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-- Zaptron's High-Order Nonlinear Neural Networks

|High-order Nonlinear Neural Networks|DataX|

Fuzzy Logic

What is fuzzy logic - Fuzzy inference (or simply "fuzzy logic") is a

powerful problem-solving methodology with wide applications in

industrial control and information processing. It provides a simple

way to draw definite conclusions from vague, ambiguous or

imprecise information. It resembles human decision making with its

ability to work from approximate data and find precise solutions.

system, exact equations and precise numeric values, fuzzy logic

incorporates an alternative way of thinking, which allows modeling

complex systems using a higher level of abstraction originating

from our knowledge and experience. Fuzzy Logic allows expressing

this knowledge with subjective concepts such as "very good" and "a

little bit satisfied" which are mapped into exact numeric ranges.

How does fuzzy logic work - it uses 3 simple steps defined below

real-world domain to fuzzy numbers in fuzzy domain

between 0.0 and 1.0) in fuzzy domain

numeric data (e.g. 150.34% in total profitability) in the real-world

domain.

rapid computation due to intrinsic parallel processing nature

ability to deal with imprecise or imperfect information

resolving conflicts by collaboration, propagation and aggregation

improved knowledge representation and uncertainty reasoning

modeling of complex, non-linear problems

natural language processing/programming capability

need experts for rule discovery (data relationships)

lack of self-organizing & self-tuning mechanisms of NN

Neural Networks (NN)

Neural networks are modeless systems that learn from the

underlying relationships of data. They are organized in a way to

simulate the cells of human brain.

Advantages of NN

no need to know data relationships

self-learning capability

self-tuning capability

applicable to model various systems

system)

unable to handle linguistic information

unable to manage imprecise or vague information

unable to resolve conflicts

unable to combine numeric data with linguistic or logical data

difficult to reach global minimum even by complex BP learning

rely on trial-and-errors to determine hidden layers and nodes

Neurofuzzy Techniques

Neurofuzzy refers to the combination of fuzzy set theory and neural

networks with the advantages of both:

handle any kind of information (numeric, linguistic, logical, etc.)

manage imprecise, partial, vague or imperfect information

resolve conflicts by collaboration and aggregation

self-learning, self-organizing and self-tuning capabilities

no need of prior knowledge of relationships of data

mimic human decision making process

fast computation using fuzzy number operations

ZAPTRON's Proprietary Technology -- High-Order Nonlinear

Neural Networks.

Nonlinear Neural Networks (HONLNN) by ZAPTRON have the

following outstanding features:

Self-organizing ability: HONLNN traces model changes or

variations (such as business rule, relationship or regulation

changes). For given data the HONLNN system can automatically

organize itself as an optimal model for the data, without human

interaction. This means, the number of hidden layers and the

number of nodes on each layer are determined by the HONLNN

itself, a significant improvement over the backward propagation

(BP) networks.

output, giving better approximation than that by linear networks.

incorporated in HONLNN to allow modeling of quantitative

information expressed by linguistic or logical data, such as

human, natural or environmental factors in finance and business

management.

offer a way for combining numeric data with linguistic or logical

data to achieve information propagation and knowledge

aggregation.

order nonlinear module before being used in NN learning. By the

equivalence of NN and Fourier series, a super-fast, real-time NN is

thus produced.

a high-order, nonlinear method in system model identification.

Like Fourier series, GMDH can approximate any function with

good accuracy.

are generated iteratively by genetic programming, giving the best

solution.

Business rule extraction and explanation process

Incorporation of personal preference

Model building

Fusion of numeric data and linguistic information

Build business models

Market simulations

Model Validations

Fuzzy time series forecasting

back to Home

Email questions or suggestions to literature@zaptron.com.

Copyright © 1997-2000 ZAPTRON Systems, Inc. Updated January 26, 1999

fuzzyTECH 5.81

From this section you may install fuzzyTECH as well as documentation and related

information. If you don't have a license, or if your license is not valid for this release,

fuzzyTECH will run in demo mode only. In this case saving of files and code generation

is disabled.

Please read the entire page before you start the installation

Install fuzzyTECH 5.81d (08- The PackageForTheWeb button lets you

Sep-2010) by clicking the download the complete fuzzyTECH Setup as

brown InstallShield button. one big self-extracting file (16 MB).

InstallShield Wizard Password

Once you have pressed the InstallShield button, the InstallShield Wizard will prompt you

for a password. If you are a licensed user, the InstallShield Wizard Password is printed on

your delivery note. If you don't have the password, just fill out the Demo form to get the

password by email.

Installation Key

Once the Setup is running, you will be prompted for an Installation Key. This key

determines which fuzzyTECH components must be installed for your fuzzyTECH product

type. If you are a licensed user, the Installation Key is printed on your delivery note.

Otherwise you enter

• 123456 for installing the fuzzyTECH Editions for business and finance

applications.

Release Information

This release of fuzzyTECH has been designed for Windows XP or later. It contains all

fuzzyTECH Editions as well as the HyperInference add-on module.

Additional Information

When you select Custom installation, you can select what components, languages, and

examples shall be installed. If your license comprises more than one fuzzyTECH product,

for example "Professional" and "MCU-12" Editions, we highly recommend to run the

setup customized. This allows you to select and install multiple products at the same

time. Otherwise you may have to run the installation routine twice.

Lotfi A. Zadeh, The founder of fuzzy logic

Professional Organizations and Networks

International Fuzzy Systems Association (IFSA)

IFSA is a worldwide organization dedicated to the support and development of

the theory of fuzzy sets and systems and related areas and their applications,

publishes the International Journal of Fuzzy Sets and Systems, holds International

conferences, establishes chapters and sponsors other activities.

Berkeley Initiative in Soft Computing (BISC)

BISC Program is the world-leading center for basic and applied research in soft

computing. The principal constituents of soft computing (SC) are fuzzy logic

(FL), neural network theory (NN) and probabilistic reasoning (PR), with the latter

subsuming belief networks, evolutionary computing including DNA computing,

chaos theory and parts of learning theory.

