already been used to make so-called microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). .technology – robotic nanosubmarines repairing our bodies – and the reality it delivers – say an improved all-in-one shampoo 1and conditioner – has a profoundly bathetic quality. in which the heads and bodies of the dead are kept frozen. These apparently frivolous applications will provide the incentive and resources to push the technology further. There is a great example in Dorian – novelist Will Self ’s modern reworking of Oscar Wilde’s The Picture of Dorian Gray. nanotechnology – in the form of machines structured on the nano-scale that do interesting and useful things – will certainly play a growing part in our lives over the next halfentury. waiting for the day when medical science has advanced far enough to cure their ailments. In one scene. Sometimes the contrast between the grand visions of nano.THE FUTURE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY NANOTECHNOLOGY is slowly creeping into popular culture. but underestimate what can be done in 50 years. set in a dingy industrial building on the outskirts of Los Angeles. which uses techniques like photolithography and etching.

Of course. such as molecular motors. Taking a lead from nature:So how could we follow biology’s example and work with the “grain” of the nanoworld? The most obvious method is simply to exploit the existing components that nature gives us. we need to take note of how evolution achieved this. Nadrian Seeman at New York University and others have shown how the self-assembly properties of DNA can be used to create quite complicated nano-scale structures and devices (figure 4). 30 Dept. the task of copying even life’s simplest mechanisms is formidably hard. or NEMS (see Roukes in further reading). All we need to do now is shrink these systems even further to create true nanoelectromechanical systems. I do not think that Drexler’s alternative approach – based on mechanical devices made from rigid materials – fundamentally contradicts any physical laws. such “biomimetic nanotechnology” would work with the grain of the special physics of the nanoworld. So when designing synthetic molecules. Another approach would be to start with a whole. but I fear that its proponents underestimate the problems that certain features of the nanoworld will pose for it. for example. ALZA. This approach exploits the fact that evolution – nature’s remarkable optimization tool – has produced very powerful and efficient nanomachines. of Electrical Engg. .We are stripping down and then partially reassembling a very complex and only partially understood system to obtain something else that works. it should be possible to use some of the design methods of biology and apply them to synthetic materials. has already been able to wrap a drug molecule in a nanoscopic container – in this case a spherical shell made from double layers of phospholipid molecules – and transport it to where it is required in the body. a subsidiary of Johnson and Johnson. One way would be to deliberately remove and isolate from their natural habitats a number of components. Like bionanotechnology. For example. As we learn more about how bionanotechnology works. function so well as enzymes because the particular sequence of amino acids has been selected by evolution from a myriad of possibilities. and then incorporate them into artificial nanostructures. One can think of this approach – often called “bionanotechnology” – as the Mad Max or Scrap Heap Challenge approach to nano-engineering. For example. living organism – probably a simple bacterium – and then genetically engineer a stripped-down version that contains only the component that we are interested in. Proteins. But despite the difficulties. The container can then be made to open and release its bounty. biomimetic nanotechnology will let us do some useful – if crude – things.sensors in airbags being a well known example.

of Electrical Engg.The close tolerances that we take for granted in macroscopic engineering will be very difficult to achieve at the nano-scale because the machines will be shaken about so much by Brownian motion. Unlike the top-down route using silicon. Finding ways for surfaces to slide past each other without sticking together or feeling excessive friction is going to be difficult. we have no large base of experience and expertise to draw on. . 31 Dept. and no big economic pressures driving the research forward.

