Construction & Maintenance

The topic of construction broadly encompasses the issues relevant to the process of road construction and maintenance, including the design, contracting, implementation, supervision, and maintenance of roads and related structures, such as bridges and interchanges. For purposes of the knowledge base presented here, the topic covered includes public works, private contracting of civil works, and labor-based construction techniques. With respect to the process of maintenance, this includes road maintenance in general, as well as the private contracting of maintenance activities. In addition, issues related to the area of construction and the environment are also included, such as construction and maintenance environmental impacts and mitigation, and construction site safety. Key Issues The knowledge base is divided into three main topic areas with key issues under these
topics, as follows: Construction Public Works | Contracting of Civil Works | Labor-based Construction & Maintenance Methods for Road Works | Construction Safety | Unit Costs of Construction & Maintenance Works Maintenance Road Maintenance | Maintenance by Contract | Monitoring, Implementation and Evaluation of Roads. Environment Roads & the Environment | Construction & the Environment | Maintenance & the Environment In additions, links are provided to: Sample Terms of Reference, Selected References | Design & Appraisal of Rural Transport Infrastructure Web site | Proceedings from the Innovative Road Rehabilitation & Recycling Technologies Pavement Seminar

Public Works While adoption of competitive bidding for road and other civil works has been the norm in most countries of the world, some countries do not have a sufficient industry of independent contractors and road works are mostly done by force account or awarded to state construction agencies on a negotiated basis. In many of these countries, not only are cost high and quality low, it is common for suppliers of construction materials and services to have monopoly power, further increasing inefficiency and lowering quality. In these situations, it is a combination of transferring work from the public to private sector and the introduction of competition into operations that is often the best way to decrease inefficiency and improve quality. Introducing competitive bidding into public works contracts is also often an important first step to this goal. Secondly, the contracting out of the works function requires the introduction of competition into the operation of road agencies themselves, either by the greater use of existing private contractors, or by allowing public sector agencies to compete with the private sector.

effective labor laws. These two reforms. it is the bidding and contracting documents which are the foundation of the construction process. New approaches. and decentralization. In recent years. click here. with the support of a number of bilateral donors. . and they should also be linked to awarding to the lowest responsive. together with government commitment. ranging from management contracts to BOOT. thus leading to more involvement of private contractors and consultants in improved management of road assets. resulting in impossibly low prices being accepted as part of bids and contracts which give owners all the rights and contractors all of the obligations. leading to many failed contractors through poor planning. the push to minimize costs is often an absolute goal. to ensure that funds flow adequately and laborers are paid on time. On the owner¶s side. the risks to the highway agency tend to decrease as the agency shifts from force account (or direct labor) to short. These are improved financial management. particularly in the areas of risks and incentives. and contractors have experimented with new ways of acquiring new business and enhancing profit. To overcome these problems during road construction. which is of particular importance for economies in transition. The construction industry has historically not dealt well with risk. There are options for creating an enabling environment for the construction industry. Labor-Based Construction and Maintenance Methods for Road Works Using labor-based methods for road works has been an important part of the strategy to improve rural transport infrastructure in Africa over the past twenty-five years. and poor resource management. to streamline payment procedures and strengthen stakeholders' support of these programs. including concessions. but which have not received the attention they require. The RTTP. as the process of contracting has quickly evolved. responsible bidder. should be considered as valid options. These methods not only produce gravel roads of equal quality to those produced using equipment-based methods. Apart from insisting on clarity of contract terms. Although labor-based methods have proved to be a cost-effective alternative to equipment-based methods in many low-wage Sub-Saharan African countries. risks must be properly defined and the remedies associated with these risks spelled out in a way that eliminates the incentive of the contractor to bid other than at his best price. poor budgeting. but they also generate rural employment in a cost-effective manner. While addressing these reforms. appropriate design standards.a component of the Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP) .Contracting of Civil Works Where the private sector is relied on for the construction of roads. regardless of market realities. The owner must also be protected against irresponsibly low bids that later result in excess claims and controversy.and long-term forms of contract with the private sector. Experience gained under the RTTP identifies two key reforms that are necessary to mainstream laborbased programs. The process. has over the last two years examined experiences in Africa to identify why labor-based programs have not been adopted on a large scale and to develop appropriate reforms. should facilitate the mainstreaming of labor-based programs in countries where such methods are feasible.launched a study to find sustainable solutions to this problem. these methods have not been applied on a large scale. and training. Different forms of contract have several implications on the risk allocation between client and contractor. An example of one labor-based road maintenance scheme used in Kenya is attached. program designers can begin to establish a suitable delivery mechanism. there is an awareness of the need to refine these basic documents. together with the more traditional methods of bidding on the basis of existing designs and specifications. begins with separating the functions of planning and management from implementation of road works. the owner should also carry out close scrutiny of the bidder¶s credentials and the responsiveness of his bid. To learn more about a technical paper on expanding labor-based methods for road works in Africa. The Rural Travel and Transport Program (RTTP) .