North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society (NAFIPS)

As the premier fuzzy society in North America established in 1981, our purpose is

to help guide and encourage the development of fuzzy sets and related

technologies for the benefit of mankind.

Please mail questions/comments to the NAFIPS president (president@nafips.org)

or to the NAFIPS web site maintainer (webmaster@nafips.org).

The European Society for Fuzzy Logic and Technology (EUSFLAT)

Established in 1998. The main goal of EUSFLAT are to represent the European

fuzzy community of IFSA.

World Federation on Soft Computing

Fuzzy Sets and Systems.

Official Publication of the International Fuzzy Systems Association. International

Journal of Soft Computing and Intelligence. The journal welcomes original and

significant contributions in the area of Fuzzy Sets whether on empirical or

mathematical foundations, or their applications to any domain of information

technology, and more generally to any field of investigation where fuzzy sets are

relevant.

IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems.

Publication of the IEEE Computational Intelligence Society. The journal

considers papers that deal with the theory, design or applications of fuzzy systems

ranging from hardware to software. Authors are encouraged to submit articles that

disclose significant technical achievements, exploratory developments, or

performance studies of fielded systems based on fuzzy models. Emphasis will be

given to engineering applications.

International Journal of Approximate Reasoning .

It is intended to serve as a forum for the treatment of imprecision and uncertainty

in Artificial and Computational Intelligence, covering both the foundations of

uncertainty theories, and the design of intelligent systems for scientific and

engineering applications. It publishes high-quality research papers describing

theoretical developments or innovative applications, as well as review articles on

topics of general interest. Relevant topics include, but are not limited to, fuzzy

sets and systems, possibility theory, probabilistic reasoning and Bayesian

networks, imprecise probabilities, random sets, belief functions (Dempster-Shafer

theory), rough sets, decision theory, non-additive measures and integrals,

qualitative reasoning about uncertainty, comparative probability orderings, default

reasoning, nonstandard logics, elicitation techniques, philosophical foundations

and psychological models of uncertain reasoning.

Fuzzy Information and Engineering.

An International Journal provides a unified communication platform for

researchers in a wide area of topics from pure and applied mathematics, computer

science, engineering, and other related fields. The journal focuses on applications,

while also presenting fundamental work. The contents include regular papers,

short communications, and reviews.

Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making.

It covers all aspects of employing fuzzy technologies to see optimal solutions and

assist in making the best possible decisions. It will provide a global forum for

advancing the state-of-the-art theory and practice of fuzzy optimization and

decision making in the presence of uncertainty. Any theoretical, empirical, and

experimental work related to fuzzy modeling and a ssociated mathematics,

solution methods, and systems is welcome. The goal is to help foster the

understanding, development, and practice of fuzzy technologies for solving

economic, engineering, management, and societal problems. The journal will

provide a forum for authors a nd readers in the fields of business, economics,

engineering, mathematics, management science, operations research, and systems.

Soft Computing

Soft Computing stands for system solutions based on soft computing techniques.

Soft Computing is aimed to provide rapid publication of important and timely

results on soft computing technologies, intended as a fusion of the following

research areas: Evolutionary algorithms and genetic programming; Neural science

and neural net systems; Fuzzy set theory and fuzzy systems; Chaos theory and

chaotic systems. Soft Computing will be seen from various perspectives:

mathematical, system, hard and soft ware. The journal will encourage the

integration of soft computing techniques, as well as tools, in both real every-day

and advanced applications. Managing Editor: Antonio Di Nola.

Applied Soft Computing.

It promotes an integrated view of soft computing to solve real life problems. Soft

computing is a collection of methodologies, which aim to exploit tolerance for

imprecision, uncertainty and partial truth to achieve tractability, robustness and

low solution cost. The focus is to publish the highest quality research in

application and convergence of the areas of Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks,

Evolutionary Computing, Rough Sets and other similar techniques to address real

world complexities.

International Journal Uncertainty, Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based Systems

The aim of the journal is to promote theoretical, methodological or practical

works dealing with all kinds of methods to represent and manipulate imperfectly

described pieces of knowledge. Editor-in-Chief: Bernadette Bouchon-Meunier.

Information Sciences.

The journal is designed to serve researchers, developers, managers, strategic

planners, graduate students and others interested in state-of-the art research

activities in information, knowledge engineering and intelligent systems. Readers

are assumed to have a common interest in information science, but with diverse

backgrounds in fields such as engineering, mathematics, statistics, physics,

computer science, cell biology, molecular biology, management science,

cognitive science, neurobiology, behavioural sciences and biochemistry.

International Journal of Intelligent Systems.

It serves as a forum for individuals interested in tapping into the vast theories

based on intelligent systems construction. With its peer-reviewed format, the

journal explores several fascinating editorials written by today's experts in the

field. Editor-in-Chief: Ronald R. Yager.

Advances in Fuzzy Systems.

An international journal which aims to provide a forum for original research

articles in the theory and applications of fuzzy subsets and systems. The goal of

the journal is to help promote the advances in the development and practice of

fuzzy system technologies in the areas of engineering, management, medical,

economic, environmental, and societal problems.

Mathware and Soft Computing

Basically includes theoretical contributions that use mathematical tools and

models that could be relevant in applications for Cognitive Sciences, pure or

applied Logic and Artificial Intelligence. Get it online!

Fuzzy Economic Review.

The journal Fuzzy Economic Review, edited by the International Association for

Fuzzy Set Management and Economy (SIGEF) and the Foundation for

Management Study under Uncertainty (FEGI), hopes to become a vehicle for the

interchange of research works done on fuzzy set theory and its applications to

economy. It aims to show the latest works and trends in the discipline. Fuzzy

Economic Review is the result of the desire expressed by members of SIGEF at

the First International Congress of the Association held in Reus, 1995. Our

intention is to publish an open journal for all the scientific community and we

hope that it will be a way to strengthen the relationship between the members of

SIGEF.

Journal of Advanced Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics.

