Planning of Radio Network RF Planning Tool

Regional Telecom Training Centre Hyderabad

Planning of sites

For Coverage

• For Capacity • To improve the Quality of the Network

Planning of sites – Existing Network • • • To improve the coverage in the uncovered area To improve the quality of the network Capacity requirement

Planning of sites – New Network • • • • • Important locations in the area Business area Residential area Roads and railway routes Rural area .

Select the appropriate site locations in the map for covering all the area to be covered and with good coverage at all the important locations.How to select the sites – New Network • • • • • Survey the area and take the Latitude/Longitudes of all the important locations Plot them on the RF planning tool. Select the type of the sites required at the above locations (Micro/Macro/Umbrella coverage) . Then survey the selected locations above for feasibility and finalize.

. Low quality area Take OMCR reports Analyze for Capacity requirement Import the drive test reports and the OMCR reports for localizing the sites required. Select the appropriate site locations in the map Then survey the selected locations above for feasibility and finalise.How to select the sites – Existing Network • • • • • • • Drive the entire area and take Drive test report Analyze for coverage patches.

Points to remember while selecting the sites • • • Site is to be located on the high ground No obstructions nearby Preferable to take on the other side of formations like hills so as to cover wider area Select the buildings which will fulfill the ICNIRP (International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection) guidelines for limiting exposure of Radiation. • .

111 Amp.5 Watt / sq. / m.m 1800 MHz 9. / m. / m.157 Amp. 0. m 1. Magnetic Field 0. m 2100 MHz 10.5 Watt / sq.25 Volt / m. 63.Power Density 2. 3. 58.01 Volt / m. .33 Volt / m.Safe Exposure Limit Operating frequency Parameter 900 MHz 4.0 Watt / sq. Electric field (V / m ) 41.1696 Amp. 0.

Accuracy of the Planning tool depends on the following points • • • • Digital map Link Budget Propagation Model Accuracy of the site data .

Heights and Vectors.Digital Maps • Digital Maps contains clutter. • Latest digital maps with high resolution .

Power limits etc. we determine the Cell Radii..Link Budget • It is the simple Budget calculations. • Many of the Link Budget factors are set by either GSM Recommendations or by the Limitations of the Manufacturer equipment. which gives the minimum signal strength required for good quality of network in various conditions. Design Thresholds. . • From Link Budget.

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0 dB 0.0 dBm None None -104.0 dBm -114.0 dB 34.R.7 dB 0.8 dBm 121.0 dB 0.0 dBi 3.00 W ) 46.3 dBµV/m) .8 dB 119.5 dB 17.8 dB 2.P: TOTAL UPLINK BUDGET: TOTAL DOWNLINK BUDGET: WORST LINK BUDGET: OUTDOOR MINIMUM FIELD: 40.5 dB 119.0 dB 900 MHz 54.0 dBm 3.0 dBi -65.0 dBm None 0.0 dBm 4.00 W 33.0 dBm (71.I.00 W ( max 40.0 dB -110.  BTS MS TX PA OUTPUT POWER: TX PA OUTPUT POWER (dBm) COMBINER LOSSES: SPECIFIC TX CABLE LOSSES: RX SENSITIVITY: RX SENSITIVITY + DIVERSITY CABLE+SLANT LOSS: ANTENNA GAIN (ISO.): BODY LOSSES: OVERLAPPING MARGIN: IN CAR PENETRATION FACTOR: INDOOR PENETRATION FACTOR: OPERATING FREQUENCY: EQUIVALENT E.0 dB -2.

Fade Margin Penetration Losses .• For calculating the minimum signal level required in different conditions like travelling in a car. using in huge buildings following additional information required.

95%.Fade Margin • Fade Margin is the margin required to ensure that the signal remains above the minimum required level for an acceptable part of the time (acceptable is defined as 90%. The Fade margin is simply the multiplication of the Standard Deviation by the number of Standard Deviations required to ensure the desired level of coverage.) • The signal received by the mobile is constantly changing. 98%.. From this variability. ... a Standard Deviation can be derived.

29 1.13 0.26 0.68 0.53 0.Standard Deviation of fading = 6 to 8dB Confidence Level SDs 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 99% 0 0.33 .04 1.85 1.65 2.39 0.

Both must be taken into account if we wish to cover more than the “average” buildings. In Building (or In – Car) losses should be given as a mean value and a Standard Deviation. the total Standard Deviation is calculated as the square root of the sum of the squares of the Standard Deviation (Building and Fade Margin) • From these factors. .Penetration Losses • Penetration Losses are the additional losses required to cover inside the building. • For in-building coverage. we can simply derive the required design thresholds for the system quality we wish.

due to Fade margin)2+( S.D = = (S.63 .D.Large buildings Penetration Losses Standard Deviation Car 16 9 8 7 FOR LARGE BUILDINGS (90% coverage) Total S.D.04 FOR Coverage in CARS (90% coverage) Total S.D = 8*8 + 7* 7 = 10. due to Penetration Los)2 8*8 + 9* 9 = 12.

