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**Carlos T. dos S. Dias* and Wojtek J. Krzanowski ABSTRACT
**

The additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model has been proposed for the analysis of genotype–environmental data. For plant breeding, the recovery of pattern might be considered to be the principal objective of analysis. However, some problems still remain with the analysis, notably in selecting the number of multiplicative components in the model. Methods based on distributional assumptions do not have a sound methodological basis, while existing data-based approaches do not optimize the cross-validation process. This paper first summarizes the AMMI model and outlines the available methodology for selecting the number of multiplicative components to include in it. Then two new methods are described that are based on a full “leave-one-out” procedure optimizing the cross-validation process. Both methods are illustrated and compared on some unstructured multivariate data. Finally, their applications to analysis of genotype environment interaction (GEI) are demonstrated on experimental grain yield data. Conclusions of the study are that the “leave-one-out” procedure is preferable in practice to either distributional F-test or cross-validation randomization methods, and of the two “leave-one-out” procedures the Eastment-Krzanowski method exhibits the greater parsimony and stability.

ost of the data collected in agricultural experiments are multivariate in nature because several attributes are measured on each of the individuals included in the experiments, i.e., genotypes, agronomic treatments, etc. Such data can be arranged in a matrix X, where the (i,j)th element represents the value observed for the jth attribute measured on the ith individual (case) in the sample. Common multivariate techniques used to analyze such data include principal component analysis (PCA) if there is no a priori grouping of either individuals or variables; canonical variate or discriminant analysis if the individuals in the sample form a priori groups; canonical correlation analysis if the variables form a priori groups; and cluster analysis if some partitioning of the sample is sought. In plant breeding, multienvironment trials (MET) are important for testing general and specific cultivar adaptation. A cultivar grown in different environments will frequently show significant fluctuation in yield performance relative to other cultivars. These changes are influenced by the different environmental conditions and are referred to as GEI. A typical example of a matrix X arises in the analysis of MET, in which the rows of X are the genotypes and the columns are the

ˆ C.T. dos S. Dias, Dep. of Ciencias Exatas, Univ. of Sao Paulo/ESALQ, ˜ Av. Padua Dias 11, Cx.P.09, 13418-900, Piracicaba-SP, Brazil; W.J. Krzanowski, School of Mathematical Sciences, Laver Building, North Park Road, Exeter, EX4 4QE, UK. Received 8 Apr. 2002. *Corresponding author (ctsdias@carpa.ciagri.usp.br). Published in Crop Sci. 43:865–873 (2003).

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environments where the genotypes are tested. Presence of GEI rules out simple interpretative models that have only additive main effects of genotypes and environments (Mandel 1971; Crossa, 1990; Kang and Magari, 1996). On the other hand, specific adaptations of genotypes to subsets of environments is a fundamental issue to be studied in plant breeding because one genotype may perform well under specific environmental conditions and may give a poor performance under other conditions. Crossa et al. (2002) give a comprehensive review of the early approaches for analyzing GEI that include the conventional fixed two-way analysis of variance model, the linear regression approach, and the multiplicative models. The empirical mean response, yij, of the ith genotype in the jth environment with n replicates in each of the i j cells is expressed as yij gi ej (ge)ij εij where is the grand mean across all genotypes and environments, gi is the additive effect of the ith genotype, ej is the additive effect of the jth environment, (ge)ij is the GEI component for the ith genotype in the jth environment, and εij is the error assumed to be NID (0, 2/n) (where 2 is the withinenvironment error variance, assumed to be constant). This model is not parsimonious, because each GEI cell has its own interaction parameter, and uninformative, because the independent interaction parameters are complicated and difficult to interpret. Yates and Cochran (1938) suggested treating the GEI term as being linearly related to the environmental effect, that is setting (ge)ij dij, where i is the iej linear regression coefficient of the ith genotype on the environmental mean and dij is a deviation. This approach was later used by Finlay and Wilkinson (1963) and slightly modified by Eberhart and Russell (1966). Tukey (1949) proposed a test for the GEI using (ge)ij Kgiej (where K is a constant). Mandel (1961) generalized Tukey’s model by letting (ge)ij iej for genotypes or (ge)ij gi j for environments and thus obtaining a “bundle of straight lines” that may be tested for concurrence (i.e., whether the i or the j are all the same) or nonconcurrence. Gollob (1968) and Mandel (1969, 1971) proposed a s bilinear GEI term (ge)ij k 1 k ik jk in which 1

Abbreviations: AMMI, additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model; COMM, completely multiplicative model; DF, degrees of freedom; GEI, genotype environment interaction; GREG; genotype regression model; IPCA, interaction principal component analysis; MET, multi-environment trials; NID, normally and independently distributed; PCA, principal components analysis; PRESS, predictive sum of squares; PRECORR, predictive correlation; RMSPD, root mean square predictive difference; SHMM, shifted multiplicative model; SREG, sites regression model; SS, sum of squares; SVD, singular value decomposition.