This journal focuses on advanced computational intelligence, including the

synergetic integration of neural networks, fuzzy logic and evolutionary

computation, so that more intelligent systems can be built for industrial

applications. This new field is called the computational intelligence or soft

computing which has already been studied by many researchers, but no single

integration journal exists in the world.

Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems

Fosters the exchange and dissemination of applications and case studies in the

areas of fuzzy logic and intelligent systems among working professionals and

professionals in education and research, among a broad cross-section of technical

disciplines.

Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing series.

From Springer-Verlag. The series Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing

contains publications on various areas within so-called soft computing which

include fuzzy sets, rough sets, neural networks, evolutionary computations,

probabilistic and evidential reasoning, multivalued logic, and related fields. The

publications within Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing are primarily

monographs and edited volumes. They cover significant recent developments in

the field, both of a foundational and applicable character. Editor: Janusz

Kacprzyk.

Advances in Soft Computing series.

From Springer-Verlag. It contains publications on various areas within so-called

soft computing which include fuzzy sets, rough sets, neural networks,

evolutionary computations, probabilistic and evidential reasoning, multi-valued

logic, and related fields. The publications within "Advances in Soft Computing"

are primarily textbooks and proceedings of important conferences, symposia and

congresses. They cover significant recent developments in the field, both of a

foundational and applicable character. An important characteristic feature of the

series is the short publication time and world-wide distribution. This permits a

rapid and broad dissemination of research results. Editor: Janusz Kacprzyk.

World Scientific Series in Robotics and Intelligent Systems from World Scientific.

Research groups

The European Centre for Soft Computing

The European Centre for Soft Computing (ECSC) is a research and development

centre promoted by the Foundation for the Advancement of Soft Computing

located in Mieres, Asturias (Spain). Thier main objectives are to carry out basic

and applied research in the field of Soft Computing as well as to transfer

technology to industrial applications of intelligent systems to solve real-world

problems. The activities and programs of the ECSC are guided by an international

Scientific Committee. Besides, the Centre has become a meeting point for

worldwide experts and young researchers where they can develop advanced

research and training activities.

Centre for Computational Intelligence

Director Bob John.

Fuzziness and Uncertainty Modelling Research Group at Ghent University, Belgium

Founded in 1976 by Prof. Dr. Etienne E. Kerre. Since that time, theoretical and

applied research is and has been done on numerous topics in or related to fuzzy

set theory.

Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (PAMI) research group at University of

Waterloo, Canada

The group was founded in 1980 as a part of the Department of Systems Design

Engineering at the University of Waterloo. The group works on a wide diversity

of pertinent research areas. It also consists of several professors, researchers and

graduate students, as well as adjunct members from other departments and

universities. Fuzzy Image Processing at PAMI.

Control Systems Engineering Group at Faculty of Information Technology & Systems,

Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands

The main goal of the Control Systems Engineering group is to develop methods

and tools to control complex nonlinear dynamic systems in order to improve their

performance.

Institute for Research and Applications of Fuzzy Modeling, Uni. Ostrava, Czech

Republic

Established in 1996. The main topic of interest of the institute is research and

development of soft computing methods.

Machine Intelligence Institute, USA

Established at Iona College in 1985. The purpose of the Machine Intelligence

Institute is to help bring to fruition the promise of the current generation of

computer based technologies for the development of intelligent knowledge based

systems. Director: Ronald R. Yager.

Fuzzy Logic in Integrated Reasoning , NRC Institute for Information Technology

Ottawa, Canada

The IIT of the NRC has developed Fuzzy CLIPS, an enhanced version of CLIPS

that supports Fuzzy Logic. Their FuzzyJ Toolkitis a set of Java(tm) classes that

can be used to build fuzzy logic systems.

Fuzzy Logic Laboratorium Linz (FLLL), Linz, Austria

After 15 years of theoretical research in Fuzzy Logic Erich Peter Klement

founded the FLLL with the intention of supporting the local industry with

knowledge in this rather new area.

Approximate Reasoning and Artificial Intelligence Group, University of Granada, Spain

Research group on Neural Networks and Fuzzy Systems, Uni. Magdeburg, Germany

The group, led by Rudolf Kruse, examines phenomenas of uncertainty and

vagueness in knowledge based systems, and develops and implements methods to

cope with them.

Knowledge/Intelligence Systems Laboratory in the Department of Mechanical and

Industrial Engineering at the University of Toronto, Canada

Research areas: Robotics, Fuzzy-Neural Integration, Fuzzy Clustering,

Reinforcement Learning, Supervised and Unsupervised Learning, Fuzzy Data

Mining

Monthly Issue | Index

Search WWW Search seattlerobotics.org

PART 1

by Steven D. Kaehler

INTRODUCTION

This is the first in a series of six articles intended to share information and experience in

the realm of fuzzy logic (FL) and its application. This article will introduce FL. Through

the course of this article series, a simple implementation will be explained in detail. Each

article will include additional outside resource references for interested readers.

The concept of Fuzzy Logic (FL) was conceived by Lotfi Zadeh, a professor at the

University of California at Berkley, and presented not as a control methodology, but as a

way of processing data by allowing partial set membership rather than crisp set

membership or non-membership. This approach to set theory was not applied to control

systems until the 70's due to insufficient small-computer capability prior to that time.

