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Chapter 1 — Matrices 1
Chapter 2 — Determinants 7
Chapter 3 — Binomial Theorem, Exponential and Logarithmic Series 10
Chapter 4 — Limits 14
Chapter 5 — Differentiation 20
Chapter 6 — Integration 27
Chapter 7 — Vectors 36
Chapter 8 — Complex Numbers 44
Chapter 9 — Coordinate Geometry 47
Chapter 10 — Trigonometry 51
Chapter 11 — Permutation, Combination & Probabilty 60
Chapter 12 — Statistics 69
Practice Exercise 78
Answer and Explanations 87
Chapter 1  Matrices  1
Matrices
A matrix of order m × n matrix of order m × n matrix of order m × n matrix of order m × n matrix of order m × n is defined as the arrangement of mn elements in m
rows and n columns.
General representation of matrix A of order m × n is given by General representation of matrix A of order m × n is given by General representation of matrix A of order m × n is given by General representation of matrix A of order m × n is given by General representation of matrix A of order m × n is given by
11 12 1n
21 22 2n
m×n
m1 m2 mn
a a a
a a a
A = (aij) , 1 i m and 1 j n.
a a a
− − −  `
− − −
· ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤
− − −
. ,
M M M M
Equality Equality Equality Equality Equality
Two matrices A and B are said to be equal, written as A = B, iff
1. they are of the same order, i.e. have the same number of rows and
columns, and
2. the corresponding elements of the two matrices are equal.
If
×
·
ij m n
A (a ) and
×
·
ij o p
B (b )
, then
A = B iff m = o, n = p and a
ij
= b
ij
∀ i, j
e.g. if
1 2 1 2 1 2
A , B , C
3 4 3 3 3 4
] ] ]
· · ·
] ] ]
] ] ]
, then
A B ≠
, but A = C
Algebra of Matrices Algebra of Matrices Algebra of Matrices Algebra of Matrices Algebra of Matrices
Addition: Addition: Addition: Addition: Addition: If A and B are two matrices of same type then their sum sum sum sum sum is defined to
be the matrix obtained by adding the corresponding elements of A and B. It is
denoted by A + B.
If
( )
×
·
ij
m n
A a and
( )
×
·
ij
m n
B b
, then A + B = ( )
×
ij
m n
c
where
· +
ij ij ij
c a b
.
e.g.
2 3 1 2 3 5
4 5 3 4 7 9
 `  `  `
+ ·
. , . , . ,
1. Matrix addition is commutative. i.e., If A and B are two matrices of same
type then A + B = B + A.
2. Matrix addition is associative. i.e., If A, B and C are three matrices of
same type then (A + B) + C = A + (B + C).
1
2  Higher Mathematics Booklet
Subtraction: Subtraction: Subtraction: Subtraction: Subtraction: Same condition as in addition. Resultant matrix is formed by
subtracting corresponding elements.
× × ×
· · − · −
ij m n ij m n ij ij m n
A (a ) , B (b ) , A B (a b )
e.g.
 `  `
−
. , . ,
2 3 1 2
4 5 3 4
=
 `
. ,
1 1
1 1
Multiplication: Multiplication: Multiplication: Multiplication: Multiplication: Matrices
ij l m ij o n
A (a ) , B (b )
× ×
· ·
can be multiplied iff
m = o, i.e. numbers of columns in A is equal to the number of rows in B.
Resultant in matrix (say C) is of order (l × n) and is given by AB = C =
ij lxn
(c )
where
∑
m
ik kj
k=1
cij = a b
e.g.
× + × × + ×  `  `  `  `
× · ·
× + × × + ×
. , . , . , . ,
2 3 1 2 2 1 3 3 2 2 3 4 11 16
4 5 3 4 4 1 5 3 4 2 5 4 19 28
Transpose of a Matrix: Transpose of a Matrix: Transpose of a Matrix: Transpose of a Matrix: Transpose of a Matrix: The matrix obtained by changing the rows of a given
matrix A into columns is called transpose transpose transpose transpose transpose of A. It is denoted by A
T
or A′ . If
A = ( )
×
ij
m n
a
then A
T
= ( )
×
′
ij
m n
a
where
′ ·
ji ij
a a .
e.g. if
]
·
]
]
1 3 5
A
2 7 0
, then
]
]
·
]
]
]
T
1 2
A 3 7
5 0
.
1. If A is any matrix, then (A
T
)
T
= A.
Conjugate of a Matrix: Conjugate of a Matrix: Conjugate of a Matrix: Conjugate of a Matrix: Conjugate of a Matrix: The conjugate of a given matrix A is obtained by
replacing the elements of A by their corresponding complex conjugates. The
conjugate of A is denoted by A. Thus, if A =
( )
×
ij
m n
a ,
then ( )
×
·
ij
m n
A a
,
e.g. If
1 1 i 1 1 i
A , then A .
3 1 i 3 1 i
+ − ] ]
· ·
] ]
− +
] ]
Tranjugate or Transpose Conjugate of a Matrix: Tranjugate or Transpose Conjugate of a Matrix: Tranjugate or Transpose Conjugate of a Matrix: Tranjugate or Transpose Conjugate of a Matrix: Tranjugate or Transpose Conjugate of a Matrix: The transpose conjugate of
a given matrix is obtained by interchanging the rows and columns of the
conjugate matrix of A.
The transpose conjugate of A is denoted by A
*
, or by A
θ
. Thus, ( )
∗
· A A '
e.g. If
2 3
2 1 i 0
A , then A* 1 i 2
3 2 i
0 i
]
+ ]
]
· · −
]
]
]
]
−
]
Chapter 1  Matrices  3
1. If A and B are two matrices of same type, then (A + B)
T
= A
T
+ B
T
.
Adjoint of a Matrix: Adjoint of a Matrix: Adjoint of a Matrix: Adjoint of a Matrix: Adjoint of a Matrix: Let A = (a
ij
)
n x n
be a square matrix and C
ij
the cofactor of
a
ij
. Then the transpose of the matrix B obtained by replacing each element of A
by its cofactor in A is known as the adjoint of A and is denoted by Adj A.
If ,
]
]
·
]
]
]
11 12 13
21 22 23
31 32 33
a a a
A a a a
a a a
then Adj
]
]
·
]
]
]
11 21 31
12 22 32
13 23 33
C C C
A C C C
C C C
Inverse of a matrix: Inverse of a matrix: Inverse of a matrix: Inverse of a matrix: Inverse of a matrix: If A be a nrowed square matrix, then a square matrix B is
said to be an inverse of A if AB = BA = I
n
. Every matrix has a unique inverse
(if exists).
If
]
·
]
]
a b
A
c d
and ≠ A 0 , then
1
d b
ad bc ad bc
A
c a
ad bc ad bc
−
− ]
]
− −
· ]
−
]
]
− − ]
Different Types of Matrices Different Types of Matrices Different Types of Matrices Different Types of Matrices Different Types of Matrices
1. A matrix A is said to be a square matrix square matrix square matrix square matrix square matrix if the number of rows in A is
equal to the number of columns in A. An n × n square matrix is called a
square matrix of type square matrix of type square matrix of type square matrix of type square matrix of type n.
2. A matrix A is said to be a rectangular matrix rectangular matrix rectangular matrix rectangular matrix rectangular matrix if the number of rows in A
is not equal to the number of columns in A. i.e., A is called a rectangular rectangular rectangular rectangular rectangular
matrix matrix matrix matrix matrix if A is not a square matrix.
3 A matrix A is said to be a zero matrix zero matrix zero matrix zero matrix zero matrix if every element of A is equal to
zero. An m × n zero matrix is denoted by O
m×n
or O.
4. A matrix A is said to be a row matrix row matrix row matrix row matrix row matrix if A contains only one row.
5. A matrix, all of whose elements are zero except a
ii
(i = 1, 2, .... ) (which
may or may not be zero) in the leading diagonal is called a diagonal diagonal diagonal diagonal diagonal
matrix matrix matrix matrix matrix.
6. A scalar matrix in which all its diagonal elements are 1 is called unit unit unit unit unit
matrix matrix matrix matrix matrix. (Also called Identity matrix Identity matrix Identity matrix Identity matrix Identity matrix), we denote nrowed unit matrix by
I
n
.
7. A matrix A is said to be a column matrix column matrix column matrix column matrix column matrix if A contains only one column.
8. A diagonal matrix A is said to be a scalar matrix scalar matrix scalar matrix scalar matrix scalar matrix if all elements in the
principal diagonal are equal.
4  Higher Mathematics Booklet
9. A square matrix A is said to be a symmetric matrix symmetric matrix symmetric matrix symmetric matrix symmetric matrix if A
T
= A.
e.g. A =
− ]
]
−
]
]
]
1 5 7
5 3 2
7 2 0
, then
T
1 5 7
A 5 3 2 A
7 2 0
− ]
]
· − ·
]
]
]
.
Hence, matrix A is symmetric.
10. A square matrix A is said to be a skewsymmetric skewsymmetric skewsymmetric skewsymmetric skewsymmetric,
if A
T
= –A ⇒ a
ij
= –a
ji
∀ i, j.
11. A square matrix A is said to be orthogonal matrix orthogonal matrix orthogonal matrix orthogonal matrix orthogonal matrix, if AA
T
= I = A A
T
,
e.g. the matrix
1 2 2
1
2 1 2
3
2 2 1
− ]
]
−
]
]
−
]
is an orthogonal matrix, because
AA
T
=
1 2 2 1 2 2
1 1
2 1 2 2 1 2
3 3
2 2 1 2 2 1
− − ] ]
] ]
− × −
] ]
] ]
− −
] ]
9 0 0 1 0 0
1
0 9 0 0 1 0 I
9
0 0 9 0 0 1
] ]
] ]
· ·
] ]
] ]
] ]
. Similarly, A
T
A = I.
12. A square matrix A is called singular singular singular singular singular if A = 0, if A ≠ 0, then it is
called nonsingular nonsingular nonsingular nonsingular nonsingular.
13. A square matrix A is said to be a skew matrix skew matrix skew matrix skew matrix skew matrix if A
T
= – A.
Chapter 1  Matrices  5
Solved Examples
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. If A =
3 4
1 1
− ]
]
−
]
, then for every positive integer n, A
n
is equal to
a.
1 2n 4n
n 1 2n
+ ]
]
+
]
b.
1 2n 4n
n 1 2n
+ − ]
]
−
]
c.
1 2n 4n
n 1 2n
− ]
]
+
]
d. None of these
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
2
3 4 3 4 5 8
A
1 1 1 1 2 3
− − − ] ] ]
· ·
] ] ]
− − −
] ] ]
2 2
A – 2A I 0 A 2A – I ⇒ + · ⇒ ·
Similarly,
3 2
A 2A – A 3A 2I ⇒ · · −
4 2
A 3A – 2A 4A 3I ⇒ · · −
Hence we can say
n
A nA (n 1)I · − −
i.e.
n
3n 4n n 1 0 1 2n 4n
A
n n 0 n 1 n 1 2n
− − + −  `  `  `
· − ·
− − −
. , . , . ,
2. 2. 2. 2. 2.
1 3 2
A 3 1 5
2 5 1
− ]
]
· −
]
]
−
]
is a
a. singular matrix b. non singular matrix
c. symmetric matrix d. skew symmetric matrix
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. A ≠ 0 Hence matrix is nonsingular.
6  Higher Mathematics Booklet
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. If
1 2
A
4 3
]
·
]
−
]
and f(x) =2x
2
– 4x + 5, then f(A). is equal to
a.
19 11
27 51
− ]
]
−
]
b.
24 16
32 51
− ]
]
−
]
c.
19 16
32 51
− ]
]
−
]
d. None of these
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. f(A) = 2A² – 4A + 5I
2
2 2
1 2 1 2 9 4 18 8
A 2A
4 3 4 3 8 17 16 34
− − ] ] ] ]
· · ⇒ ·
] ] ] ]
− − − −
] ] ] ]
Also,
4 8
4A
16 12
− − ]
− ·
]
−
]
and 2
5 0
5I
0 5
]
·
]
]
2
2
18 8 4 8 5 0 19 16
f(A) 2A 4A 5I
16 34 16 12 0 5 32 51
− − − − ] ] ] ]
∴ · − + · + + ·
] ] ] ]
− − −
] ] ] ]
Chapter 2  Determinants  7
If A =
]
]
]
a b
c d
is a matrix then the number (ad – bc) is called determinant determinant determinant determinant determinant of
A. It is denoted by det A or A or
a b
c d
.
Determinant of order 3 is given by
11 12 13
22 23 21 23 21 22
21 22 23 11 12 13
32 33 31 33 31 32
31 32 33
a a a
a a a a a a
a a a a a a
a a a a a a
a a a
· − +
= a
11
(a
22
a
33
– a
32
a
23
) – a
12
(a
21
a
33
– a
31
a
23
) + a
13
(a
21
a
32
– a
31
a
22
)
Properties of Determinants Properties of Determinants Properties of Determinants Properties of Determinants Properties of Determinants
1. If a
ij
is an element which is in the ith row and jth column of a, then the
determinant of the matrix obtained by deleting the ith row and jth column
of A is called minor minor minor minor minor of a
ij
. It is denoted by M
ij
.
2. If a
ij
is an element which is in the ith row and jth column of a square
matrix A, then the product of (– 1)
i + j
and the minor of a
ij
is called
cofactor cofactor cofactor cofactor cofactor of a
ij
. It is denoted by A
ij
.
3. The sum of the products of the elements of any row or column of a square
matrix A with their corresponding cofactors is called the determinant determinant determinant determinant determinant of
the matrix A.
4. The sign of the determinant of a square matrix changes if any two rows
(or columns) in the matrix are interchanged.
5. If two rows (or columns) of a square matrix are identical, the value of the
determinant of the matrix is zero.
The interchange of any two rows (columns) of a determinant changes only
its sign and has no effect on its absolute value.
6. If all the elements of a row (or column) of a square matrix are multiplied
by a number k then the value of the determinant of the matrix obtained is
k times the determinant of the given matrix.
7. If each element in a row (or column) of a square matrix is the sum of two
numbers, then its determinant can be expressed as the sum of the
determinants of two square matrices.
Determinants
2
8  Higher Mathematics Booklet
Example: Example: Example: Example: Example:
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 3 5 2 4 6
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
a a a a a a a a a a a a
b b b b b b b b b
c c c c c c c c c
+ + +
· +
8. If A and B are two square matrices of same type, then det (AB) = det A. det
B.
The product of two determinants each of order 3 is given by:
1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3 3 3
a b c
a b c
a b c
α β γ
α β γ
α β γ
×
α β γ α β γ α β γ
α β γ α β γ α β γ
α β γ α β γ α β γ
+ + + + + +
· + + + + + +
+ + + + + +
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 3 1 3 1 3
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 3
3 1 3 1 3 1 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3
a b c a b c a b c
a b c a b c a b c
a b c a b c a b c
where the rows are multiplied by rows. We can also multiply rows by
columns, columns by rows and column by column.
9. If constant multiple of elements of any row(column) be added to
(subtracted from) the corresponding elements of some other row(column)
of a determinant, then the determinant remains unaltered, i.e. if the
operations
i i j
R R mR nRk.j, k i ← + + ≠
or
j i j k
C C mC nC . j, k i ← + + ≠
are performed on the determinant, its value remains unaltered.
Solved Examples
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. If
≠ ≠ ·
2 3
2 3
2 3
x x x
x y z and y y y 0
z z z
, , , , , then xyz is equal to
a. 1 b. –1 c. x + y + z d. None of these
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
∆ · ⇒ ·
2
2
2
1 x x
0 (xyz). 1 y y 0
1 z z
⇒ − − ·
− −
2
2 2
2 2
1 x x
(xyz). 0 y x y x 0
0 z x z x
8
Chapter 2  Determinants  9
⇒ − − + ·
−
2
1 x x
(xyz)(y x)(z x). 0 1 y x 0
0 1 z x
⇒ − − · ⇒ · (xyz)(y x)(z x) 0 xyz 0
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. If a, b and c are all different from zero and
1 a 1 1
1 1 b 1 0
1 1 1 c
+
∆ · + ·
+
,
then
1 1 1
1
a b c
 `
+ + +
. ,
= ?
a. abc b.
1
abc
c.
1
(a b c) + +
d. None of these
Sol Sol Sol Sol Sol.
1 1 1
1
a a a
1 1 1
(abc) 1
b b b
1 1 1
1
c c c
+
∆ · ⋅ +
+
[R
1
→ R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3
]
=
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1
a b c a b c a b c
1 1 1
(abc) 1
b b b
1 1 1
1
c c c
+ + + + + + + + +
× +
+
=
1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
(abc) 1 1
a b c b b b
1 1 1
1
c c c
 `
⋅ + + + ⋅ +
. ,
+
= 0
1 1 1
0 and abc 0 1 0
a b c
 `
∴∆ · ≠ ⇒ + + + ·
. ,
10  Higher Mathematics Booklet
Binomial Expansion of (x + a) Binomial Expansion of (x + a) Binomial Expansion of (x + a) Binomial Expansion of (x + a) Binomial Expansion of (x + a)
n nn nn
, for positive integral index n , for positive integral index n , for positive integral index n , for positive integral index n , for positive integral index n
(x + a)
n
=
n
C
0
x
n
a
0
+
n
C
1
x
n–1
a
1
+
n
C
2
x
n–2
a² + ... +
n
C
r
x
n–r
a
r
+ ...
+
n
C
n –1
x
1
a
n–1
+
n
C
n
x
0
a
n
=
·
∑
n
r 0
n
C
r
x
n–r
a
r
where x and a are any real or complex expressions and
n
C
0
,
n
C
1
...,
n
C
n
are
called binomial coefficients. binomial coefficients. binomial coefficients. binomial coefficients. binomial coefficients.
This is called the binomial theorem. binomial theorem. binomial theorem. binomial theorem. binomial theorem.
Properties of binomial expansion binomial expansion binomial expansion binomial expansion binomial expansion
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. There are (n + 1) terms in the expansion of (x + a)
n
, n being a positive
integer.
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. In any term of binomial expansion of (x + a)
n
, the sum of the exponents of
x and a is n.
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. The binomial coefficients of terms equidistant from the beginning and the
end are equal, i.e.
n
C
r
=
n
C
n – r
(0 ≤ r ≤ n).
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. The general term general term general term general term general term of the expansion is (r + 1)th term, usually denoted by
T
r + 1
and is given by T
r + 1
=
n
C
r
x
n – r
a
r
or , 0 ≤ r ≤ 1.
Important Deductions from Binomial Expansion of (x + a) Important Deductions from Binomial Expansion of (x + a) Important Deductions from Binomial Expansion of (x + a) Important Deductions from Binomial Expansion of (x + a) Important Deductions from Binomial Expansion of (x + a)
n nn nn
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. (1 + x)
n
=
n
C
0
+
n
C
1
x +
n
C
2
x² + ... +
n
C
r
x
r
+ ... +
n
C
n
x
n
=
·
∑
n
r 0
n
C
r
x
r
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. (1 – x)
n
=
n
C
0
–
n
C
1
x +
n
C
2
x² – ... + (–1)
r
n
C
r
x
r
+ ...+ (–1)
n
.
n
C
n
x
n
3. 3. 3. 3. 3.
1
2
{(1 + x)
n
+ (1 – x)
n
} =
n
C
0
+
n
C
2
x² +
n
C
4
x
4
+ ...
4. 4. 4. 4. 4.
1
2
{(1 + x)
n
– (1 – x)
n
} =
n
C
1
x +
n
C
3
x
3
+
n
C
5
x
5
+ ...
5. 5. 5. 5. 5.
( )
−
+ + +
+ · − + − +
n
2 3
n (n 1) n (n 1)(n 2)
1 x 1 nx x x ...
2! 3!
+(–1)
r
+ + + −
+
r
n(n 1) (n 2)...(n r 1)
x ...
r!
Binomial Theorem, Exponential
and Logarithmic Series
3
Chapter 3  Binomial Theorem, Exponential and Logarithmic Series  11
6. 6. 6. 6. 6. ( )
−
+ + +
− · + + +
+ + + −
+ + +
n
2 3
r
n(n 1) n (n 1)(n 2)
1 x 1 nx x x
2! 3!
n(n 1)(n 2)...(n r 1)
... x ...
r!
7. 7. 7. 7. 7. ( )
− − −
− · − + −
− − − +
+ + − +
n
2 3
r r
n (n 1) n (n 1)(n 2)
1 x 1 nx x x
2! 3!
n (n 1)(n 2)...(n r 1)
... ( 1) x ...
r!
Exponential theorem: Exponential theorem: Exponential theorem: Exponential theorem: Exponential theorem:
If x R ∈ , the series
· + + + +
2 3
x
x x x
e 1 .....
1! 2! 3!
is called exponential series.
Thus
∞
·
·
∑
n
x
n 0
x
e
n!
Important Deductions from the Exponential and Logarithmic Series Important Deductions from the Exponential and Logarithmic Series Important Deductions from the Exponential and Logarithmic Series Important Deductions from the Exponential and Logarithmic Series Important Deductions from the Exponential and Logarithmic Series
1. 1. 1. 1. 1.
∞
·
· + + + + ·
∑
n 0
1 1 1 1
e 1 ....
1! 2! 3! n!
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. e is an irrational number and its approximate value is 2.718281828 .....
3. 3. 3. 3. 3.
< + + + + <
1 1 1
2 1 .... 3
1! 2! 3!
4. 4. 4. 4. 4.
( )
∞
−
·
· − + − + · −
∑
2 3 n
n
x
n 0
x x x x
e 1 ..... 1
1! 2! 3! n!
5. 5. 5. 5. 5.
∞ ∞ ∞
· · ·
· · ·
− −
∑ ∑ ∑
n 0 n 1 n k
1 1 1
e
n! (n 1)! (n k)!
.
6. 6. 6. 6. 6.
( )
∞
−
·
−
· − + − + ·
∑
n
1
n 0
1
1 1 1 1
e .....
2! 3! 4! 5! n!
7. 7. 7. 7. 7.
( ) ( )
· + + + +
2 3
ax
ax ax
e 1 ax .....
2! 3!
8. 8. 8. 8. 8. If x ∈R and – 1 < x
≤
1 then log
e
(1 + x) =
− + − +
2 3 4
x x x
x ...
2 3 4
9. 9. 9. 9. 9. If x ∈ R and x < 1 then log
e
(1 – x) =
− − − − −
2 3 4
x x x
x ....
2 3 4
10. 10. 10. 10. 10. log 2 = − + − +
1 1 1
1 ....
2 3 4
12  Higher Mathematics Booklet
Solved Examples
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. Find the 5th term of
8
3 5
2 2
1 3
2 2
x y
a b
 `
−
. ,
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
4 4
3 5
2 2
8
4 1 4
1 3
2 2
x y
T C
a b
+
 `  `
−
·
. , . ,
=
6 10
2 6
8! x y
. .