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we first summarize the AMMI model and analysis for genotype–environmental data. and jk is estimated by the jth element of the right singular vector k(1 e) associated with k (Good.. . obtained from n replications of an experiment (a balanced set of data). The residuals from this array then constitute the array of interactions: GE(g e) ˆ [(ge)ij] MATERIAL AND METHODS The AMMI Model Suppose that a set of g genotypes has been tested experimentally in e environments. 1996). s ). ik is estimated by the ith element of the left singular vector k(g 1). among others. Yge Determining the Optimal Number of Multiplicative Terms in the AMMI Model The main objective is the prediction of the true trait response in the cell of the two-way table of genotypes and environments. with more flexibility for describing GEI because more than one genotypic and environmental dimension is considered. However. successively. Consequently.. We then describe two methods based on a full leave-one-out procedure that optimizes the cross-validation process. notably in optimizing the cross-validation process. Yij gi ej m k 1 k m k 1 k ik jk ij εij in which (ge)ij is represented by: ik jk ij . 1969. 1996). Here. Piepho. 1995).. k the components account. some problems still remain. so the estimates are obtained from the first m terms of the SVD of the GE array (Good. the interaction of m genotype i with environment j is described by k 1 k ik jk. Piepho. COMM)... one aspect that has not yet been fully resolved concerns the determination of the number of multiplicative components to be retained in the model to adequately explain the pattern in the interaction.. can be represented by the following array and the multiplicative interaction terms are estimated from the singular value decomposition (SVD) of this array. Some proposals have been put forward by. 1971. .. 1999). Y(g e) Y11 Y12 .. 1993. The effects ik and jk represent weights for genotype i and environment j. Two basic approaches have evolved to determine the opti- The AMMI model postulates additive components for the main effects of genotypes (gi) and environments (ej) and multiplicative components for the effect of the interaction (ge)ij.. for a genotypic effect ( ik) and an environment effect ( jk). VOL. the Shifted Multiplicative Model (SHMM) (Seyedsadr and Cornelius. The GEI in this model is thus expressed as a sum of components. .. . k is estimated by the kth singular value of GE. 1995... discarding the noise given by s m 1 k ik jk. .. jk is the k jth element of the eigenvector of (GE)T(GE) associated with 2 k. Gauch and Zobel (1988). Thus. in that component of the interaction ( 2 )... Correspondences between SVD and PCA are as follows: k is the kth singular value or the square root of the kth largest eigenvalue of the arrays (GE)(GE)T and (GE)T(GE).... GREG). and the more recent ones focus on cross validation as a predictive data-based methodology. Zobel et al. Mandel (1971). MAY–JUNE 2003 satisfy the ortho-normalization 0 for k k and i ik ik j jk jk 2 2 1. 1994. for AMMI. for decreasing propor2 tions of the variation present in the GE array ( 2 1 2 2 .) However. Thus. each multiplied by k. (1988) and Gauch (1988) called this the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) model. with no residual error term against which to test effects (except in the situation when an independent error is estimated). which is a generk 1 k ik jk alization of the regression on the mean model. so the index k in the sum of multiplicative components can run from 1 to s. and Piepho (1994. and sketch out the available methodology for selecting the number of multiplicative components in the model. Their application to analysis of GEI is then exemplified on some experimental data. the AMMI method is seen as a procedure capable of separating signal and noise in the analysis of the GEI (Weber et al. Gauch and Zobel. the mean response of genotype i in an environment j is modeled by: . 1978). 1992) is useful for studying crossover GEI (Crossa et al. Gollob (1968). However. and a comparison of all available methods is made on data from five multienvironment cultivar trials. the model is said to be truncated. Cornelius et al.. (ge)ij 0. or both main effects (Complete Multiplicative Model.866 . This is a least-squares analysis that leaves an additional residual denoted by ij. Mandel.. Both methods are illustrated on some unstructured multivariate data. 1988. k The rank of GE is s min{g 1. a truncated AMMI model should be used and thus criteria for determining the number of components needed to explain the pattern in the GEI term have been the objects of some research (Gollob. the main effect of sites (Genotype Regression Model. the index is generally set to run to m s. ik jk and .. Another multiplicative model. The term k gives the proportion of the variance due to the GEI interaction in the kth component. e 1}. Gabriel. 43. SREG). When m s.. one does not try to recoup the whole SS(GEI) but only the components most strongly determined by genotypes and environments. under the restrictions: i i g j j e i (ge)ij j Estimates of the overall mean ( ) and the main effects (gi and ej) are obtained from a simple two-way ANOVA of the array of means Y(g e) [Yij]. 1971. 1969. Cornelius. as in PCA. To achieve this. which have equal nonnull eigenvalues. Y2e . 1995).. Yg1 Yg2 . The mean of each combination of genotype and environment. A family of multiplicative models can then be generated by dropping the main effect of genotypes (Site Regression Model. Thus. Therefore. All take into consideration the proportion of the variance accumulated by the components (Duarte and Vencovsky. 1968. ik is the ith element of the eigenvector of (GE)(GE)T associated with 2 . constraints 2 s CROP SCIENCE. Y1e Y21 Y22 . 2002. This leads to the linear-bilinear model i ik j jk s yij g i ej εij. . Cornelius (1993).. Use of all s components regains all the variation: SS(GEI) 2 2 k 1 k and the model is saturated so it produces an exact fit to the data.. Mandel. In this paper.

