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-Elastic deformation of an axially loaded member -Statically indeterminate axially loaded member -Thermal stress problems -Combined problems

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Saint-Venant’s principle Saint- Venant’ *Rectangular bar will deform elastically when the bar is subjected to P *Localized deformation tends to decrease and becomes uniform.

Elastic deformation of an axially loaded member

The load P will deform the element into the shape indicated by the dashed outline. The stress and strain in the element are

σ=

[Reference # 3: Page 117 – 132]

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P( x) A( x)

and ε =

dδ dx

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Elastic deformation of an axially loaded member

Elastic deformation of an axially loaded member

For problems do not exceed the proportional limit, P( x)dx dδ = σ = Eε (Hooke’s law) A( x) E

P( x) ⎛ dδ ⎞ = E⎜ ⎟ A( x ) ⎝ dx ⎠

δ =∫

0

L

P( x)dx A( x) E

δ=

PL PL or δ = ∑ AE AE

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PL PL Several different Constant load or δ = ∑ δ= and crossAE forces or crossAE sectional area sectional area or E changes δ = displacement of one point relative to another point L = distance between the points P = internal axial force A = cross-sectional area E = modulus of elasticity for the material

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2 mm. Negative force and displacement will cause compression and contraction. [E = 210(103) MPa] Both the force and displacement will be considered to be positive if they cause tension and elongation. Determine the vertical displacement of end A and the displacement of B relative to C.5 m E=250GPa. respectively.61mm (A is upward) [1200mm 2 (210)(10 3 )kN / m 2 ] 1. A=1800mm2 δ B/C = PBC LBC [+35kN ](0.75m)(10 6 ) = + AE [600mm 2 (210)(10 3 )kN / m 2 ] [1200mm 2 (210)(10 3 )kN / m 2 ] [−45kN ](0. AB and BD. Determine the displacement of its end A when it is subjected to the distributed loading. [Reference # 3: Page 133 – 147] 11 Statically indeterminate: the equilibrium equation is not sufficient to determine the reactions.2 m P 1. A=400mm2 for all truss members 9 away from C) Homework # 12: Reference # 3 Problem 4-13 10 Principle of superposition Statically indeterminate axially loaded member FB + FA − P = 0 The resultant stress or displacement is determined by algebraically adding the contributions caused by each of the components.75m)(10 ) = = +0. δA = ∑ PL [+75kN ](1m)(10 6 ) [+35kN ](0. 12 .5m)(10 6 ) + = +0.6 m A w = 500x1/3 N/mm 2.104mm ABC E [1200mm 2 (210)(10 3 )kN / m 2 ] (B moves 6 E=200GPa. having cross-section areas of AAB = 600 mm2 and AAD = 1200 mm2. 1. respectively.6 m x 1.Sign convention Example The composite A-36 steel bar shown in below is made from two segments. 7 8 Solution Example 1. Determine the load P required to displace the roller downward 0.

Ebr = 100 GPa. 14 Compatibility condition No displacement occurs at B. 3m Homework # 13: Reference # 3 Problem 4-37 16 Example The A-36 steel pipe has a aluminum core.9 GPa. δ = PL AE Flexibility or force method FA L AC FB LCB − =0 AE AE ⎛L ⎞ FA = P⎜ CB ⎟ ⎝ L ⎠ and ⎛L ⎞ FB = P⎜ AC ⎟ ⎝ L ⎠ 13 No displacement at B Displacement at B when redundant force at B is removed. How far does the column shorten? It has an original length of 3. Eal = 68. Est = 200 GPa. If a force of 25 kN is applied to the rigid cap. Determine the average normal stress in the aluminum and the steel due to this loading. Est = 200 GPa 400 mm 200 kN 200 kN Example The stainless steel post A is surrounded by a red brass tube B. δ A/ B = 0 From. It is subjected to a tensile force of 200 kN.0 m. determine the required diameter d of the steel post so that the load is shared equally between the post and tube.Compatibility condition Since the end supports are fixed. The pipe has an outer diameter of 80 mm and an inner diameter of 70mm. EA-36 = 210 GPa. 17 Homework # 14: Reference # 3 Problem 4-40 18 . Econc = 29 GPa. Both rest on the rigid surface. If an axial force of 300 kN is applied to the column. determine the required area of the steel so that the force is shared equally between the steel and concrete. 0 = δP −δB PL AC FB L − AE AE ⎛ L AC ⎞ FB = P⎜ ⎟ ⎝ L ⎠ ⎛ L AC ⎞ P⎜ ⎟ + FA − P = 0 ⎝ L ⎠ ⎛L ⎞ FA = P⎜ CB ⎟ Results are the same! ⎝ L ⎠ 0= 15 Example 300 kN 225 mm 400 mm The A-36 steel column is encased in high-strength concrete as shown. Displacement at B when only the redundant force at B is applied.

