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Implementing Embedded Speed

Control for AC Induction Motors


Yashvant Jani, Director of Applications Engineering
Leonard Haile, Applications Engineer
Renesas Technology America, Inc.
450 Holger Way San Jose, CA 95134 USA

TEL: 408-382-7500 FAX: 408-382-7501


E-mail: yashvant.jani@renesas.com
Web: www.renesas.com
Topics Outline
• Induction Motor principles
– Physics of induction motors
– Induction motor construction
• Control hardware – typical layout
• Modulation techniques
– Sinusoidal, Quasi-sinusoidal & Space Vector
• Control methods
– Open loop algorithms
– Closed loop algorithms
• MCU performance benchmark
• Summary
Physics of Induction Motors
• Current passing through a conductor creates magnetic
Φ
field I
– Direction of magnetic field is determined by the dI
right hand rule
• Changing magnetic field produces current in a dΦ/dt
conductor
– Direction of current is determined by right hand
rule dΦ
dI
• Electromagnetic Induction -dφ
– Changing current induces changing magnetic field -di
around it.
– A conductor placed in this field has induced current dI dΦ/dt I2
1
and induced magnetic field
• Interaction between two magnetic fields and two
currents in stator and rotors produce the torque
• Torque is proportional to the magnitude and Torque α mag & freq of I1
frequency of the current in stators
– Torque = K (E1/f1)2*s/R2
Induction Motors
• Motors operate on principle of
Induction and hence the name
“Induction Motors” is used
• Motors also known as AC motors
because Alternating Current (AC) is
required
• All AC motors are “brushless”
– No mechanical contacts to wear
– Requires AC source
– If used, inverter creates desired freq and
magnitude of AC
• AC induction motors for lower cost
applications
– Single speed applications: fan, blower,
pump, compressor
– No control, just start the AC power
source
– Relays are used for ON/OFF
Stator Construction

• Stator has windings with lamination to Stator


– Create strong magnetic field
– Maintain continuous flux
• Three phase motor windings are
sinusoidal around the stator to produce
a roughly sinusoidal distribution in flux
• When three phase AC voltages are
applied to the stator windings, a
α
rotating magnetic field is produced
– The rotating magnetic field of the stator drags the
rotor around.
Rotor Construction
• Squirrel cage construction
– Behaves like shorted 3-phase
windings Rotor
– Rotor bars are often skewed to
prevent cogging
– No magnets or windings
Windings & Slip Angle
• Stator has two types of connections
Y or Star Delta
Connection Connection

Phase B
Phase A Phase A Phase B

Neutral Phase C
Phase C

Vab + Vbc + Vca = 0


iSa + iSb + iSc = 0
Sum of voltages is zero
Sum of currents is zero

• Stator has Sinusoidal Flux/Voltage Generation


• Rotor rotates at the excitation speed minus slip s
Stator Cross section Voltage/Flux Rotor Cross section
A Rotor Speed
Slip S = 1 -
Stator Speed
C D
D B A B
Slip s =(ω-pωm)/ω

C
Motor Model
Per Phase Equivalent Circuit
Stator Stator Leakage Rotor Leakage
Resistance Inductance
E1
Inductance
E1 2 s
Is L2 Torque = K ( )
R1 L1 IM I2 f1 R2
Stator Magnetizing Rotor R2
Inductance LM Resistance s V/Hz
Control

• In vector formulation, Torque is proportional to the Magnetizing


Flux and current in q-axis
Torque
Producing
Torque = (3/2) (P/2) (λm Iq + (Ld – Lq) Iq Id)
Current Is
Iq

Torque = K ( i2 )2 R2/s
Magnetizing
Id Current
Torque Speed Curve
• At constant supply frequency
– The synchronous mechanical angular speed is: ωmSync=ω/p
• where p number of pole pairs and ω electrical angular speed [2pf]
– When load is present the rotor speed is lower than the supplied
frequency.
• ωm < ωmSync
– Slip: s=(ω-pωm)/ω
Constant Supply Frequency