whereas most other approaches require extensive simulations before they can be used. He concludes that rigorous simulations seem unnecessary or impractical.DIAS & KRZANOWSKI: MODEL SELECTION 867 mal number of multiplicative terms to be retained in the GEI component. at least indirectly. Mandel’s (1971) system generally results in a nonlinear decrease in the degrees of freedom for the successive interaction terms. k 2 is the population variance. This implicitly assumes a normal distribution for the original response variable. the author suggests that assigning equal degrees of freedom {DF(IPCAk) [(g 1)(e 1)]/e]} is especially useful for early components because normally there will be little interest in partitioning the noise components. an F test does not hold. in that they select too many multiplicative terms. k 1 2 /SS(GEI). The main criticism of this approach is that the best predictive model computed from a subset of data may not be the best model when all data are considered (Cornelius and Crossa. these tests are conservative for testing multiplicative terms for which the previous term is small. Nonetheless.rank(GE) k yij yi. can also be tested to confirm its nonsignificance. 1992. Therefore by Gollob’s system. RMSPD) are determined from the validation data. The Cornelius test statistic with m multiplicative terms in the model is as follows: m FR. Sk. other classes of estimators can be better than shrinkage estimators (see Venter and Steel. FGH2 (Cornelius H01: 1 et al. One approach uses a cross-validation method in which the data are randomly split into modeling data and validation data. Computer simulations done by Cornelius (1993) showed that Gollob tests at the 0. So we do not consider them any further. 1992). This enables mean squares to be computed for each component.. Since we have an orthogonal partition of the interaction sum of squares.05 level are very liberal with Type I error rate of 66% for testing 0. all of the test (where GE criteria involve. Moreover. The Gollob (1968) approximate F test assumes that n ˆ 2 / 2 is distributed as chik square and so obviously does not hold. . the full joint analysis of variance (computed from means) has the structure as shown in Table 1. By contrast with Gollob (1968). which can still be fractions. 1999). whereas the presence of signal affects the component patterns substantially. is given by n 2 for k 1. Gauch and Zobel (1996) mention some methods for attributing degrees of freedom to components of an AMMI model. He comments that F tests applied in accordance with Gollob’s (1968) criterion are liberal. The eigenvalues 2 of the matrix (GE)(GE)T (or (GE)T(GE)) k are distributed as eigenvalues of a Wishart matrix but do not have a chi-square distribution. bearing in mind that the procedure is an intuitive guide.j y. 1999). that the matrix contains only noise and not signals. the ratio of the accumulated sum of squares for the first m components to the total SS(GEI). the number of included terms corresponding to the number of significant components. The approach of Gollob (1968) is very easily applied. However. the test proposed by Cornelius et al. if crossvalidation is used in MET data. Mandel (1971) defines the number of degrees of freedom for component k to be DF(IPCAk) E[ 2 ]/ 2.e.. simulations where then have to be conducted to evaluate the number of degrees of freedom in particular cases. and enables individual interaction components to be subjected to significance tests. collected in the last term of SS(GEI). the data must be adjusted for replicate differences within environments (Cornelius and Crossa. whereas Krzanowski (1979) gives some exact versions. Gauch (1992) discusses the question of obtaining the degrees of freedom for the multiplicative components of an AMMI model. the ratio of the mean square of any interaction component to the error mean square is then assumed to follow an F distribution with the corresponding degrees of freedom. the degrees of freedom have been obtained by Mandel’s (1971) proposal. but these estimators require df estimates that the authors find problematic.. are not exhaustive and this reduces the practical utility of the method. Gauch. Simulation and iteration tests have greater power than the FGH1 and FGH2 tests with good control of Type I error rates. In cases where there seems to be a clear division between the large components determining the systematic part and small noise components. since the number of degrees of freedom for component m of the interaction is simply defined to be DF(IPCAm) g e 1 2m. We will now briefly review these two approaches. Of the four methods he studied. k One of the usual procedures consists of determining the degrees of freedom associated with a particular component of SS(GEI) for each member of the family of AMMI models. The author thus recommends that preliminary evaluations should be conducted to verify the validity of the assumptions if one of the other tests is to be used. definitive questions of research require the exact assigning of the degrees of freedom to each multiplicative term. However. These tests are based on the sequential sum of squares explained by the multiplicative terms. Turning to the question of degrees of freedom. effectively control Type I error rates. Tests of Significance of Multiplicative Terms The sequential sum of squares of the AMMI model for the kth component. The residual AMMI. However. which was considered exact and therefore correct. this proposal has received much criticism recently (e.. In addition. including that of Gollob (1968). validity of the F distribution in these circumstances is subject to considerable doubt.g. there are disagreements between these methods. 1999).. However.2. using the complete data set (and not a subset like in k the cross-validation approach).…. and it is now felt to be less appropriate than the approach of Gollob (1968). and are generally more parsimonious than the Gollob test. m i.m (SS(GEI) k 1 2 k )/(f2MS(Error mean)). those of Gollob (1968) and Mandel (1971) are particularly popular. Cornelius et al. selection of the optimal model is often based on F tests for the successive terms of the interaction. y. Choosing one requires both theoretical and practical considerations. 1993). The F-approximation tests FGH1. unfortunately. AMMI is fitted to the modeling data and the mean squared errors of prediction (expressed as the root mean squared predictive difference. and generally recommends the use of Gollob’s system when one is using an F-test approach. H0k: 0. It may be noted that shrinkage estimators of multiplicative models have been shown recently to be good predictors of cultivar performance in environments (Cornelius and Crossa. As in PCA. For some years. Since the Sk are not independent random variables following a chi-square distribution. (1992) was the most robust. Mandel gives some tables derived from such simulations for a limited set of conditions. Piepho (1995) investigated the robustness (to the assumptions of homogeneity and normality of the errors) of some alternative tests to select an AMMI model. However. together with an error mean square. 1993). the authors warn that. however. The reason for this criticism centers on the assumptions made by Mandel in his simulations. These tables. The other approach for determining the best predictive truncated model is to use tests of hypotheses about the kth component.). For instance.