4! 4!
a b
=
6 10
2 6
8.7.6.5 x y
4.3.2
a b
=
6 10
2 6
x y
70
a b
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. Find the coefficient of x
r
in
( )( ) { ¦
− −
1
1 x 3 x
.
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
( )( ) { ¦
1 A B 1 1
A , B
1 x 3 x 2 2 1 x 3 x
· + ⇒ · · −
− − − −
Therefore,
( )( )
]
]
]
· −
− − −  ` ]
−
]
. , ]
1 1 1 1
x 1 x 3 x 2 1 x
3 1
3
( )
−
−  `
· − − −
. ,
1
1 1 1 x
1 x 1
2 6 3
Therefore, the coefficient of x
r
· −
×
r
1 1
2
6 3
=
1
2
(1 – 3
– (r + 1)
)
r
2 r
1 1 x x
= (1 + x + x + ... + x + ...) 1 ....
2 6 3 3
 `
 `
+ + +
. ,
. ,
Chapter 3  Binomial Theorem, Exponential and Logarithmic Series  13
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. Find the coefficient of x
n
in the expansion of
2
e
log (1 3x 2x ) + +
.
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. We have: log
e
(1 + 3x + 2x²)
= log
e
{(1 + x) ( 1 + 2x)} = log
e
(1 + x) + log
e
(1 + 2x)
( )
−
 `
· − + − + − + +
. ,
2 3 n
n 1 x x x
x ... 1 ...
2 3 n
( )
−
 `
− + − + − +
. ,
2 3 n
n 1 (2x) (2x) (2x)
2x ... 1 ...
2 3 n
Therefore, coefficient of x
n
in
( )
2
e
log 1 3x 2x + +
( )
( )
n 1
n n 1
n 1
n
1
2 ( 1)
1 (1 2 )
n n n
−
−
−
−
−
+ − · +
14  Higher Mathematics Booklet
Definition Definition Definition Definition Definition
The number 'L' is said to be the limit limit limit limit limit of f(x) as x tends to 'a' if for any for any for any for any for any arbitrary
∈ > 0 > 0 > 0 > 0 > 0, however small, there exist there exist there exist there exist there exist a corresponding number δ δδ δδ > 0 > 0 > 0 > 0 > 0 such that
If(x)–L<
∈
whenever 0 < x – a < δ, i.e. whenever x lies in deleted
δneighbourhood of a, f(x) lies in ∈ neighbourhood of L or equivalently
x a
lim f (x) L iff 0 0 s.t.
→
· ∀∈> ∃ δ >
( ) L f (x) L whenever x a , a {a} −∈< < +∈ ∈ −δ + δ −
Note that limit is generally written as lim or lt.
LeftHand Limit (LHL) LeftHand Limit (LHL) LeftHand Limit (LHL) LeftHand Limit (LHL) LeftHand Limit (LHL)
A function f(x) tend to a limit L, as x tends to 'a' from left from left from left from left from left, if for any
∈
> 0,
there exist δ > 0 such that f (x) L − <∈ whenever x ] a , a [ ∈ − δ . In this
case, we write
x a
Lt f (x) L
−
→
· and say that L is the lefthand limit of f(x).
RightHand Limit (RHL) RightHand Limit (RHL) RightHand Limit (RHL) RightHand Limit (RHL) RightHand Limit (RHL)
A function f(x) tend to a limit L, as x tends to 'a' from right from right from right from right from right, if for any
∈
> 0,
there exist δ > 0 such that f (x) L − <∈ whenever x ] a , a [ ∈ + δ .
In this case, we write
x a
Lt f (x) L
+
→
· and say that L is the righthand limit of f(x).
Working rule Working rule Working rule Working rule Working rule
–
0 h 0
x a
LHL f (a ) lim f (x) lim f (a h)
−
< →
→
· · · −
0 h 0
x a
RHL f (a ) lim f (x) lim f (a h)
+
+
< →
→
· · · +
Limit exists iff LHL = RHL Limit exists iff LHL = RHL Limit exists iff LHL = RHL Limit exists iff LHL = RHL Limit exists iff LHL = RHL ,i.e.
x a
x a x a
lim f (x) L iff lim f (x) lim f (x) L
− +
→
→ →
· · ·
Rationalisation: Rationalisation: Rationalisation: Rationalisation: Rationalisation: Particularly used when numerator or denominator involves
radical expressions (square or cube roots etc.)
For example to find
a 5
a 5
lim
a 3 7 a
→
−
− − −
.
Limits
4
Chapter 4  Limits  15
=
a 5
a 5 a 3 7 a
lim
a 3 7 a a 3 7 a
→
− − + −
×
− − − − + −
.
a 5
a 5
lim ( a 3 7 a)
(a 3) (7 a) →
−
· × − + −
− − −
.
a 5
a 5
lim ( a 3 7 a)
2(a 5) →
−
· × − + −
−
a 5
2 2
lim 2
2 →
· ·
Some Standard Limits: Some Standard Limits: Some Standard Limits: Some Standard Limits: Some Standard Limits:
1. 1. 1. 1. 1.
→
·
x a
lim{x} a
2. 2. 2. 2. 2.
→
·
x 0
lim sin x 0.
3. 3. 3. 3. 3.
→
·
x 0
lim cos x 1.
4. 4. 4. 4. 4.
→
· ∀ ∈
x a
lim sin x sin a, a R.
5. 5. 5. 5. 5.
→
· ∀ ∈
x a
lim cos x cos a, a R.
6. 6. 6. 6. 6.
→
·
x 0
lim tan x 0.
7. 7. 7. 7. 7.
( )
π
→
· ≠ + ∈
x a
lim tan x tan a for a 2n 1 ; n Integer.
2
8. 8. 8. 8. 8.
→
·
x 0
sin x
lim 1.
x
9. 9. 9. 9. 9.
→
·
x 0
tan x
lim 1.
x
10. 10. 10. 10. 10. If n is a real number then
→
·
x 0
sin nx
lim n.
x
11. 11. 11. 11. 11. If n is a real number then
→
·
x 0
tan nx
lim n.
x
12. 12. 12. 12. 12.
→
−
·
x
x 0
e 1
lim 1.
x
13. 13. 13. 13. 13.
→
−
·
x
x 0
e 1
lim 1.
x
14. 14. 14. 14. 14.
→∞
 `
+ ·
. ,
x
x
1
lim 1 e.
x
15. 15. 15. 15. 15.
( )
→
+ ·
1/ x
x 0
lim 1 x e.
16  Higher Mathematics Booklet
Continuity Continuity Continuity Continuity Continuity
Working rule: Working rule: Working rule: Working rule: Working rule:
A function y = f(x) defined on an open interval I is said to be continuous continuous continuous continuous continuous at an
interior point x = a, if
x a x a
lim f (x) lim f (x) f (a)
− +
→ →
· · , i.e. LHL = RHL = f(a) LHL = RHL = f(a) LHL = RHL = f(a) LHL = RHL = f(a) LHL = RHL = f(a)
should be in a straight line.
or,
x a
lim f (x) f (a)
→
·
, i.e. for f(x) to be continuous at x = a, it must satisfy three
conditions:
(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) f(a) exists, i.e. a lies in the domain of f(x)
(2) (2) (2) (2) (2)
x a
lim f (x)
→
exists i.e. LHL = RHL and
(3) (3) (3) (3) (3)
x a
lim f (x) f (a)
→
·
the limit equals to the function value.
Continuity of a Function in an Open Interval Continuity of a Function in an Open Interval Continuity of a Function in an Open Interval Continuity of a Function in an Open Interval Continuity of a Function in an Open Interval
A function f(x) is said to be continuous in an open interval (a, b) if f(x) is
continuous at every point in (a, b).
Continuity in a Closed Interval Continuity in a Closed Interval Continuity in a Closed Interval Continuity in a Closed Interval Continuity in a Closed Interval
A function f(x) is said to be continuous in a closed interval [a, b], where a < b, if
the following three conditions are satisfied.
(a) (a) (a) (a) (a) f(x) is continuous at left endpoint x = a from right, i.e.
x a
lim f (x) f (a)
→
·
(b) (b) (b) (b) (b) f(x) is continuous at every interior point of open interval (a, b).
(c) (c) (c) (c) (c) f(x) is continuous at right endpoint x = b from left, i.e.
x b
lim f (x) f (b)
→ −
· . .. ..
A function which is not continuous at x = a is said to be discontinuous at x = a
and function is said to be discontinuous function.
Chapter 4  Limits  17
Solved Examples
1. 1. 1. 1. 1.
1/ x
1/ x
x 0
e 1
lim
e 1
→
]
−
]
+ ]
]
=
a. 1 b. 0
c. –1 d. Does not exist
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Note that
x 0
1
lim
x →
does not exist as
0 h 0
x 0
1 1
lim lim and
x 0 h
+
< →
→
· · ∞
+
0 h 0
x 0
1 1
lim lim
x 0 h
−
< →
→
· · − ∞
−
RHL = f (0+) =
h 0
lim f (0 h)
→
+
1/(0 h)
1/(0 h)
h 0
1 e 1 0
lim 1
1 0
1 e
− +
− +
→
− −
· · ·
+
+
as
e 0
−∞
·
LHL = f (0 – h) =
h 0
lim f (0 – h)
→
1/(0 – h) –1/ h
1/(0 – h) –1/ h
h 0 h 0
e 1 e –1
lim lim
e 1 e 1
→ →
−
·
+ +
=
0 1
1
0 1
−
· −
+
Since LHL ≠ RHL. Limit for the function f(x) does not exist.
2. 2. 2. 2. 2.
2
x
x 1
lim
x 1 →−∞
+
·
+
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
2
2
x x
1
x 1
x 1
x
lim lim
1 x 1
x 1
x
→−∞ →−∞
+
+
·
+  `
+
. ,
=
2
x –
1
1
1
x
lim 1
1
1 0
1
x
→ ∞
+
· ·
+
+
18  Higher Mathematics Booklet
3. 3. 3. 3. 3.
1
x
1
x 0
x
xe
lim
1 e
→
·
+
a. 0 b. 1
c. 2 d. Does not exist
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
1
x
1
x 0
x
xe
RHL lim
1 e
+
→
·
+
1
h
1 1
0 h 0 0 h 0
h h
he h 0
lim lim 0
1 0
1 e 1 e
−
< → < →
· · · ·
+
+ +
1 1
x h
1 1
0 h 0
x 0
x h
xe he 0 0
LHL lim lim 0
1 0
1 e 1 e
−
−
−
< →
→
− − ×
· · · ·
+
+ +
= RHL
4. 4. 4. 4. 4.
1
n n
n
x
lim (4 5 )
→∞
+ ·
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
1
1
n
n
n n
n
x x
4
lim (4 5 ) lim 5 1 5(1 0) 5
5
°
→∞ →∞
]
 `
] + · + · + ·
. , ]
]
5. 5. 5. 5. 5.
x 0
sin 5x
lim
tan3x →
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
x 0 x 0 x 0
sin 5x
5x
5 sin 5x tan3x 5x
lim lim 1 and lim 1
tan3x 3 5x 3x
3x
3x
→ → →
 `
]  `  `
. ,
· · ·
]
 `
. , . , ]
. ,
3
Chapter 4  Limits  19
6. 6. 6. 6. 6. Check the continuity of the function
12 x 4
f (x) 4x [x] 4 x 7
22 x 7
≤ ¹
¹
· − < <
'
¹
≥
¹
in
[4, 7].
To check continuity at 4,
RHL =
0 h 0
x 4
lim 4x [x] lim 4(4 h) [4 h]
+
< →
→
− · + − + = 16 – 4 = 12
LHL =
x 4
lim f (x) 12
−
→
· and f(4) = 12 ∴ LHL = RHL = f(4)
To check continuity at 7,
LHL =
h 0
x 7
lim 4x [x] lim
−
→
→
− ·
4(7 – h) – [7 – h] = 28 – 6 = 22 and
RHL = f (7) = 22 = LHL, i.e. f(x) is continuous at x = 4 and 7
For checking the continuity in the open interval (4, 7), let us check the
continuity at x = 6,
RHL =
h 0
x 6
lim 4x [x] lim
+
→
→
− · 4(6 + h) – [6 + h] = 24 – 6 = 18
–
h 0
x 6
LHL lim 4x –[x] lim 4(6 – h) –[6 – h]
→
→
· ·
= 24 – 5 = 19
f(6) = 4 × 6 – [6] = 24 – 6 = 18
3
x 6 x 6
lim f (x) lim f (x)
+ −
→ →
≠
, f(x) is not continuous at x = 6.
Therefore, function f(x) is not continuous in the closed interval [4, 7].
A function which is not continuous x = a is said to be discontinuous discontinuous discontinuous discontinuous discontinuous at
x = a and function is said to be discontinuous function.
20  Higher Mathematics Booklet
Differentiability Differentiability Differentiability Differentiability Differentiability
Derivability at a Point Derivability at a Point Derivability at a Point Derivability at a Point Derivability at a Point
The function f(x) is said to be derivable or differentiable at x = a, where a is
some interior point of domain of f(x), if
x a
f (x) f (a)
lim
x a →
−
−
exist,
i.e.
0 h 0 0 h 0
f (a h) f (a) f (a h) f (a)
lim lim
h h < → < →
+ − − −
·
−
Derivative of f(x) at x = a is denoted by f'(a) or Df(a) or
x a
d
f (x)
dx
·
 `
. ,
LeftHand Derivative (LHD) LeftHand Derivative (LHD) LeftHand Derivative (LHD) LeftHand Derivative (LHD) LeftHand Derivative (LHD) of f(x) at x = a, if it exist, is denoted by Lf'(a) and
is given by
h 0
f (a h) f (a)
lim
h →
− −
−
, where h > 0. Lf'(a) is also denoted by f'(a
–
).
RightHand Derivative (RHD) RightHand Derivative (RHD) RightHand Derivative (RHD) RightHand Derivative (RHD) RightHand Derivative (RHD) of f(x) at x = a, if it exist, is denoted by Rf'(a),
and is given by
h 0
f (a h) f (a)
lim
h →
+ −
, where h > 0. Rf'(a) is also denoted by f'(a
+
).
∴ f'(a) exist iff both Lf'(a) and Rf'(a) exist and are equal,
i.e. Lf'(a) = Rf'(a) = f'(a).
If Lf'(a) ≠ Rf'(a) we say that function is not differentiable at x = a.
Derivability in an Interval Derivability in an Interval Derivability in an Interval Derivability in an Interval Derivability in an Interval
A function f(x) is said to be derivable in an open interval (a, b) if f(x) is
derivable at every interior point of (a, b).
A function f(x) is said to be derivable in a closed interval [a, b] if
(a) (a) (a) (a) (a) f(x) is derivable at left endpoint x = a from right,
i.e.
h 0
f (a h) f (a)
lim
h →
+ −
exist.
(b) (b) (b) (b) (b) f(x) is derivable at every point of (a, b).
(c) (c) (c) (c) (c) f(x) is derivable at right endpoint x = b from left,
i.e.
h 0
f (b h) f (b)
lim
h →
− −
−
exist.
Differentiation
5
Chapter 5  Differentiation  21
Relation between Continuity and Differentiability Relation between Continuity and Differentiability Relation between Continuity and Differentiability Relation between Continuity and Differentiability Relation between Continuity and Differentiability
If a function is differentiable at a point, then it is also continuous at that point,
but converse is not always true. But if a function is not continuous at a point,
then it is not differentiable at that point.
Example of a function which is continuous but not differentiable at a point is,
f(x) = x. This function is continuous at x = 0, but it is not differentiable at
x = 0. Generally, continuous functions which have corners or kinks in their
graph are not derivable at those points.
Derived Function Derived Function Derived Function Derived Function Derived Function
Let y = f(x) be a function with domain D. The derivative of f(x) is denoted
by ) x ( f ′ or
dy d
or f (x)
dx dx
or Df(x).
h 0
f (x h) f (x)
f (x) lim
h →
+ −
′ ·
, provided the
limit exist. Here h is a small number, either positive or negative. f'(x) is called
the derived function derived function derived function derived function derived function of f(x).
Algebra of Derivatives Algebra of Derivatives Algebra of Derivatives Algebra of Derivatives Algebra of Derivatives
In the following results, k is constant, u and v are functions of x
1. 1. 1. 1. 1.
d
(k) 0
dx
·
2. 2. 2. 2. 2.
d du
(ku) k
dx dx
·
3. 3. 3. 3. 3.
d du dv
(u v)
dx dx dx
t · t
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. Product rule Product rule Product rule Product rule Product rule
d dv du
(uv) u v
dx dx dx
· +
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. Quotient rule Quotient rule Quotient rule Quotient rule Quotient rule
2
du dv
v u
d u
dx dx
dx v
v
−
 `
·
. ,
Some Standard Derivatives Some Standard Derivatives Some Standard Derivatives Some Standard Derivatives Some Standard Derivatives
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. If c is a constant then ·
d
{c} 0
dx
2. 2. 2. 2. 2.
·
d
{x} 1.
dx
3. 3. 3. 3. 3.
−
·
n n 1
d
{x } nx .
dx
22  Higher Mathematics Booklet
4. 4. 4. 4. 4.
·
x x
d
{e } e .
dx
5. 5. 5. 5. 5.
·
x x
d
{a } a log a.
dx
6. 6. 6. 6. 6.
· >
d 1
{log x} for x 0.
dx x
7. 7. 7. 7. 7.
·
d
{sin x} cos x .
dx
8. 8. 8. 8. 8.
· −
d
{cos x} sin x .
dx
9. 9. 9. 9. 9.
( )
π
· ≠ + ∈
2
d
{tan x} sec x for x 2n 1 ' n Z.
dx 2
10. 10. 10. 10. 10.
π · − ≠ ∈
2
d
{cot x} cos ec x for x n , n Z.
dx
11. 11. 11. 11. 11.
( )π · ≠ + ∈
d
{sec x} sec x tan x for x 2n 1 / 2, n Z.
dx
12. 12. 12. 12. 12.
π · − ≠ ∈
d
{cosec x} cos ec x cot x for x n , Z.
dx
13. 13. 13. 13. 13. If u is a function in x and y is a function in u, then
·
dy dy du
. .
dx du dx
It is
known as chain rule. chain rule. chain rule. chain rule. chain rule.
14. 14. 14. 14. 14. Let f be a differentiable function on [a,b]. Then the derivative f’ is a
function on [a, b]. If f’ is differentiable at x, then the derivative of f’ at x
is called second derivative of f at x. It is noted by f” (x) or f
(2)
(x).
By Induction, n
th
derivative of f(x) can be defined for all ∈ n Nas
−
]
·
]
(n) n 1
d
f (x) f (x)
dx
15. 15. 15. 15. 15. If y = f(x) then f
(n)
(x) is denoted by
n
n
d y
dx
Chapter 5  Differentiation  23
16. 16. 16. 16. 16.
−
−
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
·
' '
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
n n 1
n n 1
d y d d y
.
dx
dx dx
17. 17. 17. 17. 17. If y = (ax + b)
m
then y
n
= m(m – 1) (m – 2) ... (m – n + 1) (ax + b)
m – n
×
a
n
18. 18. 18. 18. 18. If f(x) = (ax + b)
m
, m
∈
Z, m > 0, n
∈
N then
i) m < n ⇒f
(n)
(x) = 0
ii) m = n ⇒f
(n)
(x) = n! a
n
iii) m > n ⇒f
(n)
=
( )
( )
−
+
−
m n
n
m!
ax b a .
m n !
19. 19. 19. 19. 19. If f(x) is a polynomial function of degree less than n where n
∈
N then
f
(n)
(x) = 0.
Successive Differentiation
Let y = f(x0 be a differentiable function then
1
dy
y f (x).
dx
′ · ·
The derivative of
dy
dx
is called double derivative of f(x) and is denoted
by
2
2
d y
dx
or y
2
or f (x) ′′ . If n is a positive integer, then n
th
order
derivative of y or f(x) is denoted by
n
n
d y
yn or
dx
or y
(n)
or D
n
y or
f
(n)
(x).
24  Higher Mathematics Booklet
nth Order Derivative of Some Special Functions nth Order Derivative of Some Special Functions nth Order Derivative of Some Special Functions nth Order Derivative of Some Special Functions nth Order Derivative of Some Special Functions
1. 1. 1. 1. 1.
− −
· − − − − ·
−
n m m n m n
m!
D (x) m(m 1)(m 2) ... (m (n 1))x x
(m n)!
If m > n, when m = n, D
n
(x
n
) = n!, whereas when m < n, then D
n
{x
m
} = 0
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. D
n
(a
mx
) = a
mx
(log a)
n
m
n
. Particularly D
n
a
x
= a
x
(log a)
n
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. D
n
e
ax+b
= a
n
e
ax+b
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. If m ∈Nthen
−
+ · + × ×
−
n m m n n
m!
D (ax b) (ax b) a
(m n)!
if n < m.
If n > m, then D
n
(ax+b)
m
= 0, whereas if n = m, then
+ ·
n m n
D (ax b) n!a
5. 5. 5. 5. 5.
− − −
+ · − +
n 1 n n n 1
D (ax b) ( 1) n! a (ax b)
or
+ +
− −  `  `
· ⇒ ·
+
. , . , +
n n
n n n
n 1 n 1
1 ( 1) n! 1 ( 1) n!
D a D
ax b x
(ax b) (x)
6. 6. 6. 6. 6.
−
− −
+ ·
+
n 1 n
n
e
n
( 1) (n 1)!a
D log (ax b)
(ax b)
7. 7. 7. 7. 7.
π  `
+ · + +
. ,
n n
n
D sin(ax b) a sin ax b
2
8. 8. 8. 8. 8.
π  `
+ · + +
. ,
n n
n
D cos(ax b) a cos ax b
2
9. 9. 9. 9. 9. { ¦ ( )
n / 2
n ax 2 2 ax 1
b
D e sin(bx c) a b e sin bx c n tan
a
−
¹ ¹
+ · + × + +
' '
¹ ¹
10. 10. 10. 10. 10. { ¦ ( )
n / 2
n ax 2 2 ax 1
b
D e cos(bx c) a b e cos bx c n tan
a
−
¹ ¹
+ · + × + +
' '
¹ ¹
Chapter 5  Differentiation  25
Solved Examples
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. If
2
x 2
1 d y
y , find
x dx
·
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. y = x
–x
⇒log y = –x log x
⇒
1 dy
y dx
= –x ·
1
x
+ log x (–1)
⇒
dy
dx
= (–log x – 1) y
2
2 x x
d y dy y 1 1 1
(log x 1) ( log x 1) (log x 1)
dx x x
dx x x
⇒ · − + − · − − − ⋅ + − ⋅
2 x (x 1)
(1 log x) x x
− − +
· + ⋅ −
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. For y = log { 1 – log( 1 – x ) }, the value of
3
3
d y
dx
at x = 0 is
a. 1 b. 2 c. –
1
6
d. –1
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
y
1 e log(1 x) − · −
at x = 0 , e
y
= 1
y
1
e y' at x 0, y' 1
1 x
⇒ · · ·
−
( )
( )
2
y y y
2
1
e y' e y'' at x 0, e 1, y' 1, y'' 0
1 x
⇒ + · · · · ·
−
( )
3
y y y y
3
2
e y' 2e y' y'' e y' y'' e y'''
(1 x)
⇒ + + + ·
−
y
At x 0, e 1, y' 1, y'' 0, y''' 1 · · · · ·
26  Higher Mathematics Booklet
3. 3. 3. 3. 3.
