Instrument transformers are used for measurement and protective application, together with equipment such as meters and

relays. Their role in electrical systems is of primary importance as they are a means of "stepping down" the current or voltage of a system to measurable values, such as 5A or 1A in the case of a current transformers or 110V or 100V in the case of a voltage transformer. This offers the advantage that measurement and protective equipment can be standardized on a few values of current and voltage.
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Voltage transformers Current transformers Kappa has published a reference manual on instrument transformers

Voltage transformers
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Principle of operation Definitions Standards Tests Typical Specifications

Principle of operation The standards define a voltage transformer as one in which "the secondary voltage is substantially proportional to the primary voltage and differs in phase from it by an angle which is approximately zero for an appropriate direction of the connections." This, in essence, means that the voltage transformer has to be as close as possible to the "ideal" transformer. In an "ideal" transformer, the secondary voltage vector is exactly opposite and equal to the primary voltage vector, when multiplied by the turns ratio. In a "practical" transformer, errors are introduced because some current is drawn for the magnetization of the core and because of drops in the primary and secondary windings due to leakage reactance and winding resistance. One can thus talk of a voltage error,which is the amount by which the voltage is less than the applied primary voltage ,and the phase error, which is the phase angle by which the reversed secondary voltage vector is displaced from the primary voltage vector. Kappa designs its VT's so that the resistance and reactance drops are minimized. It also uses the best grades of cold rolled grain oriented electrical steels which enables operation at optimum levels of magnetic induction, thus reducing both the size and the cost of the VT. Definitions Typical terms used for specifying a voltage transformer (VT)

In a protection VT. e. Both metering and protection classes of accuracy are specified. This includes the burden imposed by the connecting leads. Under normal conditions of operation.a. the VT is required to be accurate from 5% upto the rated voltage factor times the rated voltage. Rated voltage factor 1. The table below is adopted from Indian and International standards. Rated voltage factor: Depending on the system in which the VT is to be used. Class 1 and Class 3.2 1. b. When there is an earth fault. Rated secondary voltage: This is the voltage at which the meters and protective devices connected to the secondary circuit of the voltage transformer operate. The secondary residual voltage winding is connected in open delta. including voltage (ratio) error and phase angle error. g. Residual voltage transformer (RVT): RVTs are used for residual earth fault protection and for discharging capacitor banks. B and F. Rated primary voltage: This is the rated voltage of the system whose voltage is required to be stepped down for measurement and protective purposes.2 1. a voltage is developed across the open delta winding which activates the relay. the primary . d.2 1.9 1. the rated voltage factors to be specified are different. In a metering VT. Temperature class of insulation: The permissible temperature rise over the specified ambient temperature. When using a three phase RVT. Typical accuracy classes are Class 0. Rated burden: This is the load in terms of volt-amperes (VA) posed by the devices in the secondary circuit on the VT. c.5 1. there is no voltage output across the residual voltage winding.5. Typically. Phase error is specified in minutes.9 Rated time Continuous Continuous for 30 seconds Continuous for 30 seconds Continuous for 8 hours Method of connecting primary winding in system Between phases in any network Between transformer star-point and earth in any network Between phase and earth in an effectively earthed neutral system Between phase and earth in a non-effectively earthed neutral system with automatic fault tripping Between phase and earth in an isolated neutral system without automatic fault tripping or in a resonant earthed system without automatic fault tripping f.2 1. The VT is required to be accurate at both the rated burden and 25% of the rated burden. the VT is required to be within the specified errors from 80% to 120% of the rated voltage. Accuracy class required: The transformation errors that are permissible. classes E.

Standards The Indian and international standard references for VT s are as given in the table below: Standard Indian British British British International Electro technical Commission (IEC) Australian American Standard Number IS 3156 BS 3841 BS 7625 BS 7729 IEC 186 Year 1992 1973 1993 1994 1987 AS 1243 ANSI C. Verification of terminal markings and polarity . induced over-voltage test . c. Dielectric insulation tests such as power frequency withstand voltage test on primary and secondary windings for one minute. It is used with trivector meters and energy meters. Temperature rise tests d. as otherwise third harmonic voltages will appear across the residual winding. Our designs are backed up by extensive type testing at national and international laboratories. impuse tests with 1. The tests can be classified as: a.neutral should be earthed. 3 phase RVTs typically have 5 limb construction. Metering Units:11kV metering units consist of one 3 phase VT and 2 CT's connected together in a single housing.2u/50u wave. h. Short circuit tests e. Tests A number of routine and type tests have to be conducted on VT s before they can meet the standards specified above.13 1982 1978 Kappa manufactures VT s to all these standards. and partial discharge tests (for voltage>=6.6 kV) to determine whether the discharge is below the specified limits. Accuracy tests to determine whether the errors of the VT are within specified limits b. This can be used for three phase monitoring of energy parameters.57.