Controlled operating point


Torque (unstable) Maximum
peak torque Efficiency
~5-7% S

Open loop
Starting operating point (stable)
torque ~1.5-3 % S (or below ws)
motoring
Braking

S=1 ωs generating Speed (ωr)

No torque at Example:
synchronous speed (ωs)
ws = 60 Hz
S=0
S = 1.5 % gives
wo = 59 Hz
Typical Control Hardware
Mixed Voltage
Converter Inverter
High Voltage

Input Filtering
AC/DC DC Filtering Output Power Stage M

MCU Drivers
Sensing

Set Values Control Algorithms Feedback Conditioning

A+ B+ C+
For DC supply, bridge
VDC and motor are
presented
A- B- C-
Typical Motor Drive Configuration

S1 S3 S5
ACCT
Encoder
Motor
S2 S4 S6

One Shunt
Current Feedback

Hall Effect Absolute position feedback**

Absolute Position/Speed feedback

** Generally not used for Induction Motor


MCRP Overview
• This reference platform has two boards
Power supply connection
SKP Built in Back
EMF Circuit

LCD

MCU
One Shunt

U, V, W 3-phase
Motor interface
Three
LED
showing
PWM
pulsing Two DCCT

Integrated Power
Encoder input Hall Sensor input Module with heat sink
Modulation Schemes
Modulation Schemes

• Sinusoidal wave
– 180 deg vs. 120 deg drive
• Quasi- sinusoidal wave drive
– Add 3rd harmonic for efficiency
• Space vector modulation
What is a 180° Drive?
120°Drive & 180°Drive
120°Drive 180°Drive
U U

V W V W

On two of the 3 coil wires, the electricity is always flowing. After


every 120 degrees, the positive and the negative is connected to The electricity is always flowing on every coil wires. After
the power supply alternately. every 180 degrees, the positive and the negative change.

Item 120°Drive 180°Drive


Power Usage Only 2 coils used All 3 coils used

Noise △ Yes ◎ NO
Ripple Torque-Ripple Yes Torque-Ripple less

Phase detection ○ Yes △ NO


(back EMF) Because of 60 degree of non-driven Because of the dead time, the
time, commutation is easy and simple commutation is difficult.
120°PWM Control
U U U U U U

V WV WV WV WV WV W

U
U
V
Switch pattern
V
W
W

U_ON
Vu
0 U_ON

Vv V_ON
V_ON
0 V_ON

Vw W_ON
0 W_ON

Iu 0
Back EMF
Iv 0

Iw 0
180°Electric Sinusoidal Wave Drive
U U U U U U

V WV WV WV WV WV W

U
U
V Switch Pattern
V
W
W
Vu U_ON
0 U_ON
Vv V_ON
0 V_ON V_ON
Vw W_ON W_ON
0 W_ON

Iu 0
Back EMF

Iv 0

Iw 0
180°Drive Operation

• Utilizes entire electrical rotation to rotate the


motor vs. 120 deg uses only 2/3 rotation
• Requires dead time register to make sure two
power devices do not conduct at the same time
for a given phase
– e.g. Up and Un do not turn on at the same time
• This operation generally can not use the back
EMF signal to detect the rotor position
• Allows various modulation strategies including
sine wave & pseudo sine wave
3-Phase Timer on M16C
50 μsec

Carrier

TimerB2

TimerA1=U
TimerA2=V
TimerA4=W

Dead Time counter

P Signal(Internal)

N Signal(Internal)

Buffer Register for 3 Phase Di0=”0”,Di1=”1” Di0=”1”,Di1=”0” Di0=”0”,Di1=”1”


DiB0=”1”,DiB1=”0” DiB0=”0”,DiB1=”1” DiB0=”1”,DiB1=”0”

Positive
Output
Negative
※Output as Low Active
3-Phase Timer Capabilities
• This timer generates complimentary PWM with dead time inserted
between transitions
• Dead time to be programmed only one time
• 16-bit registers provide more than adequate resolution