2x
d e
dx log x
 `
. ,
=
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
( )
( )
( )
− ⋅ −
 `
· ·
. ,
2x
2x 2x 2x
2x
2 2
d d e
logx e e log x 2 log x e
d e
dx dx x
dx logx
(log x)
log x
( )
( )
2x
2
2x log x 1 e
x log x
−
·
4. 4. 4. 4. 4.
1
y x
1
x
1
x
1
x
x 1...
· +
+
+
+
− ∞
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
2
dy 1 dy
1
dx dx
y
⇒ + ·
2
2 2
dy 1 dy y
1 1
dx dx
y y 1
 `
⇒ + · ⇒ ·
+
. ,
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. siny = xsin(a + y), then
dy
dx
is equal to
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
sin y
x
sin(a y)
·
+
Differentiate w.r.t. y′
2 2
dx sin(a y) cos y cos(a y) sin y sin(a y y)
dy
sin (a y) sin (a y)
+ − + + −
· ·
+ +
2
sin a
sin (a y)
·
+
2
dy sin (a y)
dx sin a
+
⇒ ·
6. 6. 6. 6. 6. y = tan
–1
1 sin x 1 sin x
1 sin x 1 sin x
 `
+ + −
+ − −
. ,
, then
dy
dx
is
a. independent of x b. tan
–1
sin x 1
sin x 1
+  `
−
. ,
c.
x
2
d.
x
2
π
+
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
dy
dx
is independent of x, as
1 1
1 cos x x x
y tan tan cot
sin x 2 2 2
π
− −
+  `  `
· · · −
. , . ,
Chapter 6  Integration 27
Indefinite Integrals: Indefinite Integrals: Indefinite Integrals: Indefinite Integrals: Indefinite Integrals:
If
d
dx
(g(x)) = f(x), then f (x) dx g(x) c · +
∫
, where c is any arbitrary real
number and is called constant of integration. The function f(x) in f (x) dx
∫
is
called the integrand integrand integrand integrand integrand, the function g(x) is called integral integral integral integral integral or antiderivative antiderivative antiderivative antiderivative antiderivative or
primitive primitive primitive primitive primitive of the function f(x) w. r. t. x. If F(x) is an antiderivative of f(x) then
F(x) + c, c
∈
R is called indefinite integral indefinite integral indefinite integral indefinite integral indefinite integral of f(X) with respect to x. It is
denoted by ( )
∫
f x dx. The real number c is called constant of integration constant of integration constant of integration constant of integration constant of integration.
Some Standard Indefinite Integrals Some Standard Indefinite Integrals Some Standard Indefinite Integrals Some Standard Indefinite Integrals Some Standard Indefinite Integrals
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. If
+
≠ − · +
+
∫
n 1
n
x
n 1 then x dx c.
n 1
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. · +
∫
dx x c.
3. 3. 3. 3. 3.
· +
∫
1
dx 2 x c.
x
4. 4. 4. 4. 4.
· +
∫
1
dx log  x  c.
x
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. · +
∫
x x
e dx e c.
6. 6. 6. 6. 6. If a > 0, and a
≠
1, then
· +
∫
x
x
a
a dx c.
log a
7. 7. 7. 7. 7. · +
∫
cos x dx sin x c.
8. 8. 8. 8. 8. · − +
∫
sin x dx cos x c.
9. 9. 9. 9. 9. · +
∫
2
sec x dx tan x c.
Integration
6
28  Higher Mathematics Booklet
10. 10. 10. 10. 10. · − +
∫
2
cosec x dx cot x c.
11. 11. 11. 11. 11. · +
∫
sec x tan x dx sec x c.
12. 12. 12. 12. 12.
cosec x cot x dx cosec x c. · − +
∫
13. 13. 13. 13. 13.
− −
· + · − +
−
∫
1 1
2
1
dx sin x c cos x c
1 x
14. 14. 14. 14. 14.
− −
· + · − +
+
∫
1 1
2
1
dx tan x c cot x c.
1 x
15. 15. 15. 15. 15. If x > 1, then
− −
· + · − +
−
∫
1 1
2
1
dx sec x c cosec x c
x x 1
and if
x < – 1 then
− −
· − + · +
−
∫
1 1
2
1
dx sec x c cosec x c.
x x 1
16. 16. 16. 16. 16. · +
∫
tan x dx log  sec x  c.
17. 17. 17. 17. 17. · +
∫
cot x dx log  sin x  c.
18. 18. 18. 18. 18.
1
2 2
1 x
dx sin c.
a
a x
−
 `
· +
. ,
−
∫
19. 19. 19. 19. 19. .
−  `
· + + + · +
. ,
+
∫
2 2 1
2 2
1 x
dx ln x a x c sinh c
a
a x
.
Substitution: x = a tanθ or a sinh θ
20. 20. 20. 20. 20.
−
· + − + · +
−
∫
2 2 1
2 2
1 x
dx ln x x a c cosh c
a
x a
.
Substitution: x = a secθ or a coshθ
21. 21. 21. 21. 21.
−
 `
· +
. , −
∫
1
2 2
1 1 x
dx tan c.
a a
a x
Chapter 6  Integration 29
22. 22. 22. 22. 22.
 ` +
· +
−
− . ,
∫ 2 2
1 1 a x
dx log c.
2a a x
a x
23. 23. 23. 23. 23.
2  `
+ · + + + + +
. ,
∫
2
2 2 2 2 2
x a
a x dx a x ln x a x c
2 2
.
Substitution: x = a tanθ or a cotθ or a sinhθ.
24. 24. 24. 24. 24.
2
− · − − + − +
∫
2
2 2 2 2 2
x a
x a dx x a ln x x a c
2 2
.
Substitution: x = a secθ or a coshθ.
25. 25. 25. 25. 25.
−
· +
+
∫
1
2 2
dx 1 x
tan c
a a
a x
.
Substitution: x = a tan θ.
26. 26. 26. 26. 26. Integration By Parts : If f(x) and g(x) are two integrable functions then
( ) ( ) ( ) ·
∫
f x g x dx f x ( ) ( ) ( )
]
−
]
]
∫ ∫ ∫
g x dx f ' x g x dx dx.
27. 27. 27. 27. 27. [ ]
+ · +
∫
x x
e f (x) f '(x) dx e f (x) c
Integrals of Various Type Integrals of Various Type Integrals of Various Type Integrals of Various Type Integrals of Various Type
Type 1 Type 1 Type 1 Type 1 Type 1
+ +
+ +
+ +
∫ ∫ ∫
2
2
2
dx dx
, , ax bx c dx
ax bx c
ax bx c
Express ax
2
+ bx + c in the form of perfect square and then apply the standard
results.
Type 2 Type 2 Type 2 Type 2 Type 2
2
2
px q px q
dx, dx,
ax bx c
ax bx c
+ +
+ +
+ +
∫ ∫
2
2
p(x)
(px q) ax bx c dx , dx ,
ax bx c
+ + +
+ +
∫ ∫
where p(x) is any polynomial of
x
30  Higher Mathematics Booklet
In first three of these, let
( )
+ · λ + + + µ
2
d
px q ax bx c
dx
where λ and µ are
constants, which you can find by comparing the coefficients, this will break
the given integral into two integrals, where in first integral substitute ax
2
+ bx
+ c = y and second is of type 1. Reduce fourth integral to first type, by dividing
p(x) by ax
2
+ bx +c.
Type 3 Type 3 Type 3 Type 3 Type 3
2 2 2 2
dx dx dx
, , ,
a bsin x a bcos x asin x bcos x + + +
∫ ∫ ∫
2
dx
,
(a sin x bcos x) +
∫
2 2
f(tan x)dx
asin x bsin xcos x ccos x d + + +
∫
where f(tanx) is polynomial in tanx
Divide numerator and denominator by cos
2
x and then substitute tan x = t,
sec
2
x dx = dt, then integral reduces to Type 2.
Type 4 Type 4 Type 4 Type 4 Type 4
+ + + +
+ + +
+ + +
∫ ∫ ∫
∫ ∫
dx dx dx
, , ,
a bsin x a bcos x a sin x bcos x c
csin x dcos x dsin x ecos x f
dx , dx
a sin x bcos x a sin x bcos x c
In first three of these substitute
−
· · · ·
+ + +
2
2 2 2
x 2dt 1 t 2t
tan t , dx , cos x , sin x
2
1 t 1 t 1 t
In fourth, express numerator as
( )
d
denominator (denomin ator)
dx
 `
λ +µ
. ,
by comparing the coefficients
find the value of constants. Then integral value is λx + µ ln denominator + c.
Similarly in fifth, express numerator as
( )
 `
λ +µ + ν
. ,
d
denomin ator (denomin ator)
dx
Definite Integrals Definite Integrals Definite Integrals Definite Integrals Definite Integrals
Let f(x) be a function defined on [a, b]. If ( ) ( ) ·
∫
f x dx F x ,
then
F(b) – F(a) is called the definite integral definite integral definite integral definite integral definite integral of f(x) over [a, b]. It is denoted by
( )
∫
b
a
f x dx.
The real number a is called the lower limit lower limit lower limit lower limit lower limit and the real number b is
called the upper limit upper limit upper limit upper limit upper limit.
Chapter 6  Integration 31
Some Standard Definite Integrals Some Standard Definite Integrals Some Standard Definite Integrals Some Standard Definite Integrals Some Standard Definite Integrals
1.
( ) ( ) ·
∫ ∫
b b
a a
f x dx f t dt
2.
( ) ( ) · −
∫ ∫
b a
a b
f x dx f x dx.
3. If a < c < b then ( ) ( ) ( ) · +
∫ ∫ ∫
b c b
a a c
f x dx f x dx. f x dx.
4.
( ) ( ) · −
∫ ∫
a a
0 0
f x dx f a x dx.
5. ( ) ( ) · + −
∫ ∫
b b
a a
f x dx f a b x dx.
6.
( )
( )
−
¹
¹
¹
·
'
¹
¹
¹
∫
∫
a
a
0
a
2 x dx, if f(x) is an even function.
f x dx
0, if f(x) is an odd function.
7.
( )
( )
¹
¹
− ·
¹
·
'
¹
− · − ¹
¹
∫
∫
a
2a
0
0
2 x dx, if f(2a x) f(x).
f x dx
0, if f(2a x) f(x).
8.
+
+
·
∫ ∫
b nT b
a nT a
f(x) dx f(x) dx
, if f(x) is periodic with period T and n Z ∈
Hint: Hint: Hint: Hint: Hint: Substitute nT + y for x.
9. If f(x) is a periodic function with period T and a R
+
∈ , m, n Z ∈ , then
(a)
+
·
∫ ∫
a T a
T 0
f(x) dx f(x) dx
, by substituting T + y for x
(b) ( ) ( ) ·
∫ ∫
nT T
0 0
f x dx n f x dx
(c)
+
·
∫ ∫
a T T
a 0
f(x) dx f(x) dx
i.e.
+
∫
a T
a
f(x) dx
is independent of a.
32  Higher Mathematics Booklet
Solved Examples
1. 1. 1. 1. 1.
∫
x x
4 e dx
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
· +
∫
x
x
(4e)
(4e) dx c
ln(4e)
2. 2. 2. 2. 2.
+
+
∫
4
2
2x 3
dx
x 1
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
+ − − +
+
∫
4 2 2
2
2x 2x 2x 2 5
x 1
=
+ − −
+ +
+ + +
∫ ∫ ∫
4 2 2
2 2 2
2x 2x 2x 2 5
dx dx dx
x 1 x 1 x 1
·
− +
+
∫ ∫ ∫
2
2
5
2x dx 2dx dx
x 1
·
−
− + +
3
1
2x
2x 5tan (x) c
3
3. 3. 3. 3. 3.
+
∫
dx
3sin x 4 cos x
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. 3 sinx + 4 cosx = 5 (sinx cosα + cosx sinα) = 5 sin(x + α) where
−
 `
α ·
. ,
1
4
tan
3
1 dx 1 1 (x )
cosec (x )dx n tan c
5 sin(x ) 5 5 2
+ α
· · + α · · +
+ α
∫ ∫
l
4. 4. 4. 4. 4.
−
+ +
∫ 2
2x 3
dx
3x 4x 5
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Put ( )
 `
− · λ + + + µ · λ + +µ
. ,
2
d
2x 3 (3x 4x 5) 6x 4
dx
, given integral
becomes
+
λ + µ
+ + + +
∫ ∫ 2 2
6x 4 dx
3x 4x 5 3x 4x 5
Integrating
+ +
∫ 2
dx
3x 4x 5
1
2
2
2
1 dx 1 dx 1 3 3x 2
. tan
4 5
3 3 3
11 11
x x 2 11
x
3 3
3 3
−
+  `
· · ·
. ,
 `
+ +  `
+ +
. ,
. ,
∫ ∫
Chapter 6  Integration 33
Comparing the coefficients, we get λ · µ ·−
1 13
,
3 3
=
−
+  `
+ + − +
. ,
2 1
1 13 3x 2
In  3x 4x 5  tan C
3
3 11 11
5. 5. 5. 5. 5.
− +
∫
2
1
dx
(x 1) x 4
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
−
− · ⇒ · + ·
2
1 1 1
Let x 1 x 1dx dt
t t
t
I =
−
· −
+ +
 `
+ +
. ,
∫ ∫
2
2 2 2
1
dt
dt
t
(t 1) 4t
1 1
1 4
t t
· −
+ +
∫
2
dt
5t 2t 1
=
−
−
· − ·
+ +
 `  `  `
+ + + +
. , . , . ,
∫ ∫ ∫
2
2 2 2 2 2
1
dt
dt 1 1
t
dt
5
(t 1) 4t
1 1 1 2
1 4 t
t t 5 5
=
−  `
+ + + + +
. ,
2
1 1 2 1
ln t t t C
5 5 5
5
=
−
+ + + + +
− −
−
2
1 1 1 1 2 1
ln C
x 1 5 5 (x 1) 5
5 (x 1)
=
− +
+ + +
−
−
2
2
1 1 1 x 4
ln C
x 1 5
5 5(x 1)
6. 6. 6. 6. 6.
+ −
∫
2
dx
7 4x 2x
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. ·
− − − −
∫ ∫
2 2
1 dx 1 dx
2 7 2 9
(x 2x) (x 1)
2 2
=
 `
− −
. ,
∫
2
2
1 dx
2
3
(x 1)
2
=
−
 `
−
+
. ,
1
1 2(x 1)
sin C
3
2
34  Higher Mathematics Booklet
7. 7. 7. 7. 7.
/ 2
0
dx
1 cot x
π
+
∫
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
/ 2
0
sin x
dx
sin x cos x
π
+
∫ ... (i)
/ 2 a a
0 0 0
sin x
2
dx f(x)dx f(a x)dx
sin x cos x
2 2
π
π  `
−
]
. ,
] · −
] π π  `  `
]
− + −
. , . ,
∫ ∫ ∫
Q
/ 2
0
cos x
dx
cos x sin x
π
·
+
∫ ... (ii)
Adding (i) and (ii), we get
/ 2
0
sinx cos x
2I dx i.e.2I I
2 4
cos x sinx
π
+ π π
· · ⇒ ·
+
∫
8. 8. 8. 8. 8.
2
1
x
dx
3 x x − +
∫
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
2 2
1 1
3 x 3 x
dx dx
3 (3 x) 3 x x 3 x
− −
·
− − + − + −
∫ ∫
2 2 2
1 1 1
x 3 x x 3 x
2I dx dx dx
3 x x x 3 x 3 x x
− + −
· + ·
− + + − − +
∫ ∫ ∫
2
1
2 1 1
2I dx
2 2
−
· ⇒ Ι · ·
∫
9. 9. 9. 9. 9.
3
3
x dx
−
∫
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
3 0 3
3 3 0
x dx x dx x dx
− −
· +
∫ ∫ ∫
If x < 0, x x · −
Chapter 6  Integration 35
x > 0, x x · −
0 3
0 3
2 2
3 0
3 0
x x
x dx x dx
2 2
−
−
]
· − + · − + ]
]
]
∫ ∫
9 9
0
2 2
 `
· − − +
. ,
= 9
Same can be obtained as follows
x is an even function.
3
3 3 3
2
3 0 0 0
x 2 9
x dx 2 x dx 2 x dx 2 9
2 2
−
]
×
· · · · ·
]
]
]
∫ ∫ ∫
10. 10. 10. 10. 10.
/ 2
2 2 2 2
0
1
a sin x b cos x
π
+
∫
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Dividing the numerator and the denominator by cos
2
x,
/ 2
2
2 2 2
0
sec x dx
a tan x b
π
+
∫
Let tanx = t, sec
2
x dx = dt, x →0 ⇒ t →0 ,
x t
2
π
→ ⇒ → ∞
2 2 2 2 2
2
0 0
2
dt 1 dt
a t b a b
t
a
∞ ∞
·
+
+
∫ ∫
1 1
2
0 0
1 a at 1 at 1
. tan tan 0
b b ab b ab 2 2ab
a
∞ ∞
− −
π π  ` ] ]
· · · − ·
] ]
. , ] ]
36  Higher Mathematics Booklet
Scalar and Vector Quantities Scalar and Vector Quantities Scalar and Vector Quantities Scalar and Vector Quantities Scalar and Vector Quantities
(i) (i) (i) (i) (i) Scalar: Scalar: Scalar: Scalar: Scalar: A quantity which has only magnitude.
Examples: Examples: Examples: Examples: Examples: Length, mass, volume, time, temperature etc., are all scalars.
(ii) (ii) (ii) (ii) (ii) Vector: Vector: Vector: Vector: Vector: A quantity which has magnitude as well as direction or a
directed line segment is called a vector.
Examples: Examples: Examples: Examples: Examples: Displacement, velocity, acceleration, force etc., are all
vectors.
Representation of Vectors Representation of Vectors Representation of Vectors Representation of Vectors Representation of Vectors
A
B
Let A be an arbitary point in space and B any other point. Then the line
segment AB has both magnitude and direction, i.e. from A to B. Point A is
called the initial point (or tail) and B is called the terminating point (or head)
of vector
AB
KKKH
. A vector is denoted by
a
H
and its magnitude by a
H
or a.
Properties of Vectors Properties of Vectors Properties of Vectors Properties of Vectors Properties of Vectors
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. A vector of unit magnitude is called unit vector unit vector unit vector unit vector unit vector. A unit vector in the
direction of
a
H
is given by
a
a
H
H
and is denoted by
ˆ
a , i.e.
ˆ
a a a ·
H H
.
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. Two or more vectors are said to be equal equal equal equal equal if they have the same
magnitude and same direction.
3. 3. 3. 3. 3.
O
P
If initial point is chosen as origin O and P be any other point, then the
position position position position position vector (p.v.) of P is
KKKH
OP
.
Vectors
7
Chapter 7  Vectors  37
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. A vector having direction opposite to that of a
H
but having the same
magnitude is called the negative negative negative negative negative vector and is denoted by a −
H
.
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. A vector having its head and tail at the same point is called a null null null null null or a
zero zero zero zero zero vector denoted by
0
H
. e.g.
AA
KKKH
. A null vector is of zero
magnitude and have any arbitrary direction.
6. 6. 6. 6. 6. Vector addition : Vector addition : Vector addition : Vector addition : Vector addition : If a, b a, b a, b a, b a, b are two vectors, then there exists three points A,
B, C in the space such that a = a = a = a = a =
KKKH
ABb = b = b = b = b =
KKKH
BC . Define a a a a a + b = b = b = b = b =
+ ·
KKKH KKKH KKKH
AB BC AC
7. 7. 7. 7. 7. Scalar multiplication : Scalar multiplication : Scalar multiplication : Scalar multiplication : Scalar multiplication : Let m be a scalar and a aa aa be a vector. Then the
product ma a a a a is defined as follows.
i) If m > 0, then m a a a a a is a vector of length m a and having direction
same as to that of a aa aa.
ii) If m < 0, then m a aa aa is a vector of length (– m) a and having direction
opposite to that of a aa aa
iii) If m = 0, then m a aa aa = 0
8. 8. 8. 8. 8. Two nonzero vectors a aa aa, b b b b b are like vectors ⇔(a aa aa, b bb bb) = 0, where (a, b) is
the angle between vector a and vector b.
9. 9. 9. 9. 9. Two nonzero vectors a aa aa, b b b b b are unlike vectors ⇔(a aa aa, b bb bb) = 180°
10. 10. 10. 10. 10. Two nonzero vectors a aa aa, b b b b b are parallel ⇔(a aa aa, b bb bb) = 0 or (a aa aa, b bb bb) = 180°
11. 11. 11. 11. 11. If · + + · + + r a b c a b c
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
x y z , r x y z then
( ) ( ) ( ) + · + + + + + r r a b c
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
x x y y z z
12. 12. 12. 12. 12. If r rr rr = xi ii ii + yj jj jj + zk kk kk then r =
+ +
2 2 2
x y z
13. 13. 13. 13. 13. If the position vectors of the points, P, Q are x
1
i ii ii + y
1
j jj jj + z
1
k kk kk and x
2
i ii ii +
y
2
j jj jj + z
2
k kk kk then ( ) ( ) ( ) · − + − + −
KKKH
2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
PQ x x y y z z
14. 14. 14. 14. 14. The vectors a aa aa = a
1
i ii ii + a
2
j jj jj + a
3
k kk kk, b = b
1
i ii ii + b
2
j jj jj + b
3
k kk kk, c= c
1
i + c
2
j jj jj + c
3
k kk kk are
linearly dependent iff ·
1 2 3
1 2 3
1 2 3
a a a
b b b 0
c c c
38  Higher Mathematics Booklet
15. 15. 15. 15. 15. The vectors a aa aa = a
1
i ii ii + a
2
j jj jj + a
3
k kk kk, b = b
1
i ii ii + b
2
j jj jj + b
3
k kk kk, c= c
1
i + c
2
j jj jj + c
3
k kk kk are
coplanar iff ·
1 2 3
1 2 3
1 2 3
a a a
b b b 0
c c c
16. 16. 16. 16. 16. Let a aa aa, b bb bb be the position vectors of the points A, B respectively. The
position vector of the point P which divides ABin the ratio m : n is
+
+
b a m n
m n
17. 17. 17. 17. 17. Let a aa aa, b bb bb be the position vectors of the points A, B respectively. The
position vector of the point P which divides ABexternally in the ratio
m : n is
−
b a m n
m n
18. 18. 18. 18. 18. Dot product : Dot product : Dot product : Dot product : Dot product : Let a aa aa, b b b b b be two vectors. The dot product or direct
product or inner product or scalar product of a aa aa and b bb bb is denoted by a . a . a . a . a .
b bb bb and is defined as follows
1) If a aa aa = 0 00 00 or b bb bb = 0 00 00 then a . b a . b a . b a . b a . b = 0
2) If a aa aa
≠
0 00 00, b bb bb
≠
0 00 00 then a aa aa. b bb bb = a b cos (a aa aa, b bb bb)
19. 19. 19. 19. 19. If a, b a, b a, b a, b a, b are two vectors then a . b = b. a. a . b = b. a. a . b = b. a. a . b = b. a. a . b = b. a.
