B.

Tech Seminar Report

On WIRELESS ENERGY TRANSFER
By

SHASHIBHUSAN MOHANTA Regd. No: 0701218402

Department of Applied Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering
PURUSHOTTAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, ROURKELA 2010-11

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the seminar report entitled “WIRELESS ENERGY TRANSFER” is a bona fide record of the minor seminar topic done by SHASHIBHUSAN MOHANTA(Regd No:0701218402) under my supervision and guidance, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Applied Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering from Purushottam Institute of Engineering & Technology, Rourkela for the year 2010-11.

Mrs.Mangla P.Shende H.O.D, Dept. of AEI

Mrs. Sarita Panigrahi Dept. of A.E.I

of AEIE.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to thank all those who have guided and helped me in the completion of my seminar on the topic ‘WIRELESS ENERGY TRANSFER’. and to God.MANGLA P.SARITA PANIGRAHI To Head of the Department of AEIE. I express my deep gratitude to the following persons who have made the completion of this Seminar Report possible: To Project Incharge Dept.SHENDE All faculty members and Staff of my branch Applied Electronics and Instrumentation for their guidance . Mrs. but also helped and encouraged me whenever I found any difficulties. I pay my special thanks towards my parents and friends who provided me support in all respect. Mrs. who made all things possible. At last but not the least.who not only enable me to conceive the theoretical concept. .

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION  HISTORY OF WIRELESS ENERGY TRANSFER METHODS OF WIRELESS ENERGY TRANSFER ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES CONCLUSION REFERENCE .

Especially the transmission and distribution losses are the main concern of the present power technology. hazardous. It is also called as Tesla effect. Much of this power is wasted during transmission from power plant generators to the consumer. This loss implies that our present system of electrical distribution is only 70-74% efficient. Imagine charging your laptop computer or cell phone without plugging them into an electrical socket. We have . Wireless transmission is useful in cases where interconnecting wires are inconvenient.INTRODUCTION Wireless energy transfer or wireless power is the transmission of electrical energy from a power source to an electrical load without interconnecting wires. or impossible. The resistance of the wire used in the electrical grid distribution system causes a loss of 2630% of the energy generated. a concept that has been bandied about for decades but is creeping closer to becoming viable. In our present electricity generation system we waste more than half of its resources. That’s a luxury that could be provided by wireless power transmission.

Other present-day technologies for wireless power include those based upon microwaves and lasers. The most common form of wireless power transmission is carried out using induction.days global scenario has been changed a lot and there are tremendous development in every field.a.art technology to transmit and distribute the electricity.to think of alternate state . The transmission of power without wires may be one noble alternative for electricity transmission. . If we don’t keep pace with the development of new power technology we have to face a decreasing trend in the development of power sector. followed by electrodynamic induction.of . Now.

The 187-foot Wardenclyffe Tower (Tesla Tower) in 1903.[Figure 1. The source of the transmitted electricity was to be the Niagara Falls power plant.In 1831 Michel Faraday develops Faraday’s law of induction. In this remarkable discovery of the "True Wireless" and the principles upon .This was to be the first broadcasting system in the world.Like this so many pioneers experimented about the characteristics of electric energy in 19th century. Tesla wanted to transmit electricity from this Tower to the whole globe without wires using the Ionosphere.] HISTORY OF WIRELESS ENERGY TRANSFER In 1820 Andre Marie Amperes developed Ampere’s law showing that electric current produce a magnetic field . And in 1888 Henrich Rodlaf Hertz confirms the existence of electromagnetic radiation .

The most well known and famous Wardenclyffe Tower (Tesla Tower) was designed and constructed mainly for wireless basis transmission of electrical power.which transmission and reception. The most popular concept known is Tesla Theory in which it was firmly believed that Wardenclyffe (Fig. METHODS OF WIRELESS ENERGY TRANSFER 1. Nikola Tesla shows us that he is indeed the "Father of the Wireless". In spite of this he had made numerous experiments of high quality to validate his claim of possibility of wireless transmission of electricity. are based. In 2009 Texas Instruments release the first device. even in the present day systems. Dr. In 2010 Harier group debuts the world’s first completely wireless LCD television at CES 2010 based on prof.Near field techniques: wireless transmission Near field are techniques over .1) would permit wireless transmission and reception across large distances with negligible losses. Marin follow-up research on wireless energy transfer. rather than telegraphy . Recently in1998 Intel produces Tesla’s original implementation by wirelessly powering nearby light bulb with 75% efficiency.