thus leaving less than the actual primary ampere turns to be "transformed" into the secondary ampere-turns. secondary current would be exactly equal (when multiplied by the turns ratio) and opposite to the primary current.5 for 30 seconds With provision for fuse Double and triple secondary VT s are also manufactured. But.Kappa conducts routine tests on each and every VT produced and all designs are type tested. Typical specification for a 11 kV VT System voltage: 11 kV Insulation level voltage (ILV) : 12 /28/75 kV Number of phases: Three Vector Group: Star / Star Ratio: 11 kV/ 110 V Burden: 100 VA Accuracy: Class 0. In the "ideal" current transformer.2 continuous and 1." This highlights the accuracy requirement of the current transformer but also important is the isolating function. This naturally introduces an error in the transformation. Kappa CT s are designed to minimise the errors using the best quality electrical steels for the core of the transformer. The current transformer works on the principle of variable flux. The error is classified into two-the current or ratio error and the phase error. which means no matter what the system voltage the secondary circuit need be insulated only for a low voltage. Current transformers y y y y y Principle of operation Definitions Standards Tests Typical Specifications Principle of operation A current transformer is defined as "as an instrument transformer in which the secondary current is substantially proportional to the primary current (under normal conditions of operation) and differs in phase from it by an angle which is approximately zero for an appropriate direction of the connections. Both toroidal (round) and rectangular CT s are manufactured. some of the primary current or the primary ampere-turns is utilized for magnetizing the core.5 Voltage Factor: 1. . as in the voltage transformer.

Short time rating: The value of primary current (in kA) that the CT should be able to withstand both thermally and dynamically without damage to the windings. 10 or 15 times the rated primary current. Composite error: The rms value of the difference between the instantaneous primary current and the instantaneous secondary current multiplied by the turns ratio. it means that the composite error of the metering CT at 5 times the rated primary current is equal to or greater than 10%. This means that heavy currents on the primary are not passed on to the secondary circuit and instruments are therefore protected. . In the case of transformer differential protection. This means that the errors have to be within the limits specified in the standards for that particular accuracy class. secondary currents of 1/ root 3 A and 5/ root 3 A are also specified. 10 or 15.8 for almost all standards) Accuracy class: In the case of metering CT s. usually 5P or 10P. FS is applicable for the lowest ratio only. accuracy class is typically. Class PS/ X CT: In balance systems of protection. 1 or 3. Knee point voltage: That point on the magnetizing curve where an increase of 10% in the flux density (voltage) causes an increase of 50% in the magnetizing force (current). The time specified is usually 1 or 3 seconds.5. Accuracy limit factor: The value of primary current upto which the CT complies with composite error requirements.Definitions Rated primary current: The value of current which is to be transformed to a lower value. at 25% and 100% of the rated burden at the specified power factor. 0. with the secondary circuit being short-circuited. Typical values of secondary current are 1 A or 5 A. the "load" of the CT refers to the primary current. the magnetizing current (Imag) at the knee point voltage or 1/2 or 1/4 the knee-point voltage.2. In CT parlance. These requirements are met by Class PS (X) CT s. Accuracy is defined in terms of the turns ratio. CT s with a high degree of similarity in their characteristics are required. Their performance is defined in terms of a knee-point voltage (KPV). the CT s should pass both the ratio and phase errors at the specified accuracy class. under steady state conditions. and the resistance of the CT secondary winding corrected to 75C. Instrument security factor (factor of security): This typically takes a value of less than 5 or less than 10 though it could be much higher if the ratio is very low. If the factor of security of the CT is 5. as well as composite error at the accuracy limit factor of the CT. This is typically 5. In the case of double ratio CT's. In the case of protection CT s. 0. Rated burden: The apparent power of the secondary circuit in Volt-amperes expressed at the rated secondary current and at a specific power factor (0. Rated secondary current: The current in the secondary circuit and on which the performance of the CT is based. which means that the composite error of the CT has to be within specified limits at 5. The metering CT has to be accurate from 5% to 120% of the rated primary current.

