Phase B
Phase A Phase A Phase B
Neutral Phase C
Phase C
C
Motor Model
Per Phase Equivalent Circuit
Stator Stator Leakage Rotor Leakage
Resistance Inductance
E1
Inductance
E1 2 s
Is L2 Torque = K ( )
R1 L1 IM I2 f1 R2
Stator Magnetizing Rotor R2
Inductance LM Resistance s V/Hz
Control
Torque = K ( i2 )2 R2/s
Magnetizing
Id Current
Torque Speed Curve
• At constant supply frequency
– The synchronous mechanical angular speed is: ωmSync=ω/p
• where p number of pole pairs and ω electrical angular speed [2pf]
– When load is present the rotor speed is lower than the supplied
frequency.
• ωm < ωmSync
– Slip: s=(ωpωm)/ω
Constant Supply Frequency
Open loop
Starting operating point (stable)
torque ~1.53 % S (or below ws)
motoring
Braking
No torque at Example:
synchronous speed (ωs)
ws = 60 Hz
S=0
S = 1.5 % gives
wo = 59 Hz
Typical Control Hardware
Mixed Voltage
Converter Inverter
High Voltage
Input Filtering
AC/DC DC Filtering Output Power Stage M
MCU Drivers
Sensing
A+ B+ C+
For DC supply, bridge
VDC and motor are
presented
A B C
Typical Motor Drive Configuration
S1 S3 S5
ACCT
Encoder
Motor
S2 S4 S6
One Shunt
Current Feedback
LCD
MCU
One Shunt
U, V, W 3phase
Motor interface
Three
LED
showing
PWM
pulsing Two DCCT
Integrated Power
Encoder input Hall Sensor input Module with heat sink
Modulation Schemes
Modulation Schemes
• Sinusoidal wave
– 180 deg vs. 120 deg drive
• Quasi sinusoidal wave drive
– Add 3rd harmonic for efficiency
• Space vector modulation
What is a 180° Drive？
120°Drive & 180°Drive
120°Drive 180°Drive
U U
V W V W
Noise △ Yes ◎ NO
Ripple TorqueRipple Yes TorqueRipple less
V WV WV WV WV WV W
U
U
V
Switch pattern
V
W
W
U_ON
Vu
0 U_ON
Vv V_ON
V_ON
0 V_ON
Vw W_ON
0 W_ON
Iu 0
Back EMF
Iv 0
Iw 0
180°Electric Sinusoidal Wave Drive
U U U U U U
V WV WV WV WV WV W
U
U
V Switch Pattern
V
W
W
Vu U_ON
0 U_ON
Vv V_ON
0 V_ON V_ON
Vw W_ON W_ON
0 W_ON
Iu 0
Back EMF
Iv 0
Iw 0
180°Drive Operation
Carrier
TimerB2
TimerA1=U
TimerA2=V
TimerA4=W
P Signal(Internal）
N Signal(Internal)
Positive
Output
Negative
※Output as Low Active
3Phase Timer Capabilities
• This timer generates complimentary PWM with dead time inserted
between transitions
• Dead time to be programmed only one time
• 16bit registers provide more than adequate resolution
Modulation schemes
• 120 deg
• 60 or 120 deg
• Upper/lower/both
• One at a time
• 180 deg
• Sinusoidal
• Quasisinusoidal
• SVPWM
• Custom
120 Deg 6step modulation
• Timer allows modulation during one step – up or down switch
U = V0 sin θ
V = V0 sin (θ+120°) θ(n) = θ(n1)+Δθ
W = V0 sin (θ+240°) Δθ = 2πf /
fc
Sine value
6 5.5 0.095845753 785.1684046 785 2000
• Lab activity
• View the MCRP, motor and PC setup
for testing
• View the HighPerformance Embedded
Workbench operation
• See Sine wave, quasisine wave and
space vector wave on scope
Sinusoidal PWM drive
Inverter Output PWM
• Possible to improve
U
control performance
V
and efficiency
• Carrier frequency is
W
preferred for
UV
complementary
waveform, because
VW it is necessary to
keep the symmetry
WU
of the output
0 π 2π voltage
“BLDC” “PMAC”
VA
VB
VC
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
⎛ 2 ⎞
0
Vv = sin ⎜θ − π ⎟
⎝ 3 ⎠
⎛ 2 ⎞
1 Vw = sin ⎜θ + π ⎟
⎝ 3 ⎠
2
0 10 20 30 40 50
time (ms)
⎛ 2 ⎞ 1
Vv = ⎨ sin ⎜ θ − π ⎟ + sin 3θ ⎬
0 3 ⎩ ⎝ 3 ⎠ 6 ⎭
2 ⎧ ⎛ 2 ⎞ 1 ⎫
1
Vw = ⎨ sin ⎜ θ + π ⎟ + sin 3θ ⎬
3 ⎩ ⎝ 3 ⎠ 6 ⎭
2
0 10 20 30 40 50
time (ms)
Comparison of Sine & Quasisine
2000
0
1 29 57 85 113 141 169 197 225 253 281 309 337
2000
4000
6000
8000
Angle
10000
Space Vector Modulation
Basics of Space Vector
• A 3 phase inverter is made by 6 switching devices.
• The purpose is to calculate the output desired vector as a linear
combination [in the time domain] of 2 fundamental vectors.
• Each fundamental vector is given by a fixed driving combination.
