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Engineering

minutes reading time

• 16 Page Anonymous Answer Booklet

• Supplementary Answer Sheets (Available on Request)

• Formulae and Information Sheet (Attached at the back of this paper)

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES:

plagiarism, apply to all examinations.

2. The normal examination regulations of the University apply (see script answer

book). Please do NOT start writing until told to do so by the Invigilator.

3. Candidates must NOT use red ink on the script answer book.

must be cleared before the start of the paper.

1

PAPER NO: 16-7204/EXAM/S2/08

alphabets.

x3 ............xM-1. The symbols have associated probabilities

P(x0), P(x1), P(x2), P(x3) ............P(xM-1).

how arithmetic coding can efficiently code this alphabet.

(12 Marks)

(ii) Demonstrate how the sequence A,C,B,D can be

arithmetically encoded and decoded given the following

probabilities;

Probability of occurrence of B is 0.3.

Probability of occurrence of C is 0.2.

Probability of occurrence of D is 0.1.

(11 Marks)

(iii Describe with reference to a specific example how

) arithmetic encoders deal with limited precision.

(10 Marks)

of data.

(a) 1

Explain why the expression log 2

is appropriate for

p( x m )

describing the information content of a discrete alphabet.

(5 Marks)

(b) Explain the principle behind source coding with reference to

lossless coding.

(6 Marks)

(c) A source alphabet generates the symbols A,B,C,D and E. The

probabilities that these symbols will be generated are 0.5, 0.2,

0.1, 0.1 and 0.1 respectively.

the source and hence determine the code words.

(10 Marks)

(ii) Compare the coding efficiency of this method with fixed

length (block to block) encoding and discuss the relative

merits of the Huffman coding method.

(12 Marks)

2

PAPER NO: 16-7204/EXAM/S2/08

3. Linear block codes are a popular method for error detection and

correction.

(a) The generator matrix for a linear block code is given as.

G=

1 1 0 1 0 0 0

0 1 1 0 1 0 0

1 1 1 0 0 1 0

1 0 1 0 0 0 1

(i) With the aid of an appropriate sketch show how this can

be implemented in hardware.

(10 Marks)

generator matrix.

(11 Marks)

implications of modifying codes.

(12 Marks)

convolution codes are effectively decoded using the

Viterbi algorithm.

(12 Marks)

polynomials 1012 and 1102. With reference to a suitable

state machine demonstrate the encoding process.

(12 Marks)

(iii Discuss the features of Viterbi based convolution

) encoders with reference to relevant parameters and

describe an appropriate method to evaluate such a

coder. Justify your choice of method.

(9 Marks)

3

PAPER NO: 16-7204/EXAM/S2/08

Information theory.

M −1

E[ x m ] = ∑ p ( x m )I m

m =0

M −1

L[ X ( x m )] = ∑P( x m )C m

m =0

H [ xm ]

×100

L[ x m ]

M −1 N −1

1

H (Y | X ) = ∑∑ p ( x m ) p ( y n | x m ) log

m =0 n =0 p( y n | x m )

N −1 M −1

1

H ( X | Y ) = ∑∑ p ( yn ) p ( xm | yn ) log

p( x | y )

n =0 m =0 m n

Source coding.

Theorem.

Arithmetic coding

m −1 m

I m = y + ∑PmV0 , y + ∑PmV0

m =0 m =0

M −2 M −1

I M −1 = y + ∑PmV0 , y + ∑PmV0

m =0 m =0

M −2

I M −1 = y + ∑ PmV0 , y + V0

m =0

m −1 m

V j = y + ∑PmV j −1 , y + ∑PmV j −1

m =0 m =0

M −1 M −1

C = − log 2 V0 ∏PmPm J VJ =V0 ∏PmP mJ

m =0 m =0

4

PAPER NO: 16-7204/EXAM/S2/08

M −1

C = −∑Pm J log 2 Pm

m=0

M −1

VJ =V0 ∏PmPm J

m =0

Channel coding.

Theorem.

H (X M ) C

≤

Ts Tc

G = ( P I k ×k )

c = m⋅ G

H = (I(n-k,n-k) | PT)

s = e⋅ HT

00 00 00 00

A

11 11

11 11

11 11

B 00 00

10 10 10

01

01

01 01 01

D

10 10

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