The summation CT consists of two or more primary windings which are connected to the feeders to be summated. A typical ratio would be 5+5+5/ 5A. Tests A number of routine and type tests have to be conducted on CT s before they can meet the standards specified above.57. Accuracy tests to determine whether the errors of the CT are within specified limits. Standards The Indian and international standard references for CT s are as given in the table below: Standard Indian British British International Electro technical Commission (IEC) Australian American Standard Number IS 2705 BS 3938 BS 7626 IEC 60044-1 Year 1992 1973 1993 1996 AS 1675 ANSI C. which feeds a current proportional to the summated primary current. Interposing CT's (ICT's) : Interposing CT's are used when the ratio of transformation is very high. the three core cable or three single cores of a three phase system pass through the inner diameter of the CT. The concept is similar to the RVT. and a single secondary winding. a summation current transformer can be used. . the inner diameter of the CT. Our designs are backed up by extensive up by extensive type testing at national and international laboratories. In order to design the CBCT. When the system is fault free. The tests can be classified as : a. In the CBCT. the residual current (zero phase sequence current) of the system flows through the secondary of the CBCT and this operates the relay. Core balance CT (CBCT): The CBCT. Kappa manufactures CT s to any of the above standards. which means that three primary feeders of 5 are to be summated to a single 5A meter. also known as a zero sequence CT.13 1986 1978 Although the definitions given above are based on IS/BS and IEC standards. no current flows in the secondary of the CBCT. the relay type. the relay setting and the primary operating current need to be furnished. It is also used to correct for phase displacement for differential protection of transformers.Summation CT: When the currents in a number of feeders need not be individually metered but summated to a single meter or instrument. When there is an earth fault. is used for earth leakage and earth fault protection.

impulse tests with 1. inter-turn insulation test at power frequency voltage. a current transformer (CT) is used for measurement of electric currents. and partial discharge tests (for voltage >=6. metering.instrument security factor . together with voltage transformers (VT) (potential transformers (PT)). Verification of terminal markings and polarity.0.open circuits voltages in CTs . Short time current tests. Temperature rise tests.1 .transient stability and class PS CTs .Magnetic alloys for cores . Typical specification for a 11 kV CT System voltage:11 kV Insulation level voltage (ILV) : 12/28/75 kV Ratio: 200/1 .6kv) to determine whether the discharge is below the specified limits. Class PS. Imag at Vk/2 <=30 mA. d.CBCTs.2u/50 wave. RCT at 75 C<=2 ohms Short time rating:20 kA for 1 second Instrument transformers .a discussion on theory. c. Current transformers.577 A. Definitions . protection.Accuracy limits . When current in a circuit is too high to directly apply to measuring instruments.leakage reactance .operational aspects standard specifications for CT s. The manual runs to about 160 pages and further details on all of the above topics as well as on much more. Protection CTs Composite error . KPV>= 150 V. The table of contents of the manual is reproduced below: Introduction to instrument transformers Current transformers . ISF<10 Core 2: 1 A. Metering or measurement current transformers Accuracy . Dielectric insulation tests such as power frequency withstand voltage test on primary and secondary windings for one minute.577 A Core 1: 1A.CT requirement for various protection schemes .use of CT s in indicating and metering units .Ideal and practical CT .accuracy requirements for various applications .A reference manual Kappa has published a handy reference manual for instrument transformers. a current transformer produces a reduced current . In electrical engineering. Kappa conducts routine tests on each and every CT produced and all designs are type tested. including Australian and ANSI standards can be found in the manual. are known as instrument transformers. e.b. 15 VA/class 1. 15 VA/5P10 Core 3: 0.summation CT.modification of current transformer errors .Basic protection schemes .equivalent circuits . specifications and operational aspects.