Modulation schemes
• 120 deg
• 60 or 120 deg
• Upper/lower/both
• One at a time
• 180 deg
• Sinusoidal
• Quasi-sinusoidal
• SV-PWM
• Custom
120 Deg 6-step modulation
• Timer allows modulation during one step – up or down switch

(DU0,DU1) (0,0) (1,0)


Sine Wave Generation

Desired Voltage V0 & Frequency f


Carrier wave (Frequency fc )

U = V0 sin θ
V = V0 sin (θ+120°) θ(n) = θ(n-1)+Δθ
W = V0 sin (θ+240°) Δθ = 2πf /
fc

(1) Phase angle θ of a voltage in time t is calculated


(2) Corresponding Sin θ value is found from the ROM table
(3) Multiplying the sin θ value with modulation ratio a results in PWM values
(4) These U, V, and W PWM counts are transferred to RAM.
(V and W phase differences are kept at 120 and 240 degrees to U, respectively.)
Steps for Sine Wave Generation
• Three items required: carrier freq fc, Sine freq f and voltage
level Vdc [implying Vmax = Vdc and Vmin = 0]
• Example: Fc = 10 kHz, f = 50 Hz, Vdc = 160 volts
• Computation results
– Average voltage = (Vmax+Vmin)/2 = Vdc/2 = 160/2 = 80 volts
– Vmax = Vdc = ½ Vdc + ½ Vdc * Sin 90 (Sine value is 1)
– Vmin = 0 = ½ Vdc + ½ Vdc * Sin 270 (Sine value is -1)
– Vpwm = ½ Vdc + ½ Vdc * Sin θn (Sine θn value from Table)
– Δt = 1/fc = 1/10000 = 100 μs
– Δθ = 2πf/fc = 360 * 50 / 10000 = 360 / 200 = 1.8 deg
– This is the angle traversed in Δt time (every carrier frequency)
– PWM is computed as:
• θn = θn-1 + Δθ, if θn > 360 θn = θn - 360, Vpwm = ½ Vdc + ½ Vdc * Sin θn
• PWM counts @20 MHz is 20*100=2000, Timer B2 is half of this 1000.
• 1st PWM for Timer A is PWM1 = 500 + V0*Sin θn & PWM2 = 1000 – PWM1
– V = Vdc/2 @0 deg, V = Vdc @90 deg, V = 0 @270 deg
Sine Wave Generation
• One degree resolution results in a table with 360
entries
• For integer math, sine values are scaled in 2^13
format (2^13=8192= 1.0 floating point)
Integer
Mid point Sine in 2^13 value for Three sine waves at a time
Index angle Sine value format Sin
10000
1 0.5 0.008726535 71.4877788 71
U phase W phase V phase
2 1.5 0.026176948 214.4415605 214 8000

3 2.5 0.043619387 357.3300213 357 6000 Integer value for u


4 3.5 0.06104854 500.1096359 500
4000
Integer value for v
5 4.5 0.078459096 642.7369122 643
Integer value for w

Sine value
6 5.5 0.095845753 785.1684046 785 2000

7 6.5 0.113203214 927.3607272 927


0
8 7.5 0.130526192 1069.270567 1069 1 41 81 121 161 201 241 281 321
9 8.5 0.147809411 1210.854696 1211 -2000

10 9.5 0.165047606 1352.069987 1352 -4000


11 10.5 0.182235525 1492.873425 1493
-6000
12 11.5 0.199367934 1633.222119 1633
13 12.5 0.216439614 1773.073317 1773 -8000

14 13.5 0.233445364 1912.384421 1912 -10000


15 14.5 0.250380004 2051.112993 2051
angle
16 15.5 0.267238376 2189.216777 2189
Sine Generation

• Lab activity
• View the MCRP, motor and PC set-up
for testing
• View the High-Performance Embedded
Workbench operation
• See Sine wave, quasi-sine wave and
space vector wave on scope
Sinusoidal PWM drive
Inverter Output PWM