Then. they argue. Degrees of freedom g 1 e 1 (g 1)(e 1) e 1 (2 1) e 1 (2 2) e 1 (2 3) e 1 (2 s) ge(n 1) gen 1 Sum of squares Gollob SS(G) SS(E) SS(GEI) 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 s DF† Cornelius – – – 1)(e 2)(e 3)(e – – – Sum of squares Cornelius – – – g g g g (g (g (g 1 1 1 1 1 1 1) 2) 3) s k 2 s k 3 s k 4 2 k 2 k 2 k SS(Error mean) SS(Total) – – – with f2 (g 1 m)(e 1 m). truncated multiplicative models and best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) by computing the RMSPD as the square root of the mean squared difference between the predictive value and their corresponding validation data on replication adjusted data of five MET. The authors used a stopping rule for the number of crossvalidations that consisted in calculating the pooled mean square predictive difference on the mth execution of the loop (PMSPDm). A small value of RMSPD indicates predictive success of the model. it is necessary to use computationally intensive statistical procedures.e. we assume that we wish to predict the elements m xij of the matrix X by means of the model: xij dkuikvjk k 1 εij. The maximum number of cross validations required was 64 and the minimum was 39. By contrast. Cornelius and Crossa (1999) used cross validation for comparing performance of shrinkage estimators. Thus.. The responses are predicted for a family of AMMI models (i. It is an exact test. The chosen model is then used to analyze the data of all the n replications. 1995) so the test statistic has an F distribution with f2 and Error mean square degrees of freedom. The less the model choice or assessment of performance of a predictor is based on distributional assumptions. However. The author considers a modification of the completely random partition of the data (modeling and validation) when the experiment is blocked..e ) for each possible choice of m . jointly. in general. or simulation iteration tests.….g. so it would be preferable to base the model choice on such criteria. Leave-One-Out Methods We now propose two methods based on a full leave-oneout procedure that optimizes the cross-validation process. 43. This is because that it is most likely. Under the null hypothesis that no more than m terms determine the interaction. despite the logical coherence of this type of proposal. approximately. the original block structure is preserved. It is concluded. and this is the principle underlying his proposal for selection of number of components in AMMI models. In his method. from n 1 data points.e. It can therefore be seen as a test of significance of the first m 1 terms of the interaction (similar to the test of lack of fit in linear regression). Thus. calculating the differences between these values. The methods are those outlined by Krzanowski (1987) and Gabriel (2002) respectively. the more general is the result. MAY–JUNE 2003 Table 1. using techniques such as the jackknife. (1991). VOL. The authors call the square root of this result the mean predictive difference (RMSPD) and suggest that the procedure be repeated about 10 times. Wold. and describe two methods that optimize the cross-validation process by validating the fit of the model on each data point in turn and then combining these validations into a single overall measure of fit. in which we predict the value ˆm xij of xij(i 1. Thus. Gauch (1988) introduced the name “predictive evaluation” when it is based on cross validation (Stone. getting an average of the results for each member of the family of models. Predictive Assessment Using Cross Validation Gauch and Zobel (1988) comment that evaluations such as those above by means of distributional assumptions via the F test can be termed “postdictive. One also notices that the number of degrees of freedom of the numerator of FR is equal to the degrees of freedom for the whole interaction minus the degrees of freedom attributed by Gollob (1968) for the m first terms. We thus take up this idea in the present contribution. he recommends drawing entire blocks from the experiment and not making components for each combination of genotype and environment. To make predictions. 1974. when no multiplicative term is included.01. Gauch and Zobel (1996) suggest that the validation data set should always be just one observation for each treatment. therefore. FGH. Piepho (1994) suggests obtaining the average value of RMSPD for 1000 different randomizations. so the best model is the one with smallest RMSPD.. to find a model that is closest to the analysis of the full set of n data points. the bootstrap and cross validation. instead of the 10 suggested by Crossa et al. In this case. as suggested. simulating future responses not yet measured. that the application of FR is equivalent to the test of residual AMMI for GEI. Full joint analysis of variance computed from averages using Gollob and Cornelius’s system. 1978).” in that they search for a model to explain a great part of the variation in the observed data (with high coefficient of determination). the replications for each combination of genotypes and environments are randomly divided into two subgroups: (i) data for the fit of the AMMI model and (ii) data for validation. Source of variation Genotypes (G) Environment (E) Interaction (GEI) IPCA 1 IPCA 2 IPCA 3 IPCA s Error mean/n Total † Degrees of freedom. the test is just equivalent to the F test for global GEI in the joint ANOVA. i. Further modifications have been proposed in recent years. “predictive” criteria of evaluation capitalize on the ability of a model to form predictions with data not included in the analysis. methods that are essentially data-based and free of theoretical distributions will have the greatest generality. a chisquare variable (Piepho.…. j 1. Such methods involve resampling the given data set. for different values of m ) and these are compared with the respective validation data. (1992) that may turn out to be liberal as compared with FGH1. Thus.e. When m 0. (1991). such methods are not efficient for selecting parsimonious models and are liable to include noise. the sum of squares of these differences is obtained and the result is divided by the number of predicted responses. In the following.868 CROP SCIENCE. in a definitive analysis. This is the FR test of Cornelius et al. a significant result for the test suggests that at least one more multiplicative term must be added to the m already included. The crossvalidation was terminated if the maximum absolute value of PMSPDm–PMSPDm-1 was less than 0. This method was developed further by Crossa et al. the numerator (i. the residual SS(GEI) for the fitted AMMI model) is. studies confirming its effectiveness are still not available.

