1056 (E), dated 31-12-1993 In exercise of the powers conferred by section 3, read with section 4, of the Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act, 1992 (22 of 1992) and in supersession of the Imports (Control) Order, 1955 and the Exports (Control) Order, 1988, except as respects things done or omitted to be done before such supersession, the Central Government hereby makes the following Order, namely :-

1. Short title and commencement. (1) This Order may be called the Foreign Trade (Exemption from application of Rules in certain cases) Order, 1993.

(2) It shall come into force on the date of its publication in the Official Gazette.

2. Definitions.

In this Order, unless the context otherwise requires,

(a) "Act" means the Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act, 1992 (22 of 1992);

(b) "Import Trade Regulations" means the Act and the rules and order made thereunder and the export and import policy;

(c) "Rules" means the Foreign Trade (Regulation) Rules, 1993;

(d) Words and expressions used in this Order and not defined but defined in the Act shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in the Act.

3. Exemption from the application of rules. import of any goods.

(1) Nothing contained in the Rules shall apply to the

(a) by the Central Government or agencies, undertakings owned and controlled by the Central Government for Defence purposes;

(b) by the Central Government or any State Government, statutory corporation, public body or Government undertaking run as a Joint Stock Company through the agency of the Purchase Organisations of the Ministry of Supply, that is India Supply Mission, London and India Supply Mission, Washington;

(c) by the Central Government, any State Government or any statutory corporation or public body or Government undertaking run as a Joint Stock Company, orders in respect of which are placed through the Directorate General, Supplies and Disposals, New Delhi;

(d) by transhipment or imported and bonded on arrival for re-export as ships stores to any country outside India except Nepal and Bhutan or imported and bonded on arrival for re -export as aforesaid but subsequently released for use of Diplomatic personnel, Consular Officers in India and the officials of the United Nations Organisation and its specialised agencies who are exempt from payment of duty under the notification of the Government of India in the Ministry of Finance (Department of Revenue) No. 3, dated 8th January, 1957 and the United Nations (Privileges and Immunities) Act, 1947 (46 of 1947) respectively;

(e) imported and bonded on arrival for sale at approved duty-free shops, whether to outgoing or incoming passengers, against payments in free foreign exchange;

(f) which are in transit through India by post or otherwise, or are redirected by post or otherwise to a destination outside India, except Nepal and Bhutan provided that such goods while in India are always in the custody of the postal or customs authorities;

(g) for transmission across India by air to Afghanistan or by land, to any other country outside India, except Nepal and Bhutan under claim for exemption from duty or for refund of duty either in whole or in part :

Provided that such goods are imported by or on behalf of the Govern-ment or a country bordering on India or that the importer undertakes to produce within a specified period evidence that such goods have crossed the borders of India or in default to pay such penalty as the proper officer of customs may deem fit to impose on such goods :

Provided further that nothing contained in this item will exempt any goods from the Import Trade Regulations;

(h) by the person as passenger baggage to the extent admissible under the Baggage Rules for the time being in force except quinine exceeding five hundred tablets or 1/3 Ib powder or one hundred ampoules :

Provided that in the case of imports by a tourist, articles of high value whose re-export is obligatory under rule 7 of the Tourist Baggage Rules,1978 shall be re-exported on his leaving India, failing which such goods shall be deemed to be goods of which the import has been prohibited under the Customs Act, 1962 (52 of 1962):

Provided further that the import of gold in any form including ornaments (but excluding ornaments studded with stones or pearls) will be allowed as part of baggage by passengers of Indian origin or a passenger holding a valid passport issued under the Passports Act, 1967 (15 of 1967) subject to the following conditions, namely :-

(a) that the passenger importing the gold is coming to India after a period of not less than six months of stay abroad; (b) the quantity of gold imported shall not exceed 5 Kilograms per passenger; (c) import duty on gold shall be paid in convertible foreign currency; and (d) there will be no restriction on sale of such imported gold; (i) by any person through the post or otherwise for his personal use, or by any institution or hospital for its use except

(a) vegetable seeds exceeding one Ib. in weight; (b) beer; (c) tea; (d) books, magazines, journals and literature which are not allowed to be imported under the Policy for the time being in force; (e) goods, the import of which is canalised under the Policy;

i. 1962 (52 of 1962) or under Customs Notification Nos. 1961. 113 dated 16th May 1957. (k) from any country. 1958. 260 and 261 dated llth October. value of goods imported as aforesaid at any one time shall not exceed rupees two thousand. dated 9th December. 269. 271. 3 dated the 8th January. apparatus and appliances and parts thereof): Provided that the c. and (ii) in the case of goods other than those exempted from customs duty on reimportation under Customs Notification No. (1) of Indian manufacture and foreign-made parts of such goods. 103. Ministry of Finance (Department of Revenue) or Notification No.(f) alcoholic beverages. . of the Government of India. 1958 and 204 dated 2nd August. of the Government of India. 274. (g) fire arms and ammunition. 275 and 276 dated 25th October. 273. (m) by officials of the United Nations Organisation and its specialised agencies who are exempted from payment of Customs duty under the United Nations (Privileges and Immunities) Act. (h) consumer electronic items (except hearing aids and life-saving equipments. dated 29th August. 174. 132. (n) by the Ford Foundation who are exempt from payment of Customs duty under an Agreement entered into between the Government of India and the Ford Foundation. 1958. 1978. 1947 (46 of 1947). (j) by or on behalf of Diplomatic personnel. which are exempted from Customs duty on re-importation under section 20 of the Customs Act. exported and received back by the manufacturer from the consignee for repair and re-export: Provided that (i) the customs authorities are satisfied that the goods received back by the said manufacturers are the same which were so exported. dated the 16th May. 80. 1966 or Notification No. 1957 of the Government of India in the Ministry of Finance (Department of Revenue). 1970. 1976. Ministry of Finance (Department of Revenue and Insurance) or Notification No.f. dated the 24th September. consular officers and Trade Commissioners in India who are exempted from payment of Customs duty under Notification No. 103 dated 25th March. a bond is executed by the importer with the customs authority at the port concerned to the effect that the goods thus imported will be reexported after repair within six months.