with a secondary of many hundreds of turns. a current transformer has a primary winding. which can be conveniently connected to measuring and recording instruments. and a secondary winding. The alternating current flowing in the primary produces a magnetic field in the core. a magnetic core.1 Burden o 4. A current transformer also isolates the measuring instruments from what may be very high voltage in the monitored circuit.accurately proportional to the current in the circuit. The most common design of CT consists of a length of wire wrapped many times around a silicon steel ring passed over the circuit being measured. so that the secondary current bears an accurate relationship to the primary current. Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relays in the electrical power industry. The CT's primary circuit therefore consists of a single 'turn' of conductor.3 Rating factor 5 Special designs 6 Standards 7 See also 8 References 9 External links [edit] Design Like any other transformer. which then induces a current in the secondary winding circuit. Contents [hide] y y y y y y y y y 1 Design 2 Usage 3 Safety precautions 4 Accuracy o 4. A primary objective of current transformer design is to ensure that the primary and secondary circuits are efficiently coupled. The primary .2 Burden class IEEE/ANSI (Also called Knee-point Voltage) o 4.

and every residence with greater than 200 amp service. For example. The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. Along with voltage leads. multiple CTs are installed as a "stack" for various uses. The primary circuit is largely unaffected by the insertion of the CT. The load. a 4000:5 CT would provide an output current of 5 amperes when the primary was passing 4000 amperes. of the CT should be of low resistance. distorting the waveform and affecting accuracy. with a heavy copper bar to carry current through the magnetic core. For example. If the voltage time integral area is higher than the core's design rating. protection devices and revenue metering may use separate CTs. High-voltage current transformers are mounted on porcelain bushings to insulate them from ground. [edit] Usage Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current and monitoring the operation of the power grid. stacking them provides severability while consolidating the high voltage interface. Current transformers used in metering equipment for three-phase 400 ampere electricity supply Shapes and sizes can vary depending on the end user or switchgear manufacturer. The rated secondary current is commonly standardized at 1 or 5 amperes. Some CT configurations slip around the bushing of a high-voltage transformer or circuit breaker. When conductors passing through a CT are not centered in the circular (or oval) opening. The secondary winding can be single ratio or multi ratio.winding may be a permanent part of the current transformer. slight inaccuracies may occur. Window-type current transformers are also common. [edit] Safety precautions . with five taps being common for multi ratio CTs. Typical examples of low voltage single ratio metering current transformers are either ring type or plastic moulded case. which can have circuit cables run through the middle of an opening in the core to provide a single-turn primary winding. which automatically centers the conductor inside the CT window. or burden. the core goes into saturation towards the end of each cycle. revenue-grade CTs drive the electrical utility's watthour meter on virtually every building with three-phase service. Often. Similarly. potential transformers such as the CVT are used for measuring voltage and monitoring the operation of the power grid.

5 CT is 0. 1. Current transformers used for protective relaying also have accuracy requirements at overload currents in excess of the normal rating to ensure accurate performance of relays during system faults.0. B-1.2s. 3 VA. accuracy classes for various types of measurement are set out in IEC 60044-1.2. for multi-ratio CTs For the IEC standard. meters and intermediate conductors. [edit] Burden The load. 30 VA. B-0. This means a CT with a burden rating of B-0.2. and 3. The class designation is an approximate measure of the CT's accuracy. Classes 0. Items that contribute to the burden of a current measurement circuit are switch-blocks. Errors in phase are also important especially in power measuring circuits.0.5 VA. [edit] Burden class IEEE/ANSI (Also called Knee-point Voltage) . or burden. as the transformer secondary will attempt to continue driving current across the effectively infinite impedance. 45 VA & 60 VA with ANSI/IEEE B-0. The most common source of excess burden in a current measurement circuit is the conductor between the meter and the CT.1. which may cause arcing.Care must be taken that the secondary of a current transformer is not disconnected from its load while current is flowing in the primary. This will produce a high voltage across the open secondary (into the range of several kilovolts in some cases). the ratio error of a Class 0.5. in a CT metering circuit is the (largely resistive) impedance presented to its secondary winding.0 and B4. The selected tap. substation meters are located significant distances from the meter cabinets and the excessive length of small gauge conductor creates a large resistance.5% or less. The high voltage produced will compromise operator and equipment safety and permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer. [edit] Accuracy The accuracy of a CT is directly related to a number of factors including: y y y y y y y y Burden Burden class/saturation class Rating factor Load External electromagnetic fields Temperature and Physical configuration. Typical burden ratings for IEC CTs are 1. Often. 15 VA. 0. The ratio (primary to secondary current) error of a Class 1 CT is 1% at rated current. 0. 0. This problem can be solved by using CT with 1 ampere secondaries which will produce less voltage drop between a CT and its metering devices (used for remote measurement).5s. 0. B-0.2 of impedance in the metering circuit before its output current is no longer a fixed ratio to the primary current.1. 10 VA. and each class has an allowable maximum phase error for a specified load impedance. 5 VA. B-2.2 can tolerate up to 0.5. 20 VA.