. diag(d1. m (vst). Hence. Wm represents the increase in predictive information supplied by the mth component. Then we can write With either method. r 2.…. the best accuracy of prediction seems to be achieved when the entries (xij) in different columns of X are comparable in size and there is relatively little variation among the di. The most stable procedure is thus one in which the mean xj and standard deviation sj of column j ( j 1. so there is no problem with convergence as opposed to expectation maximization approaches that have also been applied to AMMI. Gabriel (2002). and in the present instance that means a single element of X. 1 ge e2 and PRECORR(m) ij i 1j 1 ˆ Corr(xij. mean-centered after omitting either the ith row or the jth column. Existing entries xij of X are then standardized to xij (xij ˆ xj)/sj. Dr X( i) U D VT with U diag(d1. However. Results on an MET with nine genotypes and twenty sites showed that PRESS is more sensitive to .…. On a computational level.….…. Basing choice of m on Wm in this way can thus be seen as a natural counterpart to the selection of a best set of orthogonal regressor variables in multiple regression analysis... we can apply the leave-one-out procedure directly to the data matrix Y. and D and X( j) ˜ D ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ UDVT with U (ust). following the scheme given by Eastment and Krzanowski (1982). the value xij has nowhere been used in calculating the prediction. choice of m can be based on some suitable function of PRESS_(m) 1 ge g e ˆm (xij i 1j 1 xij)2. to make results comparable to the RMSPD from 3-1 data splitting. 1978). x. (Wold. and maximum use has been made of the other elements of X. However.1). (1993) compared results of cross validation with those obtained after computing the PRESS statistics in multiplicative models in a complete MET data. and any additive constants can be absorbed into the εij component of the model. on the other hand.. estimates are found by applying xij xTVD 1UTx. takes a mixture of regression and lower-rank approximation of a matrix as the basis for his prediction. where g and e denote the number of genotypes and sites in the MET and s2 is the pooled within-site error variance. The term in s2 is an adjustment for the difference in variance of the validation data on cell means.j ) (1. and the two approaches differ in the way that they handle this. Each will require a different partition of X.1 X\11 and approximate the submatrix X\11 by its rank m fit using the SVD m X\11 where U [u1.1 x11 ˆ and obtain the cross-validation residual e11 x11 x11. [v1. and measure the discrepancy between actual and predicted values as g e PRESS(m) respectively.3.…. Dr can be obtained by successive subtraction.um]. The data splitting involved three replicates for modeling and one replicate for validation.g. Gabriel’s approach yields values that first decrease and then (usually) increase with m. The algorithm for cross-validation of lower rank approximations proposed by the author is as follows: For given (GEI) matrix X. Krzanowski (1987) argued that the most precise prediction results when each deleted group is as small as possible.…. Turning to the case of genotype–environment data. V ˜ ˜ ˜ diag(d1. the features of this statistic differ for the two methods.. The Eastment–Krzanowski approach produces (generally) a set of values that is monotonically decreasing with m. Indeed. but are not guaranteed to converge. These residuals and fitted values can be summarized by where Dm is the number of degrees of freedom required to fit the mth component and Dr is the number of degrees of freedom remaining after fitting the mth component. j 1. given (g 1)e degrees of freedom in the meancentered matrix X. the data point xij must not be used ˆm in the calculation of xij for each i and j.DIAS & KRZANOWSKI: MODEL SELECTION 869 g 3 (the number of components). and D T x1.j to i. however.e ) are first found from the values present in that column. and then the final values are obtained ˆ from xij xj sjxij.. Cornelius et al. They therefore argue for the use of Wm PRESS_(m 1) PRESS_(m) Dm PRESS_(m) . this may often be preferable given the small values taken by most elements of GE. ˆ Similarly obtain the cross-validation fitted values xij and ˆ ˆ residuals eij xij xij for all other elements xij. j) PRESS(m) ˆm (xij i 1j 1 xij)2. i 1. Thus. D1 (g 1)e and Dr Dr 1 [g e (m 1)2]. The standard cross-validation procedure is to subdivide X into a number of groups.. it would appear that X should be the array of interactions previously denoted GE. V Then predict x11 by T u(k)dkv(k) k 1 UDVT. delete each group in turn from the data. the standardized data.d(p 1)).m. (ust). and ˜ Now consider the predictor ˆm xij t 1 (uit√dt)(vtj√dt) ˜ ˜ Each element on the right-hand side of this equation is obtained from the SVD of X. assume that the SVD of X can be written as X UDVT. (g 1). to avoid bias.. and predict the deleted values (Wold.e. divided by the mean predictive information in each of the remaining components. He therefore suggests that the optimum value of m is the one that yields the minimum of the function. Denote by X( i) the result of deleting the ith row of X and mean-centering the columns. Both. V (vst). (i. Thus. xij|∀i. They computed the RMSPD of PRESS by adjusting the value of PRESS as [PRESS/ge 3s2/4]1/2. Denote by X( j) the result of deleting the jth column of X and mean centering the columns. 1976. However. Consideration of the number of parameters to be estimated together with all the constraints on the eigenvectors at each stage.…..VD 1UTx. i. “important” components should yield values of Wm greater than unity. The calculations here are exact. appeal to some form of cross validation is indicated.dm).vm]. shows that Dm g e 2m. evaluate the parameters of the predictor from the remaining data. use the partition X T x11 x1. 1978).dp). since we are merely looking for the appropriate number of multiplicative terms in the model.