20. 20. 20. 20. 20. If a is a vector then a . a = a
2
.
21. 21. 21. 21. 21. If a, b, c a, b, c a, b, c a, b, c a, b, c are three vectors, then
i) a. (b + c) = a . b + a . c a. (b + c) = a . b + a . c a. (b + c) = a . b + a . c a. (b + c) = a . b + a . c a. (b + c) = a . b + a . c
ii) (b + c) . a = b . a + c . a. (b + c) . a = b . a + c . a. (b + c) . a = b . a + c . a. (b + c) . a = b . a + c . a. (b + c) . a = b . a + c . a.
22. 22. 22. 22. 22. If a aa aa = a
1
i ii ii + a
2
j jj jj + a
3
k kk kk, b bb bb = b
1
i ii ii + b
2
j jj jj + b
3
k kk kk then a.b a.b a.b a.b a.b = a
1
b
1
+ a
2
b
2
+ a
3
b
3
23. 23. 23. 23. 23. If a aa aa = a
1
i ii ii + a
2
j jj jj + a
3
k kk kk then
· + + a
2 2 2
1 2 3
a a a
24. 24. 24. 24. 24. If a, b are two nonzero vectors then cos (a, b) =
a.b
a b
Chapter 7  Vectors  39
25. 25. 25. 25. 25. Cross product : Cross product : Cross product : Cross product : Cross product : Let a, b a, b a, b a, b a, b be two vectors. The cross product or vector
product or skew product of the vectors a, b a, b a, b a, b a, b is denoted by a × b a × b a × b a × b a × b and is
defined as follows
1) If a = 0 a = 0 a = 0 a = 0 a = 0 or b = 0 b = 0 b = 0 b = 0 b = 0 or a, b are parallel, then a × b a × b a × b a × b a × b = 0
2) If a a a a a
≠
0, b 0, b 0, b 0, b 0, b
≠
0, a, b 0, a, b 0, a, b 0, a, b 0, a, b are not parallel, then a × b a × b a × b a × b a × b = a b sin (a, b a, b a, b a, b a, b) n nn nn,
where n nn nn is the unit vector perpendicular to the planed generated by a, b a, b a, b a, b a, b
so that a, b, n a, b, n a, b, n a, b, n a, b, n form a right handed system.
26. 26. 26. 26. 26. If a, b a, b a, b a, b a, b are two vectors then a × b = – b × a. a × b = – b × a. a × b = – b × a. a × b = – b × a. a × b = – b × a.
27. 27. 27. 27. 27. If a, b, c a, b, c a, b, c a, b, c a, b, c are three vectors, then
i) a × (b + c) = a × b + a × c a × (b + c) = a × b + a × c a × (b + c) = a × b + a × c a × (b + c) = a × b + a × c a × (b + c) = a × b + a × c
ii) (b + c) × a = b × a + c × a (b + c) × a = b × a + c × a (b + c) × a = b × a + c × a (b + c) × a = b × a + c × a (b + c) × a = b × a + c × a
28. 28. 28. 28. 28. i) i × i = j × j = k × k = 0 i × i = j × j = k × k = 0 i × i = j × j = k × k = 0 i × i = j × j = k × k = 0 i × i = j × j = k × k = 0
ii) i × j = k = – j × i, j × k = i = – k × j; k × i = j = – i × k. i × j = k = – j × i, j × k = i = – k × j; k × i = j = – i × k. i × j = k = – j × i, j × k = i = – k × j; k × i = j = – i × k. i × j = k = – j × i, j × k = i = – k × j; k × i = j = – i × k. i × j = k = – j × i, j × k = i = – k × j; k × i = j = – i × k.
29. 29. 29. 29. 29. If a aa aa = a
1
i ii ii + a
2
j jj jj + a
3
k kk kk, b bb bb = b
1
i ii ii + b
2
j jj jj + b
3
k kk kk then a × b a × b a × b a × b a × b =
i j k
1 2 3
1 2 3
a a a
b b b
30. 30. 30. 30. 30. If a, b, c are the position vectors of the vertices of a triangle, then the
vector area of the triangle =
1
2
(a × b + b × c + c ×a a × b + b × c + c ×a a × b + b × c + c ×a a × b + b × c + c ×a a × b + b × c + c ×a).
31. 31. 31. 31. 31. The length of the projection of b b b b b on a vector perpendicular to a a a a a in the
plane generated by a, b a, b a, b a, b a, b is
a×b
a
32. 32. 32. 32. 32. If a, b, c a, b, c a, b, c a, b, c a, b, c are three vectors, then (a × b) . c, a . (b × c) (a × b) . c, a . (b × c) (a × b) . c, a . (b × c) (a × b) . c, a . (b × c) (a × b) . c, a . (b × c) are called scalar scalar scalar scalar scalar
triple triple triple triple triple products of a, b, c a, b, c a, b, c a, b, c a, b, c.
33. 33. 33. 33. 33. If a, b, c, a, b, c, a, b, c, a, b, c, a, b, c, are vectors, then (a × b) . c = (b × c) . a = (c × a) . b. (a × b) . c = (b × c) . a = (c × a) . b. (a × b) . c = (b × c) . a = (c × a) . b. (a × b) . c = (b × c) . a = (c × a) . b. (a × b) . c = (b × c) . a = (c × a) . b.
34. 34. 34. 34. 34. If a, b, c a, b, c a, b, c a, b, c a, b, c are three vectors then
[ ]
a b c = = = = = [ ] b c a = = = = = [ ] c a b
= – = – = – = – = – [ ]
b a c = – = – = – = – = – [ ]
c b a = – = – = – = – = – [ ]
a c b
35. 35. 35. 35. 35. If a, b a, b a, b a, b a, b are two vectors then [ ] a a b = = = = = [ ] a b a = = = = = [ ] b a a = 0.
36. 36. 36. 36. 36. If a aa aa = a
1
l ll ll + a
2
m mm mm + a
3
n nn nn, b bb bb= b
1
l ll ll + b
2
m mm mm + b
3
n nn nn, c c c c c = c
1
l ll ll + c
2
m mm mm + c
3
n nn nn where l, l, l, l, l,
m, n m, n m, n m, n m, n form a right handed system of noncoplanar vectors, then
[ ] [ ]
· a b c l m n
2 3
1 2 3
1 2 3
a a a
b b b
c c c
1
40  Higher Mathematics Booklet
37. 37. 37. 37. 37. Three vectors a, b, c a, b, c a, b, c a, b, c a, b, c are coplanar iff [ ]
a b c = 0.
38. 38. 38. 38. 38. If a, b, c, d a, b, c, d a, b, c, d a, b, c, d a, b, c, d are four vectors then (a × b) . (c × d) = (a × b) . (c × d) = (a × b) . (c × d) = (a × b) . (c × d) = (a × b) . (c × d) =
a . c a . d
b . c b . d
39. 39. 39. 39. 39. If a, b, c, d a, b, c, d a, b, c, d a, b, c, d a, b, c, d are four vectors, then
(a × b) × (c × d) = [a b d] c – [a b c] d = [a c d] b – [b c d] a. (a × b) × (c × d) = [a b d] c – [a b c] d = [a c d] b – [b c d] a. (a × b) × (c × d) = [a b d] c – [a b c] d = [a c d] b – [b c d] a. (a × b) × (c × d) = [a b d] c – [a b c] d = [a c d] b – [b c d] a. (a × b) × (c × d) = [a b d] c – [a b c] d = [a c d] b – [b c d] a.
40. 40. 40. 40. 40. [ ]
· i j k 1
41. 41. 41. 41. 41. [ ] [ ]
· a+b b+c c+a a b c 2
42. 42. 42. 42. 42. i × (j × k) + j × (k × i) + k × (i × j) = 0 i × (j × k) + j × (k × i) + k × (i × j) = 0 i × (j × k) + j × (k × i) + k × (i × j) = 0 i × (j × k) + j × (k × i) + k × (i × j) = 0 i × (j × k) + j × (k × i) + k × (i × j) = 0
43. 43. 43. 43. 43. a × (b × c) + b × (c × a) + c × (a × b) = 0 a × (b × c) + b × (c × a) + c × (a × b) = 0 a × (b × c) + b × (c × a) + c × (a × b) = 0 a × (b × c) + b × (c × a) + c × (a × b) = 0 a × (b × c) + b × (c × a) + c × (a × b) = 0
44. 44. 44. 44. 44. i × (a × i) + j × ( a × j) + k × (a × k) i × (a × i) + j × ( a × j) + k × (a × k) i × (a × i) + j × ( a × j) + k × (a × k) i × (a × i) + j × ( a × j) + k × (a × k) i × (a × i) + j × ( a × j) + k × (a × k) = 2a aa aa
45. 45. 45. 45. 45.
[ ] [ ]
· a×b b×c c×a a b c
2
Solved Examples
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. Find the position vectors of the points which divide the join of the
points
→ → → →
+ − 2 a 3 b and a 2 b
internally and externally in the ratio 3 :
2.
a.
→ → →
− −
7
a , a 12 b
5
b.
→ → →
− +
7
a , a 12 b
5
c.
→ → → →
+ − −
8
a b, 4 a 13 b
5
d. None of these
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Let P and Q be the points with position vectors
→ → → →
+ − 2 a 3 b and a 2 b respectively. Let R and S be the points
dividing PQ in the ratio 3 : 2 internally and externally respectively.
Then
Position vector of R.
3 a 2 b 2 2 a 3 b
3 2
→ → → →
 `  `
− + +
. , . ,
·
+
=
→
7
a
5
Chapter 7  Vectors  41
Position vector of S =
→ → → →
 `  `
− − +
. , . ,
−
3 a 2 b 2 2 a 3 a
3 2
=
→ →
− − a 12 b
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. If the position vectors of A, B, C and D are
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
i + j + k, 2i + 5j, 3i + 2j – 3k
ˆ ˆ ˆ
and i – 6j – k, then angle between
→
ABand
→
CD
is
a. 0 b.
π
4
c.
π
2
d. p
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
→
AB
=
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
(2i + 5j) – (i + j + k) = i + 4j – k.
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
= (i – 6j – k) – (3i + 2j – 3k)
ˆ ˆ ˆ
= –2i – 8j + 2k. Angle between
→
ABand
→
CD is given by
+ − − − +
θ ·
+ + + +
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
(i 4j k).( 2i 8j 2k)
cos
1 16 1 4 64 4
· − ⇒ θ · π 1 .
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. Given vectors are
→ →
· − + · + −
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
a 2i 3j 4k, b i 2j k
and
→
· − +
ˆ ˆ ˆ
c 3i j 2k . Find the value of
→ → →
· [ a b c ]
a. –37 b. –19 c. –7 d. 49
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
→ → →
−
· − · −
−
2 3 4
[ a b c ] 1 2 1 7
3 1 2
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. If the vectors
→
· − − +
ˆ ˆ ˆ
a 2i 2j 4k
→
· − + −
ˆ ˆ ˆ
b 2i 4j 2k
and
→
· − λ −
ˆ ˆ ˆ
c 4i j 2k are coplanar, then the value of
λ
is
a. 2 b. –2 c. 4 d. –4
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
3
Given vectors
→
a
,
→
b
and
→
c
are coplanar.
→ → →
∴ · [ a b c ] 0
− −
⇒ − − ·
−λ −
2 2 4
2 4 2 0
4 2
⇒–2(–8 –
λ 2
) +2(4 + 8) + 4(
λ 2
– 16)= 0
⇒ λ · 2
42  Higher Mathematics Booklet
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. If
→ →
· + + · − + +
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
a 2i 2j 3k, b i 2j k
→
· +
ˆ ˆ
and c 3i j , then
→ →
+ a pc is
perpendicular to
→
b
if p =
a. –5 b. 5 c. 8 d. 6
Sol: Sol: Sol: Sol: Sol:
→ →
+ 3a p c
is perpendicular to
→
b
→ → →
 `
∴ +
. ,
a p c . b = 0
→ → → →
 `
⇒ + ·
. ,
a . b p c . b 0
→ →
→ →
⇒ · −
a . b
p
c . b
=
− + +
− ·
− +
( 2 4 3)
5
( 3 2)
6. 6. 6. 6. 6. For any three vectors
→ → →
a , b, c
.
→ → → → → →
+ + + [ a b b c c a ]
is equal to
a.
→ → →
+ + 2( a b c )
b.
→→→
2
[ a b c ]
c.
→→→
2[ a b c ]
d. None of these
Sol: Sol: Sol: Sol: Sol:
→ → → → → →
+ + + [ a b b c c a ]
→ → → → → →
· + ⋅ + × + ( a b) [( b c ) ( c a )]
→ → → → → → → → → →
· + × + × + × + × (a b) [ b c b a c c c a]
→ → → → → → → →
· + ⋅ × + × + + × ( a b) [ b c b a 0 c a ]
→ → → → → → → → →
· ⋅ × + ⋅ × + ⋅ × a ( b c ) b ( b a ) a ( c a )
→ → → → → → → → →
+ ⋅ × + ⋅ × + ⋅ × b ( b c ) b ( b a ) b ( c a )
→→→ →→→
· + + + + + [ a b c ] 0 0 0 0 [ b c a ]
→→→
· 2[ a b c ]
Chapter 7  Vectors  43
7. 7. 7. 7. 7. Let
H
H
a, b and
H
c
be three noncoplanar vectors, and
H H
p, q and
H
r
be the
vectors defined by the relations
,
] ] ]
] ] ]
H H
H H H H
H H H
H H H
H H H H H H
b×c c×a a×b
p = , q = and r =
a b c a b c a b c
then
H H
H H H H H H H
(a + b). p + (b + c). q + (c + a).r is equal to
a. 0 b. 1 c. 2 d. 3
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
( )
( )
×
⋅ · ⋅ · ⋅ × ·
] ]
] ]
H
H
H
H H H H H
H H
H H H H
b c
1
a p a a b c 1
a b c a b c
and
( )
×
⋅ · ⋅ · ⋅ × ·
] ]
] ]
H H
H H H H H H
H H
H H H H
c a 1
a q a a c a 0.
a b c a b c
Similarly, b.q = c.r.
H
H H H
=1and
a.r = b.p = c.q = c.p = b.r
H H
H H H H H H H H
= 0.
Therefore,
( ) ( )
( ) a b p b c q c a r + ⋅ + + ⋅ + + ⋅
H H
H H H H H H
a p b p b q c q c r a r · ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
H H
H H H H H H H H H H
1 1 1 3 · + + ·
.
44  Higher Mathematics Booklet
Definition Definition Definition Definition Definition
Any number of the form a + ib, where a and b are real numbers, is called
complex number. Generally, complex numbers are denoted by z (= a + ib say).
Here a is called the real part of z, and b is the imaginary part of z. Notation for
the same is Re (z) = a, Im (z) = b, where Re (z) stands for the real part of z and
Im (z) stands for the imaginary part of z. Any complex number a + ib can also
be written as (a, b).
Properties
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. Two complex numbers z
1
and z
2
are equal equal equal equal equal if Re (z
1
) = Re (z
2
) and Im
(z
1
) = Im (z
2
). Therefore, a + ib = c + id ⇔ a = c and b = d. Note that we
cannot compare two complex numbers (except equality), i.e. we cannot
say whether a complex number z
1
is more than or less an another
complex number z
2
.
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. Let z
1
= (a
1
, b
1
), z
2
= (a
2
, b
2
)
∈
C. Then define the sum of z
1
and z
2
as
z
1
+ z
2
= (a
1
+ a
2
,b
1
+ b
2
). Here + is called complex addition. complex addition. complex addition. complex addition. complex addition.
For e.g. (a
1
+ ib
1
) + (a
2
+ ib
2
) = (a
1
+ a
2
) + i (b
1
+ b
2
)
Similarly, (a
1
+ ib
1
) – (a
2
+ ib
2
) = (a
1
– a
2
) + i (b
1
– b
2
)
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. Let z
1
= (a
1
, b
1
), z
2
= (a
2
, b
2
)
∈
C.
Then define the sum of z
1
and z
2
as z
1
. z
2
= (a
1
a
2
– b
1
b
2
, a
1
b
2
+ a
2
b
1
).
Here ‘.’ is called complex multiplication. complex multiplication. complex multiplication. complex multiplication. complex multiplication.
For e.g. (a
1
+ ib
1
) (a
2
+ ib
2
) = (a
1
a
2
– b
1
b
2
) + i (a
1
b
2
+ a
2
b
1
)
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. Commutative law for addition: Commutative law for addition: Commutative law for addition: Commutative law for addition: Commutative law for addition: If z
1
, z
2
∈
C, then z
1
+ z
2
= z
2
+ z
1
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. Associative law for addition Associative law for addition Associative law for addition Associative law for addition Associative law for addition: If z
1
, z
2
, z
3
∈
C, then (z
1
+ z
2
) + z
3
= z
1
+
(z
2
+ z
3
)
6. 6. 6. 6. 6. Distributive law for addition: Distributive law for addition: Distributive law for addition: Distributive law for addition: Distributive law for addition: If z
1
, z
2
, z
3
∈
C, then z
1
+( z
2
+ z
3
) =
z
1
z
2
+ z
1
z
3
Modulus and Argument Modulus and Argument Modulus and Argument Modulus and Argument Modulus and Argument
If P is a point in the complex plane corresponding to the complex number z = a
+ ib, then a = r cosθ, b = r sinθ, where
2 2
r a b OP · + ·
and θ = tan
–1
b
a
. r is
called modulus of the complex number z and is written z and q is called
argument or amplitude of z, written as arg(z) or amp(z). Therefore, r = z =
2 2
a b +
and θ = arg(z) = tan
–1
b
a
, i.e. polar coordinates of z is (r, θ).
Complex Numbers
8
Chapter 8  Complex Numbers 45
Euler’s form Euler’s form Euler’s form Euler’s form Euler’s form
z = a + ib = r(cos
θ
+ i sin
θ
) =
θ i
r.e
, where
θ
θ + θ ·
i
cos i sin e
7. 7. 7. 7. 7. a – ib is called the conjugate conjugate conjugate conjugate conjugate of z = a + ib and is denoted by
z
.
Properties of Conjugate Properties of Conjugate Properties of Conjugate Properties of Conjugate Properties of Conjugate
(i) z z = z² (ii) t · t
1 2 1 2
z z z z
(iii) ·
1 2 1 2
z z z z (iv)
 `
·
. ,
1 1
2 2
z z
z z
8. 8. 8. 8. 8. If z
1
and z
2
be two complex numbers, then
(i) + ≤ +
1 2 1 2
z z z z
(ii) − ≤ +
1 2 1 2
z z z z
(iii) − ≥ −
1 2 1 2
z z z z
(iv) ≥
1 2 1 2
z .z z z
(v)
· ≠
1 1
2
2 2
z z
if z 0
z z
(vi) ·
1 1
kz k z if k is any positive real number.
Cube Roots of Unity Cube Roots of Unity Cube Roots of Unity Cube Roots of Unity Cube Roots of Unity
If z is a cube root of unity, then
1
3
z 1 ·
=1
1 1
3 3
(cos0 i sin 0) (cos2r i sin 2r ) π π + · +
=
2r 2r
cos i sin
3 3
π π
+ , where r = 0, 1, 2
2 2 4 4
z 1, cos i sin , cos i sin
3 3 3 3
π π π π
∴ · + +
or
1 i 3 1 i 3
z 1, ,
2 2
− + − −
·
,
which are the cube roots of unity. They are also denoted by 1, ω, ω
2
,
where ω =
1 i 3
2
− +
.
Properties of CubeRoots of Unity Properties of CubeRoots of Unity Properties of CubeRoots of Unity Properties of CubeRoots of Unity Properties of CubeRoots of Unity
9. 1 + ω+ ω
2
= 0
10.
ω ·
3
1
11. The product of the cube roots of unity is one.
12. 1, ω, ω
2
are in Geometric Progression.
46  Higher Mathematics Booklet
Solved Examples
1. 1. 1. 1. 1.
200 200
i 3 i 3
i 3 i 3
 `  `
+ −
+
− + +
. , . ,
=
a. 1 b. –1 c. 0 d. None of these
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. We have
200 200
i 3 i 3
i 3 i 3
 `  `
+ −
+
− + +
. , . ,
200 200
i(i 3) i(i 3)
i( i 3) i(i 3)
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
+ − ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
· +
' ' ' '
− + +
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
200 200
1 i 3 1 i 3
2 2
1 i 3 1 i 3
2 2
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹  `  `
− + − −
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
. , . ,
· +
' ' ' '
 `  `
− − − +
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
−
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
. , . , ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
200
200
2
2
ω ω
ω
ω
 `
 `
· +
− . ,
. ,
2
1 i 3 1 i 3
and
2 2
ω ω
]
− + − −
· ·
]
]
3
=
200
200 2 200 200
1
( ) ω ω ω
ω
 `
− + · − +
. ,
2
1
ω
ω
]
·
]
]
3
= ω
400
+ ω
200
= (ω
3
)
133
ω + (ω
3
)
66
ω
2
= ω + ω
2
= –1
2. 2. 2. 2. 2.