• Possible to improve
U
control performance
V
and efficiency
• Carrier frequency is
W
preferred for
U-V
complementary
waveform, because
V-W it is necessary to
keep the symmetry
W-U
of the output
0 π 2π voltage

This method requires a true 3-phase timer


unit for proper operation
Trapezoidal vs Sinusoidal Commutation

“BLDC” “PMAC”
VA

VB

VC

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

0° 60° 120° 180° 240° 300° 360°


Quasi Sinusoidal Modulation
Sinusoidal/Quasi-sinusoidal Wave Drive
Sine curve fc = 20kHz, f=50Hz
2
U V W U-V phase
Vu = sin θ
magnitude

⎛ 2 ⎞
0
Vv = sin ⎜θ − π ⎟
⎝ 3 ⎠
⎛ 2 ⎞
-1 Vw = sin ⎜θ + π ⎟
⎝ 3 ⎠
-2
0 10 20 30 40 50
time (ms)

With 3rd Harmonic included fc = 20kHz, f=50Hz


2
2 ⎧ 1 ⎫
⎨ sin θ + sin 3θ ⎬
U V W U-V phase Vu =
1 3 ⎩ 6 ⎭
2 ⎧ ⎫
magnitude

⎛ 2 ⎞ 1
Vv = ⎨ sin ⎜ θ − π ⎟ + sin 3θ ⎬
0 3 ⎩ ⎝ 3 ⎠ 6 ⎭
2 ⎧ ⎛ 2 ⎞ 1 ⎫
-1
Vw = ⎨ sin ⎜ θ + π ⎟ + sin 3θ ⎬
3 ⎩ ⎝ 3 ⎠ 6 ⎭

-2
0 10 20 30 40 50
time (ms)
Comparison of Sine & Quasi-sine

• Quasi- sine wave allows nearly 15% higher bus utilization


• Torque is increased due to this high current

Comparison of Sine & Quasi-sine waveforms


10000
Sine wave
8000

6000 Quasi sine wave


4000
Integer value

2000

0
1 29 57 85 113 141 169 197 225 253 281 309 337
-2000

-4000

-6000

-8000
Angle
-10000
Space Vector Modulation
Basics of Space Vector
• A 3 phase inverter is made by 6 switching devices.
• The purpose is to calculate the output desired vector as a linear
combination [in the time domain] of 2 fundamental vectors.
• Each fundamental vector is given by a fixed driving combination.

U120 (0,1,0) U60 (1,1,0)


a b c

S1
Vdc S S
va vb vc U180 2 0
α U0 (1,0,0)
(0,1,1)
a’ b’ c’
S S
3 S4 5

U240 (0,0,1) U300 (1,0,1)

Inverter Structure Fundamental Space Vectors


Unull=(000) Uall=)111)
SV PWM
• When fixed carrier frequency is used, angle is
easy to calculate and also the ON time for each
switch
Here a is the angle between
one base vector to the
applied U vector

A, B and C are the typical


U, V & W values
Space Vector Output
• Carrier Freq is 20kHz
Why Use Space Vector?
• Improves DC bus utilization
– Instead of being able to create √2 /2 Sin()
magnitude voltage we can create √3 /2 Sin()
magnitude voltage
• Reduces EMI
– Less transistors are switching.
• Reduces switching losses
– Requires only two windings switching during
60 degree electrical portion of motion. Third
winding can fixed high or low.
– Special firmware is necessary with special
timer features
ACIM Control Methods
Modulation Schemes

• Modulation schemes
– Sinusoidal wave drive (180 deg drive)
– Quasi- sinusoidal wave drive
– Space vector modulation
• Open loop control algorithms
– V/f control
• Closed loop control algorithms
– Sensor feedback: scalar, vector
– Sensorless: scalar & vector control
ACIM Control Methods

180deg Sinusoidal Drive (M16C/28)


a) V/f control (open loop)
• Without Pos. Sensor)
b) Scalar PI control (closed loop)
• With Pos. Sensor)