Professor Zadeh reasoned that people do not require precise, numerical information input,

and yet they are capable of highly adaptive control. If feedback controllers could be

programmed to accept noisy, imprecise input, they would be much more effective and

perhaps easier to implement. Unfortunately, U.S. manufacturers have not been so quick

to embrace this technology while the Europeans and Japanese have been aggressively

building real products around it.

implementation in systems ranging from simple, small, embedded micro-controllers to

large, networked, multi-channel PC or workstation-based data acquisition and control

systems. It can be implemented in hardware, software, or a combination of both. FL

provides a simple way to arrive at a definite conclusion based upon vague, ambiguous,

imprecise, noisy, or missing input information. FL's approach to control problems mimics

how a person would make decisions, only much faster.

problem rather than attempting to model a system mathematically. The FL model is

empirically-based, relying on an operator's experience rather than their technical

understanding of the system. For example, rather than dealing with temperature control in

terms such as "SP =500F", "T <1000F", or "210C <TEMP <220C", terms like "IF

(process is too cool) AND (process is getting colder) THEN (add heat to the process)" or

"IF (process is too hot) AND (process is heating rapidly) THEN (cool the process

quickly)" are used. These terms are imprecise and yet very descriptive of what must

actually happen. Consider what you do in the shower if the temperature is too cold: you

will make the water comfortable very quickly with little trouble. FL is capable of

mimicking this type of behavior but at very high rate.

significant error and significant rate-of-change-of-error, but exact values of these

numbers are usually not critical unless very responsive performance is required in which

case empirical tuning would determine them. For example, a simple temperature control

system could use a single temperature feedback sensor whose data is subtracted from the

command signal to compute "error" and then time-differentiated to yield the error slope

or rate-of-change-of-error, hereafter called "error-dot". Error might have units of degs F

and a small error considered to be 2F while a large error is 5F. The "error-dot" might then

have units of degs/min with a small error-dot being 5F/min and a large one being

15F/min. These values don't have to be symmetrical and can be "tweaked" once the

system is operating in order to optimize performance. Generally, FL is so forgiving that

the system will probably work the first time without any tweaking.

SUMMARY

FL was conceived as a better method for sorting and handling data but has proven to be a

excellent choice for many control system applications since it mimics human control

logic. It can be built into anything from small, hand-held products to large computerized

process control systems. It uses an imprecise but very descriptive language to deal with

input data more like a human operator. It is very robust and forgiving of operator and

data input and often works when first implemented with little or no tuning.

REFERENCES

[1] "Europe Gets into Fuzzy Logic" (Electronics Engineering Times, Nov. 11, 1991).

[2] "Fuzzy Sets and Applications: Selected Papers by L.A. Zadeh", ed. R.R. Yager et al.

(John Wiley, New York, 1987).

[3] "U.S. Loses Focus on Fuzzy Logic" (Machine Design, June 21, 1990).

[4] "Why the Japanese are Going in for this 'Fuzzy Logic'" by Emily T. Smith (Business

Week, Feb. 20, 1993, pp. 39).

Ahead to Part 2

Monthly Issue | Index

PART 2

by Steven D. Kaehler

INTRODUCTION

This is the second in a series of six articles intended to share information and experience

in the realm of fuzzy logic (FL) and its application. This article will continue the

introduction with a more detailed look at how one might use FL. A simple

implementation will be explained in detail beginning in the next article. Accompanying

outside references are included for interested readers.

In the last article, FL was introduced and the thrust of this article series presented. The

origin of FL was shared and an introduction to some of the basic concepts of FL was

presented. We will now look a little deeper.

FL offers several unique features that make it a particularly good choice for many control

problems.

1) It is inherently robust since it does not require precise, noise-free inputs and can be

programmed to fail safely if a feedback sensor quits or is destroyed. The output control is

a smooth control function despite a wide range of input variations.

2) Since the FL controller processes user-defined rules governing the target control

system, it can be modified and tweaked easily to improve or drastically alter system

performance. New sensors can easily be incorporated into the system simply by

generating appropriate governing rules.

3) FL is not limited to a few feedback inputs and one or two control outputs, nor is it

necessary to measure or compute rate-of-change parameters in order for it to be

implemented. Any sensor data that provides some indication of a system's actions and

reactions is sufficient. This allows the sensors to be inexpensive and imprecise thus

keeping the overall system cost and complexity low.

4) Because of the rule-based operation, any reasonable number of inputs can be processed

(1-8 or more) and numerous outputs (1-4 or more) generated, although defining the

rulebase quickly becomes complex if too many inputs and outputs are chosen for a single

implementation since rules defining their interrelations must also be defined. It would be

better to break the control system into smaller chunks and use several smaller FL

controllers distributed on the system, each with more limited responsibilities.

mathematically. This opens doors for control systems that would normally be deemed

unfeasible for automation.

HOW IS FL USED?

1) Define the control objectives and criteria: What am I trying to control? What do I have

to do to control the system? What kind of response do I need? What are the possible

(probable) system failure modes?

2) Determine the input and output relationships and choose a minimum number of

variables for input to the FL engine (typically error and rate-of-change-of-error).

3) Using the rule-based structure of FL, break the control problem down into a series of

IF X AND Y THEN Z rules that define the desired system output response for given

system input conditions. The number and complexity of rules depends on the number of

input parameters that are to be processed and the number fuzzy variables associated with

each parameter. If possible, use at least one variable and its time derivative. Although it is

possible to use a single, instantaneous error parameter without knowing its rate of

change, this cripples the system's ability to minimize overshoot for a step inputs.

terms used in the rules.

otherwise program the rules into the FL H/W engine.

6) Test the system, evaluate the results, tune the rules and membership functions, and

retest until satisfactory results are obtained.

LINGUISTIC VARIABLES

In 1973, Professor Lotfi Zadeh proposed the concept of linguistic or "fuzzy" variables.

Think of them as linguistic objects or words, rather than numbers. The sensor input is a

noun, e.g. "temperature", "displacement", "velocity", "flow", "pressure", etc. Since error

is just the difference, it can be thought of the same way. The fuzzy variables themselves

are adjectives that modify the variable (e.g. "large positive" error, "small positive"

error ,"zero" error, "small negative" error, and "large negative" error). As a minimum,

one could simply have "positive", "zero", and "negative" variables for each of the

parameters. Additional ranges such as "very large" and "very small" could also be added

to extend the responsiveness to exceptional or very nonlinear conditions, but aren't

necessary in a basic system.

SUMMARY

FL does not require precise inputs, is inherently robust, and can process any reasonable

number of inputs but system complexity increases rapidly with more inputs and outputs.

Distributed processors would probably be easier to implement. Simple, plain-language IF

X AND Y THEN Z rules are used to describe the desired system response in terms of

linguistic variables rather than mathematical formulas. The number of these is dependent

on the number of inputs, outputs, and the designer's control response goals.