(o) being vehicles as defined in Article I of the Customs Convention on the Temporary Importation of Private Road Vehicles or the component parts thereof referred to in Article 4 of the said Convention and which are exempted from payment of customs duty under the notification of the Government of India in the Ministry of Finance (Department of Revenue) No. and (ii) the provisions of the said notification or of the ATA convention are not contravened: Provided further that nothing contained in this item shall prejudice the application to the said goods of any other prohibition or regulation affecting the import of goods that may be in force at the time of import of such goods. dated the 28th March. (p) being goods imported temporarily for display or use in fairs. (ii) the provisions of the said notification or of the "triptyque or Camel-De-Passage" permit are not contravened in relation to such vehicle or component parts : Provided further that nothing contained in this item shall prejudice the application to the said vehicles or component parts of any other prohibition or regulation affecting the import of goods that may be in force at the time of import of such goods. 1990 against ATA Carnets under the Customs Convention on the ATA Carnets for temporary admission of goods (ATA Convention) done at Brussels on the 30th July. . 1963: Provided that (i) such goods are exported within a period of six months from the date of clearance or such extended period as the Central Government may allow in each case. 157/90-CUSTOMS. exhibitions or similar events specified in Schedule I to the notification of the Government of India in the Ministry of Finance (Department of Revenue) No. dated the 2nd August. 1976 : Provided that (i) such vehicles or component parts are re-exported within the period specified in the said notification or within such further period as the customs authorities may allow. 296.

GSR 766. dated 21st June. (t) being articles of food and edible material. (s) being foodgrains. a declaration to the effect that the import in question has been approved by the Central Government. which are supplied as free gift by the agencies approved by the United Nations Organisation and which are exempted from payment of customs duty under the Notification of Government of India in the Ministry of Finance (Department of Revenue) No. .(q) covered by an import licence issued by His Majesty's Government of Nepal and the importer furnishes a bond to the proper officer of customs in the form prescribed by such officer with a Scheduled Bank as surety to the effect that he shall pay the duty and pay penalty imposed for contravening Import Trade Regulations in respect of the whole or any portion of the goods which is not proved to have entered the territory of Nepal. (r) of Indian manufacture or by the Central Government or any State Government for repair and reexport to Indian Embassies abroad or to any other office of the Central Government or State Government in a foreign country. (2) Nothing contained in the Rules shall apply to (a) any goods exported by or under the authority of the Central Government. going out of India: Provided that the Wild Life (dead. (c) any goods constituting the bona fide personal baggage of any person. is furnished by the importer to the Customs authorities. (b) any goods other than foodstuffs constituting the stores or equipment of any outgoing vessel or conveyance. by Food Corporation of India: Provided that at the time of clearance. 1975. including a passenger or member of a crew in any vessel or conveyance. alive or part thereof or produce therefrom) shall not be treated as part of such personal baggage.

and Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited. (h) any goods imported without a valid import licence and exported in accordance with an order for the export of such goods made by the proper officer of Customs. Lube Oil. crude oil and other related petroleum products and raw materials used to manufacture Lube Additives by Lubrizols India Limited. Bombay on the basis of a certificate issued by him to this effect in each case. (k) export of samples of lubricating oil additives. (e) any goods transhipped at a port in India after having been manifested for such transhipment at the time of despatch from a port outside India. from their . (i) products approved for manufacture in and export from the respective Free trade Zones/Export Processing Zones and 100 per cent Export Oriented Units except textile item covered by bilateral agreements. (f) any goods imported and bonded on arrival in India for re-export to any country outside India. Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited. (j) export of Blood group Oh (Bombay Phono type) meant for scientific research or emergency medical treatment. National Blood Group Reference Laboratory. (g) any goods in transit through India by post or any goods re-directed by post to a destination outside India except Nepal and Bhutan: Provided that such goods while in India are always in the custody of the postal authorities. as life saving measure on humanitarian grounds by the Director. except Nepal and Bhutan. exports to Rupee Payment Countries under the Annual Trade Protocol and Exports against payment in Indian Rupees to former Rupee Payment Countries: Provided that conditions imposed by the Board of Approval on an Export Oriented Unit of Export Processing Zone unit will be binding on such a unit.(d) any goods exported by post or by air under the conditions specified in postal notice issued by the Postal Authorities.

anana .installation in India to Lubrizol's Laboratories in the United States of America and the United Kingdom for evaluation and testing purposes.

and red. The old scientific names Musa sapientum and Musa paradisiaca are no longer used. South Asia Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. Enset bananas belong to the genus Ensete while the taxonomy of Fe'i-type cultivars is uncertain. sweet "dessert" bananas. The distinction is purely arbitrary and the terms 'plantain' and 'banana' are sometimes interchangeable depending on their usage. Bananas come in a variety of sizes and colors when ripe. In popular culture and commerce. By contrast. the free encyclopedia For other uses. "banana" usually refers to soft. Contents [hide] 1 Description . They are native to tropical South and Southeast Asia. Banana Banana 'tree' (Musa acuminata 'Lacatan'). including yellow. Musa balbisiana or hybrids Musa acuminata × balbisiana. starchier fruit are called plantains. and to a lesser extent to make fiber.[2] They are grown in at least 107 countries. neither of which belong to the Musa genus. Illustration from the 1880 book Flora de Filipinas by Francisco Manuel Blanco Hybrid parentage Musa acuminata × Musa balbisiana Colla 1820 Cultivar group See Banana Cultivar Groups Origin Southeast Asia. The scientific names of bananas are Musa acuminata.[1] Today. Almost all modern edible parthenocarpic bananas come from the two wild species Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. they are cultivated throughout the tropics.From Wikipedia.[3] primarily for their fruit. depending on their genomic constitution. see Banana (disambiguation). banana wine and as ornamental plants. Banana is also used to describe Enset and Fe'i bananas. and are likely to have been first domesticated in Papua New Guinea. purple. Musa cultivars with firmer.