45 10. 14 are length or width measurements. no singular submatrices appeared.01) and account for 39.9952 0. RMSPD from 3-1 crossvalidation and adjusted RMSPD(PRESS) for models fitted to an multi-environment trial.00 PRESS_m† 4. 1988). Obregon.9937 0.51% of the treatment sum of squares. but the singular-value approach could be applied directly without any computational drawbacks.9932 0. Data on twenty samples of soil and five variables (from Kendall. PRESS: Predictive sum of squares.870 CROP SCIENCE.36 2. and GEI are highly significant (P 0. Genotype Environment Examples RESULTS Illustrative Data Sets Krzanowski (1988) considered a simple multivariate data set from Kendall (1980. one of the three observations at each treatment combination was randomly selected and used to create the interaction matrix. SHMM: Shifted multiplicative model. with standardized matrix X. PRECORR: Predictive correlation. whereas the other two replicates were averaged to form the validation data. We divided the original data by 1000. the genotypes were arranged in a complete block design with three replicates. This shows that the Gabriel criterion is sensitive to the appearance of a singular matrix D. Of the 19 variables. ‡ RMSPD: Root mean square predictive difference.20 † PRESS: Predictive sum of squares. the use of the Eastment–Krzanowski criterion W suggests two components in the model. and 15.9963 0. ized.05 0. W: Eastment-Krzanowski criterion.9998 W 13. 20). many overfitted models gave very unreliable prediction of a deleted cell. Thus we used a Moore–Penrose generalized inverse instead of the ordinary inverse when implementing Gabriel’s method. For some model forms (SHMM and SREG). .08 7. both the Gollob and the Cornelius F tests indicate that the first two interaction components (IPCA1 and IPCA2) should be included in the model.9982 0. Results of analysis of variance incorporating both the Gollob and Cornelius F tests are shown in Table 5. and pH. In each year. The eight genotypes correspond to a historical series of cultivars released from 1960 to 1980. relating to 20 samples of soil and five variables: percentages of sand content. We can see from PRESS(m) that the Gabriel values are lower until the third component.18 0. one of which concerned 19 variables measured on each of 40 winged adelgids that had been caught in a light trap. years. We can see that the PRESS(m) values are much lower with the Eastment– Krzanowski method than with the Gabriel method up as far as m 4.13 PRECORR 0. when the data matrix was standard- Vargas and Crossa (2000) present a complete data set from a wheat (Triticum aestivum L. whereas the Gabriel approach indicates that all four are needed. the model with smallest PRESS predicted data in a deleted cell better than they were predicted by three replicates of data with all cells present. overfitting than is data splitting. GREG: Genotype regression model.21 PRECORR 0. The result of a full cross validation across 1000 randomizations of the data can be seen in the first three columns of Table 6. and one (anal fold) is a presence/absence variable score 0 or 1. p. Now. the rank of the resulting matrix was four and all submatrices associated with columns four and five had a singular matrix D. From the W statistic.60 0. silt content. In Table 3. we show a comparison between both approaches using the Jeffers data.14 0.78 2.29. we show a comparison between the Eastment–Krzanowski and Gabriel methods for the soil data. Model form† Terms 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 AMMI 980 915 934 951 955 963 970 956 2 725 30 708 19 030 30 540 GREG SREG COMM SHMM – 947 906 924 944 959 – 925 886 925 2 246 5 094 Data splitting – – – 954 908 962 907 935 911 926 947 930 946 949 951 957 967 957 Adjusted RMSPD(PRESS)‡ – – – 939 892 942 912 9 155 935 994 7 071 1 557 1 071 14 670 2 682 3 251 8 165 8 688 † AMMI: Additive main effect and multiplicative interaction model. and clay content. For each randomization. 45. p.) variety trial with eight genotypes tested during six years (1990–1995) ´ in Cd. respectively. SREG: Sites regression model.23 2. Also shown in the remaining columns of Table 6 are the Eastment–Krzanowski and Table 3. 20. 1980. Jeffers (1967) described two detailed multivariate case studies. Eastment-Krzanowski Rank m 1 2 3 4 Gabriel W 27. and analyzed the mean grain yields (kg ha 1). On the other hand.60 0.9981 0. At the 1% significance level. In this case. based on Krzanowski. In this case.14 2. COMM: Completely multiplicative model. organic matter. we can see that the Eastment–Krzanowski method suggests that four components should be retained in the model. four are counts. MAY–JUNE 2003 Table 2. 43. This table shows that genotypes. Mexico. whereas the Gabriel criterion suggests two. VOL.9982 PRESS_m 8. Table 2 shows that PRESS differentiates more clearly the model forms than does data splitting. The author called attention to the fact that the three percentages added to 100 so that applying any regression-based technique to the raw data would incur multicollinearity problems.45 5. both methods yield similar PRECORR values for all components.20. On the other hand. In Table 4.