The rating factor of a CT is largely dependent upon ambient temperature. however. This is made possible by the development of more efficient ferrites and their corresponding hysteresis curves. One type of specially constructed wideband transformer provides a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. there are two main standards to which current transformers are designed.[edit] Rating factor Rating factor is a factor by which the nominal full load current of a CT can be multiplied to determine its absolute maximum measurable primary current. although the Canadian & Australian standards are also recognised. Most CTs have rating factors for 35 degrees Celsius and 55 degrees Celsius. Unlike CTs used for power circuitry. It is important to be mindful of ambient temperatures and resultant rating factors when CTs are installed inside pad-mounted transformers or poorly ventilated mechanical rooms. Recently. From primary to secondary. [edit] Special designs Specially constructed wideband current transformers are also used (usually with an oscilloscope) to measure waveforms of high frequency or pulsed currents within pulsed power systems. for measuring voltage and monitoring the operation of more. the minimum primary current a CT can accurately measure is "light load.. manufacturers have been moving towards lower nominal primary currents with greater rating factors. since the CTs are most accurate between their rated current and rating factor. These are widely used for measuring current and monitoring the power grid s operation." or 10% of the nominal current (there are. The current transformers are generally used in metering and defensive relaying in the industry of electrical power and it provide the secure measurement of large currents. [edit] See also The current transformers that we manufacture are fabricated using qualitative material procured from reliable vendors. This is a distinct advantage over previous CTs because it increases their range of accuracy. the CT is typically described by its current ratio. Equally. protection devices and revenue metering may use separate CTs). A transformer is a device that . special CTs designed to measure accurately currents as small as 2% of the nominal current). often in the existence of high voltages. [edit] Standards Depending on the ultimate clients requirement. Many a times multiple CTs are installed as a stack for various uses (for example. These are designed to provide current in its secondary winding proportional to the alternating current flowing in its primary. Another type (called a Rogowski coil) requires an external integrator in order to provide a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. Conversely. wideband CTs are rated in output volts per ampere of primary current. IEC 60044-1 (BSEN 60044-1) & IEEE C57. These transformers safely segregate the measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured.13 (ANSI).

y y y y y y Maximum current value. whether it is resistive. square wave. The most basic design of current transformer comprises a length of wire wrapped around a silicon steel ring passed over the circuit being measured. average. The main objective of a current transformer design is to have properly coupled primary and secondary circuits. are important specifications that should be considered. lead wires (with or without terminal lugs). so that the circuit can operate with the measuring device with no risk of getting damaged.transmits electricity from one circuit to another through inductively coupled transformer coils. etc. is known as an instrument transformer. so that the secondary current is proportional to the primary current. Value and type of the intended secondary load.). or headers (with pcb pins or pads ) are some possible ways to terminate a secondary circuit. The primary circuit consists of a single turn of a conductor. expressed at specific operating points or over a portion of the operating range. Current Transformer Design Current transformers consist of a primary and secondary winding and a magnetic core. maximum expected temperature of the primary conductor are some other parameters to be specified before designing. peak. The secondary winding can be single ratio or multi-ratio. it transmits current through the magnetic core. ambient temperature. i. Current Transformer Design Specifications Following are some design specifications that are necessary to be considered before designing a current transformer. Secondary termination is another point to be considered. When the current in a circuit connected to a measuring instrument is extremely high. Accuracy is another specification which is expressed as a maximum percentage or maximum absolute change over the complete primary current range. kind of measurement (rms. usually five taps are commonly considered for multi-ratio. The primary winding is the most important part of the current transformer and with a heavy copper bar. A current transformer is an integral part of electrical engineering. The current transformer's load should be of low resistance and the core's design rating should be more than the voltage time integral area. triangular. Voltage isolation requirements. with a secondary circuit with many number of turns. current ratio. the current transformer generates a reduced current which is directly proportional to the circuit current.e. inductive or capacitive. which when used with potential transformer. whose value can be calculated after alternatively measuring the desired output voltage with respect to the primary current. and will affect the transformer's efficiency. especially if the circuit is having very high voltages.). Commonly resistors are used as a secondary load. duty cycle. It not only minimizes the current. but also isolates the measuring instrument from the circuit. etc. measurement tolerances and variations. Evaluation of parameters like number of primary turns. The alternating current flowing in the primary winding generates a magnetic field which induces current flow in the secondary winding. It comprises of both. . else the core may enter into saturation mode at the end of each cycle. type of waveform (sine wave. Terminal block. secondary current value at specific primary current value. etc.