5
2 3 4
2 3 4
a b c d e
a b c d e
 `
+ ω+ ω + ω + ω
ω+ ω + ω + ω +
. ,
= (Given ω
5
= 1)
a. ω b. ω
3
c. ω
5
d. None of these
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Let Z =
2 3 4
2 3 4
a b c d e
a b c d e
ω ω ω ω
ω ω ω ω
 `
+ + + +
+ + + +
. ,
2 3 4
2 3 4 5
a b c d e
a b c d e
ω ω ω ω
ω ω ω ω ω
 `
+ + + +
·
+ + + +
. ,
Since ω
5
= 1,
1
Z
ω
·
⇒
5
5
1
Z 1
ω
· ·
Chapter 9  Coordinate Geometry  47
Cartesian Coordinates Cartesian Coordinates Cartesian Coordinates Cartesian Coordinates Cartesian Coordinates
Y
y

a
x
i
s
II quadrant
I quadrant
P(x, y)
O
III quadrant
IV quadrant
X
xaxis
M
Let OX and OY be two mutually perpendicular straight lines in the plane of
paper. The line OX is called xaxis, the line OY is yaxis, whereas the two
together are called the coordinate axes coordinate axes coordinate axes coordinate axes coordinate axes. The plane is called the XYplane or
coordinate plane. The point 'O' is known as origin origin origin origin origin. From any point 'P' in the
plane, draw a straight line parallel to OY to meet OX in M.
The distance OM (= x) is called the abscissa abscissa abscissa abscissa abscissa, and the distance MP (= y) is
called the ordinate ordinate ordinate ordinate ordinate of the point P, whereas the abscissa and the ordinate
together are its coordinates, denoted simply as P(x, y). For an arbitrary pair of
real numbers x and y, there exists a unique point A in the XYplane for which
x will be its abscissa and y its ordinate. Note that (x, y) is an ordered pair,
which means that point (x, y) is different from (y, x).
Some Standard Properties and Results Some Standard Properties and Results Some Standard Properties and Results Some Standard Properties and Results Some Standard Properties and Results
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. The distance between the points A (x
1
, y
1
) and B (x
2
, y
2
) is
AB =
( ) ( ) − + −
2 2
1 2 1 2
x x y y
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. Three or more points are said to be collinear collinear collinear collinear collinear if they lie on a line.
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. If A, B and C are collinear, then AB + BC = AC or AC + CB = AB or
BA + AC = BC.
Coordinate Geometry
9
48  Higher Mathematics Booklet
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. The point which divides the line segment joining the points A (x
1
, y
1
),
B (x
2
, y
2
) in the ratio l : m
(i) internally is ( )
+ +  `
+ ≠
+ +
. ,
2 1 2 1
lx mx ly my
, l m 0
l m l m
(ii) externally is
( )
− −  `
≠
− −
. ,
2 1 2 1
lx mx ly my
, l m
l m l m
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. The midpoint of the line segment joining A (x
1
, y
1
), B (x
2
, y
2
) is
+ +  `
. ,
1 2 1 2
x x y y
,
2 2
6. 6. 6. 6. 6. If P (x, y) lies in the line joining A (x
1
, y
1
), B (x
2
, y
2
) then
− −
·
− −
1 1
2 2
x x y y
x x y y
and P divides
AB
in the ratio x
1
– x : x – x
2
that is
also equals to
y
1
– y : y – y
2
.
7. 7. 7. 7. 7. If (x
1
, y
1
), (x
2
, y
2
), (x
3
, y
3
) are three consecutive vertices of a
parallelogram, then the fourth vertex is (x
1
– x
2
+ x
3
, y
1
– y
2
+ y
3
).
8. 8. 8. 8. 8. The centroid of the triangle formed by the points A (x
1
, y
1
), B (x
2
, y
2
),
C (x
3
, y
3
) is.
+ + + +  `
. ,
1 2 3 1 2 3
x x x y y y
,
3 3
9. 9. 9. 9. 9. The area of the triangle formed by the points A (x
1
, y
1
) and B (x
2
, y
2
)
and C (x
3
, y
3
) is
1 1
2 2
3 3
x y 1
1
x y 1
2
x y 1
·
2 1 2 1
3 1 3 1
x x y y
1
x x y y 2
− −
·
− −
[ ]
1 2 2 1 2 3 3 2 3 1 1 3
1
(x y x y (x y x y ) (x y x y
2
· − + − + −
10. 10. 10. 10. 10. The area of the triangle formed by the points O (0,0), A (x1, y1), B (x2,
y2) is
−
1 2 2 1
1
x y x y
2
Chapter 9  Coordinate Geometry  49
11. 11. 11. 11. 11. The area of the triangle formed by the points (x
1
, y
1
), (x
2
, y
2
), (x
3
, y
3
) is
x  x x  x
y  y y  y
1 2 1 3
1 2 1 3
1
2
12. 12. 12. 12. 12. Three points A, B, C are collinear if area of
∆ ABC
is zero.
13. 13. 13. 13. 13. The incenre of
ABC ∆
with sides a, b and c and vertices A(x
1
,y
1
),
B(x
2
, y
2
) and C(x
3
, y
3
) is given by
1 2 3 1 2 3
ax bx cx ay by cy
,
a b c a b c
+ + + +  `
+ + + +
. ,
.
14. 14. 14. 14. 14. Circumcentre of triangle A(x
1
,y
1
), B(x
2
, y
2
) and C(x
3
, y
3
) is given by
1 2 3 1 2 3
x sin 2A x sin 2B x sin 2C y sin 2A y sin 2B y sin 2C
O ,
sin 2A sin 2B sin 2C sin 2A sin 2B sin 2C
+ + + + ]
]
+ + + +
]
15. 15. 15. 15. 15. Orthocenter of triangle A(x
1
,y
1
), B(x
2
, y
2
) and C(x
3
, y
3
) is given by
1 2 3 1 2 3
x tan A x tan B x tan C y tan A y y tan C
H ,
tan A tan B tan C tan A tan B tan C
+ + + + ]
]
+ + + +
]
Solved Examples
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. The points of trisection of the line joining the points (0, 3) and (6, –3)
are
a. (2, 0); (4, –1) b. (2, –1); (4, 1)
c. (3, 1) ;(4,–1) d. (2, 1); (4, –1)
Sol: Sol: Sol: Sol: Sol: Let P, Q be the points of trisection
∴
0 6 6 3
P , or (2, 1) ;
3 3
+ −  `
≡
. ,
∴
0+12 36
Q , or (4, 1)
3 3
 `
≡ −
. ,
.
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. A line is of length 10 units and one end is at the point (2, –3); if the
abscissa of the other end be 10, then ordinate must be
a. 3 or –9 b. 9 or –3
c. 4 d. 6
Sol: Sol: Sol: Sol: Sol: Let the ordinate be y. Then,
2 2
(10 2) (y 3) 10 − + + ·
.
Therefore, y must be 3 or –9.
50  Higher Mathematics Booklet
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. The length of the side of an equilateral triangle with vertex (1, 1) and
circumcentre
1 1
,
3 3
 `
−
. ,
is
a. 18 b. 8 c. 28 d. None of these
Sol: Sol: Sol: Sol: Sol: Length of side of an equilateral triangle is equal to √3 R where R is the
circumradius.
R=
2 2
1 1 8
1 1
3
3 3
 `  `
− + + ·
. , . ,
.
Therefore, side =
8
3 8
3
× ·
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. The orthocentre of the triangle whose vertices are (0,0), (3, √3), (0, 2√3)
is
a. (0, 0) b. (
3
, 0) c. (1,
3
) d. None of these
Sol: Sol: Sol: Sol: Sol: Since the triangle is equilateral, orthocentre is same as centroid G =
( )
0 3 0 0 3 2 3
, 1, 3
3 3
 `
+ + + +
·
. ,
.
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. If the line joining (c + 1, 2c) and (4c, –3c) is perpendicular to the line
joining (3c, 1 – c) and (–c, –4c) then c is equal to
a. 3 b. –3 c.
1
3
d.
1
3
−
Sol: Sol: Sol: Sol: Sol: Product of slopes = –1 i.e.
5c 3c 1
1
3c 1 4c
− − −
× · −
− −
or –15c – 5 = –12c + 4
or c = –3.
6. 6. 6. 6. 6. If the midpoints of sides of a triangle are (2, 1), (0, –3) and (4, 5), then
the coordinates of the centroid of the triangle are
a. (2, 1) b. (0, 2)
c. (1, 3) d. Cannot be determined
Sol: Sol: Sol: Sol: Sol:
1 2 1 2
x x y y
,
2 2
+ +  `
≡
. ,
( )
1 2 1 2
2,1 x x 4, y y 2 ⇒ + · + ·
Similarly, x
2
+ x
3
= 0, y
2
+ y
3
= –6, and x
3
+ x
1
= 8, y
3
+ y
1
= 10
Hence,
1 2 3
x x x 4 0 8
2
3 2.3
+ + + +
· ·
1 2 3
y y y 2 6 10
and 1
3 2.3
+ + − +
· ·
i.e. centroid is (2,1).
Short cut: Short cut: Short cut: Short cut: Short cut: Centroid of the triangle formed by the midpoints of sides
will be same as that formed by the vertices.
Chapter 10  Trigonometry  51
Some Standard Formulae and Results Some Standard Formulae and Results Some Standard Formulae and Results Some Standard Formulae and Results Some Standard Formulae and Results
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. sin
2
θ + cos
2
θ = 1, sin
2
θ = 1 – cos
2
θ, cos
2
θ = 1 – sin
2
θ
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 1 + tan
2
θ = sec
2
θ, tan
2
θ = sec
2
θ – 1, sec
2
θ – tan
2
θ = 1
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 1 + cot
2
θ = cosec
2
θ, cot
2
θ = cosec
2
θ – 1, cosec
2
θ – cot
2
θ = 1
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. sec θ + tan θ =
θ − θ
1
sec tan
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. cosec θ + cot θ =
θ − θ
1
cosec cot
6. 6. 6. 6. 6. (i) cos(A + B) = cos A cos B – sin A sin B
(ii) cos(A – B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B
7. 7. 7. 7. 7. (i) sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B
(ii) sin(A – B) = sin A cos B – cos A sin B
8. 8. 8. 8. 8. (i) tan (A + B) =
+
−
tan A tan B
1 tan A tan B
(ii) tan (A – B) =
−
+
tan A tan B
1 tan A tan B
9. 9. 9. 9. 9. sin (A + B) . sin (A – B) = sin
2
A – sin
2
B = cos
2
B – cos
2
A.
10. 10. 10. 10. 10. cos (A + B) . cos (A – B) = cos
2
A – sin
2
B = cos
2
B – sin
2
A
11. 11. 11. 11. 11. (i) tan
π + +  `
+ · ·
− −
. ,
1 tan A cos A sin A
A
4 1 tan A cos A sin A
(ii) tan
π − −  `
− · ·
+ +
. ,
1 tan A cos A sin A
A
4 1 tan A cos A sin A
12. 12. 12. 12. 12. (i) sin (A + B) + sin (A – B) = 2 sin A cos B
(ii) sin (A + B) – sin (A – B) = 2 cos A sin B
(iii) cos (A + B) + cos (A – B) = 2 cos A cos B
(iv) cos (A – B) – cos (A + B) = 2 sin A sin B
Trigonometry
10
52  Higher Mathematics Booklet
13. 13. 13. 13. 13. (i) sin C + sin D = 2 sin
+ −  `  `
. , . ,
C D C D
cos
2 2
(ii) sin C – sin D = 2 cos
+ −  `  `
. , . ,
C D C D
sin
2 2
(iii) cos C + cos D = 2 cos
+ −  `  `
⋅
. , . ,
C D C D
cos
2 2
(iv) cos C – cos D = –2 sin
+ −  `  `
⋅
. , . ,
C D C D
sin
2 2
= 2 sin
+ −  `  `
⋅
. , . ,
C D D C
sin
2 2
Notations Used: Notations Used: Notations Used: Notations Used: Notations Used: We shall denote the lengths of sides BC, CA and AB of a
∆ABC by a, b and c. Semiperimeter of the triangle will be denoted by
s = (
+ + a b c
2
) and its area by S or ∆.
Circumradius, inradius and 3 exradii will be denoted by R, r and (r
1
, r
2
, r
3
)
respectively.
14. 14. 14. 14. 14. Law of Sines: Law of Sines: Law of Sines: Law of Sines: Law of Sines: · ·
sin A sin B sin C
a b c
=
1
2R
15. 15. 15. 15. 15. Law of Cosines: Law of Cosines: Law of Cosines: Law of Cosines: Law of Cosines:
+ − + − + −
· · ·
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
b c a c a b a b c
cos A , cos B , cos C
2bc 2ca 2ab
16. 16. 16. 16. 16.
− − − − ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
· ·
' ' ' '
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
A (s b)(s c) B (s c)(s a)
sin , sin ,
2 bc 2 ca
− − ¹ ¹
·
' '
¹ ¹
C (s a)(s b)
sin
2 ab
17. 17. 17. 17. 17.
− − − ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
· · ·
' ' ' ' ' '
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
A s(s a) B s(s b) C s(s c)
cos , cos , cos
2 bc 2 ca 2 ab
18. 18. 18. 18. 18.
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹ − − − −
· ·
' ' ' '
− −
¹ ¹ ¹ ¹
A (s b)(s c) B (s c)(s a)
tan , tan ,
2 s(s a) 2 s(s b)
¹ ¹ − −
·
' '
−
¹ ¹
C (s a)(s b)
tan .
2 s(s c)
Chapter 10  Trigonometry  53
19. 19. 19. 19. 19.
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
− −
· ·
− − − −
s s a s s b
A B
cot , cot ,
2 s b s c 2 s a s c
( )
( )( )
−
·
− −
s s c
C
cot
2 s a s b
20. 20. 20. 20. 20. Area of a triangle: Area of a triangle: Area of a triangle: Area of a triangle: Area of a triangle: (i)
1
2
∆ · ab sin C =
1
2
bc sin A =
1
2
ca sin B
(ii) s(s a)(s b)(s c) ∆ · − − −
(iii)
abc
rs
4R
∆ · ·
.
21. 21. 21. 21. 21. Projection formula: Projection formula: Projection formula: Projection formula: Projection formula: a = b cos C + c cos B. Likewise for b and c.
22. 22. 22. 22. 22. Napier's analogy: Napier's analogy: Napier's analogy: Napier's analogy: Napier's analogy: (i)
− −
·
+
B C b c A
tan cot
2 b c 2
(ii)
− −  `
·
+
. ,
C A c a B
tan cot
2 c a 2
(iii)
− −  `
·
+
. ,
A B a b C
tan cot
2 a b 2
23. 23. 23. 23. 23. Circumradius Circumradius Circumradius Circumradius Circumradius
(i)
· · ·
a b c
R
2 sin A 2 sin B 2sin C
(ii)
·
∆
abc
R
4
24. 24. 24. 24. 24. Inradius Inradius Inradius Inradius Inradius
(i)
∆
· r
s
(ii) ( ) · − · − · −
A B C
r s a tan , r (s b) tan , r (s c) tan
2 2 2
(iii)
·
A B C
r 4R sin sin sin
2 2 2
25. 25. 25. 25. 25. Radii of escribed circles Radii of escribed circles Radii of escribed circles Radii of escribed circles Radii of escribed circles
(i)
·
1
A B C
r 4Rsin cos cos
2 2 2
,
·
2
A B C
r 4R cos sin cos
2 2 2
,
·
3
A B C
r 4R cos cos sin
2 2 2
(ii)
∆ ∆ ∆
· · · · · ·
− − −
1 2 3
A B C
r s tan , r s tan , r s tan
s a 2 s b 2 s c 2
54  Higher Mathematics Booklet
Trigonometric Equations Trigonometric Equations Trigonometric Equations Trigonometric Equations Trigonometric Equations
Some Standard Results Some Standard Results Some Standard Results Some Standard Results Some Standard Results
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. Solution set of sin x = 0 is {nπ : n ∈ Z}.
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. Solution set of cos x = 0 is
( ) 2n 1 : n Z
2
π ¹ ¹
+ ∈
' '
¹ ¹
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. Solution set of tan x = 0 is {nπ : n ∈ Z}.
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. Solution set of sin x = k, k ∈ R, k ≤ 1 is {nπ + (–1)
n
α : n ∈ Z}, where α
is the principal solution.
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. Solution set of cos x = k, k ∈ R, k ≤ 1 is {(2nπ ± α) : n ∈ Z}, where α is
the principal solution.
6. 6. 6. 6. 6. Solution set of tan x = k, k ∈ R is {nπ + α : n ∈ Z}, where α is the
principal solution.
7. 7. 7. 7. 7. Solution set of sin
2
x = sin
2
α is {nπ ± α : n ∈ Z}, where α is the
principal solution of sin x = sin α.
8. 8. 8. 8. 8. Solution set of cos
2
x = cos
2
α is {nπ ± α : n ∈ Z}, where α is the
principal solution of cos x = cos α.
9. 9. 9. 9. 9. Solution set of tan
2
x = tan
2
α is {nπ ± α : n ∈ Z}, where α is the
principal solution of tan x = tan α.
Inverse Circular Functions Inverse Circular Functions Inverse Circular Functions Inverse Circular Functions Inverse Circular Functions
Some Standard Results Some Standard Results Some Standard Results Some Standard Results Some Standard Results
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. tan
–1
x + tan
–1
y = tan
–1
 ` +
−
. ,
x y
1 xy
, for x > 0, y > 0, xy < 1
= π + tan
–1
 ` +
−
. ,
x y
1 xy
, for x > 0, y > 0, xy > 1.
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. tan
–1
x + tan
–1
y = tan
–1
+
−
x y
1 xy
for x < 0, y < 0, xy < 1
= –π + tan
–1
+
−
x y
1 xy
for x < 0, y < 0, xy > 1
Chapter 10  Trigonometry  55
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. If x > 0, y > 0 then tan
–1
x – tan
–1
y = tan
–1
−
+
x y
1 xy
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. If x < 0, y < 0 then tan
–1
x – tan
–1
y = tan
–1
 ` −
+
. ,
x y
1 xy
.
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. (i) 2 sin
–1
x = sin
–1
 `
−
. ,
2
2x 1 x
, for x ≤
1
2
(ii) 2 sin
–1
x = π – sin
–1
 `
−
. ,
2
2x 1 x
, for x >
1
2
6. 6. 6. 6. 6. (i) 2 cos
–1
x = cos
–1
(2x
2
– 1), for x ≤
1
2
(ii) 2 cos
–1
x = π – cos
–1
(1 – 2x
2
), for x >
1
2
7. 7. 7. 7. 7. 2 tan
–1
x = tan
–1
 `
. − ,
2
2x
1 x
, if x
2
< 1
= π + tan
–1
 `
. − ,
2
2x
1 x
, if x
2
> 1
8. 8. 8. 8. 8. 2 tan
–1
x = sin
–1
+
2
2x
1 x
,
∀
x ∈ R
= cos
–1
−
+
2
2
1 x
1 x
, if x > 0
= –cos
–1
−
+
2
2
1 x
1 x
, if x < 0
9. 9. 9. 9. 9. (i) sin
–1
x = cos
–1
−
2
1 x , for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1
(ii) sin
–1
x = – cos
–1
−
2
1 x , for –1 ≤ x < 0
10. 10. 10. 10. 10. (i) cos
–1
x = sin
–1
−
2
1 x
, for 0 ≤ x ≤ 0
(ii) cos
–1
x = π – sin
–1
−
2
1 x , for –1 ≤ x < 0
56  Higher Mathematics Booklet
Angle of Elevation and Depression of a Point
A
P
Q
X
α = EL E of P
β = DEP of Q
Suppose a straight line AX is drawn in the horizontal direction. Then the angle
XAP where P is a point above AX is called angle of elevation angle of elevation angle of elevation angle of elevation angle of elevation of P as seen from
A. Similarly, the angle XAQ, where Q is below AX, is called angle of angle of angle of angle of angle of
depression depression depression depression depression of some point Q.
Note Note Note Note Note that both the angles — angle of elevation and angle of depression — are
measured with the horizontal line. In the figure shown, the angle of elevation
of top of the pole AC standing on inclined plane PQ is ∠ABM (not ∠ABC).
Solved Examples
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. If θ− θ · sec4 sec2 2, θ then the general value of is
a. ( )
π
+ 2n 1
4
b.
( )
π
+ 2n 1
10
c.
π π π
π + +
n
n or
2 5 10
d. None of these
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
θ − θ · ⇒ θ − θ sec 4 sec 2 2 cos 2 cos 4 · θ θ 2cos 4 cos 2
⇒
θ · θ – cos 4 cos 6
⇒ θ θ · 2cos5 cos 0
⇒
π π π
θ · π + +
n
n or .
2 5 10
2. 2. 2. 2. 2.
π π π  `  `  `
+ + +
. , . , . ,
3 5
1 cos 1 cos 1 cos
8 8 8
π  `
+
. ,
7
1 cos
8
is equal to
a.
1
2
b.
1
8
c.
π
cos
8
d.
+ 1 2
2 2
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
π π π  `  `  `
+ + −
. , . , . ,
3 3
1 cos 1 cos 1 cos
8 8 8
π  `
−
. ,
1 cos
8
Chapter 10  Trigonometry  57
=
π π  `  `
− −
. , . ,
2 2
3
1 cos 1 cos
8 8
=
π π
2 2
3
sin sin
8 8
=
π π  `
. ,
2
1 3
2 sin sin
4 8 8
=
π π  `
−
. ,
2
1
cos cos
4 4 2
 `
· − θ ·
. ,
2
1 1 1
4 8
2
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. In
∆ ABC
, · + a 3 1, B = 30°, C = 45°, then C =
a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. B = 30°, C = 45° ⇒ C = 105°
Q
( )
+ °
· ⇒
°
3 1 sin 45
a sin C
c
sin A sin 75
( )
( )
+
⇒ ·
+
1
3 1 .
2
2
3 1
2 2
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. In a
∆ ABC
, if · ·
cos A cos B cos C
a b c
and the side a = 2, then area of
the triangle is
a. 1 b. 2 c.
3
2
d.
3
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
· ·
cos A cos B cos C
a b c
⇒ · ·
cos A cos B cos C
k sin A k sin B k sin C
⇒ · · cot A cot B cot C
⇒ A = B = C = 60°
∴ ∆ABC
is equilateral
∴
Area = × ·
2
3
(2) 3
4
sq. units
58  Higher Mathematics Booklet
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. Find the maximum and minimum values of 6 sinx cos x + 4xcos2x.
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. We have 6 sinx cosx + 4 cos2x = 3 sin2x + 4 cos2x. Therefore,
the maximum and minimum values of 3 sin2x + 4 cos2x are
( )
2 2
3 4 +
and –
( )
2 2
3 4 +
, i.e. 5 and – 5 respectively.