0 ft) wide. and natural disasters 6 Uses 7 See also 8 Footnotes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links Description Banana inflorescence.7 metres (8. Banana 'tree' showing fruit and inflorescence. After fruiting. (More are sometimes produced. Each pseudostem can produce a single bunch of bananas. but their main or upright stem is actually a pseudostem that grows 6 to 7.[5] They are easily torn by the wind.[6] Each pseudostem normally produces a single inflorescence. The ovary is inferior. Many varieties of bananas are perennial. an exceptional plant in the Philippines produced five.9 ft) tall. Leaves are spirally arranged and may grow 2. but offshoots may develop from the base of the plant.[4] The plants are normally tall and fairly sturdy and are often mistaken for trees.)[7] The inflorescence contains many bracts (sometimes incorrectly called petals) between rows of flowers. partially opened.2 Taxonomy 3 Historical cultivation 4 Modern cultivation 5 Pests. diseases.9 ft) long and 60 cm (2. meaning that the tiny petals and other flower parts appear at the tip of the ovary. The female flowers (which can develop into fruit) appear in rows further up the stem from the rows of male flowers. also known as the banana heart. The banana plant is the largest herbaceous flowering plant. resulting in the familiar frond look. the pseudostem dies. . growing from a corm.6 metres (20 to 24.

Musa sapientum for dessert bananas and Musa paradisiaca for plantains.[15] Banana classification has long been a problematic issue for taxonomists due to the way Linnaeus originally classified bananas as two species based only on their methods of consumption. the seeds are diminished nearly to non-existence. those primarily exhibiting the botanical characteristics of Musa acuminata. and the small amounts of the isotope potassium-40 found in naturally occurring potassium. assigns Musaceae to the order Zingiberales in the clade commelinids in the monocotyledonous flowering plants. The APG II system. In common usage. and can weigh from 30 50 kilograms (66 110 lb). However. while others are cultivated as ornamentals.[10] Proponents of nuclear power sometimes refer to the banana equivalent dose of radiation to support their arguments. The inner part of the common yellow dessert variety splits easily lengthwise into three sections that correspond to the inner portions of the three carpels.[16] Researchers Norman Simmonds and Ken Shepherd proposed the genome-based nomenclature system in 1955. of 2003 (unchanged from 1998). simply adapted an Arabic word for banana.28 lb). in a large hanging cluster. The hanging cluster is known as a bunch.The banana fruits develop from the banana heart. The fruit has been described as a "leathery berry". Some sources assert that the banana's genus.[9] more so than most other fruits. this simplistic classification has proved to be inadequate to address the sheer number of cultivars (a lot of them synonymous) existing in its primary center of diversity. were actually cultivars and descendants of two wild and seedy species. is named for Antonio Musa. or commercially as a "banana stem".[12] Others say that Linnaeus. comprising 3 20 tiers. who named the genus in 1750. and those with characteristics that are the combination of the two. Musa.[11] Taxonomy The genus Musa is in the family Musaceae.[14] The genus contains many species. their remnants are tiny black specks in the interior of the fruit. several produce edible fruit. which run lengthwise between the skin and the edible inner portion.[8] In cultivated varieties. Individual banana fruits (commonly known as a banana or 'finger') average 125 grams (0. bunch applies to part of a tier containing 3-10 adjacent fruits. described by Linnaeus.[13] or perhaps from Wolof banaana. Bananas grow pointing up. mauz. made up of tiers (called hands). thin strings (the phloem bundles). because of their high potassium content.[13] The word banana itself might have come from the Arabic banan.[16] Ernest Cheesman first discovered that Musa sapientum and Musa paradisiaca. Bananas are naturally slightly radioactive. which means "finger". Southeast Asia. Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. with up to 20 fruit to a tier. There is a protective outer layer (a peel or skin) with numerous long. of which approximately 75% is water and 25% dry matter. both first described by Luigi Aloysius Colla. physician to the Emperor Augustus. not hanging down.[17] He recommended their abolition in favor of reclassifying bananas according to three morphologically distinct cultivars those primarily exhibiting the botanical characteristics of Musa balbisiana. This system eliminated almost all the difficulties and inconsistencies of the .

modern classifications of banana cultivars follow Simmonds' and Shepherd's system. F. Baker ex K. subsp. leading to confusion. Musa dacca P. without leaves. depending on their genetic ancestry. Musa paradisiaca L. J. Baker Musa cliffortiana L. Musa paradisiaca is still recognized by some authorities today. F.nomenclature system of bananas based on Musa sapientum and Musa paradisiaca. Synonyms include: Musa × sapientum L. Kuntze Musa × paradisiaca var.[19] For bananas and plantains previously referred to as Musa paradisiaca.30) . Baker Musa rosacea N. dacca (P.28) Short (> 0. sapientum(L. von Jacquin Musa × paradisiaca L. against the pseudostem Stalk Covered with fine hair Smooth Short Long Pedicels Ovum Two regular rows in the locule Four irregular rows in the locule Elbow of the bract Tall (< 0. M.[17] For a list of the cultivars classified under the new system see Banana Cultivar Groups. E. G. Musa × paradisiaca L. Horaninow) J. see Latundan Banana. Horaninow Musa rosacea N. with scarred inferior leaves. Musa balbisiana or Musa acuminata × balbisiana.[17][18] Generally. Musa sapientum J. Comparison between the two wild banana ancestors in the Simmonds and Shepherd table (1955) Species Musa acuminata Color of pseudostem Musa balbisiana Unmarked or slightly marked Closed Black or grey-brown spots Petiole canal Erect edge.) C. G. Musa paradisiaca L. J. subsp. G. von Jacquin Musa violacea J. see Plantain. O. The accepted names for bananas are Musa acuminata. Schumann For the banana cultivar previously referred to as Musa sapientum. Despite this. not against the pseudostem edge.

[23] It is likely. There is linguistic evidence that bananas were known in Madagascar around that time. that bear bananas of the size of an elephants tusk. Actual and probable diffusion of bananas during Islamic times (700 1500 AD)[20] Phytolith discoveries in Cameroon dating to the first millennium BCE[21] triggered an as yet unresolved debate about the date of first cultivation in Africa.[22] The earliest prior evidence indicates that cultivation dates to no earlier than late 6th century AD.Bend of the bract behind the opening Form of the bract Peak of the bract The bract wraps behind the opening The bract raises without bending Lance.[1] It is likely that other species were later and independently domesticated elsewhere in southeast Asia. the king Vessantara has found a banana tree (among some other fruit trees) in the jungle. or pale pink Early cultivation Southeast Asian farmers first domesticated bananas. Recent archaeological and palaeoenvironmental evidence at Kuk Swamp in the Western Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea suggests that banana cultivation there goes back to at least 5000 BCE. . that bananas were brought at least to Madagascar if not to the East African coast during the phase of Malagasy colonization of the island from South East Asia c400CE. yellow. Areas of secondary diversity are found in Africa. crimson on the inside Discoloration uniform The inside of the bract is more bright toward the base The inside of the bract is Scarification of the bract Free tepal of the male flower Color of the male flower Color of the markings Historical cultivation Prominent Not prominent Rarely corrugated Corrugated under the point White or cream Pink Orange or bright yellow Cream. Southeast Asia is the region of primary diversity of the banana. and possibly to 8000 BCE.[24] The Buddhist story Vessantara Jataka briefly mention about banana. indicating a long history of banana cultivation in the region. however.or egg-shaped. opaque purple or yellow on the inside Brown-purple on the outside. tapering markedly after the bend Broadly egg-shaped Acute Obtuse Color of the bract Dark red or yellow on the outside.