determine the temperature required to just close the gap. The material properties and cross-sectional area of each bar are given in the figure. A 10 mm B C 10 mm D 600 mm 300 mm 200 mm 23 400 mm 1.61 kN # Homework # 15: Reference # 3 Problem 4-44 21 Thermal stress problems A change in temperature can cause a material to change its dimensions. 19 20 Solution ∑Fx = 0 103 … (1) δb = δs PbLb / AbE = PsLs / AsE Pb(220x10-3)/π(102)(10-6)(20x109) = Ps(200x10-3)/π(252-202)(10-6)(20x109) Pb = 0.Example The column is constructed from high-strength concrete and four A-36 steel reinforcing rods. EAm = 44. Steel Brass Copper Est = 200 GPa Ebr = 100 GPa Ecu = 120 GPa αst = 12(10-6)/°C αbr = 21(10-6)/°C αcu = 17(10-6)/°C Ast = 200 mm2 Abr = 450 mm2 Acu = 515 100 mm mm2 Example A thermo gate consists of a 6061-T6-aluminum plate AB and an Am-1004-T61-magnesium plate CD.5 mm when the temperature is T1 = 25°C. determine the tension in the bolt when a force of 50 kN is applied to the brackets. If the gap between them is 1. The bolt and sleeve are made of A-36 steel and are secured to the rigid brackets as shown. Determine the force exerted on the (rigid) supports when the temperature becomes T2 = 18°C. If the bolt length is 220 mm and the sleeve length is 200 mm . determine the required diameter of each rod so that one-fourth of the load is carried by the steel and three-fourths by the concrete (Est = 200 GPa. If it is subjected to an axial force of 800 kN. Eal = 68.4 kN Ps = 35. δ T = αΔTL δ T = the algebraic change in length of the member α = a property of the material (linear coefficient of thermal expansion) ΔT = the algebraic change in temperature of the member L = the original length of the member [Reference # 3: Page 148 – 155] 22 Pb+Ps = 50 x Example Three bars each made of different materials are connected together and placed between two walls when the temperature is T1 = 12°C.7 GPa. Ec = 25GPa ) 800 kN 300 mm 300 mm Example The bolt AB has a diameter of 20 mm and passes through a sleeve that has an inner diameter and of 40 mm and an outer diameter of 50 mm . Also. each having a width of 15 mm and fixed supported at their ends.4040Ps … (2) Pb = 14.9 GPa.5 mm 24 . what is the axial force in each plate if the temperature becomes T2 = 100°C? Assume bending or buckling will not occur.

If all the posts have the same original length before they are loaded. Ebr = 100 GPa. Est = 200 GPa. Example The rigid block has a weight of 400 kN and is to be supported by posts A and B . which is made of A-36 steel. determine the average normal stress developed in each post when post C is heated so that its temperature is increased by 20°C. αst = 12(10-6)/°C x 2500 mm A 25 C 1m 1m B 26 Homework # 16: Reference # 3 Problem 4-90 . Est = 200 GPa. which is made of C83400 red brass. Determine the maximum and minimum normal strain.Example The A-36 steel pipe having a cross-sectional area of 300 mm2 is connected to fixed supports and carries a liquid that causes the pipe to be subjected to a temperature drop of ΔT = (-x3/2)°C. αbr = 17(10-6)/°C. Each post has a cross-sectional area of 5000 mm2. where x is in millimeters. and the post C.

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