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# Measurement of Coefficient of Linier Expansions

## II. Base theory

Most materials expand when heated through a temperature change that does not
produce a change in phase. The added heat increases the average amplitude of vibration of
the atoms in the material which increases the average separation between the atoms. Suppose
an object of length L undergoes a temperature change of magnitude ΔT. We find
experimentally that if ΔT is reasonably small, the change in length ΔL, is generally
proportional to L and ΔT. Therefore we can write:

ΔL=α L ΔT

Where α is the coefficient of linear expansion and has different values for different
materials. For materials that are not isotropic, such as an asymmetric crystal, α can have a
different value depending on the axis along which the expansion is measured. α can also vary
with temperature so that the degree of expansion depends not only on the magnitude of the
temperature change, but also on the absolute temperature as well.
However, typically these variations are negligible compared to the accuracy with
which engineering measurements need to be made. We can often safely take the coefficient
of linear expansion as a constant for a given material. Shown below are some values of α for
some common solids.
Coefficient of Linier Expansions
No Substances
(α) ( 10-6/ o C)
2 Aluminum 23
3 Brass 17
4 Copper 19
5 Steel 11
6 Glass 9

The order of magnitude of the expansion is about 1mm per meter length per 100 oC.
III. Apparatus of experiment

## - Steam Generator - Thermometer

- Copper, and steel tube - Multi-meter digital
- Expansion base - Bucket
- Ruler( sms 1cm)

## 1. Measure the length L of the Steel tube at room temperature.

2. Mount the copper tube in the expansion base as shown in the figure. The stainless
steel pin on the tube fits into the slot on the slotted mounting block and the bracket on the
tube presses against the spring arm of the dial gauge.

3. Use one of the provided thumbscrews to attach the thermistor lug to the threaded
hole in the middle of the copper tube. The lug should be aligned with the axis of the tube,
so there is maximum contact between the plug and the tube.

4. Plug the leads of your ohmmeter into the banana plug connectors labeled
THERMISTOR in the center of the expansion base.

## 5. Measure Room, the resistance of the thermistor at room temperature.

6. Use tubing to attach the steam generator to the end of the copper tube. Attach it to
the end farthest from the dial gauge.

7. Turn on the steam generator. As steam begins to flow, watch the dial gauge and
the ohmmeter. When the thermistor resistance stabilizes, record the resistance Rhot
8. Turn of the heater and Periodically measure the change of length at each interval
of decreasing the resistant.

## 9. Look the conversion at expansion base and record the temperature.

10. Repeat step 1-9 for measuring coefficient linier expansion of copper

V. An arrangement of data

## Scale in Digital gauge

No Temperature(oC)
spring(mm)
1
2
3
..

## VI. Technique of data analysis (Calculation)

First of all by doing this experiment we find the change of the length by using equation:

∆l = l n +1 − l n

## After that to determine the uncertainly of the length we use equation:

∑( ∆l ) 2
i − ∆l
y=
N ( N − 1)

Next calculation is finding the change of temperature, to find the change of temperature we

∆T =Tn −Tn +1

## To determine the uncertainly of the temperature can be following equation:

1 1
x= SMS = 1 = 0.5
2 2
For base theory we know that the formula the change of length, the equation can be derived

to find the coefficient of linier expansion, so the formula of linier expansion is:

∆l
α=
l o ∆T

## To find the uncertainly of coefficient linier expansion we can following equation:

∆l
α=
l o ∆T

−1 −1
∂α ∂α ∂(∆l . l 0 .∆T −1 ) ∂( ∆l . l 0 .∆T −1 )
∆α = y + x = y + x
∂( ∆l ) ∂( ∆T ) ∂(∆l ) ∂(∆T )

−1 −1
∆α = l 0 .∆T −1 y + l 0 .∆T −1 x

α α
∆α = y + x
∆l ∆T

∆α y x
RE = = +
α ∆l ∆T

## A. Result of Experiment using 6 55 0.27

iron( steel) 7 50 0.31
8 45 0.35
Scale in Digital
No Temperature(oC) 9 40 0.39
gauge spring(mm) 10 35 0.42
1 80 0 11 30 0.44
2 75 0.08 B. Result of Experiment using
3 70 0.12
Copper
4 65 0.17
5 60 0.22 No Temperature(oC) Scale in Digital
gauge spring(mm) 6 52 0.44
1 77 0 7 47 0.51
2 72 0.12 8 42 0.57
3 67 0.19 9 37 0.64
4 62 0.27 10 32 0.70
5 57 0.36 11 27 0.74
VIII. Data Analysis
A. For Steel
Scale in Digital
No Temperature(oC) ΔT (0C) ΔL (mm)
gauge spring(mm)
1 80 0
2 75 0.08 5 0.08
3 70 0.12 5 0.04
4 65 0.17 5 0.05
5 60 0.22 5 0.05
6 55 0.27 5 0.05
7 50 0.31 5 0.04
8 45 0.35 5 0.04
9 40 0.39 5 0.04
10 35 0.42 5 0.03
11 30 0.44 5 0.02
Total 50 0.44
Average 5 0.044