Induction cookers and many electric toothbrushes are also powered by this technique. The main drawback to induction. 1. is the short range. The battery chargers of a mobile phone or the transformers on the street are examples of how this principle can be used.1 Induction Technique(Inductive coupling) : The action of an electrical transformer is the simplest instance of wireless energy transfer. The receiver must be very close to the transmitter or induction unit in order to inductively couple with it. The transfer of energy takes place by electromagnetic coupling through a process known as mutual induction. and up to around a quarter of the wavelengths used. but electric (capacitive) energy transfer can also occur.distances comparable to. . In addition there are usually resistive losses. Near field transfer is usually magnetic (inductive). Near field energy itself is non radiative. The primary and secondary circuits of a transformer are not directly connected. however. or a few times the diameter of the device(s). but some radiative losses will occur.

2 Electrodynamic Induction Technique(Resonant Energy Transfer): The "electrodynamics inductive effect" or "resonant inductive coupling" has key implications in solving the main problem associated with non-resonant inductive coupling for wireless energy transfer. the dependence of efficiency on transmission distance. moderately improving the efficiency by "tunneling" the magnetic . specifically. This results in a negligible range because most of the magnetic field misses the secondary. The application of resonance improves the situation somewhat.1. Electromagnetic induction works on the principle of a primary coil generating apredominantly magnetic field and a secondary coil being within that field so a current is induced in the secondary. Over relatively small distances the induction method is inefficient and wastes much of the transmitted energy.

In this way significant power may be transmitted over a range of many meters. A common use of the technology is for powering contactless smartcards. When resonant coupling is used the two inductors are tuned to a mutual frequency and the input current is modified from a sinusoidal into a nonsinusoidal rectangular or transient waveform so as to more aggressively drive the system. 1. such transmitting and receiving coils are usually single layer solenoids or flat spirals with series capacitors. and systems exist to power and recharge laptops and cell phones. Unlike the multiple-layer windings typical of non-resonant transformers. rapidly alternating electrostatic field created between two vertical metal sheets suspended from the ceiling on insulating cords. which. in combination.3 Electrostatic induction technique (Capacitive coupling): Tesla illuminating two exhausted tubes by means of a powerful. The "electrostatic induction effect" or "capacitive coupling" is a . allow the receiving element to be tuned to the transmitter frequency and reduce losses.field to a receiver coil that resonates at the same frequency.

other than and in addition to the development of a potential across a conductor Instead of depending on electrodynamic induction at a distance to light the tube.type of high field gradient or differential capacitance between two elevated electrodes over a conducting ground plane for wireless energy transmission involving high frequency alternating current potential differences transmitted between two plates. Tesla have been able to produce such a condition by creating in the room a powerful.e. i.Sometimes called "the Tesla effect" it is the application of a type of electrical displacement. For this purpose he suspend a sheet of metal a distance from the ceiling on insulating cords . rapidly alternating electrostatic field. The electrostatic forces through natural media across a conductor situated in the changing magnetic flux can transfer energy to a receiving device (such as Tesla's wireless bulbs). no matter where it is put and without being electrically connected to anything.. the passage of electrical energy through space and matter. and that it is lighted. The ideal way of lighting a hall or room would be to produce such a condition in it that an illuminating device could be moved and put anywhere.

Far field methods achieve longer ranges. Far field techniques: Means for long conductors of electricity forming part of an electric circuit and electrically connecting said ionized beam to an electric circuit. each sheet being connected with one of the terminals of the coil. it remains always luminous 2. . the other terminal being preferably connected to the ground. . even a certain distance beyond them. The . Or else he suspend two sheets .and connect it to one terminal of the induction coil. and their size being carefully determined. An exhausted tube may then be carried in the hand anywhere between the sheets or placed anywhere. often multiple kilometer ranges. where the distance is much greater than the diameter of the device(s). With radio wave and optical devices the main reason for longer ranges is the fact that electromagnetic radiation in the far-field can be made to match the shape of the receiving area (using high directivity antennas or wellcollimated Laser Beam) thereby delivering almost all emitted power at long ranges.