2 percent in the first quarter of 2000 as compared to the fourth quarter of 1999 and 5. An example of the type of information that is found in "FHWA Reports Road Construction Costs for Second Quarter of 1999 (8/3/99). y Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE). The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) . markings. the public." Link to the Roads and Highways. the American Traffic Safety Services Association (ATSSA). You can read about the best practices/policies for minimizing delay and enhancing safety during construction and maintenance operations at the FHWA's Work Zone Safety Best Practices site. 2000. January 21. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA): y The FHWA has developed the National Highway Work Zone Safety Program (NHWZSP) to reduce the fatalities and injurious crashes in work zones. In addition.Return to top of document Construction Safety The safe and efficient flow of traffic through work zones is a major concern to transportation officials. The four elements of the NHWZSP are standardization. The study's recommendations will be the foundation for future FHWA actions and programs with its partners to improve the safety and efficiency of work zones. and follow the format and rewrite process. and commercial motor carriers. Until publication. the FHWA conducted a study entitled "Meeting the Customer's Needs for Mobility and Safety During Construction and Maintenance Operations. Road Safety knowledge base Return to top of document Unit Costs of Construction and Maintenance Works y FHWA Press Release on May 30." which involved interviews with FHWA and State personnel in 26 being totally revised. examine amendments to the 1988 edition. please visit the new. and the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) have signed an agreement to designate April 3-7 as the National Work Zone Safety Awareness Week. reformatted. and readied for its premier in 2001.the publication that governs how road managers nationwide install and maintain the signs. businesses. and implementation. You can review proposed changes in the MUTCD Millennium Edition. and signals along the Nation's roadways ." y . FHWA Reports Road Construction Costs Decreased During First Quarter of 2000 The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) today announced that highway construction costs decreased 4.S. expanded web site. industry. the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA).7 percent compared to the first quarter of 1999. The following illustrates the programs some highway agencies are developing: U. compliance. evaluation. 2000: y "To help reduce fatalities and injuries in highway construction areas. and to enhance traffic operation and safety within work zones. Washington Weekly.

A Finnish National Road Administration (Finnra) publication. Average paving costs in 1997. y A short slide presentation on average road work costs under Bank-financed projects in the 19951999 period. average of sections newly put in service between April '95 and March '97). the cost of construction could be reduced.9 million in United States.y y y y y y Future press releases with similar information may be found on the main link to the U.9 million. In general. provided by the above publication. Examples of ways in which different countries contract road maintenance services. An improperly maintained road can also represent an increased safety hazard to the user.1 million/km in the United States (average of 12 sections of Interstate which were newly put in service after 1990).400 per kilometer in 1996. with their associated human and property costs. Infrastructure and Transport Web site. FHWA Press Releases. In addition. A comparison for the cost of applying a 5 cm overlay. compiled from figures which were available in 1999. the cost of land acquisition could be reduced by US$10. It is interesting that the cost of Expressways above was adjusted to the condition in United States. by US$15 million and the difference of geo-technical conditions and seismic design standards by US$0. In the United States.5 million (construction) + US$13. Information provided by the Latvian Road Administration on unit costs of road works contained in their Progress Report for June 1999. but most of them are 4 lanes. which is comparable with actual US$19. "How Much?: Road Management Costs in 1997.3 million/km (construction and land).6 million (land)/km (average of sections newly put in service between April '88 and March '95) The number of lanes on Expressways vary.S. leading to more accidents. A sample of individual maintenance costs for 1997. Expressways: US$36. because of fewer sections of bridges and tunnels. Other examples of construction costs in Japan are provided monthly by the Kensetsu Bukka Chousakai foundation (only in Japanese)." indicated that the total maintenance cost was about US$3. Assuming US$1=100 JPY in the following data: 4 lane bypasses of national highway: US$25 million/km (construction cost without land acquisition. All these deductions result in US$23. The following costs are available from Japan's Ministry of Land. The registered English name of the foundation is the Construction Research Institute. as there is a direct link between road condition and vehicle operating costs (VOC). road maintenance activities can be broken into four categories: . Return to top of document Maintenance Road Maintenance Proper road maintenance contributes to reliable transport at reduced cost.