Under development
c) Vector Control (With Pos. & Current Sensor)
d) Sensor-Less Control (With Current Sensor)
e) Sensor-Less OSCD Control (Without Any Sensor)
3phase IM Control Techniques (1)
a) V/f Control b) Scalar Control
Inverter part Inverter part
3 phase IM 3 phase IM

Driver Driver
Tachometer
Micro (Speed)
Micro
Computer Sinusoidal Wave Computer

V/F control Scalar control


Way to control Open loop Feedback
Speed control Low accuracy High accuracy
Constant Indirect – OK under certain conditions Indirect but better torque control
torque control
Torque control Dynamic control difficult Indirect torque control only

Micro Computer Output PWM pattern correspond to speed Speed detected by sensor, closed loop
control command value from Data table Speed control, No Current control

• Simple configuration • Speed detect is necessary


Others • Adjustment is easy • Additional sensor cost
3phase IM Control Techniques (2)
a) V/f Control c) Vector Control
Inverter part Inverter part
3 phase IM 3 phase IM

DCCT for
Current
Driver Driver Encoder or
Tachometer
Micro Sinusoidal Wave Micro for Speed
Computer Computer

V/F control Vector Control


Way to control Open loop Feedback – closed loop
Speed control Low accuracy High accuracy
Constant OK under certain conditions Best among all
torque control
Torque control Dynamic control difficult Best among all

MCU detects speed, measures


Micro Computer Output PWM pattern correspond to speed
currents using ADC, and makes
control command value from Data table
adjustments for PWM

• Simple configuration • Speed & current detection is necessary


Others • Adjustment is easy • Additional cost for sensor & DCCT
3phase IM Control Techniques (3)
c) Vector Control c) Sensorless 2DCCT Control
Inverter part Inverter part
3 phase IM 3 phase IM

DCCT for DCCT for


Current Current
Driver Encoder or Encoder or
Driver

Micro
Computer
Tachometer
for Speed
Micro
Computer
X
Tachometer
for Speed

Vector control Sensorless 2DCCT Control


Way to control Closed loop Closed loop with estimation
Speed control Very High accuracy High accuracy
Constant Best among all Very High
torque control
Torque control Best among all Very High

MCU detects speed, measures currents using MCU estimates (!) speed, measures currents
Micro Computer using ADC, and makes adjustments for
ADC, and makes adjustments for PWM
control PWM for torque control

• Speed estimation requires more computing


• Speed & current detection is necessary • Current detection is necessary
Others
• Additional cost for sensor & DCCT • DCCT cost only, NO cost for position sensor
3phase IM Control Techniques (4)
c) Vector Control e) Sensorless OSCD Control
Inverter part Inverter part
3 phase IM 3 phase IM

Driver
DCCT for
Current
Encoder or
Driver
X
DCCT for
Current
Encoder or

Micro
Computer
Tachometer
for Speed
Micro
Computer
X
Tachometer
for Speed

Vector control Sensorless OSCD Control


Way to control Closed loop Closed loop with estimation
Speed control Very High accuracy High accuracy
Constant Best among all Very High
torque control
Torque control Best among all Very High

MCU detects speed, measures currents using MCU estimates (!) speed, measures currents
Micro Computer using OSCD method & ADC, and makes
ADC, and makes adjustments for PWM
control adjustments for PWM for torque control

• Speed estimation & OSCD current


• Speed & current detection is necessary measurement requires even more computing
Others
• Additional cost for sensor & DCCT • NO DCCT or position sensor cost
Voltage/Frequency Motor Control
• Control based on the following assumptions:
– The motor impedance increases when the frequency increases.
– We want to have fixed current as much as possible.
– So it is simple to increase the motor speed by increasing the
frequency and the related voltage.

