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PAPER NO: 16-7204/EXAM/S2/08

Engineering

Stationery requirements (per student) :

• 16 Page Anonymous Answer Booklet
• Supplementary Answer Sheets (Available on Request)
• Formulae and Information Sheet (Attached at the back of this paper)

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES:

1. The University Regulations on academic conduct, including cheating and

plagiarism, apply to all examinations.

2. The normal examination regulations of the University apply (see script answer
book). Please do NOT start writing until told to do so by the Invigilator.

3. Candidates must NOT use red ink on the script answer book.

4. The memory of any programmable/graphical calculator used during this examination

must be cleared before the start of the paper.

THIS PAPER CONTAINS 5 PAGES INCLUDING THIS SHEET

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PAPER NO: 16-7204/EXAM/S2/08

alphabets.

(a) A discrete source alphabet is represented as x0, x1, x2,

x3 ............xM-1. The symbols have associated probabilities
P(x0), P(x1), P(x2), P(x3) ............P(xM-1).

(i) Explain, using equations and diagrams as appropriate,

how arithmetic coding can efficiently code this alphabet.
(12 Marks)
(ii) Demonstrate how the sequence A,C,B,D can be
arithmetically encoded and decoded given the following
probabilities;

Probability of occurrence of A is 0.4.

Probability of occurrence of B is 0.3.
Probability of occurrence of C is 0.2.
Probability of occurrence of D is 0.1.

Note: use decimal for the coding.

(11 Marks)
(iii Describe with reference to a specific example how
) arithmetic encoders deal with limited precision.
(10 Marks)

2. Information theory provides a fundamental basis for the encoding

of data.

(a)  1 
Explain why the expression log 2  
 is appropriate for
 p( x m ) 
describing the information content of a discrete alphabet.
(5 Marks)
(b) Explain the principle behind source coding with reference to
lossless coding.
(6 Marks)
(c) A source alphabet generates the symbols A,B,C,D and E. The
probabilities that these symbols will be generated are 0.5, 0.2,
0.1, 0.1 and 0.1 respectively.

(i) Explain how Huffman encoding can be used to encode

the source and hence determine the code words.
(10 Marks)
(ii) Compare the coding efficiency of this method with fixed
length (block to block) encoding and discuss the relative
merits of the Huffman coding method.
(12 Marks)

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PAPER NO: 16-7204/EXAM/S2/08

3. Linear block codes are a popular method for error detection and
correction.

(a) The generator matrix for a linear block code is given as.
G=
1 1 0 1 0 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0 0
1 1 1 0 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 0 1

(i) With the aid of an appropriate sketch show how this can
be implemented in hardware.
(10 Marks)

(ii) Demonstrate how an error can be corrected using this

generator matrix.
(11 Marks)

(b) Explain the principle of code modification and discuss the

implications of modifying codes.
(12 Marks)

(a) (i) Explain, with reference to a trellis diagram, how

convolution codes are effectively decoded using the
Viterbi algorithm.
(12 Marks)

(ii) A ½ rate convolution encoder uses the generator

polynomials 1012 and 1102. With reference to a suitable
state machine demonstrate the encoding process.
(12 Marks)
(iii Discuss the features of Viterbi based convolution
) encoders with reference to relevant parameters and
describe an appropriate method to evaluate such a
coder. Justify your choice of method.
(9 Marks)

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PAPER NO: 16-7204/EXAM/S2/08

Formulae and information sheet.

Information theory.
M −1
E[ x m ] = ∑ p ( x m )I m
m =0
M −1
L[ X ( x m )] = ∑P( x m )C m
m =0

H [ xm ]
×100
L[ x m ]
M −1 N −1
 1 
H (Y | X ) = ∑∑ p ( x m ) p ( y n | x m ) log  
m =0 n =0  p( y n | x m ) 

N −1 M −1
 1 
H ( X | Y ) = ∑∑ p ( yn ) p ( xm | yn ) log 
 p( x | y ) 

n =0 m =0  m n 

Source coding.

Theorem.

H(X) ≤B(X) <H(X) +1

Arithmetic coding

 m −1 m

I m =  y + ∑PmV0 , y + ∑PmV0 
 m =0 m =0 

 M −2 M −1

I M −1 =  y + ∑PmV0 , y + ∑PmV0 
 m =0 m =0 

 M −2

I M −1 =  y + ∑ PmV0 , y + V0 
 m =0 

 m −1 m

V j =  y + ∑PmV j −1 , y + ∑PmV j −1 
 m =0 m =0 

 M −1  M −1
C = − log 2 V0 ∏PmPm J  VJ =V0 ∏PmP mJ

 m =0  m =0

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PAPER NO: 16-7204/EXAM/S2/08

M −1
C = −∑Pm J log 2 Pm
m=0

M −1
VJ =V0 ∏PmPm J
m =0

Channel coding.
Theorem.

H (X M ) C

Ts Tc

Linear block codes.

G = ( P I k ×k )

c = m⋅ G

H = (I(n-k,n-k) | PT)

s = e⋅ HT

00 00 00 00
A
11 11
11 11
11 11

B 00 00

10 10 10

01
01
01 01 01
D
10 10