Chile. Malaysia and Pakistan use standard contract documents which may be different for major and minor maintenance works. defined in the maintenance standard. Winter maintenance works of snow removal or salting are also included under this heading. although separate special contingency funds may also be provided. specialized equipment. Examples are verge cutting and culvert cleaning. Routine and periodic maintenance operations are sometimes contracted separately. British Columbia. The category normally excludes those works that change the geometry of a road by widening or realignment. These include activities undertaken at intervals of several years to preserve the structural integrity of the road. Examples are resealing and overlay works. However. Some countries. In Algeria and Brazil. which are carried out in response to measured deterioration in road conditions. Kenya. Examples are the construction of by-passes. which is carried out in response to the appearance of cracks or pot-holes. such as pavement or bridge repair work. These are activities whose need cannot be estimated with any certainty in advance. Contractors in these countries indicated that they consider five years is appropriate to provide them with sufficient incentive to invest in costly. The activities include emergency works to repair landslides and washouts that result in the road being cut or made impassable. intervals. overlay or reconstruction of a specific length of pavement are widely used and there is considerable experience of this. Development. For example: Algeria. Periodic works are expected at regular. they are funded from the capital budget. A contingency allowance is normally included within the recurrent budget to fund these works. As such. particularly for road maintenance works. These are works that are undertaken each year that are funded from the recurrent budget. are used to determine when maintenance is needed. The contracts used by British Columbia now have a five-year duration. Malaysia uses contracts of two-year duration. or to enable the road to carry increased axle loadings. As such. This practice is used mostly in Chile. the United Kingdom and Malaysia have experience of including all maintenance activities on specific routes.y y y y Routine works. including Canada (British Columbia). setting priorities. Brazil¶s DNER. Learn more about the experience of British Columbia in privatizing its road and bridge maintenance function. or the paving of unpaved roads in villages. overlay and pavement reconstruction. These are construction works that are identified as part of the national development planning activity. in comprehensive maintenance contracts combining both periodic and routine works. Special works. scheduling the work. Activities can be grouped into cyclic and reactive works types. such as the resealing. both of which are dependent on environmental effects rather than on traffic levels. maintenance contracts for specific road sections combine execution of routine and minor periodic maintenance. resurfacing. there is often a need for contracts to cover a wider scope of work. including performing routine patrols and detailed inspections to identify needs. Kenya and Pakistan. However. and public relations. many countries consider these activities as discrete projects and fund them from the capital budget. Periodic works. An example is patching. but relatively long. Contractors additionally are responsible for managing the maintenance and operations programmes. . Return to top of document Maintenance by Contract Contracting for specific items of maintenance work. Works can be grouped into the works types of preventive. Cyclic works are those undertaken where the maintenance standard indicates the frequency at which activities should be undertaken. Belgium. and is applied frequently in other countries to more complex periodic activities. whilst the United Kingdom is using three-year contracts. they can be budgeted for on a regular basis and can be included in the recurrent budget. Reactive works are those where intervention levels. or within entire geographic areas.