REFERENCES

[5] "Clear Thinking on Fuzzy Logic" by L.A. Bernardinis (Machine Design, April 23,

1993).

[6] "Fuzzy Fundamentals" by E. Cox (IEEE Spectrum, October 1992, pp. 58-61).

[7] "Fuzzy Logic in Control Systems" by C.C. Lee (IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and

Cybernetics, SMC, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1990, pp. 404-35).

[8] "Fuzzy Sets" by Ivars Peterson (Science News, Vol. 144, July 24, 1993, pp. 55).

• Back to Part 1

Ahead to Part 3

SRS Home | Front Page |

Monthly Issue | Index

PART 3

by Steven D. Kaehler

INTRODUCTION

This is the third in a series of six articles intended to share information and experience in

the realm of fuzzy logic (FL) and its application. This article and the three to follow will

take a more detailed look at how FL works by walking through a simple example.

Informational references are included at the end of this article for interested readers.

In the last article the concept of linguistic variables was presented. The fuzzy parameters

of error (command-feedback) and error-dot (rate-of-change-of-error) were modified by

the adjectives "negative", "zero", and "positive". To picture this, imagine the simplest

practical implementation, a 3-by-3 matrix. The columns represent "negative error", "zero

error", and "positive error" inputs from left to right. The rows represent "negative",

"zero", and "positive" "error-dot" input from top to bottom. This planar construct is called

a rule matrix. It has two input conditions, "error" and "error-dot", and one output

response conclusion (at the intersection of each row and column). In this case there are

nine possible logical product (AND) output response conclusions.

Although not absolutely necessary, rule matrices usually have an odd number of rows and

columns to accommodate a "zero" center row and column region. This may not be needed

as long as the functions on either side of the center overlap somewhat and continuous

dithering of the output is acceptable since the "zero" regions correspond to "no change"

output responses the lack of this region will cause

SRS Home | Front Page |

Monthly Issue | Index

PART 4

by Steven D. Kaehler

INTRODUCTION

This is the fourth in a series of six articles intended to share information and experience

in the realm of fuzzy logic (FL) and its application. This article will continue the example

from Part 3 by introducing membership functions and explaining how they work. The

next two articles will examine FL inference and defuzzification processes and how they

work. For further information, several general references are included at the end of this

article.

MEMBERSHIP FUNCTIONS

In the last article, the rule matrix was introduced and used. The next logical question is

how to apply the rules. This leads into the next concept, the membership function.

of each input. It associates a weighting with each of the inputs that are processed, define

functional overlap between inputs, and ultimately determines an output response. The

rules use the input membership values as weighting factors to determine their influence

on the fuzzy output sets of the final output conclusion. Once the functions are inferred,

scaled, and combined, they are defuzzified into a crisp output which drives the system.

There are different membership functions associated with each input and output response.

Some features to note are:

SHAPE - triangular is common, but bell, trapezoidal, haversine and, exponential have

been used. More complex functions are possible but require greater computing overhead

to implement.. HEIGHT or magnitude (usually normalized to 1) WIDTH (of the base of

function), SHOULDERING (locks height at maximum if an outer function. Shouldered

functions evaluate as 1.0 past their center) CENTER points (center of the member

function shape) OVERLAP (N&Z, Z&P, typically about 50% of width but can be less).

Figure 5 illustrates the features of the triangular membership function which is

used in this example because of its mathematical simplicity. Other shapes can be

used but the triangular shape lends itself to this illustration.

parameter (error or error-dot) into the horizontal axis and projecting vertically to

the upper boundary of the membership function(s).

Figure 6 - A sample case

In Figure 6, consider an "error" of -1.0 and an "error-dot" of +2.5. These

particular input conditions indicate that the feedback has exceeded the command

and is still increasing.

The degree of membership for an "error" of -1.0 projects up to the middle of the

overlapping part of the "negative" and "zero" function so the result is "negative"

membership = 0.5 and "zero" membership = 0.5. Only rules associated with

"negative" & "zero" error will actually apply to the output response. This selects

only the left and middle columns of the rule matrix.

This selects the middle and bottom rows of the rule matrix. By overlaying the two

regions of the rule matrix, it can be seen that only the rules in the 2-by-2 square in

the lower left corner (rules 4,5,7,8) of the rules matrix will generate non-zero

output conclusions. The others have a zero weighting due to the logical AND in

the rules.

SUMMARY

There is a unique membership function associated with each input parameter. The

membership functions associate a weighting factor with values of each input and

the effective rules. These weighting factors determine the degree of influence or

degree of membership (DOM) each active rule has. By computing the logical

product of the membership weights for each active rule, a set of fuzzy output

response magnitudes are produced. All that remains is to combine and defuzzify

these output responses.

REFERENCES

[13] "Fuzzy but Steady" (1991 Discover Awards) (Discover, Vol. 12, Dec. 1991,

pp. 73).

Machine Intelligence" by B. Kosko (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1992).

[15] "Putting Fuzzy Logic into Focus" by Janet J. Barron (Byte, Vol. 18, Apr.

1993, pp. 11).

[16] "Putting Fuzzy Logic in Motion" by Dr. P. Miller (Motion Control, April

1993, pp. 42-44).

• Back to Part 3

Ahead to Part 5

File: FL_PART4.H

Monthly Issue | Index

FUZZY LOGIC - AN INTRODUCTION

PART 5

by Steven D. Kaehler

INTRODUCTION

This is the fifth in a series of six articles intended to share information and experience in

the realm of fuzzy logic (FL) and its application. This article will continue the tutorial

discussion on FL by looking at the output membership function and several inference

processes. The next article will wrap up the discussion of the ongoing example. To

further explore the topic of FL, references are included for interested readers.

In the last article, we left off with the inference engine producing fuzzy output response

magnitudes for each of the effective rules. These must be processed and combined in

some manner to produce a single, crisp (defuzzified) output.