6. 6. 6. 6. 6. If sinθ + cosecθ = 2, then sin
2
θ + cosec
2
θ = is equal to
a. 1 b 4 c. 2 d. None of these
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
( )
2
sin cosec 2 sin cosec 4 θ+ θ· ⇒ θ+ θ ·
2 2
sin cos ec 2 4 ⇒ θ + θ + ·
2 2
sin cos ec 2 ⇒ θ + θ ·
7. 7. 7. 7. 7. If 3 tan (θ – 15°) = tan (θ + 15°), 0 < θ < π , then find the value of
θ
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
( ) ( )
0 0
3tan 15 tan 15 θ− · θ+
( )
( )
0
0
tan 15
3
tan 15
θ +
⇒ ·
θ −
⇒
tan( 15 ) tan( 15 )
tan( 15 ) tan( 15 )
θ + + θ −
θ + − θ−
o o
o o
3 1 sin( 15 15 )
2
3 1
sin( 15 15 )
+ θ + + θ −
· ⇒ ·
−
θ + −θ +
o o
o o
⇒
sin 2
2 sin 2 1
sin30
θ
· ⇒ θ ·
o
2 ( 0 )
2 4
π π
⇒ θ · < θ < π ⇒ θ · Q
.
8. 8. 8. 8. 8. In a ABC, ∆
a cos A b cos B c cos C
a b c
+ +
+ +
is equal to
a.
r
R
b.
R
r
c.
2r
R
d.
R
2r
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
2RsinAcosA 2RsinBcosB 2RsinCcosC
2RsinA 2RsinB 2RsinC
+ +
+ + ( )
sin 2A sin 2B sin 2C
2 sin A sin B sin C
+ +
·
+ +
4 sin A sin Bsin C
A B C
2 4 cos cos cos
2 2 2
·
 `
. ,
A B C
4sin sin sin
2 2 2
·
r
R
·
9. 9. 9. 9. 9. If r, r
1
, r
2
and r
3
have their usual meanings, the value of
1 2 3
1 1 1
r r r
+ +
is
a. 0 b. 1 c.
1
r
d. None of these
Chapter 10  Trigonometry  59
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol.
1 2 3
1 1 1 s a s b s c
r r r
− − −
+ + · + +
∆ ∆ ∆
3s 2s −
·
∆
s
·
∆
1
r
·
10. 10. 10. 10. 10. If two angles of a triangle are cot
–1
2 and cot
–1
3, then the third angle
is equal to
a.
6
π
b.
4
π
c.
3
π
d.
3
4
π
Sol. (d) Sol. (d) Sol. (d) Sol. (d) Sol. (d) Sum of two angles = cot
–1
2 + cot
–1
3
= tan
–1
1
2
 `
. ,
+ tan
–1
1
3
 `
. ,
= tan
–1
1 1
2 3
1 1
1
2 3
 `
+
− ×
. ,
= tan
–1
1 =
4
π
Third angle =
3
4 4
π π
π− ·
11. 11. 11. 11. 11. A man at top of the 30 3 m high tower sees a car moving towards
the tower at angle of depression of 30°. After some time the angle of
depression becomes 60°. Find the distance travelled by car in that
duration.
a. 120 b. 90 c. 60 d. 30
Sol.
30° 60°
30 3
x
d
30 3
tan 60
x
· ° and
30 3
tan 30
x d
· °
+
x 30 ⇒ · and
30 3 1
30 d
3
·
+
, i.e.
90 = 30 + d, i.e. d = 60m
60  Higher Mathematics Booklet
Definition Definition Definition Definition Definition
Each of the different orders of arrangements, obtained by taking some, or all, of
a number of things, is called a Permutation Permutation Permutation Permutation Permutation. Each of the different groups, or
collections, that can be formed by taking some, or all, of a number of things,
irrespective of the order in which the things appear in the group, is called a
Combination Combination Combination Combination Combination.
Some Standard Properties and Results Some Standard Properties and Results Some Standard Properties and Results Some Standard Properties and Results Some Standard Properties and Results
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. The number of (linear) permutations that can be formed by taking r
things at a time from a set of n dissimilar things (r ≤ n) is denoted by
n
P
r
or P(n, r) or P
 `
. ,
n
r
.
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time is
equal to the number of ways of filling of r blank places arranged in a
row by n dissimilar things.
3. 3. 3. 3. 3.
n
P
r
= n (n – 1) (n – 2) ... (n – r + 1).
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. If n is a nonnegative integer, then factorial n is denoted by n! or n! and
defined as follows.
(i) 0! = 1
(ii) If n > 0 then n! = n × (n –1)!
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. If n is positive integer, then n! is the product of first n positive integers.
i.e., n! = 1 . 2 . 3 . . . n
6. 6. 6. 6. 6.
n
P
r
=
( )
n!
n r ! −
7. 7. 7. 7. 7. The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken all at a time
n
P
n
= n!.
8. 8. 8. 8. 8.
n
P
r
=
(n–1)
P
r
+ r
(n–1)
P
r–1
9. 9. 9. 9. 9. The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken not more than r
at a time, when each things may occur at any number of times is
( )
−
−
r
n n 1
n 1
.
Permutation, Combination &
Probability
11
Chapter 11  Permutation, Combination & Probability  61
10. 10. 10. 10. 10. The number of permutations of n things taken all at a time when p of
them are all alike and the rest all different is
n!
p!
.
11. 11. 11. 11. 11. The number of circular permutations of n different things taken r at a
time is
n
r
P
r
.
12. 12. 12. 12. 12. The number of circular permutations of n different things taken all at a
time is (n – 1)!.
13. 13. 13. 13. 13. The number of circular permutations of n things taken r at a time in one
direction is
n
r
P
2r
.
14. 14. 14. 14. 14. The number of circular permutations of n things taken all at a time in
one direction is
1
2
(n – 1)!.
15. 15. 15. 15. 15. A selection that can be formed by taking some or all of a finite set of
things (or objects) is called a combination.
16. 16. 16. 16. 16. Formation of a combination by taking r elements from a finite set A
means picking up an r element subset of A.
17. 17. 17. 17. 17. The number of combinations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time is
equal to the number of r element subsets of a set containing n elements.
18. 18. 18. 18. 18. The number of combinations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time is
denoted by
n
C
r
or C(n, r) or C
 `
. ,
n
r
or
 `
. ,
n
r
19. 19. 19. 19. 19.
n
C
r
=
( ) −
n!
r! n r !
.
20. 20. 20. 20. 20.
n
C
r
=
( )( ) ( ) − − − +
·
n
r
n n 1 n 2 .... n r 1 P
r! 1.2.3....r
.
21. 21. 21. 21. 21.
n
C
r
=
n
C
n–r
22. 22. 22. 22. 22.
n
C
r
+
n
C
r–1
=
(n+1)
C
r
23. 23. 23. 23. 23. If
n
C
r
=
n
C
s
then r = s or r + s = n.
62  Higher Mathematics Booklet
24. 24. 24. 24. 24. The number of diagonals in a regular polygon of n sides is
n
C
2
– n =
( ) − n n 3
2
.
25. 25. 25. 25. 25. The number of ways in which (m + n) things can be divided into two
different groups of m and n things respectively is
( ) + m n !
m! n!
.
26. 26. 26. 26. 26. The number of ways in which 2n things can be divided into two equal
groups of n things each is
( )
( )
2
2n !
2! n!
.
27. 27. 27. 27. 27. The number of ways in which kn things can be divided into k equal
groups of n things each is
( )
( )
k
kn !
k! n!
.
28. 28. 28. 28. 28. The total number of combinations of (p + q) things taken any number at
a time when p things are alike of one kind and q things are alike of
second kind is (p + 1) (q + 1).
29. 29. 29. 29. 29. The total number of combinations of p + q things taken any number at a
time, includes the case in which nothing will be selected.
30. 30. 30. 30. 30. The total number of combinations of (p + q) things taken one or more at
a time when p things are alike of one kind and q things are alike of
second kind is (p + 1) (q + 1) – 1.
31. 31. 31. 31. 31. The total number of combinations of n different things taken any
number at a time is 2
n
.
32. 32. 32. 32. 32. The total number of combinations of n different things taken one or
more at a time is 2
n
– 1.
33. 33. 33. 33. 33.
n
C
0
+
n
C
1
+
n
C
2
+ ...
n
C
n
= 2
n.
34. 34. 34. 34. 34. Any change in the given order of the things is called a derangement. derangement. derangement. derangement. derangement. In
n things from an arrangement in a row, the number of ways in which they
can be deranged so that none of them occupies its original place is
=
n
1 1 1 1
n! 1 .... ( 1)
1! 2! 3! n!
 `
− + − + + − ⋅
. ,
.
Chapter 11  Permutation, Combination & Probability  63
Solved Examples
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. Seven schools are participating in a Quiz competition. In how many
ways can the first three prizes be won?
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. The total number of ways in which the first three prizes can be won is
the number of arrangements of seven different things taken 3 at a time.
So, the required number of ways
=
7
3
7! 7! 7 6 5 4!
P 210
(7 3)! 4! 4!
× × ×
· · · ·
−
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. In how many ways 5 boys and 3 girls can be seated in a row so that no
two girls are together?
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. The 5 boys can be selected in a row, i.e.
5
P
5
= 5! ways. In each of these
arrangements 6 places are created shown by the marks as given below:
_B _ B _ B _B _ B _
Since no 2 girls have to sit together, so we may arrange 3 girls in 6
places. This can be done in
6
P
3
ways, i.e. 3 girls can be seated in ways.
Hence, the total number of sitting arrangements
=
5 6
5 3
P P 5! 6 5 4 14400 × · × × × ·
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. Let there be 10 boys and 6 girls in a class and we have to select a group
of 6, if three particular boys never come and two particular girls are
always present. Here, we have to select a group of 4 as 2 particular girls
are already included in the group, from remaining 11 students (7 boys
and 4 girls) which can be done in
11
C
4
ways.
(a) The number of ways in which (m + n) things can be divided into
two groups containing m and n things respectively =
m + n
C
n
=
+ (m n)!
m! n!
=
m+n
C
m
.
(b) If 2m things are to be divided into two groups, each containing m
things, the number of ways =
2
(2m)!
2(m!)
(c) The number of ways to divide n things into different groups, one
containing p things, another q things and so on =
+ + + (p q r ....)!
p!q!r!....
where n = p + q + r + ...
(d) If some or all of n things be taken at a time, then the number of
combinations =
n
C
1
+
n
C
2
+ ...+
n
C
n
= 2
n
– 1.
(e) Total number of combinations of n things, taking some or all at a
time, when p of them are alike of one kind, q of them are alike of
another kind and so on is [(p + 1)(q + 1)(r + 1)...] – 1,
where n = p + q + r + ...
(f) Total number of ways to make a selection, by taking some or all of
p
1
+ p
2
+ ...+ p
r
things, where p1 are alike of one kind, p
2
are alike
of second kind,..., pr are alike of rth kind is given by (p
1
+ 1) (p
2
+
1)...(p
r
+ 1) – 1.
64  Higher Mathematics Booklet
(g) If there are p
1
objects of one kind, p
2
objects of second kind,..., pn
objects of nth kind, then the number of ways of choosing r objects
out of these (p
1
+ p
2
+ ....+ p
n
) objects
= Coefficients of x
r
in
+ + + + + +
+ + +
1 2
n
p p
2
p
2
(1 x ... x )(1 x ... x )
...(1 x ... x ) ....(i)
This problem can also be stated as:
Let there be n distinct objects x
1
,...x
n
... x
1
can be used at the most p1
times, x
2
at the most p
2
times,..., x
n
at the most p
n
times. Then the
number of ways to have r things is given by (i).
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. In how many ways can a pack of 52 cards be divided equally among
four players in order?
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Here 52 cards are to be divided into four equal groups and the order of
the groups is important. So, the required number of ways.
4!
4 4
52! 52!
(13!) 4! (13!)
]
·
]
]
]
.
Alternate method: Alternate method: Alternate method: Alternate method: Alternate method:
For the first player we have
52
C
13
choices, for the second player
39
C
13
choices, for the third player
26
C
13
. Choices and for the last player we
have choices. Hence the total number of ways =
52 39 26 13
13 13 13 13
C C C C × × ×
=
4
52!
(13!)
.
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. There are 6 letters and 6 directed envelopes. Find the number of ways in
which all letters are put in the wrong envelopes.
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Number of ways =
1 1 1 1 1 1
6! 1
1! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6!
]
− + − + − +
]
]
=
6! 6! 6! 6! 6!
2! 3! 4! 5! 6!
− + − +
= 360 – 120 + 30 – 6 + 1 = 265.
PROBABILITY THEORY PROBABILITY THEORY PROBABILITY THEORY PROBABILITY THEORY PROBABILITY THEORY
Some Standard Properties and Results Some Standard Properties and Results Some Standard Properties and Results Some Standard Properties and Results Some Standard Properties and Results
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. The set of all possible outcomes (results) in a trial is called sample sample sample sample sample
space space space space space for the trial. It is denoted by S. The elements of S are called
sample points sample points sample points sample points sample points.
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. Let S be a sample space of a random experiment. Every subset of S is
called an event event event event event.
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. Two events A, B in a sample space S are said to be disjoint disjoint disjoint disjoint disjoint or mutually mutually mutually mutually mutually
exclusive exclusive exclusive exclusive exclusive if A ∩ B =
∅
.
Chapter 11  Permutation, Combination & Probability  65
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. The events A
1
, A
2
, ..., A
n
in a sample space S are said to be mutually mutually mutually mutually mutually
exclusive exclusive exclusive exclusive exclusive or pairwise disjoint pairwise disjoint pairwise disjoint pairwise disjoint pairwise disjoint if every pair of the events A
1
, A
2
, ..., A
n
are disjoint.
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. Two events A, B in a sample space S are said to be exhaustive if
A ∪ B = S.
6. 6. 6. 6. 6. The events A
1
, A
2
, ... A
n
in a sample space S are said to be exhaustive exhaustive exhaustive exhaustive exhaustive
if
A
1
∪ A
2
∪ ... A
n
= S.
7. 7. 7. 7. 7. Two events A, B in a sample space S are said to be complementary complementary complementary complementary complementary if
A ∪ B = S, A ∩ B =
∅
.
8. 8. 8. 8. 8. Let A be an event in a sample space S. An event B in a S is said to be
complement complement complement complement complement of A if A, B are complementary in S. The complement B of
A is denoted by
A
.
9. 9. 9. 9. 9. Let S be a finite sample space and P be a probability function of S. If A
is an event in S then P(A), the image of A, is called probability of A.
10. 10. 10. 10. 10. If A is an event in a sample space S, then ( ) · − PA 1 P A .
11. 11. 11. 11. 11. Let A, B be two events in a sample space S. If ⊆ A B then P(A) ≤ P(B).
12. 12. 12. 12. 12. Let S be a sample space containing n sample points. If E is an
elementary event in S, then P(E) =
1
n
.
13. 13. 13. 13. 13. If A is an event in a sample space S, then the ratio P(A) : P( )
A is called
the odds favour odds favour odds favour odds favour odds favour to A and P( )
A : P(A) is called the odds against odds against odds against odds against odds against to A.
14. 14. 14. 14. 14. Addition theorem on probability: Addition theorem on probability: Addition theorem on probability: Addition theorem on probability: Addition theorem on probability: If A, B are two events in a sample
space S, then P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A ∩ B)
15. 15. 15. 15. 15. If A, B are two events in a sample space then the event of happening B
after the event A happening is called conditional event conditional event conditional event conditional event conditional event. It is denoted
by B  A.
16. 16. 16. 16. 16. If A, B are two events in a sample space S and P(A) ≠ 0, then the
probability of B after the event A has occurred is called conditional conditional conditional conditional conditional
probability probability probability probability probability of B given A. It is denoted by P(B  A).
66  Higher Mathematics Booklet
17. 17. 17. 17. 17. If A, B are two events in a sample space S such that P(A) ≠ 0, then P(B 
A) =
( )
( )
1 n A B
n A
.
18. 18. 18. 18. 18. Multiplication theorem of probability: Multiplication theorem of probability: Multiplication theorem of probability: Multiplication theorem of probability: Multiplication theorem of probability: Let A, B be two events in a
sample space S such that P(A) ≠ 0, P(B) ≠ 0. Then
(i) P(A ∩ B) = P(A) P(B  A)
(ii) P(A ∩ B) = P(B) P(A  B)
19. 19. 19. 19. 19. Two events A, B in a sample space S are said to be independent if
P(B  A) = P(B).
20. 20. 20. 20. 20. Two events A, B in a sample space S are independent iff
P(A ∩ B) = P(A) P(B).
21. 21. 21. 21. 21. If A
1
, A
2
are two mutually exclusive and exhaustive events and E is
any event then P(E) = P(A
1
) P(E  A
1
) + P(A
2
) P(E  A
2
)
22. 22. 22. 22. 22. If A
1
, A
2
, A
3
are two mutually exclusive and exhaustive events and E is
any event then P(E) = P(A
1
) P(E  A
1
) + P(A
2
) P(E  A
2
) + P(A
3
)
P(E  A
3
).
Bayes' Theorem Bayes' Theorem Bayes' Theorem Bayes' Theorem Bayes' Theorem
If an event A can occur in combination with one of the mutually exclusive
events B
1
, B
2
... B
n
, then
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
k k
k
n
i i
i 1
P A B P B
P B  A
P A B P B
·
·
∑
Chapter 11  Permutation, Combination & Probability  67
Solved Examples
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. What is the probability of getting a multiple of 3 in a throw of a single
die?
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Total number of outcomes n = 6
Total number of favourable cases m = 2 (occurrence of 3 and 6)
Required probability =
· ·
m 2 1
n 6 3
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. From a pack of 52 cards, one card is drawn at random. What is the
probability that its either an ace or spade?
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Let A be the event that the card drawn is an ace and B be the event that
the card drawn is a spade. We know that, number of aces in a pack of
52 cards is 4.
i.e. n(A) = 4
⇒ · ·
4 1
P(A)
52 13
Also n(B) = B
⇒ · ·
13 1
P(B)
52 4
Also, there is one card which is both an ace and a spade.
i.e. ∩ · ⇒ ∩ ·
1
n(A B) 1 P(A B)
52
=
+ − · ·
4 13 1 16 4
52 52 52 52 13
∴
The probability of occurrence of either an ace or a spade is
4
13
.
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. In a bolt factory — machines A, B and C manufacture respectively 25,
35 and 40% of the total. Out of their output 5, 4 and 2% are defective
bolts. A bolt is drawn from the produce and is found defective. What
are the probabilities that it was manufactured by A, B and C?
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Define events E, A
1
, A
2
, A
3
as
E: The bolt is defective
A
1
= The bolt is produced by machine A
A
2
= The bolt is produced by machine B
A
3
= The bolt is produced by machine C
Then, P(A
1
) = 0.25, P(A
2
) = 0.35 and P(A
3
) = 0.4
1
E
P 0.05
A
 `
·
. ,
,
2
E
P 0.04
A
 `
·
. ,
,
3
E
P 0.02
A
 `
·
. ,
We are supposed to find
1
A
P
E
 `
. ,
,
2
A
P
E
 `
. ,
and
3
A
P
E
 `
. ,
68  Higher Mathematics Booklet
Now, using Bayes' theorem,
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1
1 1
1 2 3
1 2 3
E
P A . P
A A
P
E
E E E
P A . P P A . P P A .P
A A A
 `
 `
. ,
·
 `  `  `
. ,
+ +
. , . , . ,
=
0.25 0.05
(0.25 0.05) (0.35 0.04) (0.4 0.02)
×
× + × + ×
=
25
69
Similarly,
2
A 28
P
E 69
 `
·
. ,
and
3 1 2
A A A 25 28 16
P 1 P P 1
E E E 69 69 69
 `  `  `
· − − · − − ·
. , . , . ,
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. If the probability that A fails in the examination is 0.25 and probability
that B fails in the examination is 0.5, then the probability that either A
or B fails in the examination is
a.
1
8
b.
3
8
c.
5
8
d.
7
8
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Let us define two events as
A: A fails, B: B fails, then we have to find probability of A or B i.e.
P(A B) P(A) P(B) P(A B) ∪ · + − ∩ , As failing of A is independent of
failing of B thus we have
1 1 1 1 2 4 1 5
P(A B) P(A) P(B) P(A).P(B) .
4 2 4 2 8 8
+ −
∪ · + − · + − · ·
Chapter 12  Statistics  69
Median Median Median Median Median
The median is that value of the variable which divides the group in to two
equal parts. One part comprises all the values greater than and the other part
comprises all the values less than the median.
Calculation of Median Calculation of Median Calculation of Median Calculation of Median Calculation of Median
For individual observations For individual observations For individual observations For individual observations For individual observations
Step 1 Step 1 Step 1 Step 1 Step 1 Arrange the observations x
1
, x
2
, ..., x
n
in ascending or descending
order of magnitude.
Step 2 Step 2 Step 2 Step 2 Step 2 Determine the total number of observations, say, n
Step 3 Step 3 Step 3 Step 3 Step 3 If n is odd, then median is the value of
th
n 1
2
+
observation. If n is
even, then median is the AM of the values of
th
n
2
and
th
n
1
2
+
observations.
For discrete frequency distribution. For discrete frequency distribution. For discrete frequency distribution. For discrete frequency distribution. For discrete frequency distribution.
Step 1 Step 1 Step 1 Step 1 Step 1 Find the cumulative frequencies (c.f.)
Step 2 Step 2 Step 2 Step 2 Step 2 Find
N
2
, where
n
i
i 1
N f
=
=
∑
Step 3 Step 3 Step 3 Step 3 Step 3 See the cumulative frequency (c.f.) just greater than
N
2
and determine
the corresponding value of the variable, which is the median.
For grouped or continuous frequency distribution. For grouped or continuous frequency distribution. For grouped or continuous frequency distribution. For grouped or continuous frequency distribution. For grouped or continuous frequency distribution.
Step 1 Step 1 Step 1 Step 1 Step 1 Obtain the frequency distribution.
Step 2 Step 2 Step 2 Step 2 Step 2 Prepare the cumulative frequency column and obtain N = Σ f
i
Find
N
2
.
Statistics
12
70  Higher Mathematics Booklet
Step 3 Step 3 Step 3 Step 3 Step 3 See the cumulative frequency just greater than
N
2
and determine the
corresponding class. This class is known as the median class.
Step 4 Step 4 Step 4 Step 4 Step 4 Use the formula: Median
N/ 2 F
L h
f
−
= + ×
, where, L = lower limit
of the median class, f is frequency of the median class, h = width
(size) of the median class, F = cumulative frequency of the class
preceding the median class, N = Σ f
i
.
Note: Note: Note: Note: Note: The mean deviation mean deviation mean deviation mean deviation mean deviation from the median for any distribution is minimum.