With technical assistance from the International Road Federation and German Aid. The data to be collected by an inspection system. a number of Latin American countries have. but out-sources both the management and production of the maintenance work to a single contractor. and operating high-traffic volume roads. for planning. The consequences of such decisions can be very costly. Management of the road network requires different information. and for implementation. Brazil. periodic maintenance and road rehabilitation as well. and of the pitfalls of making inappropriate decisions in this area. Argentina and Chile have let several such contracts recently. requires the effective evaluation and supervision of contractors and their bids. Most of these contracts have been operating for more than a year and cover routine maintenance and. In addition. at different levels of the decision-making process. Peru and Uruguay have initiated so called Performance Specified Road Maintenance Contracts on a pilot basis. More recently. for example. Cutting the cost of road maintenance and improving road conditions are the main reasons why several Latin American countries have started to look for new ways of contracting out road maintenance. Among the most advanced countries in this respect are Argentina. Without this ability at tender. road surfaces and conditions. A paper. not only in terms of the cost of initial system procurement. how these contracts have been implemented. and the time period vary in each pilot project and will provide a wide basis for evaluation and improvements. maintaining. Guatemala. This article provides an overview of the different pilot projects. in some cases. have switched from the traditional quantities and unit price-based short-term maintenance contracts to long-term performancetype or results-based contracts.To address internal inefficiency and accountability issues. and where. poor contractors can raise owner¶s supervision and staffing costs substantially. or integrated contracts involving both the rehabilitation and routine maintenance of road networks (such as the Contrato de Recuperación y Mantenimiento (CREMA) system in Argentina). especially with respect to the contracting and bidding for civil works. particularly Argentina. but also because of the on-going costs of system management and data collection. Extension of the road network. some countries. The implementation of systems can have far-reaching effects on all aspects of the operation of the road administration. the cost of which is recovered from tolls. . for programming. Colombia. depend largely on the use of the data. There has also been considerable progress in the region to transfer to the private sector. The new approach encompasses either routine maintenance activities alone. it is important that managers are aware of the need for an effective approach to system implementation. and how it should be collected. "Performance Specified Road Maintenance Contracts . the responsibility of improving. for design." presents a framework for extending the CREMA concept to cover both the paving and future maintenance of low-volume roads. In this scheme the Road Authority serves as the owner. giving special attention to the performance specifications and control procedures. Hence. over the last decade. through concessions. marginal or unacceptable bidders can distort the bidding process by excessive underbidding for contracts or future inability to complete. Implementation and Evaluation of Roads Construction. and what lessons can be learned so far.The Road to the Future: The Latin American Perspective. Brazil and Chile. moved decisively and successfully from force-account (direct labor) to contract maintenance. Senior managers in road administrations may also be required to make decisions about the choice of computerised road management systems that are to be implemented within their organizations." Return to top of document Monitoring. "Areawide Performance-Based Rehabilitation and Maintenance Contracts for Low-Volume Roads. At the point of construction.

borrow pits. People may also be indirectly affected by construction. The frequency of road maintenance operations can facilitate the implementation of standard good practices. and work practices are other important factors which need to be managed by road contractors. Return to top of document Sample Terms of Reference y Terms of Reference for consulting services for the preparation of bidding documents for Performance-based Management and Maintenance of roads in several countries . construction work activities. and more road accidents. During site establishment it is the location of work facilities and resources that is the key environmental issue. it is noticeable throughout the road network. Return to top of document Construction and the Environment The construction process has particular environmental impacts and mitigation options at each level of work: site establishment and setup. especially quarries.Return to top of document Environment Roads and the Environment Roads have significant impacts on both nearby communities and the natural environment. noise. economical and institutional/contractual points of view. Provision is also often required for follow up maintenance of restored vegetation. Traffic. Restoration of work areas. is an important aspect of contractor responsibility. site restoration after the completion of work. People and properties may be in the direct path of road works and affected in a major way. Return to top of document Maintenance and the Environment Environment is seldom taken into account in the design and implementation of road maintenance tasks. erosion is a major risk and can be prevented by prompt planting and control of runoff water. on the other hand. and interference with animal and plant life. loss of accustomed travel paths and community linkages. Environmental consideration should be included in road maintenance programs and should be looked at from methodological. and. During construction. While impact might be gradual because of the limited size of maintenance works. through the disruption of livelihood. increases in noise and pollution. waster disposal. changes to streams and underground water. technical. New roads may bring development to previously underdeveloped areas. work depots. Disturbances to the natural environment may include soil erosion. sometimes causing significant effects on sensitive environments and the lifestyles of indigenous people. and material storage sites.