3117 0.9886 PRESS_m 0.23 0.9871 0. both the Eastment–Krzanowski and the Gabriel methods suggest that one component should be retained in the model.50 0.1906 0.9883 0. Source of variation Block Treatment Genotypes (G) Years (E) Interaction (GEI) IPCA 1 IPCA 2 IPCA 3 IPCA 4 IPCA 5 Error Correct Total Sum of squares 0.4232 2. .5443 0. Trial 1 was a wheat trial with 19 durum wheat cultivars.9836 0.13 0.6379 4.2883 0.3389 0.1997 16. whereas leave-one-out methods indicate just one important component. So.8939 DF† 2 47 7 5 35 11 9 7 5 3 94 143 FGollob 0.9835 0.34 0.16 0.02 0.2679 0. it seems that a data-based cross-validation method should be more appropriate. and five components are very similar in size and any could be chosen to represent the optimum number of components for the model.4240 0.02 0. So how do we assess these differences? The first point to make is that the F-test methods all rely heavily on distributional assumptions (normality of data and validity of F distributions for mean squares).9880 0.12 – * The 0.2147 1.9696 1.20). 1999). Turning then to the full cross-validation randomization approach.2957 0. ** Significant at the 0.8393 42.85 0.7587 49.9799 0. while the assessment was on the mean of the other two replicates.2723 0. it is documented that the different F tests can come up with conflicting recommendations on a particular data set (Duarte and Vencovsky.9884 0.9778 0.3589 0.0545 14. respectively.50 0.12 0.01 probability level.14 0.14 0. Distributional F tests indicate two components as optimum. 1967.3391 0. randomization cross validation suggests three or four.4842 0.80 0.30).2610 0.9876 0. For each trial.2760 0.00 1.2601 PRECORR 0.9744 W 31.9776 0.9849 0.78* 0. up to the first five interaction principal component analysis (IPCA). For example. the fit was to just one observation at each genotype–environment combination.2677 0.65** 62.2640 0.9876 0. Gabriel leave-one-out results.00 PRESS_m† 0.05 probability level.2616 0.9861 0. DISCUSSION The three distinct approaches to selection of number of multiplicative interaction components have yielded different results on the data of Vargas and Crossa (2000).3096 0.9874 0.02 0.02 0. the weakness here is that a large portion of the data must be set aside for the validation set. Data on forty winged aphids and nineteen variables (from Jeffers. four. in general.59). Eastment–Krzanowski Rank m 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Gabriel W 29.3031 0. one bread wheat cultivar.54** 1.9883 0.DIAS & KRZANOWSKI: MODEL SELECTION 871 Table 4.00 0.9778 0.9882 0. This feature can be seen clearly in the comparisons of Table 7 also.9878 0. PRECORR: Predictive correlation.27** 3.9839 0. Trials 2 to 5 were maize (Zea mays L.2651 0.9882 0.) trials with numbers of cultivars and sites equal to (16.2823 0. (18. although the RMSPD values for three. † DF: degrees of freedom. which may not be appropriate in many cases.9868 0.9885 0. W: Eastment-Krzanowski criterion. Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction analysis of the Vargas and Crossa (2000) data.28 0. while Piepho (1995) has noted that some of the tests select too many interaction components.9812 0.3239 0.2865 0. we turn to the data sets in Cornelius and Crossa (1999) who describe five multienvironment international cultivar trials.05** 4.9855 0.07 0.9862 0.2622 0.05 0. Be- Table 5. (9.00 0.9849 0.4222 0.11 0. However.10 0.9786 0.9885 0.01 0.4986 0. To obtain a broader comparison of methods.00 0.5778 PRECORR 0.2666 0.9869 0. Also.3687 0.00 0. all in randomized block designs.9759 0.5039 0. the number of multiplicative terms was obtained from a range of methods and the results are given in Table 7.56 5.4500 0.00 0.2604 0.3668 0.9885 0.2001 108. in the analysis reported in Table 6. as obtained from the single matrix of averages across the three replicates.04 3.2451 0.2428 5.02 0. and (8. This means that the model is fitted to only a relatively small part of the data.16** 3.2934 0.0545 – DFCornelius – – – – – 24 15 8 3 – FCornelius – – – – – 2.5004 0.9810 0.98 0.03 0. and 34 sites.18 0.8809 7.24). based on Krzanowski.18 0.81** 2.59 0.8543 123. The full cross validation yields minimum RMSPD at four components.65** 38.71 0. 1987).68* 1.9885 0.63 14.2815 0.11 Sum of squares – – – – – 9.9864 0.03 † PRESS: Predictive sum of squares.