S1
Vdc S S
va vb vc U180 2 0
α U0 (1,0,0)
(0,1,1)
a’ b’ c’
S S
3 S4 5
• Modulation schemes
– Sinusoidal wave drive (180 deg drive)
– Quasi sinusoidal wave drive
– Space vector modulation
• Open loop control algorithms
– V/f control
• Closed loop control algorithms
– Sensor feedback: scalar, vector
– Sensorless: scalar & vector control
ACIM Control Methods
Under development
c) Vector Control (With Pos. & Current Sensor)
d) SensorLess Control (With Current Sensor)
e) SensorLess OSCD Control (Without Any Sensor)
3phase IM Control Techniques (1)
a) V/f Control b) Scalar Control
Inverter part Inverter part
3 phase IM 3 phase IM
Driver Driver
Tachometer
Micro (Speed)
Micro
Computer Sinusoidal Wave Computer
Micro Computer Output PWM pattern correspond to speed Speed detected by sensor, closed loop
control command value from Data table Speed control, No Current control
DCCT for
Current
Driver Driver Encoder or
Tachometer
Micro Sinusoidal Wave Micro for Speed
Computer Computer
Micro
Computer
Tachometer
for Speed
Micro
Computer
X
Tachometer
for Speed
MCU detects speed, measures currents using MCU estimates (!) speed, measures currents
Micro Computer using ADC, and makes adjustments for
ADC, and makes adjustments for PWM
control PWM for torque control
Driver
DCCT for
Current
Encoder or
Driver
X
DCCT for
Current
Encoder or
Micro
Computer
Tachometer
for Speed
Micro
Computer
X
Tachometer
for Speed
MCU detects speed, measures currents using MCU estimates (!) speed, measures currents
Micro Computer using OSCD method & ADC, and makes
ADC, and makes adjustments for PWM
control adjustments for PWM for torque control
100% + + + +
+ + Operational Points
DC Bus +
Voltage +
50% + What accuracy is necessary?
Generally, wmin and wmax depend on the motor and wops is determined by the system
configuration
V/F Motor Control
• Advantages
– No current measurement required.
– No speed measurement required.
– Very simple algorithm.
• Weakness
– No feedback on speed so:
• in case of variable load, a speed sensor must be added and
the algorithm become more complex.
– No feedback on current so:
• overcurrent condition is possible.
– No flux control so:
• Low motor efficiency.
• Low maximum torque achievable.
V/f Control without any Sensor
• Simple to achieve with a true 3ph Timer unit
• Table stores sine values
• Carrier freq 1620 kHz range
• Able to run V/f control without position sensor
vu*,vv*,vw*
inverter
Speed 6
Command ω1 Sine Voltage PWM Motor
TBL
ωr* Calculations
vu*,vv*,vw*
Speed command ωr * inverter
+ 6
ω1 Sine Voltage PWM Motor
 ASR Calculations
Rotor position θd
ωr For correction
input capture
and
Rotating speed ωr
counter
Position sensor
encoder or tacho
• Lab activity
• Perform code review for measuring
execution time
• Measure execution time for the PWM
interrupt via scope
• View the scope pictures
• CPU bandwidth analysis with the time
measurements performed
Performance Results (1)
• Interrupt execution
time for this code is
33.56 μs
– About 54% CPU usage,
still more than 40% left
for other tasks
• Interrupt execution
time remains the same
at 20kHz carrier
frequency
– CPU bandwidth usage
about 66%
Performance Results (2)
• Code optimization in
several areas
– Sin(W) is computed from
Sin(U) and Sin(V) to
avoid multiplication and
table lookup
– Maxmin checks are
deleted (guarantee by
design)
• Measured time now is
14.31 μs
• Standard code 33.56 μs
vs optimized 14.31 μs
– CPU usage only 23%
– More than 50%
optimization
Sensor Processing (1)
• Sensor interrupt
– Time depends on speed
– Average of 8 speed measurements
– Digital filtering capability of the Timer S is used for proper
measurements Performance of filter
14000
12000
div 64
10000 div 32
div 32
div 16
8000
Counts
6000
4000
2000
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
PI
wset
wset 
A
pattern pattern
ws w
et t PWM M PWM M
sin(wt) sin(wt)
OSCD
+
ACRvector
+
control
v ,v ,v * * *
Id* u v w inverter
 Idc + Vdc*
Speed ω Id *
dq 6
Voltage *
command + Vqc PWM Motor
Calculation 3Φ
ωr* + +
Iq* +
 ASR ACR Shunt Resistance

ω1 Iqc θd
P ｃ
Position
2 Sensorless
Idc Iu
ωr 3Φ Current
Iqc Iw Meas
dq
Estimated Vu
position θdc
Modern Control Theory
Position & ・Observer
Estimated speed
Speed Vw Iu ・Kalman filter
Estimator
ωr Iw ↓
Requires
× Gain adjustment is difficult. Matrix
(ASR, ACR×2，Estimator(several parameters)） Calculations
Current / FluxControl Examples
PI PI PI PI
ωset iset iabcset uabcset ωset iYset iabcset
PWM M PWM M
sin(ωt) sin(ωSt) uabcset
ω i ω iabc
iYset ωR
Pattern
im TR i : Torque command
im ωSt Yset
ωt ωS : stator frequency
im + ωR : rotor frequency, (slip)
I ωS im : magnet. current
ω ω ω TR : rotor time const.
• OSCD method
Carrier
Wave
TB2
underflow
U phase
V phase
W phase
S/H and AD conversion timing
AN0
TB0 oneshot timer 1) TB0 and TB1 are started in oneshot mode
AN1 with TB2 underflow as the trigger.
2) S/H or AD conversions are executed with
TB1 oneshot timer
TB0 and TB1 oneshot trigger.
Summary
• Induction motor fundamentals, motor
construction, modulation techniques
and control methods are covered in this
presentation
THANK YOU ALL