Dimensional constraints (like width. On a regular schedule. . depending upon the end user or switchgear manufacture. Insulating oil of transformers and current transformers fulfills the purpose of insulating as well as cooling. etc. ultra-violet light. an oil sample is taken from the device under test.). and ground fault circuit breakers. Though. environmental restrictions (like corrosive environment. protective relays. they also help in monitoring the operation of power grids. Lifetime of plant is increased and the requirement for new investment can be delayed. current transformers are extensively used for measuring current. as damage to the insulation can be avoided by prompt substitution of the dielectric oil. Principle of the oil test To determine the insulating property of the dielectric oil. The oil test is essential and in most countries even mandatory. and its breakdown voltage is measured on-site. mounting. They are available in different shapes and sizes. Breakdown during an oil test International standards define the test sequence and procedure of such an oil test. thickness. Periodic execution of oil tests also makes sense from an economic point of view. potentially endangering operational facilities and staff. it must be subject to an oil test to determine its breakdown voltage. water spray. length.) are some other current transformer design specifications. etc. since the dielectric oil deteriorates in its isolating and cooling qualities due to ageing and pollution by dust particles or humidity.

The root mean square value of the test voltage is measured at the very instant of the breakdown and is reported as the breakdown voltage. the test voltage is switched off automatically. as the energy that is brought into the oil and is burning it during the breakdown. a test voltage is applied to the electrodes. During the oil test. After the test is completed. two standard-compliant test electrodes with a typical clearance of 2. the poorer the quality of the oil! The oil test with b2 equipment The Oil testers by b2 are of compact design and portable due to their low weight. The resulting breakdown voltage is calculated as mean value of the individual measurements. Breakdown occures in an electric arc. Immediatly after ignition of the arc. leading to a collapse of the test voltage. must be limited to keep the additional pollution by carbonisation as low as possible.In the vessel. The lower the resulting breakdown voltage. the insulating oil is stirred automatically and the test sequence is performed repeatedly. Ultra fast switch off is crucial.g. . The test voltage is continuously increased up to the breakdown voltage with a constant slew rate of e. 2 kV/s.5 mm are surrounded by the insulating oil.

To isolate the measuring instruments. as the testers can be taken on-site and therefore no oil sample needs to be shipped to a test laboratory. The whole test sequence including stirring and repeated measurement is carried out automatically. It is possible as well to program and store customer specific procedures for the oil test. To reduce the line current to a value which is suitable for standard measuring instruments relays etc. from high voltage . all in accordance with the various international standards. meters. It is also not possible to use current flowing through the system directly for protection purpose due to its high insulation problem. BASIC FUNCTIONS OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS ARE : 1. 2. APPLICATION Direct measurement of current in High Voltage System is Not possible because of insulation problem of measuring instruments.An oil test can be performed quickly and economically. One can choose from a number of predefined test sequences. relays etc.

To protect measuring instruments against short circuit currents. Packaging & Transportation. Feed current to external circuit with specified accuracy at specified primary currents CONSTRUCTION : Core & Secondary Winding. Procelain Insulators. Withstand rated primary current in continuous operation without exceeding maximum allowed temperature rise. Following are main factors for selecting current transformer. Insulation. The secondary .side an installation. Primary Winding. * Insulation Level (Service Voltage) * Rated primary current * Short time withstand current * Burden and Accuracy THE CURRENT TRANSFORMERS MUST : 1. Tanks & Bases. 3. Be capable o sustain thermal and mechanical stresses developed due to system falut current 4. Voltage and potential transformers are used to measure voltage (potential). There are four main factors which determine the capability of current transformer i. Maintenance HOW TO SELECT THE C. It is impotant to specify correct parameters of CT while ordering for optimum design. To sense abnormalities in current and give current signals to protective relays to isolate the defective system. Withstand operational voltage and over voltage in the network 2. 3.T.e. Testing. 4.