## The result of calculation:

2
No ΔL (mm) ∆l −∆l ∆l −∆l

## 1 0.08 0.036 0.001296

2 0.04 0.004 0.000016
3 0.05 0.006 0.000036
4 0.05 0.006 0.000036
5 0.05 0.006 0.000036
6 0.04 0.004 0.000016
7 0.04 0.004 0.000016
8 0.04 0.004 0.000016
9 0.03 0.014 0.000196
10 0.02 0.024 0.000576
Total 0.44 0.00224
Average 0.044

## After that we find the uncertainly of length using equation:

∑(∆l ) 2
i − ∆l
y=
N ( N − 1)

0.00224 0.00224
y= = = 2.48 x10 −5
10 (10 −1) 90
y = 0.005

So the value of ΔL
∆l =l ±y

∆l = (0.04 ± 0.005 ) mm

## While the value of ΔT is

∆T =T ±x

∆T = (5 ±0.5) o C

## Finally we determine the value of coefficient of linier expansion using equation:

∆l
α=
l o ∆T
0.04
α= =1.08 x 10 −5
740 x 5

Thus to determine the value uncertainly of coefficient of linier expansion of copper can be

following equation:

α α
∆α = y + x
∆l ∆T
−5 −5
1.08 x10 1.08 x10
∆α = 0.005 + 0.5
0.04 5

## ∆α =1.8 x10 −5 (0.125 + 0.1) = 2.4 x10 −6

So

α = α + ∆α
α =1.08 x10 −5 +2.4 x10 −6

## To find relative error in this experiment we use equation:

∆α 2.4 x10 −6
RE = x100% = x100% = 22%
α 1.08 x10 −5
B. For Copper
Scale in Digital
No Temperature(oC) ΔT (oC) ΔL (mm)
gauge spring(mm)
1 77 0
2 72 0.12 5 0.12
3 67 0.19 5 0.07
4 62 0.27 5 0.08
5 57 0.36 5 0.09
6 52 0.44 5 0.08
7 47 0.51 5 0.07
8 42 0.57 5 0.06
9 37 0.64 5 0.07
10 32 0.70 5 0.06
11 27 0.74 5 0.04
Total 50 0.62
Average 5 0.068

## The result of calculation:

2
No ΔL (mm) ∆l −∆l ∆l −∆l

1 0.00270
0.12 0.052 4
2 0.00000
0.07 0.002 4
3 0.00014
0.08 0.012 4
4 0.00048
0.09 0.022 4
5 0.00014
0.08 0.012 4
6 0.00000
0.07 0.002 4
7 0.00006
0.06 0.008 4
8 0.00000
0.07 0.002 4
9 0.00006
0.06 0.008 4
10 0.00078
0.04 0.028 4
Total 0.62 0.0044
Average 0.068

## After that we find the uncertainly of length using equation:

∑(∆l ) 2
i − ∆l
x=
N ( N − 1)

0.00440 0.00440
x= = = 4.8 x10 −6
10 (10 −1) 90

y = 0.0022

So the value of ΔL
∆l =l ±y

∆l = (0.068 ± 0.0022 ) mm

## While the value of ΔT is

∆T =T ±x

∆T = (5 ±0.5) o C

## Finally we determine the value of coefficient of linier expansion using equation:

∆l
α=
l o ∆T
0.068
α= =1.8 x 10 −5
740 . 5

Thus to determine the value uncertainly of coefficient of linier expansion of copper can be

following equation:

α α
∆α = y + x
∆l ∆T

## 1.8 x10 −5 1.8 x10 −5

∆α = 0.0022 + 0 .5
0.068 5

## ∆α =1.8 x10 −5 (0.032 + 0.1) = 2.4 x10 −6

So

α = α + ∆α
α =1.8 x10 −5 +2.4 x10 −6
To find relative error in this experiment we use equation:

∆α 2.4 x10 −6
RE = x100% = x100% = 13%
α 1.8 x10 −5

IX. Interpretations

1. For steel

From the table on base theory we know that the value of coefficient linier expansion of steel
-5 o -1

that accepted is 1.1x10 C , so to calculate the %error in experiment that we done using steel

## Experiment Value − Theory Value

%error = x100 %
Theory Value

1.08 x 10 −5 − 1.1x 10 −5
%error = x100 %
1.1x 10 −5

0.02 x 10 −5
%error = x100 % = 0.018 x 100 % = 1.8%
1.1x 10 −5

The value of coefficient linier expansion of steel that we that from experiment is 1.08oC-1.
Meanwhile, the value of coefficient linier expansion of steel from the theory is 1.1x10-5 oC-1.
Error in experiment using steel is just 1.8 %. Because the error less than 10%, so this experiment
can be accepted.
In this experiment that we done has relative error 22%, so this result not to accurately this
can happen probably caused when we calculate the data there are more rounding of data.