By contrast. 2002.1394 Gabriel W PRESS_m – 0. Statistical tests and retention of terms in the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model for cultivar trials. Prediction assessment of shrinkage estimators of multiplicative model for multi-environment cultivar trials. The first interaction component recovers 43% of the GEI SS in only 31. Using the shifted multiplicative model to search for “separability” in crop cultivar trials. 1990. Crossa. J. FR test of the residual mean square. 156–166.e. Crossa. AMMI adjustment for satatistical analysis of na international wheat yield trial. Vencovsky. Of the two such methods investigated here. we conclude that a final model may be constructed by applying AMMI 1 to all the data (i. and the Gabriel criteria.8386 0.2020 0. P. AL Anderson–Lawley test of equality of the last p k 1 principal components (Jackson.L. Appl.0877 0.1) FGH1 approximate sequential tests against the pure error based on the Goodman–Haberman theorem (Cornelius. PRESS provides a maximum of Table 7.G. Manhattan. crossvalidation. J. Seyedsadr. 1982. 1993. Rajaram.L.8587 0. Crossa. 1993). CRC Press. Appl. P. P. and H.J.. Theor. and Dr.H.1057 0. Theor. and J. S. Boca Raton. Trial 1 4 4 5 5 1 4 2 5 Trial 2 1 4 5 6 1 8 2 6 Trial 3 1 4 2 2 1 1 2 7 Trial 4 4 7 7 8 0 10 1 4 Trial 5 0 0 2 3 0 0 1 1 † JG Seydsadr–Cornelius/Johnson–Graybill/Schot–t-Marasinghe test. REFERENCES Cornelius. Genet.L. Number of AMMI multiplicative terms in five data sets that are statistically significant for various tests. has shown the greater parsimony and stability of fitted model.4968 0.7882 0. .5040 0.S. 1999. and several trials with no components including one (Trial 5) in which there is clear evidence of interaction. Interacao genotipos am¸˜ ´ bientes-uma introducao a analise “AMMI”. and M.4812 PRECORR 0. Kang and H. the Eastment–Krzanowski method. Crossa. This re˜ search was financially supported by FAPESP proc. J. PRECORR: Predictive correlation. and thus may be pooled with the residual. Agron. Dep.L. MAY–JUNE 2003 Table 6. and W.5285 RMSPD† 0.4% of the interaction df (Table 5).0218 0. and R.) Genotype-by-environment interaction. From a practitioner’s point of view.4776 0. P. Thus. H. KS.872 CROP SCIENCE. Adv.. J. Cornelius. Cornelius. Gauch (ed. capturing the essence of any interaction in relatively few components is an attraction as these components can be interpreted clearly.. with large numbers in some data sets for each method. Cornelius. PRESS: Predictive sum of squares.. 00/12292-1. all three replications). 33:1186–1193.1615 0. whereas fitting many components may create problems of interpretation.. Fox.8655 0.4830 0. Eastment–Krzanowski. Cornelius.T. the leave-one-out methods make the most efficient use of the data and result in the most parsimonious model (AMMI 1) for the example of Tables 5 and 6. Cross-validatory choice of the number of components from a principal component analysis. 44:55–85. KS. Crop Sci.. Manhattan. Ribeirao Preto. Crop Sci. 81:27–37. 1993. W.S. Tests and estimators of multiplicative models for variety trials. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ´ The authors thank Dr.1029 0. Randomisation Cross-validation Rank m 0 1 2 3 4 5 Eastment–Krzanowski PRESS_m – 0. 42:619–633.8635 W – 2. Seyedsadr. 5th.8521 0. Genet. and M. P.3171 † RMSPD: Root mean square predictive difference. S. Statistical analyses of multilocation trials.B. Jose Crossa for his very generous contributions that significantly improved the draft.5149 0. The higher interaction components are judged by predictive assessment to be just noise for the purpose of yield prediction. P. the Eastment–Krzanowski method provides a stable pattern of relatively low and hence interpretable numbers of components.S. W: Eastment-Krzanowski criterion. 43.. 1996. and using the PRESS. The feature of parsimony is illustrated most clearly by the results of the Eastment–Krzanowski method in Table 7. Crossa. Cross-validation data analysis and leave-one-out method on the Vargas and Crossa (2000) data.L.1861 0.1167 0. 1993. M.1695 0.. 1992. 39:998–1009.2610 0. ¸˜ ` ˜ Eastment. p. This model has 23 df (5 for years plus 7 for genotypes plus 11 for interaction PCA component 1) and is twice as parsimonious as AMMI 5 (in the sense that AMMI 5 contains twice as many degrees of freedom as AMMI 1). 25–27 Apr. Section 4. J. By contrast. FL. Cornelius. Yan. Statistical tests and estimators of multiplicative models for genotype-by-environment interaction. 1999. In summary.1886 0. Such large numbers are undesirable in practice. In M. Test† JG AL FGH1 FR PRESS Crossvalidation Eastment–Krzanowski Gabriel one component for several complex trials in which the interaction structure is evidently not so straightforward.8436 0.N. Gauch. and J.4. Biplot of linear-bilinear models for studying crossover genotype environment interaction. tween-replicate variation may generally be very high.8617 0. In Proceedings of Annual Kansas State University Conference on Applied Statistics in Agriculture. Krzanowski. Joao Batista Duarte for his constructive criticism.6592 – 2. Crossa.P. ´ Duarte. distributional F tests are often based on questionable assumptions while full cross-validation randomization methods remove too much of the available data for validation purposes and hence lead to less reliable fitted models. Crop Sci.1721 0.3543 0. Pfeifer. therefore.1989 0. J. Most of the methods shown in Table 7 exhibit quite a large variability in the number of components selected.L. Crossa. and W. P. Use of leave-one-out method is therefore recommended in general.... 199–234. 84:161–172. of Statistics. 1991. Kansas State Univ. Seyedsadr. 1991. p. Technometrics 24:73–77. At the other extreme. which inflates assessment error sums of squares and has probably contributed to the high number of components selected by this method.G. whereas Trial 5 is much simpler and probably free of interaction. Trials 1 through 4 are complex trials in which there is clear evidence of GEI. VOL.

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