. 11kV. 33kV ETC. PC-mount transformers feature a small footprint for measuring sensor current or voltage on a board. Accuracy is the degree of uncertainty to which the measured current (secondary) value agrees with an ideal value.g. Split-core voltage and potential transformers feature a hinge and locking snap mechanism that allows attachment without interrupting the current-carrying wire. and in many other applications. The secondary voltage has a fixed relationship to the primary voltage so that a change in potential within the primary circuit is monitored accurately by meters connected across the secondary terminals. Voltage transformers and potential transformers are also used to operate protective relays and devices. it should be specifically mentioned. Voltage and potential transformers include wound primary current transformers. and insulation voltage. secondary voltage range. as well as Noncontact current transformers. devices with primary windings that consist typically of more than one turn. products used by public utilities for determining electricity usage must be accurate since these voltage or potential transformers are used for billing customers. 1. Burden is expressed in voltamperes (VA). burden. ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS : Such as condition of Pollution. in amperes. INSULATION LEVEL : If insulation level other than associated with service voltage is required. INSTALLATION : Whether OUTDOOR or INDOOR 3. Voltage and potential transformers include under-current sensing and over-current sensing devices. 22kV. Voltage and potential transformers that are designed for monitoring single-phase and three-phase line voltages in power-metering applications are used mainly as step-down devices. This latter class of device accurately measures current waveforms without coming into electrical contact with the circuit. They are designed for connecting line-to-line or line-to-neutral in the same way as ordinary voltmeters. Voltage and potential transformers can be used with voltmeters for voltage measurements. Burden is the maximum load that a voltage transformer or potential transformer can support while operating within its accuracy rating. Toroidal or donut-shaped transformers do not have an internal primary winding. voltage or potential transformers generally require greater accuracy. 4. however. ANSI metering class transformers are designed especially for power-monitoring applications where high accuracy and minimum phase angle error are required. flowing through it. Bar transformers or bar current transformers have a bus bar that serves as the primary conductor.voltage is substantially proportional to the primary voltage and differs from it in phase by an angle that is approximately zero. the product of the root mean square (RMS) voltage applied to a circuit and the RMS current. Commercial devices are suitable for most low-power current-monitoring applications. Altitude Ambient Temperature etc. Because they are used mainly in a monitoring capacity. or with current transformers for wattmeter or watt-hour meter measurements. operating temperature. Performance specifications for voltage and transformers include accuracy. For examples. There are many different types of voltage and potential transformers. Three-phase devices are also available. 2. primary voltage range. Multi-ratio transformers have several outputs. SERVICE VOLTAGE : System voltage in which CT is to be installed e.

ACCURACY : Basis of application. 120% of primary current 7. . RATED PRIMARY CURRENT : Specify rated primary current / currents (if required more than one value). 9. CONTINUOUS PRIMARY CURRENT : Max. NO. Bus Bar Protection.S. KNEE POINT VOLTAGE.C. ideally rated burden higher than 1. Therefore. Current transformer offers minimum error if 75% to 60% burden is connected to secondary. This will help designer to optimise the design.g. value neceesitates bulky & costlier design.5. It is advisable to specify minimum required Burden for metering core as unnecessary high burden will necessitate bulky and costlier design. 10. their burdens and accuracy class should be specified.C.5 time actual burden should be specified. it is most important to specify realistic value of S. it is important to specify correct burden in context of instrument Security Factor (I.S. R. If actual burden connected is half of the rated burden. Secondary resistance and excitation current should be for this core. No.T.5 times S.of cores.T.).T.T.F. The Knee Point Voltage. . Also specify dynamic current if other than 2. as at lower primary current. Specified accuracy is guaranteed for 100 % to 25% of rated burden only.OF CORES THEIR BURDENS.C.F. SHORT TIME CURRENT & ITS DURATION : Specify fault current of the system in which CT is to be installed along with its duration. is required.F. The I. It is always better to specify Formula for Knee Point Voltage related to relay used for the protection. 8. higher S.E.F. with accuracy class PS is required. 6. the I.S.primary current that can be withstood continuously by current transformer e. C. Also. Also indicate if different primary current is required for different cores. SECONDARY RESISTANCE AND EXCITATION CURRENT : For differential protection. Protection. will increase two-fold of its rated value. or 5 Amps. thus limiting the secondary current flowing through meter and protect it from damage. RATED SECONDARY CURRENT : Whether 1 Amp. indicates the over current as multiple of rated current at which the metering core will saturate.

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