Nikola Tesla also investigated radio transmission and reception. The modern ideas are dominated by microwave power transmission called Solar power satellite to be built in high earth orbit to collect sunlight and convert that energy into microwaves.1Radio and microwave(Microwave Power Transmission)Technique: In 1875 thomas edison worked on this later Guglielmo Marconi worked with a modified form of Edison's transmitter.maximum directivity for antennas physically limited by diffraction. This beam antenna has been widely adopted throughout the broadcasting and wireless telecommunications industries due to its excellent performance characteristics. A rectenna may be used to convert the microwave energy back into electricity. is 2. Japanese researcher Hidetsugu Yagi also investigated wireless energy transmission using a directional array antenna that he designed. the microwaves would be converted into conventional electrical power. then beamed to a very large antenna on earth. .

The microwave source consists of a microwave oven magnetron with electronics to control the output power. The slotted waveguide antenna is ideal for power transmission because of its high aperture efficiency (> 95%) and high power handling capability.The primary components include a microwave source.Rectenna conversion efficiencies exceeding 95% have been realized. This adapter is connected to a waveguide ferrite circulator which protects the microwave source from reflected power.45GHz.Microwave power transmission. a transmitting antenna. These 64 slots radiate the power uniformly through free space to the rectenna. and a receiving rectenna. Fig. The slotted waveguide antenna consists of 8 waveguide sections with 8 slots on each section.ionised atmospheric . The circulator is connected to a tuning waveguide section to match the waveguide impedance to the antenna input impedance. A blockdiagram of the demonstration components is shown.3 . A coaxial cable connects the output of the microwave source to a coax-to-waveguide adapter. A rectifying antenna called a rectenna receives the transmitted power Figure 3: Two optical forms of wireless antennae formed ofsearch light beam. The output microwave power ranges from 50 W to 200 W at 2.

The light bulbs also dissipated the received power. but rectennas have been tested with greater than 90% efficiency at 2. Power beaming by microwaves has the difficulty that for most space applications the required aperture sizes are very large due to diffraction limiting antenna directionality. For earthbound applications a large area 10 km diameter receiving array allows large total power levels to be used while operating at the low power density suggested for human electromagnetic exposure safety.These sizes can be somewhat decreased by using shorter wavelengths. Each row is connected to a rectifying circuit which consists of low pass filters and a rectifier. although short wavelengths may have difficulties with atmospheric absorption and beam blockage by rain or water droplets. . The 6 rectifying diodes are connected to light bulbs for indicating that the power is received. This rectenna has a 25% collection and conversion efficiency. This demonstration rectenna consists of 6 rows of dipoles antennas where 8 dipoles belong to each row.and converts the microwave power to direct current (DC) power. The rectifier is a Ga As Schottky barrier diode that is impedance matched to the dipoles by a low pass filter.45 GHz.

A human safe power density of 1 mW/cm2 distributed across a 10 km diameter area corresponds to 750 megawatts total power level. This is the power level found in many modern electric power plants. In the case of electromagnetic radiation closer to visible region of spectrum (10s of microns (um) to 10s of nm). This mechanism is generally known as "powerbeaming" because the power is . 2. a lightweight model plane makes the first flight of an aircraft powered by a laser beam inside a building at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.2 Laser: With a laser beam centered on its panel of photovoltaic cells. power can be transmitted by converting electricity into a laser beam that is then pointed at a solar cell receiver.

wi-fi and cell phones. 4. Compact size of solid state lasersphotovoltaics semiconductor diodes allows ease of integration into products with small form factors. Control of Wireless Energy Access. Ability to operate with zero radiofrequency interference to existing communication devices i.e. The power required to drive the robot itself is more than 120 W and the laser. There are quite a few unique advantages of laser based energy transfer that outweigh the disadvantages: 1.beamed at a receiver that can convert it to usable electrical energy. These allow laser-based wireless . 2. Collimated monochromatic wavefront propagation allows narrow beam crosssection area for energy confinement over large ranges. instead of omnidirectional transfer where there can be no authentication before transferring energy. 3. 5. power can only drive the motion of an arm and fingers.