As inputs are received by the system, the rulebase is evaluated. The antecedent (IF X

AND Y) blocks test the inputs and produce conclusions. The consequent (THEN Z)

blocks of some rules are satisfied while others are not. The conclusions are combined to

form logical sums. These conclusions feed into the inference process where each

response output member function's firing strength (0 to 1) is determined.

Figure 7 - Degree of membership for the error and error-dot functions in the current

example

"error-dot" = +2.5: "zero" = 0.5 and "positive" = 0.5

ANTECEDENT & CONSEQUENT BLOCKS (e = error, er = error-dot or error-

rate)

Now referring back to the rules, plug in the membership function weights from

above. "Error" selects rules 1,2,4,5,7,8 while "error-dot" selects rules 4 through 9.

"Error" and "error-dot" for all rules are combined to a logical product (LP or

AND, that is the minimum of either term). Of the nine rules selected, only four

(rules 4,5,7,8) fire or have non-zero results. This leaves fuzzy output response

magnitudes for only "Cooling" and "No_Change" which must be inferred,

combined, and defuzzified to return the actual crisp output. In the rule list below,

the following ddefinitions apply: (e)=error, (er)=error-dot.

1. If (e < 0) AND (er < 0) then Cool 0.5 & 0.0 = 0.0

2. If (e = 0) AND (er < 0) then Heat 0.5 & 0.0 = 0.0

3. If (e > 0) AND (er < 0) then Heat 0.0 & 0.0 = 0.0

4. If (e < 0) AND (er = 0) then Cool 0.5 & 0.5 = 0.5

5. If (e = 0) AND (er = 0) then No_Chng 0.5 & 0.5 = 0.5

6. If (e > 0) AND (er = 0) then Heat 0.0 & 0.5 = 0.0

7. If (e < 0) AND (er > 0) then Cool 0.5 & 0.5 = 0.5

8. If (e = 0) AND (er > 0) then Cool 0.5 & 0.5 = 0.5

9. If (e > 0) AND (er > 0) then Heat 0.0 & 0.5 = 0.0

SUMMARY

The inputs are combined logically using the AND operator to produce output

response values for all expected inputs. The active conclusions are then combined

into a logical sum for each membership function. A firing strength for each output

membership function is computed. All that remains is to combine these logical

sums in a defuzzification process to produce the crisp output.

REFERENCES

by B.B. Devi et al (Vol. 35, 1985, pp. 43-59).

[18] "Fuzzy Logic" by Bart Kosko and Satoru Isaka (Scientific American, Vol.

269, July 1993, pp. 76).

[19] "Fuzzy Sets, Uncertainty, and Information", by G.J. Klir and T.A. Folger

(Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1988).

New York, 1985).

• Back to Part 4

Ahead to Part 6

TM 2-13

SRS Home | Front Page |

Monthly Issue | Index

PART 6

by Steven D. Kaehler

INTRODUCTION

This is the sixth and final article in a series intended to share information and experience

in the realm of fuzzy logic (FL) and its application. This article will conclude the tutorial

discussion of the ongoing FL example. For the interested reader, informational references

are included.

INFERENCING

The last step completed in the example in the last article was to determine the firing

strength of each rule. It turned out that rules 4, 5, 7, and 8 each fired at 50% or 0.5 while

rules 1, 2, 3, 6, and 9 did not fire at all (0% or 0.0). The logical products for each rule

must be combined or inferred (max-min'd, max-dot'd, averaged, root-sum-squared, etc.)

before being passed on to the defuzzification process for crisp output generation. Several

inference methods exist.

The MAX-MIN method tests the magnitudes of each rule and selects the highest one. The

horizontal coordinate of the "fuzzy centroid" of the area under that function is taken as

the output. This method does not combine the effects of all applicable rules but does

produce a continuous output function and is easy to implement.

The MAX-DOT or MAX-PRODUCT method scales each member function to fit under

its respective peak value and takes the horizontal coordinate of the "fuzzy" centroid of the

composite area under the function(s) as the output. Essentially, the member function(s)

are shrunk so that their peak equals the magnitude of their respective function

("negative", "zero", and "positive"). This method combines the influence of all active

rules and produces a smooth, continuous output.

The AVERAGING method is another approach that works but fails to give increased

weighting to more rule votes per output member function. For example, if three

"negative" rules fire, but only one "zero" rule does, averaging will not reflect this

difference since both averages will equal 0.5. Each function is clipped at the average and

the "fuzzy" centroid of the composite area is computed.

The ROOT-SUM-SQUARE (RSS) method combines the effects of all applicable rules,

scales the functions at their respective magnitudes, and computes the "fuzzy" centroid of

the composite area. This method is more complicated mathematically than other methods,

but was selected for this example since it seemed to give the best weighted influence to

all firing rules.

The RSS method was chosen to include all contributing rules since there are so few

member functions associated with the inputs and outputs. For the ongoing example, an

error of -1.0 and an error-dot of +2.5 selects regions of the "negative" and "zero" output

membership functions. The respective output membership function strengths (range: 0-1)

from the possible rules (R1-R9) are:

0.50^2 + 0.50^2)^.5 = 0.866

"zero" = (R5^2)^.5 = (0.50^2)^.5 (No Change) = 0.500

"positive" = (R2^2 + R3^2 + R6^2 + R9^2) (Heating) = (0.00^2 + 0.00^2 +

0.00^2 + 0.00^2)^.5 = 0.000

A "FUZZY CENTROID" ALGORITHM

the results of the inference process and then computing the "fuzzy centroid" of the

area. The weighted strengths of each output member function are multiplied by

their respective output membership function center points and summed. Finally,

this area is divided by the sum of the weighted member function strengths and the

result is taken as the crisp output. One feature to note is that since the zero center

is at zero, any zero strength will automatically compute to zero. If the center of

the zero function happened to be offset from zero (which is likely in a real system

where heating and cooling effects are not perfectly equal), then this factor would

have an influence.

pos_strength) = OUTPUT

(neg_strength + zero_strength + pos_strength)

(0.866 + 0.500 + 0.000)

Figure 8 - The horizontal coordinate of the centeriod is taken as the crisp output

The horizontal coordinate of the centroid of the area marked in Figure 8 is taken

as the normalized, crisp output. This value of -63.4% (63.4% Cooling) seems

logical since the particular input conditions (Error=-1, Error-dot=+2.5) indicate

that the feedback has exceeded the command and is still increasing therefore

cooling is the expected and required system response.