Malaysia. and the term "Banana republic" was coined for states like Honduras and Guatemala. From there it diffused into north Africa and Muslim Iberia. Indonesia. hard seeds. taste like strawberries. Brazil.' The fingers on one banana plant grow fused. representing the fact that these companies and their political backers created and abetted "servile dictatorships" whose primary motivation was to protect the companies. another produces bunches of a thousand fingers. from the Wolof language.[25] The word banana is of West African origin. In the 15th and 16th century. These were usually commercially exploitative. each only an inch long. although they were available. the month of daylight fasting. Ripened bananas (left. bananas that. In the early 20th century. Bananas were introduced to the Americas by Portuguese sailors who brought the fruits from West Africa in the 16th century. There is some textual evidence that the prophet Muhammad was familiar with bananas. Nowadays. banana consumption increases significantly in Islamic countries during Ramadan. exemplified by the United Fruit Company. and the Philippines. The spread of Islam was followed by far-reaching diffusion. During the medieval ages. and passed into English via Spanish or Portuguese. and western Africa.The banana may have been present in isolated locations of the Middle East on the eve of Islam. Islamic conquerors brought the banana to Palestine.[28] As late as the Victorian Era. There are numerous references to it in Islamic texts (such as poems and hadiths) beginning in the 9th century. under sunlight) fluoresce in blue when exposed to UV light. Mike Peed. China.[20] In 650. bananas from Granada were considered among the best in the Arab world.[28] Jules Verne introduces bananas to his readers with detailed descriptions in Around the World in Eighty Days (1872). There are fuzzy bananas whose skins are bubblegum pink. The Chinese name of the aromatic Go San Heong banana means 'You can smell it from the next mountain. By the 10th century the banana appears in texts from Palestine and Egypt. The Double Mahoi plant can produce two bunches at once. when cooked.[29] Modern cultivation . green-and-white striped bananas with pulp the color of orange sherbet. The New Yorker[27] Plantation cultivation Fruits of wild-type bananas have numerous large. bananas formed the basis of large commercial empires. bananas were not widely known in Europe.[26] Many wild banana species as well as cultivars exist in extraordinary diversity in New Guinea. which created immense plantations especially in Central and South America. Portuguese colonists started banana plantations in the Atlantic Islands.

This method is preferred since it ensures disease-free planting material. Cultivated bananas are parthenocarpic.All widely cultivated bananas today descend from the two wild bananas Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana.[citation needed] Likewise. there is a risk of transmitting diseases (especially the devastating Panama disease). during which time the individual stools or planting sites may move slightly from their original positions as lateral rhizome formation dictates. The plant is allowed to produce 2 shoots at a time.[30] Ease of transport and shelf life rather than superior taste make the Dwarf Cavendish the main export banana. Gros Michel (also an AAA group cultivar). Cavendish Cavendish bananas are the main commercial banana cultivars sold in the world market. commercial propagation occurs by means of tissue culture. The life of a banana plantation is 25 years or longer.[30] . They account for the majority of banana exports. mass-market banana. severed suckers without root material can be propagated in damp sand. so various hybridisation and genetic engineering programs are attempting to create a disease-resistant. they require minimal care and can be shipped in bulk. However.[30] The cultivars Dwarf Cavendish and Grand Nain (Chiquita Banana) gained popularity in the 1950s after the previous mass-produced cultivar. Dwarf Cavendish and Grand Nain are in no danger of extinction. Usually this is done by carefully removing a sucker (a vertical shoot that develops from the base of the banana pseudostem) with some roots intact. It is unclear if any existing cultivar can replace Cavendish bananas. Lacking seeds. small sympodial corms. representing not yet elongated suckers. are easier to transplant and can be left out of the ground for up to 2 weeks. As a non-seasonal crop. although this takes somewhat longer. While the original wild bananas contained large seeds. became commercially unviable due to Panama disease. diploid or polyploid cultivars (some being hybrids) with tiny seeds are preferred for human raw fruit consumption. but they may leave supermarket shelves if disease makes it impossible to supply the global market. bananas are available fresh year-round. Gros Michel is not extinct and is still grown in areas where Panama disease is not found. commonly referred to as Cavendish group bananas. When using vegetative parts such as suckers for propagation. propagation typically involves removing and transplanting part of the underground stem (called a corm). Even though it is no longer viable for large scale cultivation. by far the most important cultivars belong to the triploid AAA group of Musa acuminata. It is not necessary to include the corm or root structure to propagate bananas. In global commerce. which makes them sterile and unable to produce viable seeds. In some countries. a larger one for immediate fruiting and a smaller "sucker" or "follower" to produce fruit in 6 8 months. a fungus which attacks the roots of the banana plant.[30] These are propagated asexually from offshoots.