based on this method would eliminate the need for an inefficient. 6. The system would reduce the cost of electrical energy used by the consumer and rid the landscape of wires. cables. Geoffrey Landis is one of the pioneers of solar power satellite and laser-based transfer of energy especially for space and lunar missions. Africa is in need of power to run pumps to tap into the vast resources of water under the Sahara Desert. NASA's space elevator would need wireless power to be beamed to it for it to climb a tether. The continuously increasing demand for safe and frequent space missions has resulted in serious thoughts on a futuristic space elevator that would be powered by lasers. costly. and capital intensive grid of cables.energy transfer concept to compete with conventional energy transfer methods. towers. yet there is no method for delivering power. and substations. such as those in China. require the electrical power necessary to ADVANTEGES . and transmission towers. An electrical distribution system. Rural areas. There are areas of the world where the need for electrical power exists.

and there are practically no losses.To transmit wireless power to any distance without limit. High Transmission Integrity and Low Loss: . In regards to the new systems. More efficient energy distribution systems and sources are needed by both developed and under developed nations. so there will be no transmission and distribution loss. It has the potential to become a multi-billion dollar per year market. The increasing demand for electrical energy in industrial nations is well documented. DISADVANTEGES . These systems can only meet these requirements with 90–94 %efficient transmission. we could expect an even Faster rise in the demand for electrical power in the near future. The efficiency of the transmission can be as high as 96 or 97 per cent.bring them into the 20th century and to equal standing with western nations. the market for wireless power transmission is enormous. The wireless transmission will solve many of these problems The electrical energy can be economically transmitted without wires to any terrestrial distance. It makes no difference what the distance is. pushed by their increasing rate of growth. If we include the demand of third world nations.

which may eventually be built into appliances. 2. Just like television and radio. Conversion to light (laser).Economic Impact:. fossilfuelled.Biological Impact: . is moderately inefficient (although quantum cascade lasers improve this) Conversion back into electricity is moderately inefficient.1. Only private. it was found that the frequency is very small and such a frequency is very biologically compatible.The concept looks to be costly initially. In terms of economic theory. a single resonant energy receiver is required. In the 21st century. 3. many countries will benefit from this service. such as with a laser.(Note that conversion efficiency is rather higher with .One common criticism of the Tesla wireless power system is regarding its possible biological effects. which is an exact parallel of Tesla’s “Direct Electricity”. so no power cord will be necessary! Monthly electric utility bills from old fashioned.000 (1905). much like “cable TV” of today. Calculating the circulating reactive power. “Direct TV” is the rage. with photovoltaic cells achieving 40%-50% efficiency. dispersed receiving stations will be needed. The investment cost of Tesla Tower was $150. lossprone electrified wire-grid delivery services will be optional.

Wireless energy transfer system using laser for consumer space has to satisfy Laser safety requirements standardized under IEC60825.monochromatic light than with isolation of solar panels). .As with microwave beaming. 4. this method requires a direct line of sight with the target.Atmospheric absorption causes losses:.The laser "powerbeaming" technology has been mostly explored in military weapons and aerospace applications and is now being developed for commercial and consumer electronics Low-Power applications.

and capital intensive grid of cables.Tesla is the pioneer of this invention. and substations. The system would reduce the cost of electrical energy used by the consumer and get rid of . costly. experiments and measurements. The electrical energy can be economically transmitted without wires to any terrestrial distance. Wireless transmission of electricity have tremendous merits like high transmission integrity and Low Loss (90 – 97% efficient) and can be transmitted to any where in the globe and eliminate the need for an inefficient. towers. Dr.CONCLUSION The transmission of power without wires is not a theory or a mere possibility.N. Many researchers have established in numerous observations. qualitative and quantitative. it is now a reality.

It has negligible demerits like reactive power which was found insignificant and biologically compatible. It has a tremendous economic impact to human society.com    . REFERENCE www.org www.scribd. Many countries will benefit from this service. cables. wikipedia. and transmission towers.google .com www.the landscape of wires.