Tuning the system can be done by changing the rule antecedents or conclusions,

changing the centers of the input and/or output membership functions, or adding

additional degrees to the input and/or output functions such as "low", "medium",

and "high" levels of "error", "error-dot", and output response. These new levels

would generate additional rules and membership functions which would overlap

with adjacent functions forming longer "mountain ranges" of functions and

responses. The techniques for doing this systematically are a subject unto itself.

SUMMARY

The logical product of each rule is inferred to arrive at a combined magnitude for

each output membership function. This can be done by max-min, max-dot,

averaging, RSS, or other methods. Once inferred, the magnitudes are mapped into

their respective output membership functions, delineating all or part of them. The

"fuzzy centroid" of the composite area of the member functions is computed and

the final result taken as the crisp output. Tuning the system amounts to

"tweaking" the rules and membership function definition parameters to achieve

acceptable system response.

CONCLUSION

This completes this article series on FL control and one way it can be done. The

author has applied something close to this particular approach to a PC-based

temperature controller which could be the topic of a future article series if there is

interest. The PC solution has been implemented in Qbasic 1.0 and Borland's

Turbo C running on the PC using iotech hardware ADC's and DAC's. This

functionality has also been implemented using PIC's and 68HC11 processors.

control problem. This method focuses on what the system should do rather than

trying to understand how it works. One can concentrate on solving the problem

rather than trying to model the system mathematically, if that is even possible.

This almost invariably leads to quicker, cheaper solutions. Once understood, this

technology is not difficult to apply and the results are usually quite surprising and

pleasing.

REFERENCES

[21] "The Coming Age of Fuzzy Logic" Proceedings of the 1989 IFSA Congress,

J.C. Bezdek, ed. (University of Washington, Seattle, WA 1989).

[22] "The Current Mode Fuzzy Logic Integrated Circuits Fabricated by Standard

CMOS Process" (IEEE Trans. on Computers, Vol. C-35, No. 2, pp. 161-7,

February 1986).

EDU01V10-0193. ((c) 1993 by Aptronix, Inc, (408) 428-1888).

(April 1992, No. 25, Menlo Park, CA 1992).

• Back to Part 5

On to Example Cases

Monthly Issue | Index

Search WWW Search seattlerobotics.org

EXAMPLE ILLUSTRATIONS

To Case 1

To Case 2

To Case 3

To Case 4

To Case 5

The following five cases show what the system computes as error decreases

toward zero and then changes to a positive value. Pictures of the input and output

membership functions are included. The rate-of-change of the error stays constant

throughout the five cases. It is not likely that this would happen in a real system,

but for purposes of this illustration, that case has been assumed. The values of

error and error-dot indicated from the membership functions are plugged into the

rulebase from the "KEY" below and the responses computed for each case. These

responses are then mathematically combined to yield a crisp output.

Note that because the "zero" membership function is centered on zero in the

output function, its influence in the output computation is only in the

denominator. The center of the "zero" doesn't need to be at zero, it just happens to

be in this example..

KEY:

(e=0) "zero" error value (er=0) "zero" error-dot value

(e>0) "positive" error value (er>0) "positive" error-dot value

EXAMPLE CASE 1 - ERROR= -1.0F

Figure 9 - EXAMPLE CASE 1: (initial conditions)

"error-dot" = +2.5: "negative" = 0.0, "zero" = 0.5, "positive" = 0.5

1. If (e < 0) AND (er < 0) then Cool 0.50 & 0.00 = 0.00

2. If (e = 0) AND (er < 0) then Heat 0.50 & 0.00 = 0.00

3. If (e > 0) AND (er < 0) then Heat 0.00 & 0.00 = 0.00 >>>>

4. If (e < 0) AND (er = 0) then Cool 0.50 & 0.50 = 0.50 >>>>

5. If (e = 0) AND (er = 0) then No_Chng 0.50 & 0.50 = 0.50

6. If (e > 0) AND (er = 0) then Heat 0.00 & 0.50 = 0.00 >>>>

7. If (e < 0) AND (er > 0) then Cool 0.50 & 0.50 = 0.50 >>>>

8. If (e = 0) AND (er > 0) then Cool 0.50 & 0.50 = 0.50

9. If (e > 0) AND (er > 0) then Heat 0.00 & 0.50 = 0.00

"negative" = (R1^2 + R4^2 + R7^2 + R8^2) (Cooling) = (0.00^2 + 0.50^2 +

0.50^2 + 0.50^2)^.5 = 0.866

"zero" = (R5^2)^.5 = (0.50^2)^.5 (No Change) = 0.500

"positive" = (R2^2 + R3^2 + R6^2 + R9^2) (Heating) = (0.00^2 + 0.00^2 +

0.00^2 + 0.00^2)^.5 = 0.000

pos_strength) = OUTPUT

(neg_strength + zero_strength + pos_strength)

(0.866 + 0.500 + 0.000)

EXAMPLE CASE 2 - ERROR = +1.25F

Figure 11 - EXAMPLE CASE 2

"error-dot" = +2.5: "negative" = 0.0, "zero" = 0.50, "positive" = 0.50

1. If (e < 0) AND (er < 0) then Cool 0.25 & 0.0 = 0.00

2. If (e = 0) AND (er < 0) then Heat 0.75 & 0.0 = 0.00

3. If (e > 0) AND (er < 0) then Heat 0.00 & 0.0 = 0.00 >>>>

4. If (e < 0) AND (er = 0) then Cool 0.25 & 0.50 = 0.25 >>>>

5. If (e = 0) AND (er = 0) then No_Chng 0.75 & 0.50 = 0.50

6. If (e > 0) AND (er = 0) then Heat 0.00 & 0.50 = 0.00 >>>>

7. If (e < 0) AND (er > 0) then Cool 0.25 & 0.50 = 0.25 >>>>

8. If (e = 0) AND (er > 0) then Cool 0.75 & 0.50 = 0.50

9. If (e > 0) AND (er > 0) then Heat 0.00 & 0.50 = 0.00

"negative" = (R1^2 + R4^2 + R7^2 + R8^2) (Cooling) = (0.00^2 + 0.25^2 +

0.25^2 + 0.50^2)^.5 = 0.612

"zero" = (R5^2)^.5 = (0.50^2)^.5 (No Change) = 0.50

"positive" = (R2^2 + R3^2 + R6^2 + R9^2) (Heating) = (0.00^2 + 0.00^2 +

0.00^2 + 0.00^2)^.5 = 0.000

pos_strength) = OUTPUT

(neg_strength + zero_strength + pos_strength)