The above items may be ordered on-line at the World Bank Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program publications Web site. 1993. Sample Terms of Reference dealing with various aspects of construction and maintenance are available here. Transport and the Village. Jean-Marie. 347 (7. "Design. 2002. y y . and H. please contact the Bureau of Publications at Fax: +41."Road Maintenance Management Systems in Developing Countries.´ ASIST Bulletin 2. Finance and Operate: Value in Roads." SSATP Paper.504KB PDF)." SSATP Paper. 344 (7. World Bank Technical Paper No. Nilsson. Return to top of document Selected References Publications available on-line at this Web site y y y y Barwell. Development and Policies Branch.´ International Labor Review 131(1):3-18. Geneva: International Labour Organization.940KB PDF). 1994. 1990. Elisabeth A.799. ³Employment Creation and Poverty Alleviation through Laborintensive Public Works in Least Developed or visit the ILO Web site. "Road Monitoring Manual for Maintenance Management. Build. Jean-Marie. Roads and the Environment: A Handbook. December." Paris. 1993. 1997. Volume 4. 1992.6938 or E-mail: pubvente@ilo. Lantran. ³Labour-based Contracting. World Bank Discussion Paper No. Geneva: International Labour Organization. Volume 1.´ Processed. 1995. World Bank Technical Paper No." London. For more information on the above publications. ³Guidelines on the Introduction of Employment Intensive Technologies in Large Scale Road Sector Programs. 1990. Stock. Ian. Sample Bidding Document for Procurement of Performance-Based Management and Maintenance of Roads (Output-based Service Contract). 1996. 1996. and Jan de Veen. Guade J. y y Lantran. "Managing Small Contracts. Jan. C.y y This document is an example of terms of reference for a feasibility study used for the LezheShkodra Road Upgrading in Albania. Contracting Out Series. Expanding Labor-Based Methods for Road Works in Africa. The above items are available at the OECD Online Bookshop y United Kingdom Highways Agency. 376. y y OECD. "Developing Domestic Contractors for Road Maintenance in Africa. Development and Technical Cooperation Department. World Bank. World Bank/OECD. Publications available for purchase or downloading at other Web sites y de Veen. Contracting Out Series. Watzlawick.22." Paris.

"Assessment of Road Maintenance by Contract. Wells. Richard. 1998. Publications Available Through Regular Library Services y y Robinson." London:Croom Helm. INU91. Martin Snaith. Report No. Hodgins. For more information on this publication. telephone: +49 6196 79-0 or fax +49 6196 79-1115 or visit the GTZ Web site." World Bank. J. visit the TAC on-line bookstore. B. 1994. 1994. ." Prepared by the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ). "Road Maintenance Management Concepts and Systems. Washington. Montreal. click here. "Unsurfaced Road Maintenance Management. Army Corps of Engineers: Hanover. If you are interested in general technical information and publications of the Institute of Transportations Engineers. DC. 1991. ISBN: 0709936265 Publications Available From the Transport Help Desk y Sergio." MacMillan Press Ltd. 1995. ISBN 0333721551. R. Uno Danielson. M.y y y y y Eaton." Transportation Association of Canada: Ottawa. For more information on these proceedings. For more information on this publication. "Road Contractor Promotion and Employment Generation in Africa. Eugene.S.S. Rausch. For more information on this publication contact GTZ at Dag-Hammarskjöld-Weg 1-5. Paris: Permanent International Association of Road Congresses. 65760 Eschborn. Army Corps of Engineers Web site." U. visit the PIARC Web site. "The Construction Industry in Developing Countries: Alternative Strategies for Development. 1986. 1993. Proceedings from the XXth World Congress. visit the U. "Management of Road Construction and Maintenance Wastes. PIARC.

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