No Load Resulting Current

100% + + + +
+ + Operational Points
DC Bus +
Voltage +
50% + What accuracy is necessary?

wmin wops wmax Frequency

Generally, wmin and wmax depend on the motor and wops is determined by the system
configuration
V/F Motor Control
• Advantages
– No current measurement required.
– No speed measurement required.
– Very simple algorithm.
• Weakness
– No feedback on speed so:
• in case of variable load, a speed sensor must be added and
the algorithm become more complex.
– No feedback on current so:
• over-current condition is possible.
– No flux control so:
• Low motor efficiency.
• Low maximum torque achievable.
V/f Control without any Sensor
• Simple to achieve with a true 3-ph Timer unit
• Table stores sine values
• Carrier freq 16-20 kHz range
• Able to run V/f control without position sensor

vu*,vv*,vw*
inverter
Speed 6
Command ω1 Sine Voltage PWM Motor
TBL
ωr* Calculations

Voltage & Freq


determined from
table

TBL – Table Look Up for Freq and Voltage


Scalar Control with a Rotor Position Sensor
• Simple to achieve with a true 3-ph Timer unit
• Table stores sine values
• Carrier freq 16-20 kHz range
• Able to run closed loop PI control with position sensor

vu*,vv*,vw*
Speed command ωr * inverter
+ 6
ω1 Sine Voltage PWM Motor
- ASR Calculations

Rotor position θd
ωr For correction

input capture
and
Rotating speed ωr
counter
Position sensor
encoder or tacho

ASR - Auto Speed Regulator - PI Controller


V/f Performance for M16C

• V/f open loop testing


– without feedback and
– with feedback of tacho pulse
• Two major interrupts
– PWM output via TB2 timer channel
– Tacho input via Timer S
• Frequency and voltage changes made
only when the U phase is near zero
angle.
PWM Interrupt Processing

• Carrier Frequency 16 kHz, interrupt time 62.5


ms
– Can be easily changed to any value
• Four steps done in this PWM interrupt
– Computing angle index
– Calculating u, v and w using sine table (look-up)
– Max-min checking
– Loading the timers
• Peak voltage and desired frequency decided by
a time based profile or another task
• Updates to desired speed & peak voltage is
processed when U angle is near zero
– Two flags are used to minimize processing
CPU Time Measurements

• Lab activity
• Perform code review for measuring
execution time
• Measure execution time for the PWM
interrupt via scope
• View the scope pictures
• CPU bandwidth analysis with the time
measurements performed
Performance Results (1)
• Interrupt execution
time for this code is
33.56 μs
– About 54% CPU usage,
still more than 40% left
for other tasks
• Interrupt execution
time remains the same
at 20kHz carrier
frequency
– CPU bandwidth usage
about 66%
Performance Results (2)
• Code optimization in
several areas
– Sin(W) is computed from
Sin(U) and Sin(V) to
avoid multiplication and
table lookup
– Max-min checks are
deleted (guarantee by
design)
• Measured time now is
14.31 μs
• Standard code 33.56 μs
vs optimized 14.31 μs
– CPU usage only 23%
– More than 50%
optimization
Sensor Processing (1)
• Sensor interrupt
– Time depends on speed
– Average of 8 speed measurements
– Digital filtering capability of the Timer S is used for proper
measurements Performance of filter

14000

12000

div 64
10000 div 32
div 32
div 16
8000
Counts

6000

4000

2000

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Time in units of T period


Sensor Processing (2)
• Sensor measurement time = 3.7 μs
• Closed loop control time = 2 μs
• CPU bandwidth is speed dependent
– For example, at 100 Hz speed, it is 100 times per second

Sensor data processing Control function


CPU Bandwidth Analysis
• Interrupt Time ~ 15 μs (@16kHz freq)
• Timer S measurement = 3.7 μs
• Closed loop control = 2 ms (4 μs)
• CPU usage time in 1 second
– 15 * 16000 = 240000 μs
– This time is required for sure
– This is the main time as shown below

Speed Speed Timer S time Closed loop Total ms


RPM Hz μs time μs
6000 100 370 400 240770 μs or ~0.25
second
12000 200 760 800 241560 μs or ~0.25
second
18000 300 1130 1200 242330 μs or ~0.25
second
Questions & Answers