e. The goal is to prevent the bananas from producing their natural ripening agent.g. the fruit begins to ripen and is distributed for final sale. Trade . although the fruit inside remains unaffected.5 and 15 °C (56 and 59 °F) during transport.[32][33][34] This effect can be exploited by packing the fruit in a polyethylene bag and including an ethylene absorbent. The fruit requires careful handling. The study suggested that this allows animals which can see light in the ultraviolet spectrum (tetrachromats and pentachromats) to more easily detect ripened bananas. these bananas are best suited to cooking. This property is attributed to the degradation of chlorophyll leading to the accumulation of a fluorescent product in the skin of the fruit. The skin of ripe bananas quickly blackens in the 4 °C (39 °F) environment of a domestic refrigerator. The vivid yellow color normally associated with supermarket bananas is in fact a side effect of the artificial ripening process. They can be stored indefinitely frozen. This treatment has been shown to more than double lifespans up to 3 4 weeks without the need for refrigeration. Although both flavor and texture of tree-ripened bananas is generally regarded as superior to any type of green-picked fruit. ethylene. On arrival. and ripen in special rooms upon arrival in the destination country. potassium permanganate. harvest comes before the fruit is mature. and may show up at the supermarket fully green.Ripening Export bananas are picked green. After a few days. Bananas can be ordered by the retailer "ungassed". on an inert carrier. as seen in Mexican culinary dishes. Recent studies have suggested that carbon dioxide (which bananas produce) and ethylene absorbents extend fruit life even at high temperatures. or green bananas that have not been gassed will never fully ripen before becoming rotten. This technology allows storage and transport for 3 4 weeks at 13 °C (55 °F). Banana-plant leaves also fluoresce in the same way. and turns the bananas gray as cell walls break down. Unripe bananas can not be held in home refrigerators because they suffer from the cold. Green bananas do not fluoresce.[31] Storage and transport Bananas must be transported over long distances from the tropics to world markets. "Guineo Verde". bananas are held at about 17 °C (63 °F) and treated with a low concentration of ethylene. Bananas are refrigerated to between 13. ripening permanently stalls. "Tree-ripened" Cavendish bananas have a greenish-yellow appearance which changes to a brownishyellow as they ripen further. To obtain maximum shelf life.. and refrigerated shipping. A 2008 study reported that ripe bananas fluoresce when exposed to ultraviolet light. rapid transport to ports.[citation needed] this reduces shelf life to only 7 10 days. The bag is then sealed with a band or string. cooling. These rooms are air-tight and filled with ethylene gas to induce ripening. At lower temperatures. Instead of fresh eating. The chlorophyll breakdown product is stabilized by a propionate ester group.[citation needed] Flavor and texture are also affected by ripening temperature.[citation needed] Ripe bananas can be held for a few days at home. then eaten like an ice pop or cooked as a banana mush.

The six leading exporting countries (Table.6 7. Most producers are small-scale farmers either for home consumption or local markets. baked. green (unripe) bananas used for cooking represent the main cultivars.0 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations[3] * Countries use 2008 FAO data Bananas and plantains constitute a major staple food crop for millions of people in developing countries.2 Indonesia Mexico* Costa Rica Colombia Thailand World Total 6. India led the world in banana production. mostly for domestic consumption. In most tropical countries. Bananas are among the most widely consumed foods in the world. Most banana farmers receive a low price for their produce as grocery companies pay discounted prices for buying in enormous quantity. right) together accounted for about two-thirds of exports. Because bananas and plantains produce fruit year-round.1 2. One banana provides about the same calories as one potato. Both can be fried. they provide an extremely valuable food source during the hunger season (when the food from one annual/semi-annual harvest has been consumed. Costa . In 2009.Top 10 banana producing nations (in million metric tons) India* 26. boiled. or chipped and have similar taste and texture when served.0 Source: 2009 data. leading to lower prices for growers. and Fyffes grow their own bananas in Ecuador. Price competition among grocers has reduced their margins.2 2. Dole.6 9. and the next is still to come). according to Food and Agriculture Organization statistics. Bananas are cooked in ways that are similar to potatoes. Bananas and plantains are therefore critical to global food security. Colombia.5 95. representing approximately 28% of the worldwide crop. each contributing more than 6 million tons. Chiquita.3 2.2 Ecuador Brazil 7.2 Philippines China 8. Del Monte.

Like almost all bananas. The bags may be coated with pesticides. The withdrawal of these indirect subsidies to Caribbean producers is expected to favour the banana producers of Central America. As late as 1960. In the 1930s. As of 2005. but from a strict economic perspective only Costa Rica. bananas and coffee dominated the export economies of Central America. Honduras. the two crops accounted for 67% of the exports from the region. diseases. The European Union has traditionally imported many of their bananas from former European Caribbean colonies.000 tonnes (14. 15.000 LT.[36] Pests.[35] Bananas were once grown in Florida and southern California. Its predecessor 'Gros Michel'. The United Fruit Company based its business almost entirely on the banana trade. paying guaranteed prices above global market rates. and blame the decline of the banana on monogenetic cultivation driven by short-term commercial motives. in which American companies have an economic interest. suffered this fate. Banana plantations are capital intensive and demand significant expertise.[37][38] Some commentators remarked that those variants which could replace what much of the world considers a "typical banana" are so different that most people would not consider them the same fruit. Cavendish lacks genetic diversity. which makes it vulnerable to diseases. Producers have attempted to raise prices via marketing them as "fair trade" or Rainforest Alliance-certified in some countries. and Honduras. The term "banana republic" has been applied to most countries in Central America.[29] Panama Disease . because the coffee trade proved too difficult to control. Guatemala. discovered in the 1820s. and Panama had economies dominated by the banana trade. principally the United States. they tended not to be distributed together. The banana has an extensive trade history beginning with the founding of the United Fruit Com pany (now Chiquita) at the end of the 19th century. and natural disasters Main article: List of banana and plantain diseases Banana bunches are sometimes encased in plastic bags for protection. The United States produces few bananas. bananas and coffee made up as much as 75% of the region's exports. threatening both commercial cultivation and small-scale subsistence farming. the most common edible banana cultivar Cavendish (extremely popular in Europe and the Americas) could become unviable for large-scale cultivation in the next 10 20 years. For much of the 20th century.Rica. Though the two were grown in similar regions. While in no danger of outright extinction.000 ST) were grown in Hawaii in 2001. these arrangements were in the process of being withdrawn under pressure from other major trading powers. A mere 14. The majority of independent growers are large and wealthy landowners in these countries.