2.
For copper
From the table on base theory we know that the value coefficient of linier expansion of
-5 o -1

copper that accepted is 1.7x10 C , so to calculate %error in experiment that we done using

## Experiment Value − Theory Value

%error = x100 %
Theory Value

1.8 x 10 −5 − 1.7 x 10 −5
%error = x100 %
1.7 x 10 −5

0.1x 10 −5
%error = x100 % = 0.059 x100 % = 5.9%
1.7 x 10 −5

The value of coefficient linier expansion of copper that we get from experiment is 1.8oC-1.
Meanwhile, the value of coefficient linier expansion of steel from the theory is 1.7x10-5 oC-1.
Error in experiment using steel is just 5. %. Because the error less than 10%, so this experiment
can be accepted.
In this experiment that we done has relative error 13%, so this result not to accurately this
can happen probably caused when we calculate the data there are more rounding of data. And
there are some error happen when we done the experiment. The error will be explained in
comment in above.

X. Comment

From the experiment that we have done, the result of the experiment is not accurately, it’s
caused by some error that we have when this experiment did. The error is classified to three,
there are:

## 1. Gross Error (error that caused by human):

among them is missreading when read the scale of the digital gauge spring because our scale
not perpendicular to the scale on digital gauge spring, and error in rounding the number when
we calculate the data in analysis the data because the data is in decimal.

## 2. Systematic errors (error that caused by instrument and environment):

a) Instrumental error: the error that occur’s because of tool’s has bigger smallest
scale such as thermometer that we use. that can make our experiment has high
relative error and our experiment not accurately.

b) Enviromental error: the error that occur because of the disturbance of enviroment
such as the temperature not constant.

3. Random error : due to unknown causes and occur even when all systematic error have
been accounted for

Suggestions:
for the next experiments should use the temperature in interval between 40 0Celsius and
70 0Celsius, because if you use temperature higher than 70 0Celsius then the data obtained will
has high deviation level this is due because in the high temperature, the change length of the
material is not constant (changes too fast for the same interval temperature(ΔT)), while if the
experiment using a lower temperature than 40 0Celsius then data obtained will be deviated,
because at low temperatures the change of the length of a material is very slowly (the change
relatively small for the same ΔT)

XI. Conclusion

From the experiment that we done we get that The value of coefficient linier expansion of
steel that we that from experiment is 1.08oC-1, with accuracy 1.8%, and relative error 22%.While
The value of coefficient linier expansion of copper that we that from experiment is 1.8oC-1, with
accuracy 5.9%, and relative error 13%. From both experiment we can conclude that the value of
coefficient linier expansion of copper bigger then the value of coefficient linier expansion of
steel.

## Questions and Solution:

1. What can you conclude about measuring coefficient of linier expansion?
Solution:
From the experiment that we done we get that The value of coefficient linier expansion of
steel that we that from experiment is 1.08oC-1, with accuracy 1.8%, and relative error 22%.While
The value of coefficient linier expansion of copper that we that from experiment is 1.8oC-1, with
accuracy 5.9%, and relative error 13%. From both experiment we can conclude that the value of
coefficient linier expansion of copper bigger then the value of coefficient linier expansion of
steel.

## 2. Explain the errors of this experiment!

Solution:
From the experiment that we have done, the result of the experiment is not accurately, it’s
caused by some error that we have when this experiment did. The error is classified to three,
there are:

## 1. Gross Error (error that caused by human):

Among them is missreading when read the scale of the digital gauge spring because
our scale not perpendicular to the scale on digital gauge spring, and error in rounding the
number when we calculate the data in analysis the data because the data is in decimal.

## 2. Systematic errors (error that caused by instrument and environment):

a) Instrumental error: the error that occur’s because of tool’s has bigger smallest scale
such as thermometer that we use. that can make our experiment has high relative error
and our experiment not accurately.

b) Enviromental error: the error that occur because of the disturbance of enviroment
such as the temperature not constant.

3. Random error : due to unknown causes and occur even when all systematic error
have been accounted for

## To find %error for Steel is following equation:

Experiment Value − Theory Value
%error = x100 %
Theory Value

1.08 x 10 −5 − 1.1x 10 −5
%error = x100 %
1.1x 10 −5

0.02 x 10 −5
%error = x100 % = 0.018 x 100 % = 1.8%
1.1x 10 −5

## Experiment Value − Theory Value

%error = x100 %
Theory Value

1.8 x 10 −5 − 1.7 x 10 −5
%error = x100 %
1.7 x 10 −5

0.1x 10 −5
%error = x100 % = 0.059 x100 % = 5.9%
1.7 x 10 −5
Reference

## Djonoputro, B.D. 1977. Teori Ketidakpastian. Bandung: Universitas ITB.

Halliday, D., Resnick, R., and Walker, J. (1993), Fundamentals of Physics, 4th edn (extended),
John Wiley & Sons, New York.

## Unname. Coefficient of Linier Expansion. (online)www.wikipedia.com. be access on April

14th2011.
Measurement Coefficient of Linier Expansion
(Physics Laboratory II)

Lab Report
WRITTEN BY,
KOMANG GEDE YUDI ARSANA (NIM. 1013021018)

## PHYSICS DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

FACULTY OF MATHEMATIC AND SCIENCE
GANESHA UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION
April 2011