Quartiles Quartiles Quartiles Quartiles Quartiles
The values which divide the given data into four equal parts are known as
quartiles. Obviously, there will be three such points Q
1
, Q
2
and Q
3
(such that
Q
1
≤ Q
2
≤ Q
3
)
termed as three quartiles. Mathematically,
1
h N
Q l C
f 4
= + −
, Q
2
= Median, 3
h 3N
Q l C
f 4
= + −
where l = Lower limit of the class containing Q
1
or Q
3
f = Frequency of the class containing Q
1
or Q
3
h = Magnitude of the class containing Q
1
or Q
3
C = Cumulative frequency of class preceding the class containing Q
1
or Q
3
Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode
Mode is the value which occurs most frequently in a set of observations.
The mode may or may not exist, and even if it does exist, it may not be unique.
A distribution having a unique mode is called ‘unimodal’ and one having
more than one is called ‘multimodal’.
Examples Examples Examples Examples Examples
The set 2, 2, 5, 7, 9, 9, 9, 10, 10, 11, 12, 18 has mode 9.
The set 3, 5, 8, 10, 12, 15, 16 has no mode.
The set 2, 3, 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 7, 7, 7, 9 has two modes, 4 and 7, and is called
bimodal.
Calculation of Mode Calculation of Mode Calculation of Mode Calculation of Mode Calculation of Mode
In case of frequency distribution, mode is the value of the variable
corresponding to the maximum frequency. In case of continuous frequency
distribution, the class corresponding to the maximum frequency is called the
modal class and the value of mode is obtained as, Mode =
1 0
1 0 2 1
h(f f )
I ,
(f f ) (f f )
−
+
− − −
where
l
= Lower limit of modal class
h = Magnitude of the modal class, f
1
= frequency of the modal class
f
0
= Frequency of class preceding the modal class
f
2
= Frequency of class succeeding the modal class
Chapter 12  Statistics  71
The above formula can be rephrased as Mode = L
1
+
1
1 2
D
c
D D
+
,
where L1 = Lower class boundary of the modal class (i.e. the class containing
the mode)
D1 = Excess of modal frequency over frequency of next lower class
D2 = Excess of modal frequency over frequency of next higher class
c = Size of the model class interval.
Relationship Between Mean (M), Median (Md) and Mode(M Relationship Between Mean (M), Median (Md) and Mode(M Relationship Between Mean (M), Median (Md) and Mode(M Relationship Between Mean (M), Median (Md) and Mode(M Relationship Between Mean (M), Median (Md) and Mode(M
o oo oo
) )) ))
In case of symmetrical distribution, Mean = Median = Mode
In case of a ‘moderately moderately moderately moderately moderately’ asymmetrical distribution, Mode = 3 Median – 2 Mode = 3 Median – 2 Mode = 3 Median – 2 Mode = 3 Median – 2 Mode = 3 Median – 2
Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean
Measures of Dispersion Measures of Dispersion Measures of Dispersion Measures of Dispersion Measures of Dispersion
The various measures of dispersion are as follows
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. Range 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. Mean deviation
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. Standard deviation 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. Quartile deviation
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 10 – 90 percentile range
Range Range Range Range Range
It is the difference between two extreme observations of a distribution. Let
X
max
be the greatest observation and X
min
the smallest observation of the
variable. Then, Range = X
max
–X
min
.
Mean Deviation (MD) Mean Deviation (MD) Mean Deviation (MD) Mean Deviation (MD) Mean Deviation (MD)
If X
1
, X
2
, X
3
... X
n
are n given observations, then the mean deviation (MD)
about A, is given by
MD =
Σ − = Σ
i i
1 1
 X A  d 
n n
, where d
i
= X
i
– A. Modulus removes the
effects of negative deviations and therefore gives us the absolute value of the
deviation.
In case of frequency distribution, mean deviation about A is given by
Σ − = Σ = −
i i i i
1 1
f  X A f  d   X X
n n
Standard Deviation Standard Deviation Standard Deviation Standard Deviation Standard Deviation
If X
1
, X
2
, ... X
N
is the set of N observations, then its standard deviation is given
by
σ = Σ −
2
i
1
(X X)
N
where
X
is the AM alternative formula for
standard deviations is
Σ Σ
σ = −
2
2
i i i i
f X f X
N N
=
−
2 2
X X
72  Higher Mathematics Booklet
The root mean square deviation about any point a is defined as S =
=
−
∑
N
2
i
i 1
(X a)
N
, where a is the average
Variance Variance Variance Variance Variance
It is the square of the standard deviation.
Therefore, variance =
σ = Σ −
2 2
i
1
(X X)
N
. Generally, s
2
represents
sample variance and σ
2
represents population variance. Sample variance
means variance of a sample drawn out from a population.
Quartile Deviations. (QD) or Semi InterQuartile Range Quartile Deviations. (QD) or Semi InterQuartile Range Quartile Deviations. (QD) or Semi InterQuartile Range Quartile Deviations. (QD) or Semi InterQuartile Range Quartile Deviations. (QD) or Semi InterQuartile Range
Inter quartile range = −
3 1
Q Q ; Quartile deviation (QD) =
−
3 1
Q Q
2
(or Semi interquartile range) Quartile deviation is more commonly used as a
measure of dispersion than interquartile range.
For a symmetrical distribution,
+
− = − ⇒ =
3 1
3 d d 1 d
Q Q
Q m m Q m
2
Coefficient of Variation : Coefficient of Variation : Coefficient of Variation : Coefficient of Variation : Coefficient of Variation : CV =
σ
×100
X
Note that the coefficient of variation is independent of the units used. For this
reason, it is useful in comparing distribution where the units may be different.
A disadvantage of the coefficient of variation is that it fails to be used when
X
is close to zero.
Linear Programming Problem (LPP) Linear Programming Problem (LPP) Linear Programming Problem (LPP) Linear Programming Problem (LPP) Linear Programming Problem (LPP)
Given a set of m linear inequalities or equations in n variables, we wish to find
nonnegative values of these variables which will satisfy these inequalities.
The inequalities or equations are called the constraints constraints constraints constraints constraints and the function to be
maximized or minimized is called the objective function objective function objective function objective function objective function, which can be of
maximization type or minimization type. The general form of linear
programming problem is maximize (or minimize),
z = c
1
x
1
+ c
2
x
2
+ ... + c
n
x
n
... (i)
Subject to
a
11
x
1
+ a
12
x
2
+ ... + a
1n
. x
n
{≤, =, ≥} b
1
a
21
x
1
+ a
22
x
2
+ ... + a
2n
. x
n
{≤, =, ≥} b
2
... (ii)
a
m1
x
1
+ a
m2
x
2
+ ... + a
mn
. x
n
{≤, =, ≥} b
m
and x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, ..., x
n
≥ 0 ... (iii)
where
(i) (i) (i) (i) (i) x
1
, x
2
, ..., x
n
are the
variables whose values we wish to determine and
are called the decision variables decision variables decision variables decision variables decision variables,
Chapter 12  Statistics  73
(ii) (ii) (ii) (ii) (ii) the linear function z which is to be maximised or minimised is called
the objective function objective function objective function objective function objective function,
(iii) (iii) (iii) (iii) (iii) the inequalities or equations in (ii) are called the constraints constraints constraints constraints constraints,
(iv) (iv) (iv) (iv) (iv) the set of inequalities in (iii) is known as the set of nonnegativity nonnegativity nonnegativity nonnegativity nonnegativity
restrictions restrictions restrictions restrictions restrictions,
(v) (v) (v) (v) (v) the expression (≤ = ≥) means that one and only one of the signs ≤ = ≥
holds for a particular constraint but the sign may vary from constraint to
constraint.
Solution Solution Solution Solution Solution
A set of values of the decision variables which satisfy the constraints of a
linear programming problem (LPP) is called a solution of the LPP solution of the LPP solution of the LPP solution of the LPP solution of the LPP.
Feasible solution Feasible solution Feasible solution Feasible solution Feasible solution
A solution of an LPP which also satisfies the nonnegativity restrictions of the
problem is called its feasible feasible feasible feasible feasible solution solution solution solution solution. The set of all feasible solutions of an
LPP is called the feasible region feasible region feasible region feasible region feasible region.
Solved Examples
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. Calculate the median for the following distribution:
Class: 510 1015 1520 2025 2530 3035 3540 4045
Frequency: 5 6 15 10 5 4 2 2
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Calculation of median
Class Frequency Cumulative frequency
510 5 5
1015 6 11
1520 15 26
2025 10 36
2530 5 41
3035 4 45
3540 2 47
4045 2 49
N = 49
Here N = 49 ⇒
N
2
=
49
2
= 24.5. The cumulative frequency just greater than
N
2
is 26 and the corresponding class is 1520. Thus 1520 is the median class
such that
i= 15, f = 15, F = 11, h = 5.
N
F
24.5 11 13.5
2
Median l h 15 5 15 5 19.5
f 15 15
−
−
∴ = + × = + × = + × =
74  Higher Mathematics Booklet
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. Table below shows a frequency distribution of the weekly wages of 65
employees. Find the quartiles Q
1
, Q
2
and Q
3
Wages Number of employees
250.00  259.99 8
260.00  269.99 10
270.00  279.99 16
280.00  289.99 14
290.00  299.99 10
300.00  309.99 5
310.00  319.99 2
Total 65
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. The first quartile Q
1
is wage obtained by counting
N 65
4 4
=
= 16.25 of
the cases, beginning with the first (lowest) class. Since the first class
contains 8 cases, we must take 8.25 (from 16.25 – 8) of the 10 cases
from the second class. Using the method of linear interpolation, we have
Q
1
= 259.995 +
8.25
10
(10) = Rs. 268.25.
Q
2
= 269.995 +
14.5
16
(10) = Rs. 279.06.
Q
3
= 289.995 +
0.75
10
(10) = Rs. 290.75.
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. Find the mean, median, and mode for the sets
(a) 3, 5, 2, 6, 5, 9, 5, 2, 8, 6 and
(b) 51.6, 48.7, 50.3, 49.5, 48.9
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. (a) Arranged in an array, the numbers are 2, 2, 3, 5, 5, 5, 6, 6, 8 and 9.
Mean = 5.1; Median = Arithmetic mean of two middle numbers
=
2
1
(5 + 5) = 5;
Mode = Number most frequently occurring = 5.
(b) Arranged in an array, the numbers are 48.7, 48.9, 49.5, 50.3 and
51.6.
Mean = 49.8; Median = middle number = 49.5; Mode = non existent.
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. Compute the mode of the following distribution:
Class intervals: 07 714 1421 2128 2835 3542 4249
Frequency : 19 25 36 72 51 43 28
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Mode ( )
1
0
1 1
f f 72 36 252
M l i 21 7 21
2f f f 144 36 51 57
21 4.42 25.42
−
−
− −
= + × = + × = +
− − − −
= + =
.
Chapter 12  Statistics  75
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. Find the mean wage from the data given below.
Wage (Amount in Rs.) 800 820 860 900 920 980
1000
Number of workers 7 14 19 25 20 10
5
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Let the assumed mean be A = 900, h = 20
x
i
f
i
x
i
– A u
i
= (x
i
– A) / h
f
i
u
i
800 7 –100 –5
–35
820 14 –80 –4
–56
860 19 –40 –2
–38
900 25 0 0
0
920 20 20 1
20
980 10 80 4
40
1000 5 100 5
25
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Σf
i
= 100 Σf
i
u
i
= –44
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Here A = 900, h = 20.
=
∴ = = + = + − =
∑
n
i i
i 1
1 44
Mean X A h f u 900 20 891.2
N 100
Hence, mean wage = Rs. 891.2.
With the help of this method, calculation of multiplying two
inconvenient numbers is avoided.
6. 6. 6. 6. 6. (a) Prove that
Σ Σ
σ = − = −
2
2
2 2
X X
X X
N N
(b) Use the formula in part (a) to find the standard deviation of the set
12, 6, 7, 3, 15, 10, 18, 5.
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. (a) By definition, σ =
−
∑
2
(X X)
N
. Therefore,
− − + − +
σ = =
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
2 2
2 2 2
2
(X X) (X 2XX X ) X 2X X NX
=
N N N
76  Higher Mathematics Booklet
− + = − + = − = −
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
X X X X
2X X X 2X X X X
N N N N
(b) = =
∑
2
2
X
X 114
N
and = =
∑
X
X 9.5
N
.
Therefore, σ =
− = 114 90.25 4.87
.
7. 7. 7. 7. 7. A manufacturer can produce two different products A and B during a
given time period. Each of these products requires four different
manufacturing operations: grinding, turning, assembly and testing. The
manufacturing requirements in hours per unit of product are given
below for A and B.
A B
Grinding 1 2
Turning 3 1
Assembly 6 3
Testing 5 4
The available capacities of these operations in hours for given time
period are: grinding 30; turning 60; assembly 200; testing 200. The
contribution to profit is Rs. 2 for each unit of A and Rs. 3 for each unit
of B. The firm can sell all that it produce at the prevailing market price.
Now answer the following questions.
i. i. i. i. i. The key decision to be made is to determine number of
a. hours required for grinding and turning products A and B
b. hours required for assembling and testing products A and B
c. Both (a) and (b)
d. units of products A and B which will optimize the profits
ii. ii. ii. ii. ii. The objective is to
a. minimize the total hours required for grinding, turning, assembly
and testing
b. minimize the total cost of production
c. maximize the total profit
d. minimize the profit
If x
1
and x
2
are the numbers of units of products A and B
respectively, which the company decided to produce, then
iii. iii. iii. iii. iii. The objective function (z) is
a. 2x
1
+ 2x
2
b. 2x
1
+ 3x
2
c. 3x
1
+ 2x
2
d. x
1
+ 2x
2
iv. iv. iv. iv. iv. The constraint for grinding is
a. x
1
+ 2x
2
≤ 30 b. 3x
1
+ x
2
≥ 60
c. x
1
+ 2x
2
= 30 d. x
1
+ 2x
2
> 30
Chapter 12  Statistics  77
v. v. v. v. v. The constraint for turning is
a. 3x
1
+ x
2
> 60 b. 3x
1
+ x
2
= 60
c. 3x
1
+ x
2
= 0 d. 3x
1
+ x
2
≤
60
vi. vi. vi. vi. vi. The constraint for assembly is
a. 6x
1
+ 3x
2
= 200 b. 6x
1
+ 3x
2
> 200
c. 6x
1
+ 6x
2
= 0 d. 6x
1
+ 3x
2
≤
200
vii. vii. vii. vii. vii. The constraint for testing is
a. 5x
1
+ 3x
2
≤ 200 b. 5x
1
+ 3x
2
≥ 0
c. 5x
1
+ 4x
2
≥ 200 d. 5x
1
+ 4x
2
≤ 200
viii. viii. viii. viii. viii. The nonnegative restrictions are
a. x
1
≤ 0, x
2
≥ 0 b. x
1
≥ 0, x
2
≥ 0
c. x
2
≤ 0 ≤ x
1
d. x
1
≤ 0, x
2
≤ 0
Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. Sol. i. The key decision to be made is to determine the number of units of
products A and B to be produced by the company. Hence, the
correct answer is (d).
ii. The objective is to maximize the total profit. Hence, the correct
answer is (c).
iii. The objective function (z), i.e. the total profit the manufacturer gets
after selling the two products A and B, is given by Z = 2x
1
+ 3x
2
.
Hence, the correct answer is (b).
iv. In order to produce these two products A and B, the total number of
hours required at the grinding centre are x
1
+ 2x
2
. Since the
manufacturer does not have more that 30 hr available in grinding
centre, x
1
+ 2x
2
≤ 30. Hence, the correct answer is (a).
v. The total number of hours required at the turning centre is 3x
1
+ x
2
.
Since the manufacturer does not have more than 60 hr available in
turning centre, 3x
1
+ x
2
≤ 60. Hence, the correct answer is (d).
vi. The total number of hours required at the assembly centre is 6x
1
+
3x
2
. Since the manufacturer does not have more than 200 hr in the
assembly centre, 6x
1
+ 3x
2
≤ 200. Hence, the correct answer is (d).
vii. The total number of hours required at the testing centre is 5x
1
+
4x
2
. Since the manufacturer does not have more than 200 hr in the
testing centre, we must have 5x
1
+ 4x
2
≤ 200. Hence, the correct
answer is (d).
viii Since it is not possible for the manufacturer to produce negative
number of the products, we must also have x
1
≥ 0, x
2
≥ 0. Hence,
the correct answer is (b).
78  Higher Mathematics Booklet
Practice Exercise
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. If Z
3
+ 3iZ
2
– 3Z – i = 0, then find the value of Z
4
+ Z
3
+ Z
2
+ Z + .
a. 1 b. –1 c. i d. –i
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. The modulus of e
a + ib
is
a. e
a
b. e
a+b
c. e
a–b
d. e
a
. b
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. The complex number Z is represented by a point P on the line
3x + 4y = 12. The least value of Z is
a. 12 b. 0 c.
24
5
d.
12
5
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. Find the number of solutions of the equation Z – i = Z + i
a. 2 b. 1
c. 4 d. Infinitely many
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. Given
12
2 3 i
2 3 i
 `
+ +
+ −
. ,
= a + ib. Then a + b will be equal to
a. 2 b. zero c. 3 d. 1
6. 6. 6. 6. 6.
b c c a a b a b c
a b b c c a k c a b ,
c a a b b c b c a
+ + +
+ + + ·
+ + +
then find the value of K.
a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4
7. 7. 7. 7. 7. The value of
x 1 x 2 x 4
x 3 x 5 x 8
x 7 x 10 x 14
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
is
a. –2 b. 2 c. x
2
+ 2 d. None of these
8. 8. 8. 8. 8. The inverse of the matrix
2 1
1 3
− ]
]
]
is
a.
3 1
7 7
1 2
7 7
]
]
]
]
]
]
b.
3 1
7 7
1 2
7 7
]
− −
]
]
]
− −
]
]
c.
3 1
7 7
1 2
7 7
]
]
]
]
−
]
]
d.
3 1
7 7
1 2
7 7
]
−
]
]
]
]
]
Practice Exercise  79
9. 9. 9. 9. 9. If A =
1 2
3 4
]
]
]
, then the value of adjA. is
a.
1 3
2 4
− ]
]
−
]
b.
4 3
2 1
− ]
]
−
]
c.
4 2
3 1
− ]
]
−
]
d. Does not exist
10. 10. 10. 10. 10. If the matrix
3 5
1 1
−  `
−
. ,
is expressible as (P + Q), where P is symmetric and Q
is skewsymmetric, then P =
a.
0 3
3 0
−  `
. ,
b.
3 2
2 1
−  `
− −
. ,
c.
3 2
2 1
−  `
−
. ,
d.
0 3
3 0
−  `
−
. ,
11. 11. 11. 11. 11. Find the coefficient of x
7
in the expansion of (x – 2x²)
–3
.
a. 67584 b. 72424 c. 56842 d. None of these
12. 12. 12. 12. 12. Find the coefficient of x
n
in the expansion of
7x x
3x
e e
e
+
.
a.
n
n
2
( 1)
n!
− b.
n
n n
2
(2 ( 1 )
n!
+ −
c.
n
n n
2
(2 ( 1) )
n!
− − d. None of these
13. 13. 13. 13. 13. Sum the series:
2 3
1 1 3 1 3 5 1 3 5 7
x x x ...
1! 2! 3! 4!
+ + + + + +
+ + + +
a. (x + 2)e
x
b. (x – 1)e
x
c. (x + 1)e
x
d. (x – 2)e
x
14. 14. 14. 14. 14. Sum the following series to infinity.
2 2 3
1 a 1 a a 1 a a a
1 ...
2! 3! 4!
+ + + + + +
+ + + +
a.
a
e e
2
−
b.
a
e e
a 1
+
−
c.
a
e 1
a 1
−
−
d.
a
e e
a 1
−
−
15. 15. 15. 15. 15. Find the sum
2 2 2
3 5 7
...,
1! 3! 5!
+ + + ∞.
a. 5e b. 4e c. 6e d. None of these
80  Higher Mathematics Booklet
16. 16. 16. 16. 16.
2x 1
x
x 1
lim
x 2
+
→∞
+  `
+
. ,
=
a. e b. e
– 2
c. e
–1
d. 1
17. 17. 17. 17. 17.
( ) ( )
1 1
2 3
2
x 0
cos x cos x
lim
sin x
→
−
=
a.
1
6
b.
1
12
−
c.
2
3
d.
1
3
18. 18. 18. 18. 18. If f(x) = 3x
10
– 7x
8
+ 5x
6
– 21x
3
+ 3x
2
– 7, then find the value of
( )
3
h 0
f 1 h f (1)
lim
h 3h
→
− −
+
is
a.
50
3
b.
22
3
c. 13 d. None of these
19. 19. 19. 19. 19. Find the value of constant a, b such that
2
x
x 1
lim ax b 0
x 1 →∞
 `
+
− − ·
+
. ,
a. a = b = 0 b. a = 1, b = –1 c. a = b = 1 d. a = 2, b = –1
20. 20. 20. 20. 20. If f(x) =
1, x is rational
2, x is irrational
¹
'
¹
,then
a. f(x) is continuous in R ~ {1}
b. f(x) is continuous in R ~ Q
c. f(x) is continuous in R but not differentiable in R
d. f(x) is neither continuous nor differentiable in R
21. 21. 21. 21. 21. Let f(x + y) = f(x) f(y) for all x and y. If f(5) = 2 and f′(0) = 3, then f′(5) is
equal to
a. 5 b. 6 c. 0 d. 3
22. 22. 22. 22. 22. If a(x
4
– y
4
) =
8 8
dy
1 x 1 y then
dx
− + −
=
a.
y
x
b.
3 8
3 8
x 1 y
y 1 x
−
−
c.
8
8
ax 1 x
y
1 y
−
−
d. None of these
Practice Exercise  81
23. 23. 23. 23. 23. If tan (x + y) + tan (x – y) = 1, then
dy
dx
=
a.
( )
2
2
x y sec (x y)
(x y) sec (x y)
+ +
− −
b.
2 2
2 2
sec (x y) sec (x y)
(x y) sec (x y) sec (x y)
+ − −
+ + + −
c.
( )
2 2
2 2
x y sec (x y) sec (x y)
.
x y
sec (x y) sec (x y)
− + + −
+
+ − −
d. –
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
sec x y sec x y
sec x y sec x y
+ + −
+ − −
24. 24. 24. 24. 24. If
2
1
1 x 1
y tan
x
−
 `
+ −
·
. ,
, then y'(0) =
a.
1
2
b. 0 c. 1 d. Does not exist
25. 25. 25. 25. 25. If
x 2x 3x
y ae be ce · + +
, which of the following is true?
a. y
3
– 6y
2
+ 11y
1
– 6y = 0 b. y
2
– 11y
1
+ 6y = 0
c. y
3
+ 6y
2
– 11y
1
+ 6y = 0 d. None of these
26. 26. 26. 26. 26. (7x 2) 3x 2 dx − +
∫
a.