which has slowed their acceptance by local farmers. Cavendish is highly susceptible to TR4. This virulent form of fusarium wilt has wiped out Cavendish in several southeast Asian countries. However.5 acres) exceeding $1.[39] Tropical Race 4 TR4 is a reinvigorated strain of Panama disease first discovered in 1993.000 per year. Black Sigatoka (also known as black leaf streak) has spread to banana plantations throughout the tropics from infected banana leaves that were used as packing material. making them unsuitable for export. and its quality compared to Gros Michel is debated. impeding photosynthesis by blackening parts of the leaves. producing gels and gums that cut off the flow of water and nutrients. Researchers are examining hundreds of wild varieties for resistance. a deadly form of Panama disease is infecting Cavendish. It affects all main cultivars of bananas and plantains. fruit production falls by 50% or more. eventually killing the entire leaf. causing the plant to wilt. which enters the plants through the roots and travels with water into the trunk and leaves. almost all commercial banana production centered on 'Gros Michel'. and exposing the rest of the plant to lethal amounts of sunlight. and over time.6 ST)per hectare. and the bananas that do grow ripen prematurely. In addition to the expense. According to current sources. clothing.9 LT. Uganda produced 15 to 20 tonnes (15 to 20 LT. Prior to 1960. For example. Black Sigatoka Black sigatoka is a fungal leaf spot disease first observed in Fiji in 1963 or 1964. which was highly susceptible. however. The situation has started to improve as new disease-resistant cultivars have been developed by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the National Agricultural Research Organisation of Uganda (NARO). but none has yet received commercial acceptance due to taste and texture issues. banana production in eastern Africa fell by over 40%.[39] Cavendish was chosen as the replacement for Gros Michel because. 17 to 22 ST) of bananas per hectare. Starved for energy.Panama disease is caused by a fusarium soil fungus (Race 1). Unfortunately. It has yet to reach the Americas. However. This is how Tropical Race 4 travels and is its most likely route into Latin America. . Today. or tools. soil fungi can easily be carried on boots. by adding mulch and manure to the soil around the base of the plant. more care is required for shipping the Cavendish. there is the question of how long intensive spraying can be environmentally justified. In East Africa With the arrival of Black sigatoka. with the current expense for treating 1 hectare (2. it produces the highest quality fruit. All plants are genetically identical. which prevents evolution of disease resistance. Cavendish is almost certain to disappear from commercial production by this disease. such as FHIA-17 (known in Uganda as the Kabana 3). The fungus has shown ever-increasing resistance to treatment. production has fallen to only 6 tonnes (5. 6. These new cultivars taste different from the Cabana banana. Several resistant cultivars of banana have been developed. among resistant cultivars. these new cultivars have substantially increased yields in the areas where they have been tried. during the 1970s. the only known defense to TR4 is genetic resistance.

resulting in a "bunched" appearance.09 g Vitamin A equiv.665 mg (4%) Pantothenic acid (B5) 0. B3) 0.84 g Sugars 12. its effect can be minimized by planting only tissuecultured plants (in vitro propagation).6 g Protein 1. whole. Thiamine (Vit. These mild strains are often mistaken for malnourishment. It is developing cultivars specifically for smallholder and subsistence farmers. funded by the Rockefeller Foundation and CGIAR have started trials for genetically modified bananas that are resistant to both Black sigatoka and banana weevils. B2) 3 g (0%) 0.23 g Dietary fiber Fat 0.073 mg (5%) Niacin (Vit. It stunts leaves. although mild strains exist which allow some production. There is no cure.5 oz) Energy 371 kJ (89 kcal) Carbohydrates 22. and longitudinal section Banana. edible parts Nutritional value per 100 g (3. or a disease other than BBTV. Generally. an infected plant does not produce fruit.031 mg (2%) 0. raw.334 mg (7%) . Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) This virus jumps from plant to plant using aphids. however. and immediately removing and destroying infected plants. Uses Food and cooking Fruit Peeled.33 g 2. B1) Riboflavin (Vit.The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and NARO. controlling aphids.

which indirectly affects the flavor.367 mg (28%) Folate (Vit. have a "starchier" taste. Among other things. On the other hand. bananas produce a plant hormone called ethylene. This has elicited the expression Banana Pancake Trail for those places in Asia that cater to this group of travelers.Vitamin B6 0. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. A similar dish is known in the United States as banana fritters. Pisang goreng. to isoamyl acetate which is one of the main constituents of banana oil. Both skin and inner part can be eaten raw or cooked. less ripe bananas contain higher levels of starch and. Extracting juice is difficult. yellow bananas taste sweeter due to higher sugar concentrations. Depending upon cultivar and ripeness.26 mg (2%) 27 mg (7%) 22 mg (3%) 358 mg (8%) Magnesium Phosphorus Potassium Zinc 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database Bananas are the staple starch of many tropical populations. it simply turns to pulp. being part of traditional dishes and desserts like maruya. Dried bananas are also ground to make banana flour. influencing the taste of bananas. consequently. . an enzyme that breaks down starch into sugar. Banana pancakes are popular amongst backpackers and other travelers in South Asia and Southeast Asia. During the ripening process. turrón. Most of these dishes use the Saba or Cardaba banana cultivar. baked in their skin in a split bamboo. and texture from firm to mushy. Bananas feature prominently in Philippine cuisine. an enzyme which breaks down the pectin between the cells of the banana. which have a dark brown color and an intense banana taste. The greener. because when a banana is compressed. and halo-halo. Furthermore. Singapore. ethylene stimulates the formation of amylase. causing the banana to soften as it ripens. ethylene signals the production of pectinase. Banana chips are a snack produced from sliced dehydrated or fried banana or plantain.7 mg (15%) Calcium5 mg (1%) Iron 0. amongst other chemicals.[40][41] Bananas are eaten deep fried. is a popular dessert in Malaysia.15 mg (1%) One banana is 100 150 g. or steamed in glutinous rice wrapped in a banana leaf. Bananas' flavor is due. the flesh can vary in taste from starchy to sweet. B9) 20 g (5%) Vitamin C 8. Bananas can be made into jam. and Indonesia. bananas fried with batter similar to the Filipino maruya.