5dBm For Coverage in Cars (90% coverage) Level = -102+8+(1.29X12.29X10.3dBm .63) = -80.Service Thresholds Required Signal Level = Sensitivity + Penetration Losses +Fade margin For Large buildings (90% coverage) Level = -102+16+(1.04) = -70.

Coverage by Cells. Interference). • The tool calculates the coverage losses in the clutter and gives the coverage output. It should be equivalent to the Coverage and Interference in the field. . These Clutter losses in the in the tool is to be supplied in the form of Propagation Model.Propagation Models • RF Planning tool simulates the Radio Network (Total Coverage.

Some of the models are Epstein – Peterson Okumura – Hata Cost – Hata Longley – Rice Standard Propagation Model • • • • • .Propagation Models • Basically there are Two types of Propogation Models. • Analytical Based on the actual characteristics of the area • Empirical Based on the measurements Most Models use a combination of these Two.

. Change the values of K1 to K6 until the prediction and the measured values are minimized. Gain K1 to K6 are the constants derived from Model Tuning. Heff are in m • Planet mode Uses PRX=PTX+K1+K2 Log(d) +K3 Log(Heff)+K4Diffraction+K5 Log(Heff) Log(d) +K6(Hmeff)+Kclutter + Ant. Model Tuning is done by CW Test The results are imported in to the planning tool. Diffraction. Hm. Clutter factor are in dB d.Propagation Models • • These are the mathematical equations contains some constants (K1-K6) Standard Macrocell Model for Asset Lp (dB) = K1 + K2 log(d) + K3 Hm + K4 log(Hm) + K5 log(Heff) + K6 log(Heff) log(d) + K7 Diffraction + Clutter factor where Lp.

RF Planning Tool .ATOLL .

Inputs Required • • • • • • Digital maps Propagation Models Antennas Link Budget Parameters Site Template Site database .

Inputs required • • • • • Cell Type Frequency Band Propagation model Calculation Radius Resolution .

Site Data base • • • • • • • • Latitude Longitude Antenna Type Antenna Height Antenna Azimuths Antenna Tilt EIRP BCCH /TCH /BSIC .

Freq Reuse Pattern .

Planning tool • Open a new Project • Define the Co-ordinate system of the map (WGS84/UTM zone 44) in the Tools/Options • Import the Digital map File/Import/Select the map select index file of Clutter and import it Change the colors of the clutter for different clutters for easy identification File/Import/Select the map select index file of Heights and import it for getting the Digital Terrain File/Import/Select the map select index file of Vectors and import it Change the colors of the Vectors for different Vectors for easy identification .

Planning tool • • • Import the Antennas Import the Propagation Models In the Predictions Right click and create new coverage by signal level Change the values and colors in the Legend for easy identification Right click and create new coverage by C/I level Change the values and colors in the Legend for easy identification Right click and create new coverage by Transmitters Create a template for 3sector site Create a template for 1sector site by giving the filling the required information • .

• Create the sites as above • Run for Coverage by signal to get the coverage maps of all sites. .Creating sites • Select the icon adjacent to Site template and click in the map. Change the Latitude and Longitude. • Run for Coverage by Transmitter to get the coverage maps Cell wise. Give the site name. • Double click on the sector and changes in the sector may be incorporated.

Frequency Plan • Group the Total frequencies in to TWO groups for BCCH and TCH allotment. • Change the BCCH accordingly to get better C/I • Assign BSIC . • Run for signal by coverage by C/I to get the interference levels of all sites. • Double click on the sector and assign the BCCH frequencies.

124 Assign each group to different cells for assigning the TCH Frequencies MA List 64. 122 Group 5 87.120 Group 4 82.Frequency Plan • • • • • • • • • • • • Subgroup the TCH frequencies in to 6 groups.113.112.123.82.87. 117.111.122.124 Assign HSN for each site/Cell Assign BSIC for each sector .88. Group 1 64.120. 112. 116.118.119 Group 3 81.119.117.115.113. 123 Group 6 88.116.118 Group 2 80.80. 115.81.111.

Neighbor List • Create a neighbor list .

Frequency Plan requires • • • • • • • Latitude / Longitude Antennas (Type. Height and tilt) Orientation of the Antennas BCCH / TCH Frequencies(MAIO) to be allotted MA List BSIC Neighbor list .

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