• For a short period


Control Example V/f - Control

PI
wset
wset -
A
pattern pattern
ws w
et t PWM M PWM M
sin(wt) sin(wt)

• open loop V/f


control
– sensorless • closed loop V/f
• induction machine control
• fan – Tach sensor
– Encoder
• M16C, H8, R8C,
SH • compressor,
pump
• M16C, H8,
R8C, SH
Vector Control with a Rotor Position Sensor
Current Sensor
+
(DCCT)
- I ACR + vu*,vv*,vw*
Id* inverter
*
dc + Vdc* 6
ω Id Voltage dq
Speed + Vqc * PWM Motor
command Calculation 3Φ
+
ωr* + Iq* +
- ASR ACR
-
ω1 Iqc θd
P
2
Idc Iu
ωr 3Φ
Iqc dq
Rotor position Iw
θd
input capture A,B,Z
/
Rotating speed ωr counter
Position Sensor
ACR - Auto Current Regulator Encoder
PI Controller
ASR - Auto Speed Regulator
Vector Control with two DCCT
Current sensor
+ (DCCT)
ACR + vu*,vv*,vw*
Id* inverter
- Idc + Vdc*
ω Id *
dq 6
Speed Voltage *
+ Vqc PWM Motor
Calculation 3Φ
command
+
ωr* + Iq* +
- ASR ACR
- Position
ω1 Iqc θd
P c Sensor-less
2
Idc Iu
ωr 3Φ
Iqc Iw
dq
Estimated Vu
position θdc Modern control theory
Position &
Speed Vw Iu ・Observer
Estimated speed Estimator ・Kalman filter
ωr Iw

× Gain adjustment is very difficult. Requires
(ASR, ACR×2,Estimator(several parameters)) Matrix
Calculations
Vector Control with OSCD

OSCD
+
ACRvector
+
control
v ,v ,v * * *
Id* u v w inverter
- Idc + Vdc*
Speed ω Id *
dq 6
Voltage *
command + Vqc PWM Motor
Calculation 3Φ
ωr* + +
Iq* +
- ASR ACR Shunt Resistance
-
ω1 Iqc θd
P c
Position
2 Sensor-less
Idc Iu
ωr 3Φ Current
Iqc Iw Meas
dq
Estimated Vu
position θdc
Modern Control Theory
Position & ・Observer
Estimated speed
Speed Vw Iu ・Kalman filter
Estimator
ωr Iw ↓
Requires
× Gain adjustment is difficult. Matrix
(ASR, ACR×2,Estimator(several parameters)) Calculations
Current / Flux-Control Examples
PI PI PI PI
ωset iset iabcset uabcset ωset iYset iabcset
PWM M PWM M
sin(ωt) sin(ωSt) uabcset
ω i ω iabc
iYset ωR
Pattern
im TR i : Torque command
im ωSt Yset
ωt ωS : stator frequency
im + ωR : rotor frequency, (slip)
I ωS im : magnet. current
ω ω ω TR : rotor time const.

• Closed loop speed • Feed forward flux


control control / vector control
– Hall/encoder sensor or – Sensor or sensorless
sensorless pos.
feedback • Induction machine (IM)
– current sensor • Industrial tools
• Brushless DC • SH devices
• Washing machine,
general purpose drives
• H8S and SH devices
1 SHUNT ELECTRICAL CURRENT MEASURING FUNCTION
PRELIMINARY
Notice This is not a final specification. Some
parametric limits are Subject to change.

• OSCD method

Carrier
Wave

TB2
underflow

U phase

V phase

W phase
S/H and A-D conversion timing
AN0
TB0 one-shot timer 1) TB0 and TB1 are started in one-shot mode
AN1 with TB2 underflow as the trigger.
2) S/H or A-D conversions are executed with
TB1 one-shot timer
TB0 and TB1 one-shot trigger.
Summary
• Induction motor fundamentals, motor
construction, modulation techniques
and control methods are covered in this
presentation
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