(0.612 + 0.500 + 0.000)

EXAMPLE CASE 3 - ERROR = 0.0F

Figure 13 - EXAMPLE CASE 3

"error-dot" = +2.5: "negative" = 0.0, "zero" = 0.50, "positive" = 0.50

1. If (e < 0) AND (er < 0) then Cool 0.00 & 0.00 = 0.0

2. If (e = 0) AND (er < 0) then Heat 1.00 & 0.00 = 0.0

3. If (e > 0) AND (er < 0) then Heat 0.00 & 0.00 = 0.0

4. If (e < 0) AND (er = 0) then Cool 0.00 & 0.50 = 0.0 >>>>

5. If (e = 0) AND (er = 0) then No_Chng 1.00 & 0.50 = 0.50

6. If (e > 0) AND (er = 0) then Heat 0.00 & 0.50 = 0.0

7. If (e < 0) AND (er > 0) then Cool 0.00 & 0.50 = 0.0 >>>>

8. If (e = 0) AND (er > 0) then Cool 1.00 & 0.50 = 0.50

9. If (e > 0) AND (er > 0) then Heat 0.00 & 0.50 = 0.0

"negative" = (R1^2 + R4^2 + R7^2 + R8^2) (Cooling) = (0.0^2 + 0.0^2 + 0.0^2 +

0.50^2)^.5 = 0.50

"zero" = (R5^2)^.5 = (0.5^2)^.5 (No Change) = 0.5

"positive" = (R2^2 + R3^2 + R6^2 + R9^2) (Heating) = (0.00^2 + 0.00^2 +

0.00^2 + 0.00^2)^.5 = 0.000

pos_strength) = OUTPUT

(neg_strength + zero_strength + pos_strength)

(0.50 + 0.50 + 0.000)

EXAMPLE CASE 4 - ERROR = +0.5F

Figure 15 - EXAMPLE CASE 4

"error-dot" = +2.5: "negative" = 0.0, "zero" = 0.50, "positive" = 0.50

1. If (e < 0) AND (er < 0) then Cool 0.00 & 0.00 = 0.0

2. If (e = 0) AND (er < 0) then Heat 0.75 & 0.00 = 0.0

3. If (e > 0) AND (er < 0) then Heat 0.25 & 0.00 = 0.0

4. If (e < 0) AND (er = 0) then Cool 0.00 & 0.50 = 0.0 >>>>

5. If (e = 0) AND (er = 0) then No_Chng 0.75 & 0.50 = 0.50 >>>>

6. If (e > 0) AND (er = 0) then Heat 0.25 & 0.50 = 0.25

7. If (e < 0) AND (er > 0) then Cool 0.00 & 0.50 = 0.0 >>>>

8. If (e = 0) AND (er > 0) then Cool 0.75 & 0.50 = 0.50 >>>>

9. If (e > 0) AND (er > 0) then Heat 0.25 & 0.50 = 0.25

"negative" = (R1^2 + R4^2 + R7^2 + R8^2) (Cooling) = (0.0^2 + 0.0^2 + 0.0^2 +

0.50^2)^.5 = 0.50

"zero" = (R5^2)^.5 = (0.5^2)^.5 (No Change) = 0.50

"positive" = (R2^2 + R3^2 + R6^2 + R9^2) (Heating) = (0.00^2 + 0.00^2 +

0.25^2 + 0.50^2)^.5 = 0.354

pos_strength) = OUTPUT

(neg_strength + zero_strength + pos_strength)

(0.50 + 0.50 + 0.354)

EXAMPLE CASE 5 - ERROR = +1.0F

Figure 17 - EXAMPLE CASE 5

"error-dot" = +2.5: "negative" = 0.0, "zero" = 0.5, "positive" = 0.5

1. If (e < 0) AND (er < 0) then Cool 0.00 & 0.00 = 0.0

2. If (e = 0) AND (er < 0) then Heat 0.50 & 0.00 = 0.0

3. If (e > 0) AND (er < 0) then Heat 0.50 & 0.00 = 0.0

4. If (e < 0) AND (er = 0) then Cool 0.00 & 0.50 = 0.0 >>>>

5. If (e = 0) AND (er = 0) then No_Chng 0.50 & 0.50 = 0.5 >>>>

6. If (e > 0) AND (er = 0) then Heat 0.50 & 0.50 = 0.5

7. If (e < 0) AND (er > 0) then Cool 0.00 & 0.50 = 0.0 >>>>

8. If (e = 0) AND (er > 0) then Cool 0.50 & 0.50 = 0.5 >>>>

9. If (e > 0) AND (er > 0) then Heat 0.50 & 0.50 = 0.5

"negative" = (R1^2 + R4^2 + R7^2 + R8^2) (Cooling) = (0.00^2 + 0.00^2 +

0.00^2 + 0.50^2)^.5 = 0.500

"zero" = (R5^2)^.5 = (0.50^2)^.5 (No Change) = 0.500

"positive" = (R2^2 + R3^2 + R6^2 + R9^2) (Heating) = (0.00^2 + 0.00^2 +

0.50^2 + 0.50^2)^.5 = 0.707

pos_strength) = OUTPUT

(neg_strength + zero_strength + pos_strength)

(0.500 + 0.500 + 0.707)

• Back to Part 6

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