research into nanotechnology could progress faster than systems can be put in place to regulate its applications and their uses. and regulation of nanotechnology.  Routes of exposure: Because of their size. • The public has not been sufficiently involved in debates on the applications. applications which benefit developing nations will be side-lined. • If the rich countries are the main drivers of the development of nanotechnology. materials that have been benign in the past may become toxic in nanoparticle form .RISK ASSESSMENT NANOTECHNOLOGY AND CONCERNS RAISED ABOUT Several non-governmental organisations are calling for greater risk evaluations or. and others including the US-based Centre for Responsible Nanotechnology. • They could have unforeseen impacts on human health. which protects the brain against contamination. uses. . As such. In addition. They. • Nanoparticles have the potential to remain and accumulate in the environment. • They could accumulate in the food chain. have raised concerns about the following aspects of nanotechnology: The toxicity of bulk material. they are capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier. such as solid silver. 32 Dept. • 'Grey goo': Tiny robots generated with nanotechnology could acquire the ability to self-replicate.  Increased reactivity and conductivity: Nanoparticles are more reactive and conductive than particles larger in size. in the case of Canada's ETC Group. a nanotech research moratorium. does not help predict the toxicity of nanoparticles of that same material. of Electrical Engg. The following attributes of nanoparticles create a number of unknown exposures:  Size of particles: The size of nanoparticles makes them incapable of being measured using normal techniques. • Unless rapid action is taken. nanoparticles can be inhaled or ingested and may even enter the body through the skin.

37). such as establishing an office devoted to assisting small business. The political strength for that task may not materialize unless an extraordinary consensus — one involving industry. A new law could strike a different balance between safety and innovation than the one outlined above. The task of enacting major new legislation. requires mustering political strength and wisdom.While much of the commercial innovation in NT comes from small start-up companies.. . the advantage of getting adequate information is somewhat offset by the problems of reviewing and managing a large amount of data. the type of legislation outlined above could provide greater protection for the public.EPA generally has not pursued the avenue of requiring test data for new chemicals. It also might place a greater burden on manufacturers. especially small start-up companies. From the perspective of the regulating agency. It also can provide templates. and it could be tailored to the particular characteristics of NT. a new law would avoid the distortions and problems that come with trying to shoehorn NT into the definitions (e. p. The choice between protecting public health versus protecting small business and technological innovation can be very stark. especially in light of the problems outlined in Section II: It could avoid some of the pitfalls of previous regulatory laws. changes could fundamentally shift the balance of the legislation. environmental groups and regulators—emerges. they will seek to partner with large companies in industries that can utilize nanotechnology to improve their commercial products” (Miller et al 2005. the burden of proof could be placed on the government to show that there is unacceptable risk. the government can take various steps to ease the burden on smaller companies. but far-reaching. By being able to define NT and nanomaterials in a legal context. however. The experience with TSCA is instructive. but in the context of NT. mostly because of the weakness of the law’s 33 Dept.ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES A new law focused on NT would have two major advantages. Also.Two simple. guidebooks and other technical assistance. it may be less so. Compared to the existing laws.Rather. a discussion of the structure of the NT industry notes that.“Most nanotechnology start-ups will not attempt to develop and market their own commercial products. First.g. “chemicals”) in existing law. of Electrical Engg.

but also because it feared that its limited resources would not allow it to review most of the submitted test data. . 34 Dept. Given that there is an expectation that a large number of NT products and applications will materialize in the coming years. of Electrical Engg.provisions allowing it to do so. the regulators’workload and capacity will have to be considered in the regulatory regime.

35 Dept. I have examined the properties of nanotechnology. and how nanotechnology are used in modern age. .CONCLUSION • • • This concludes our study of NANOTECHNOLOGY. of Electrical Engg. Although this report does not cover all the aspects of nanotechnology work it will have equipped you knowledge and skills essential to the nanotechnology industry.

myseminars\nanorelatedmatter\nano technology\environment. . of Electrical Engg.com/GetArticle.htm  http://www.myseminars\nanorelatedmatter\nanotechnology\Energy_applications_ of_nanotechnology.com/introduction.htm  http://www.com/doc/13602733/Nanotechnology-Seminar BOOKS • PHANI KUMAR. Potentials.com/crnblog/2005/01/the_meaning_of_.html  http://www. and Ethical Implications”.aspx?doi=10.htm  http://www. and Thomas G.scribd. ARTICLES • Ebbesen.typepad. Jensen. Mette.nanotech-now.hindawi. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology (2006): 1-11.1155/JBB/2006/51516 [accessed 29 August 2007] 36 Dept.REFERENCES WEB SITES  http://www. (2008) Principles of nanotechnology. “Nanomedicine: Techniques.htm  http://crnano. Chennai: SciTech publication.myseminars\nanorelatedmatter\nanotechnology\energy. Source: www.

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