flexible. and waterproof. protect food from burning and add a subtle flavor.[47] Individuals with a latex allergy may experience a reaction to bananas. The leaves contain the juices. either raw or steamed with dips or cooked in soups and curries. baked or mashed in much the same way as potatoes. juice is extracted from the corm and used as a home remedy for jaundice. Seeded bananas (Musa balbisiana). vitamin C. They often serve as a wrapping for grilling food. Bananas also help increase dopamine production due to the amino acid tyrosine which is present in the banana. In the Japanese system. Especially in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu in every occasion the food must be served in a banana leaf and as a part of the food a banana is served. one of the forerunners of the common domesticated banana. banana cultivation for clothing and household use dates back to at least the 13th century.[44] Trunk The tender core of the banana plant's trunk is also used in South Asian and Southeast Asian cuisine. and notably in the Burmese dish mohinga.[50][51] In India. Steamed with dishes they impart a subtle sweet flavor. They are often used as ecologically friendly disposable food containers or as "plates" in South Asia and several Southeast Asian countries.[52] Fiber Textiles The banana plant has long been a source of fiber for high quality textiles. breast cancer[46] and renal cell carcinoma.[48] Bananas contain moderate amounts of vitamin B6. both the fleshy part of the bracts and the heart are edible. As with artichokes.[49] possibly contributing to electrolyte balance. In Japan. Potential health effects Along with other fruits and vegetables. Harvested shoots are first boiled in lye to prepare fibers for yarn-making. Leaves Banana leaves are large. Flower Banana hearts are used as a vegetable[43] in South Asian and Southeast Asian cuisine.[42] are sold in markets in Indonesia. The flavor resembles that of artichoke.Plantains are used in various stews and curries or cooked. sometimes with the addition of honey. manganese and potassium. consumption of bananas may be associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer[45] and in women. and for kidney stones. leaves and shoots are cut from the plant periodically to ensure softness. These banana shoots produce fibers of .

Paper Main article: Banana paper Banana fiber is used in the production of banana paper. Since then the song has been rerecorded several times and has been particularly popular during banana shortages. A 1910 comedy recording features a popular character of the time. banana and banana leaves used while worshiping River Kaveri at Tiruchirappalli. bleaching and drying." .varying degrees of softness. A person slipping on a banana peel has been a staple of physical comedy for generations. These banana fiber rugs are woven by traditional Nepalese hand-knotting methods. and small pieces are subjected to a softening process. mainly used for artistic purposes. "Oh mister. won't you please do that agin? My little brother didn't see you do it. it was the best-selling sheet music in history.. my foot hit the bananer peelin' and I went up in the air. India. mechanical fiber extraction. the fibers are sent to the Kathmandu Valley for use in rugs with a silk-like texture. After that.. he says. for many decades. Cultural roles Banana flowers and leaves for sale in the Thanin market in Chiang Mai. and I come down ker-plunk. The paper itself can be either hand-made or in industrial processes. jist as I was pickin' myself up a little boy come runnin' across the street .. "Uncle Josh". Coconut. and I don't think much of the banana peel that throws a man on the sidewalk neither .. or paper made from banana fiber. Arts The song "Yes! We Have No Bananas" was written by Frank Silver and Irving Cohn and originally released in 1923. In South Indian state of Tamil Nadu after harvesting for fruit the trunk (outer layer of the shoot) is made into fine thread used in making of flower garlands instead of thread. This traditional Japanese clothmaking process requires many steps. Banana paper is used in two different senses: to refer to a paper made from the bark of the banana plant. and are sold RugMark certified. while the softest innermost fibers are desirable for kimono and kamishimo. For example.[53] In a Nepalese system the trunk is harvested instead. Thailand. obtained with an industrialized process from the stem and the non-usable fruits. and are suitable for tablecloths. the outermost fibers of the shoots are the coarsest. all performed by hand. yielding yarns and textiles with differing qualities for specific uses. claiming to describe his own such incident:[54] Now I don't think much of the man that throws a banana peelin' on the sidewalk.

yet on the original LP version. the highest in the world. as well as a symbol of his life and home. from the peelings. In regions where bananas are grown. Cooking bananas represent a major food source and a major income source for smallhold farmers. the design allowed the listener to 'peel' this banana to find a pink phallus on the inside. East Africa Most farms supply local consumption. the others being mango and jack fruit. and Rwanda per capita consumption has been estimated at 45 kilograms (99 lb) per year. The banana (Tamil: or ) is one of three fruits with this significance.The poet Bash is named after the Japanese word for a banana plant. being floatable. or from the flesh. In East African highlands bananas are of greatest importance as a staple food crop. Symbols Bananas are also humorously used as a phallic symbol due to similarities in size and shape.[44] Banana sap leaves indelible dark stains on clothes. The "bash " planted in his garden by a grateful student became a source of inspiration to his poetry. can be tied together to form a floatation device. the large leaves are sometimes used as umbrellas. See also Banana Cultivar Groups Ensete (false bananas) . Other uses Banana sap is extremely sticky and can be used as a practical adhesive. In countries such as Uganda.[55] The Japanese novelist Mihoko Yoshimoto changed her name to Banana Yoshimoto because she liked banana flowers.[citation needed] Sap can be obtained from the pseudostem. Burundi. This is typified by the artwork of the debut album of The Velvet Underground. Religion In Burma. bunches of green bananas surrounding a green coconut in a tray form an important part of traditional offerings to the Buddha and the Nats. which features a banana on the front cover. In all the important festivals and occasions of Tamils the serving of bananas plays a prominent part. The pseudostems. A banana equivalent dose is used in the nuclear industry to compare radiation doses received from radioactive materials to the dose received from the radioactivity in bananas.

com/category/banana -dose/ ^ Liberty Hyde Bailey. ^ a b Banana cultivar names and synonyms in Southeast Asia by Ramón V. ^ Angolo.purdue. 1916. A (2008-05-15).users. http://www. published online June 4. Retrieved 2008.uk/ .. ^ Yes. Retrieved 5 Aug 2010. Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry. Food and Agriculture Organization.edu. Inc.co. Vascular Plant Families. and the Future. 2076 ^ a b Dan Keppel. Banana Plant Growing Info.Musa Musella Musaceae Plantain Footnotes ^ a b "Tracing antiquity of banana cultivation in Papua New Guinea".globalnet.wordpress. Smith. The Australia & Pacific Science Foundation. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Discover: Science. Technology. Retrieved 2006-12-09.net ^ a b "FAOSTAT: ProdSTAT: Crops". 1977. Banana. Retrieved 2009-0416. p. ^ See Greenearth. Vol 1 pg. CRC Press.20.7. we have more bananas published in the Royal Horticultural Society Journals. the air. Hudson Street Press. p.12.12. 2076 2079. Mad River Press. 2007 ^ http://enochthered.org. 2005. ^ www. ^ CRC Handbook on Radiation Measurement and Protection.traditionaltree. bedmates.. ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation. ^ James P.3. ^ Bailey. Musa species (banana and plantain) agroforestry. Valmayor at Google Books ^ a b c "Musa paradisiaca". Retrieved 2008-05-17.. 2008. Everything Emits Radiation Even You: The millirems pour in from bananas. Retrieved 2007-09-18. Hort. The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. May 2002 ^ "Banana from ''Fruits of Warm Climates'' by Julia Morton". 1978 ^ [1] Stephen Cass. "Banana plant with five hearts is instant hit in Negros Occ". 44. pp. 620 Table A. bomb tests. Corinna Wu (2007).

2009.edu. ^ "Africa's earliest bananas?". JR. 54 ^ Evidence for banana cultivation and animal husbandry during the first millennium BC in the forest of southern Cameroon. University of Chicago Press. Botgard. Mbida VM. Matt (August 24.200803189. "The Unfortunate Sex Life of the Banana". 28-34. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 110. BL and McGlasson WB (1971) Transport of Bananas at Ambient Temperatures using Polyethylene Bags. diversity and breeding of banana and plantain (Musa spp. Mike: "We Have No Bananas: Can Scientists Defeat a Devastating Blight?" The New Yorker. Retrieved 2008 10-29. Porcher. Retrieved 11 January 2011. Turro.Independent.ucla. Solofo abd Stephen Ellis: Madagascar: A Short History. 237 240.1002/anie.globalnet. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary: banana". [2]. Retrieved 2009-04-16. Saturday 24 May 2008. 163 165. Nicholas J. Tropical cha Agriculture (Trinidad ) 48. Vrydaghs L. Retrieved 02-11-2007. Page A19 ^ a b c d Castle. Zeller (2005).com. DamnInteresting. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad ) 51.com ^ Moser. Ipmcenters. McGlasson WB and Roberts EA (1970) Potassium Permanganate as an Ethylene Absorbent in Polyethylene Bags to Delay the Ripening of Bananas During Storage. http://www. "Blue luminescence of ripening bananas". KJ and Gandanegara. Snow Barlow (19/07/2002). pp. Journal of Archeological Science. 2011. . doi:10. ^ Peed. Retrieved 2009-04-16. ^ "Musa sapientum".users. S (1974) Effect of Temperature on the Storage Life of bananas Held in Polyethylene Bags with an Ethylene Absorbent. Thomas Müller.^ Michel H. Simone. Bernhard Kräutler (2008). ^ Scott. .History of Banana". Van Neer W. Retrieved 2011-01-13. ^ a b "Phora Ltd. PMID 18850621. ^ "Crop Profile for Bananas in Hawaii". Blake.[dead link] ^ Randrianja.uk/ ^ a b Watson. KJ.))". January 10. ^ a b Big-business greed killing the banana . "Sorting Musa names". Phora-sotoby. p. The University of Melbourne.org. Diversität und Züchtung der Banane und kultivierter Zitrusarten (Origin. ^ Scott.co.23 26. 2005-06-28. Doutrelepont H. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics. Stracha n. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 47 (46): 8954 8957. ^ "Bananas and plantains". (2000) JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCIENCE 27:151-162 ^ Friedrich J. Retrieved 2009-04-16. Steffen Jockusch. "Herkunft. PMC 2912500. Marc-Olivier Ebert. via The New Zealand Herald. G Tugwell. Prof. 2009). ^ Scott KJ.

Retrieved February 20. Encyclopedia of Asian Food (Periplus ed. "Rescuing the banana". Pustak Mahal. International Journal of Cancer 113 (3): 451 5. 2010.Kijoka Banana Fiber Cloth". Inc.K. PMID 15327474.1002/ijc. one NLEA serving. 2004. New Scientist. ^ a b "Banana". De Stefani E.edu/. Retrieved February 17. ^ Zhang.1002/ijc. JS. H. PMID 19358284. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux. C (1998). Erkek E (2004). doi:10. ^ Plant Breeding Abstracts.20577. 1949. (2009). University of British Columbia. ISBN 81223-0748-5. L. ^ Taylor. "Latex allergy: diagnosis and management". ^ Healing Power of Foods: Nature's Prescription of Common Diseases.scq. fruits.162 ^ Solomon. Medical Center.1111/j. Retrieved 2008. Retrieved 2009-04-16.). and risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study from Uruguay". University of Maryland. Retrieved 11-12-2006. Wolk A (2005).. Association for the Promotion of Traditional Craft Industries. C. Ronco A (1996). p. Hortpurdue.A. "Vegetables. New Scientist. 2010. November 2008. It Appears That The Writer Wrote About Bananas After Eating A Few Too Many)". 126 g". .ca/. Dermatological Therapy 17 (4): 289 301. Banana Fruit Facts. Retrieved February 17. 2011. Conservation: Peeling away. ^ "A future with no bananas?". ^ Jerry Wong. Lindblad P.1396-0296. 2006-05-13.x. doi:10. "Fruits. http://www. ^ Montpellier. The Science Creative Quarterly. ^ Rashidkhani. PMID 8771572.30. "The Pursuit of Happiness (A. vegetables and risk of renal cell carcinoma: a prospective study of Swedish women". B. CX. "Greater vegetable and fruit intake is associated with a lower risk of breast cancer among Chinese women". ^ "Nutrition Facts for raw banana. Emile Frison (2003-02-08). Australia: New Holland Publishers.edu. et al.2004. Retrieved 09-122006.ubc. Retrieved 09-12-2006. doi:10. Retrieved February 20.24358. National Geographic Magazine. International Journal of Cancer 125 (1): 181 8. ^ "Fruit Ripening". http://www.umm. ^ a b Barker. ^ "Ethylene Process". ^ "Tyrosine". PMID 15455348. Retrieved 2008-05-17.12. doi:10. ^ Deneo-Pellegrini. p.^ California Rare Fruit Growers. 2011.49 ^ "Traditional Crafts of Japan . Nutrition & Cancer 25 (3): 297 304.1080/01635589609514453.04024. ISBN 0855616881.

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