5 3
2 2
14 40
(3x 2) (3x 2) c
15 9
+ − + +
b.
5 3
2 2
14 40
(3x 2) (3x 2) c
45 27
+ − + +
c.
3 3
2 2
14 40
(3x 2) (3x 2) c
15 27
+ − + +
d.
5 3
2 2
7 20
(3x 2) (3x 2) c
14 9
+ − + +
82  Higher Mathematics Booklet
27. 27. 27. 27. 27.
x
2x x
e
dx
e 6e 5 + +
∫
a.
1
4
tan
–1
x
e 1
c
4
+
+ b.
x
x
1 e 1
log c
4
e 5
+
+
+
c.
x
x
1 e 1
log c
4
e 1
−
+
+
d. None of these
28. 28. 28. 28. 28. If
1
dx x
=K tan Mtan C,
5 4cos x 2
 `
+
+
. ,
∫
then which of the following is
true?
a. K = 1 b. K =
2
3
c. M =
1
4
d. M =
2
3
29. 29. 29. 29. 29. The value of the integral
2
4
4
2
x 4
dx
x
−
∫
is
a.
3
32
b.
3
32
c.
32
3
d.
3
32
−
30. 30. 30. 30. 30. The value of the integral
/ 2
2 2
0
d
4 cos 9 sin
π
θ
θ + θ
∫
a.
4
π
b.
6
π
c.
12
π
d. None of these
31. 31. 31. 31. 31. The coordinates of a point are (0, 1) and the ordinate of another point is
–3. If the distance between the two points is 5, then the abscissa of another
point is
a. 3 b. –3 c. ± 3 d. 1
32. 32. 32. 32. 32. Find the coordinates of the point which divides, internally and externally,
the line joining (–1, 2) to (4, –5) in the ratio 2 : 8.
a.
3
0,
5
 `
. ,
,
8 13
,
3 3
 `
−
. ,
b.
8 13
,
3 3
 `
−
. ,
,
5
0,
3
 `
. ,
c.
8 13
,
3 3
 `
−
. ,
,
3
0,
5
 `
. ,
d. None of these
Practice Exercise  83
33. 33. 33. 33. 33. Find the value of x
1
if the distance between the points (x
1
, 2) and (3, 4)
be 8.
a. 3 2 15 t b. 3 2 15 + c. 3 2 5 − d. None of these
34. 34. 34. 34. 34. If A (2, 2), B (– 4, – 4) and C (5, – 8) are the vertices of any triangle, then the
length of median passing through C will be
a.
65
b.
117
c.
85
d.
113
35. 35. 35. 35. 35. If a, b, c are in harmonic progression, then straight line
x y 1
0
a b c
+ + ·
always passes through a fixed point, which is
a. (–1, –2) b. (–1, 2) c. (1, –2) d. (1, –
1
2
)
36. 36. 36. 36. 36. The vectors
→ →
a and b
are noncollinear. The value of p for which the
vectors
( )
→ → →
· + + c p 1 a 2 b and ( )
→ → →
· − − d 2p 1 a b are collinear is
a.
1
3
b.
1
5
c. –3 d. –5
37. 37. 37. 37. 37. If the vectors λ + + − + − − +
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
i j 3k, 2i 3j 4k and i 3j 5k are coplanar,
then the value of
λ
is
a.
−
1
2
b. −
1
3
c. 3 d. –2
38. 38. 38. 38. 38. If the vectors − − + − + +
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
2i j k, i 2j 3k and 3i aj 5k are coplanar, then
the value of a is
a. 1 b. 2 c. –4 d. 4
39. 39. 39. 39. 39. Let S, T and U be the middle points of the sides QR, RP, PQ respectively of
a ∆PQR. Then
→ → →
+ + PS QT RU
a. 0 b. 2 c.
→
O
d. None of these
40. 40. 40. 40. 40. If nonzero vectors
H
H
a and b are perpendicular to each other, then the
solution of the equation
× ·
H
H H
r a b
is given by
a.
×
· +
H
H
H H
H
2
a b
r xa
 a 
b.
×
· −
H
H
H
H
H
2
a b
r xb
 b 
c. · ×
H
H H
r x(a b) d. · ×
H
H H
r x(b a)
84  Higher Mathematics Booklet
41. 41. 41. 41. 41. If the position vectors of three points P, Q and R are respectively + +
ˆ ˆ ˆ
i j k ,
+ −
ˆ ˆ ˆ
2i 3j 4k and + +
ˆ ˆ ˆ
7i 4j 9k , then the unit vector perpendicular to the
plane of the ∆PQR is
a.
+ +
ˆ ˆ ˆ
31i 28j 9k
2405
b.
− −
ˆ ˆ ˆ
31i 28j 9k
2405
c.
− −
ˆ ˆ ˆ
31i 38j 9k
2486
d. None of these
42. 42. 42. 42. 42. Match the following two lists given that A + B + C = π
(A) sin 2A + sin 2B + sin 2C I.
A B C
1 4 sin sin sin
2 2 2
+
(B) sin A + sin B + sin C II. tan A tan B tan C
(C) cos A + cos B + cos C III. 4 sin A sin B sin C
(D) tan A + tan B + tan C IV.
A B C
4 cos cos cos
2 2 2
a. AIV, BII, CI, DIII b. AIII, BIV, CI, DII
c. AI, BIII, CIV, DII d. AIII, BI, CIV, DII
43. 43. 43. 43. 43. The value of sin 12° sin 48° sin 54° is
a.
1
4
b.
1
8
c.
1
16
d. None of these
44. 44. 44. 44. 44. If 3 cos sin 2 θ + θ · , then the most general value of θ is
a.
n ( 1)
4
π
π + −
b. nπ +
n
( 1)
4 3
π π
− −
c.
n
4 3
π π
π + −
d.
n
n ( 1)
4 3
π π
π + − −
45. 45. 45. 45. 45. If 3 sin x + 4 cos x = 5, then find the value of tan
x
2
a.
1
6
b.
1
6
c.
1
3
d.
1
3
46. 46. 46. 46. 46. If
1 1 3
tan and sin , cos ,
2 2
3
θ · − θ · θ · −
then the principal value of
θ will be
a.
6
π
b.
5
6
π
c.
7
6
π
d.
6
π
−
Practice Exercise  85
47. 47. 47. 47. 47. Which of the following can be a possible value of
1 1
3 12
sin cos
5 13
− −
+
a.
1
65
sin
56
−
b.
1
56
sin
65
−
c.
1
13
sin
25
−
d. None of these
48. 48. 48. 48. 48. If
1 1
cot x tan 3 , then find the value of x
2
− −
π
+ ·
a.
1
3
b.
1
4
c. 3 d. None of these
49. 49. 49. 49. 49. If a flag staff of 6 m high placed on the top of a tower throws a shadow of
2 3
m along the ground, then the angle (in degrees) that the sun makes
with the ground is
a. 60° b. 30° c. 45° d. None of these
50. 50. 50. 50. 50. A committee of 5 is to be formed out of 6 gentlemen and 4 ladies. In how
many ways this can be done, when (i) at least two ladies are included, (ii)
at most two ladies are included?
a. 186 b. 164 c. 242 d. None of these
51. 51. 51. 51. 51. The principal wants to arrange 5 students on the platform such that the
boy 'SALIM' occupies the second position and the girl 'SITA' is always
adjacent to the girl 'RITA'. How many such arrangements are possible?
a. 12 b. 16 c. 8 d. 24
52. 52. 52. 52. 52. How many fivelettered words containing 3 vowels and 2 consonants can
be formed using the letters of the word 'EQUATION' so that the two
consonants occur together?
a. 1684 b. 980 c. 1264 d. 1440
53. 53. 53. 53. 53. In the simultaneous tossing of two perfect coins, the probability of having
at least one head is
a.
1
2
b.
1
4
c.
3
4
d. 1
54. 54. 54. 54. 54. The probability that at least one of the events A and B occurs is 0.6. If A
and B occur simultaneously with probability 0.2, then find P( A) + P(
B
).
a. 1.4 b. 1.2 c. 1.6 d. 1.8
55. 55. 55. 55. 55. Amit can solve 90% of the problems given in a book and Bhim can solve
70%. What is the probability that at least one of them will solve the
problem, selected at random from the book?
a. 0.98 b. 0.95 c. 0.96 d. 0.97
86  Higher Mathematics Booklet
56. 56. 56. 56. 56. Compute the median for the following data:
Midvalue : 115 125 135 145 155 165 175 185 195
Frequency : 6 25 48 72 116 60 38 22 3
a. 153.8 b. 155.6 c. 162.4 d. None of these
57. 57. 57. 57. 57. If the median of the following frequency distribution is 46, find the sum of
the missing frequencies:
Variable: 1020 2030 3040 4050 5060 6070 7080 Total
Frequency : 12 30 ? 65 ? 25 18 229
a. 76 b. 79 c. 74 d. 82
58. 58. 58. 58. 58. Find the mean deviation of the heights of the 100 male students.
t h g i e H
) s e h c n i (
f o r e b m u N
s t n e d u t s
2 6  0 6
5 6  3 6
8 6  6 6
1 7  9 6
4 7  2 7
5
8 1
2 4
7 2
8
0 0 1 = l a t o T
a. 2.94 inch b. 2.26 inch c. 2.76 inch d. 2.48 inch
59. 59. 59. 59. 59. Find the standard deviation of the heights of the 100 male students as
given in above question 10.
a. 2.64 inch b. 2.48 inch c. 2.84 d. 2.92 inch
60. 60. 60. 60. 60. The objective of a diet problem is to ascertain the quantities of certain
foods that should be eaten to meet certain nutritional requirements and
minimize cost. The consideration is limited to milk, beef and eggs and to
vitamins A, B, C. The number of milligrams of each of these vitamins
contained with a unit of each food is given below:
Vitamin
Litre of
milk kg of beef
Dozen
eggs
Minimum daily
requirement
A 1 1 10 1 mg
B 100 10 10 50 mg
Vitamin 10 100 10 10 mg
Cost Rs. 15 Rs. 75 Rs. 2
Formulate the problem as a linear programming problem.
Higher Mathematics Booklet  87
Answer key
Answer Key and Explanations
Higher Mathematics .ormulae
1 a 2 a 3 d 4 d 5 d 6 b 7 a 8 c 9 c 10 b
11 a 12 b 13 c 14 d 15 a 16 b 17 b 18 d 19 b 20 d
21 b 22 b 23 d 24 a 25 a 26 c 27 b 28 b 29 d 30 c
31 c 32 a 33 a 34 c 35 c 36 b 37 d 38 c 39 c 40 a
41 c 42 b 43 b 44 b 45 c 46 b 47 b 48 c 49 a 50 a
51 c 52 d 53 c 54 b 55 d 56 a 57 b 58 b 59 d
1. a We have Z
3
+ 3iZ
2
– 3Z – i = 0, i.e. (Z + i)
3
= 0.
Therefore, Z = –i. Hence, the value of the
expression
Z
4
+ Z
3
+ Z
2
+ Z + 1 = 1 + i – 1 – i + 1 = 1.
2. a e
a + ib
= e
a
(cosb + i sinb). So the modulus of
e
a + ib
= e
a
.
3. d Let O be the origin. By problem, P is a point which
represents Z. Z represents the distance OP. The
value of OP will be least, i.e. the value of Z will be
least if OP becomes the perpendicular from O to the
line
3x + 4y = 12. The length of the perpendicular
from O to the line 3x + 4y = 12 is
(3).(0) (4).(0) 12 12
5 9 16
+ −
·
+
.
The least value of Z will be
12
5
.
4. d The given equation is Z – i = Z + i.
On taking Z = x + iy, it becomes x
2
+ (y – 1)
2
= x
2
+ (y + 1)
2
.
Therefore, y
2
– 2y + 1 = y
2
+ 2y + 1,
(i.e.) 4y = 0, (i.e.) y = 0.
The condition Z – i = Z + i => y = 0, and x any
value. Therefore, the equation will have many
solutions.
Alternative method: Alternative method: Alternative method: Alternative method: Alternative method:
Locus of z is the perpendicular bisector of the line
segment joining i and –i, i.e. real axis.
5. d
3 i
1
2 3 i 1 cos i sin
2 2
1 cos – i sin 2 3 – i 3 i
1 –
2 2
α α
α α
+ +
+ + + +
· ·
+ +
+
=
2
2
2cos i 2sin cos
2 2 2
2cos 2 i sin cos
2 2 2
α α α
α α α
+
−
i / 2
i
i / 2
e
e cos i sin where
6
e
α
α
α
π
α α α
−
· · · + ·
12
2 3 i
cos(12 ) i sin(12 )
2 3 1
α α
 `
+ +
· +
+ −
. ,
cos(2 ) i sin(2 ) 1 i0 1 π π · + · + ·
Therefore, a + b = 1 + 0 = 1
6. b Applying C
1
→ C
1
+ C
2
+ C
3
, we get
a b c c a a b a b c b c
2 a b c b c c a 2 a b c a b
a b c a b b c a b c c a
+ + + + + + − −
∆ · + + + + · + + − −
+ + + + + + − −
[C
2
→ C
2
– C
1
and C
3
→ C
3
– C
1
] =
a b c
2 c a b
b c a
[C
1
→ C
1
+ C
2
+ C
3
and taking out (–1)
common from C
2
and C
3
].
7. a Applying R
2
→R
2
– R
1
and R
3
→ R
3
– R
1
, we
get
x 1 x 2 x 4 x 1 1 3
2 3 4 2 1 2
6 8 10 6 2 4
+ + + +
∆ · ·
[C
2
→C
2
– C
1
and C
3
→C
3
– C
1
]
=
x 1 1 1
2 1 0 2.
6 2 0
+
· − [C
3
→C
3
– 2C
2
].
8. c
1
3 1 3 1 1 1
A
6 1 7 1 2 1 2
−
 `  `
· ·
+ − −
. , . ,
88  Higher Mathematics Booklet
9. c
a b d b
adj
c d c a
−  `  `
·
−
. , . ,
Remember: Adjoint of a 2x2 matrix can be
obtained by interchanging principal diagonal
elements and changing the signs of other two
elements.
10. b
T
T
3 5 3 1 A A
P A , A
2 1 1 5 1
] −  `  ` +
· · ·
]
− − −
. , . , ]
11. a Suppose x
7
occurs in (r + 1)th term. Let T
r + 1
denote the (r + 1)th term in the expansion of
(x – 2x²)
–3
, because (x – 2x²)
–3
= (1 – 2x)
–3
x
–3
.
Therefore,
3 r
r 1
( 3) ( 3 1)( 3 2)...( 3 (r 1))
T x ( 2x)
r!
−
+
− − − − − − − −
· ⋅ −
= ( )
r 3 r r
( 3)( 4)( 5)...( (r 2))
x 1 2 x
r!
−
− − − − +
⋅ −
=
( )
( )
r
r 3 r r
1 3 4 5 ...(r 2)
x 1 2 x
r!
−
− ⋅ ⋅ +
⋅ −
=
( )
2r r r 3
3 4 5...(r 2)
1 2 x
r!
−
⋅ ⋅ +
−
r r 3
1 2 3 4 5 ...(r 2)
2 x
1 2 r!
−
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ +
·
⋅ ⋅
=
r r 3 r 1 r 3
(r 2)! (r 2)!
2 x 2 x
2 r! r!
− − −
+ +
⋅ · ⋅
×
... (i)
For this term to contain x
7
, we must have
r – 3 = 7 ⇒ r = 10.
Putting r = 10 in (i), we get
9 7 9 7
11
12!
T 2 x 132 2 x
10!
· · × ×
.
Hence, the coefficient of x
7
=
9
132 2 67584 × ·
.
12. b We have
7x x n n
4x 2x
3x
n 0 n 0
e e (4x) ( 2x)
e e
n! n!
e
∞ ∞
−
· ·
+ −
· + · +
∑ ∑
=
n n n
n n
n 0 n 0
4 ( 1) 2
x x
n! n!
∞ ∞
· ·
−
+
∑ ∑
Therefore, the coefficient of x
n
in
{ ¦
7x x n n n n
n n
3x
e e 4 ( 1) 2 2
2 ( 1)
n! n! n!
e
+ −
· + · + −
13. c
n 1
n
1 3 5 ... n terms
T x
n!
−
+ + +
·
=
n 1
2 n 1
1
n{2.1 (n 1) 2}x
n x
2
n! n!
−
− + − ⋅
·
=
n 1
n 1
nx (n 1) 1
x
(n 1)! (n 1)!
−
−
− +
·
− −
or
n 1 n 1
n
x x
T
(n 2)! (n 1)!
− −
· +
− −
.
Putting n = 1, 2, 3, ... and adding columnwise,
the sum of the given series
=
n1 n1
n 1 n 1
x x
(n 2)! (n 1)!
∞ ∞
· ·
+
− −
∑ ∑
=
2 3
1 x x x
...
( 1)! 0! 1! 2!
]
+ + + + ]
−
]
]
+
2 2
x
1 x x x x
... x 1+ ... e
0! 1! 2! 1! 2!
]  `
+ + + · + + + ]
]
] . ,
= xe
x
+ e
x
= (x + 1) e
x
14. d Let T
n
is the nth term of the given series.
Then
2 n 1
n
1 a a ... a
T , n 1, 2, 3, ...
n!
−
+ + + +
· ·
⇒
n
n
1 1 a
T
n! 1 a
]
−
· ]
−
]
]
⇒
( ) ( )
n n
n
1 1 a 1 1 1 a
T
n! 1 a 1 a 1 a n! 1 a n!
]
· − · ⋅ − ]
− − − −
]
]
Therefore,
n
n 1
1 a
(1 a)n! (1 a)n!
∞
·
]
− ]
− −
]
]
∑
=
a a
a
1 1 e e e e
(e 1) (e 1)
(1 a) (1 a) (1 a) a 1
− −
− − − · ·
− − − −
15. a Consider the series
2 2 2
3 5 7
...,
1! 3! 5!
+ + + ∞ .
Here
2
n
(2n 1)
t
(2n 1)!
+
·
−
2
4n 4n 1 (2n 1)(2n 2) 10n 1
(2n 1)! (2n 1)!
+ + − − + −
· ·
− −
=
1 10n 1 1 5(2n 1) 4
(2n 3)! (2n 1)! (2n 3)! (2n 1)!
− − +
+ · +
− − − −
Higher Mathematics Booklet  89
=
1 1 1
5 4
(2n 3)! (2n 2)! (2n 1)!
+ ⋅ + ⋅
− − −
If
2 2 2
3 5 7
S ..., ,
1! 3! 5!
· + + + ∞
then S = n
n 1
t
∞
·
∑
=
n 1 n 1 n 1
1 1 1
5 4
(2n 3)! (2n 2)! (2n 1)!
∞ ∞ ∞
· · ·
+ +
− − −
∑ ∑ ∑
=
1 1 1 1 1
... 5 1 ...
1! 3! 5! 2! 4!
 `  `
+ + + + + + +
. , . ,
1 1 1
4 ...
1! 3! 5!
 `
+ + + +
. ,
= ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1
1 1 1
e e 5 e e 4 e e
2 2 2
− − −
− + ⋅ + + ⋅ −
= ( )
1 1
5 5
e e e e 2e 5e
2 2
− −
− + + · ⋅ ·
16. b
2x 1
2x 1 (x 2)
x 2
x x
x 1 1
lim lim 1
x 2 x 2
+  `
−
+ − +
+
. ,
→∞ →∞
]
+  `  `
] · −
+ + ] . , . ,
]
2 1/ x
(x 2)
1 2/ x
2
x
1
lim 1 e
x 2
+  `
−
− +
+
. ,
−
→∞
]
 `
] − ·
+ ] . ,
]
17. b
( ) ( )
→
−
1 1
2 3
2
x 0
cos x cos x
Lim
sin x
( ) ( )
− −
→
− +
·
1 2
2 3
x 0
1 1
cos x . sin x cos x sin x
2 3
Lim
2sin x cos x
( ) ( )
− −
→
− +
·
1 2
2 3
x 0
1 1
cos x cos x
2 3
Lim
2cos x
]
· − − · −
]
]
1 1 1 1
2 2 3 12
18. d
→
− −
+
3
h 0
f (1 h) f (1)
Lim
h 3h
→
 ` − − −
·
−
+ . ,
2
h 0
f (1 h) f (1) 1
Lim .
h
h 3
 `
′ · − ·
. ,
1 53
f (1)
3 3
19. b
( ) ( )
→∞ →∞
]  `
− − + + − +
] − − ·
+ +
]
. , ]
2 2
x x
1 a x a b x 1 b x 1
Lim ax b Lim
x 1 1 x
For this limits to exist, degree of numerator must be
less than or equal to the degree of denominator.
Hence a = 1. So now the above limit reduces to
( )
( )
( )
→∞ →∞
−  `
− + +
− + + −  `
·
+
. ,
+
. ,
x x
1 b
1 b
1 b x 1 b
x
Lim Lim
1
x 1
1
x
= –(1 + b) = 0 ⇒ b = –1
So a = 1 and b = –1
20. d By definition of rational and irrational numbers.
21. b
→ →
+ − −
′ · ·
h 0 h 0
ƒ(5 h) ƒ(5) ƒ(5)(ƒ(h) 1)
ƒ (5) lim lim
h h
→
−
· · · ·
h 0
ƒ(h) ƒ(0)
2 lim 2.f '(0) 2.3 6
h
As f(5 + 0) = f(5) = f(5).f(0), i.e. 2 = 2f(0)
∴ f(0) = 1.
22. b Let x
4
= sinA
y
4
= sinB
a(sinA – sinB) = cosA + cosB
− + + −  `  `  `  `
·
. , . , . , . ,
A B A B A B A B
a 2sin cos 2 cos cos
2 2 2 2
− − −  `  `  `
⇒ · ⇒ ·
. , . , . ,
A B A B A B
a sin cos cot a
2 2 2
⇒
−
−
·
1
A B
cot a
2
A – B = 2 cot
–1
a
sin
–1
x
4
– sin
–1
y
4
= 2 cot
–1
a
8
x
− ·
− −
3 3
8
4x 4y dy
0
dx
1 1 y
−
·
−
3 8
3 8
dy x 1 y
dx
y 1 x
23. d tan(x + y) + tan(x – y) = 1
sec
2
(x + y)
 `  `
+ + − − ·
. , . ,
2
dy dy
1 sec (x y) 1 0
dx dx
⇒ sec
2
(x + y) + sec
2
(x – y)
= (sec
2
(x – y) – sec
2
(x + y))
dy
dx
+ + −
⇒ ·
− − +
2 2
2 2
dy sec (x y) sec (x y)
dx
sec (x y) sec (x y)
90  Higher Mathematics Booklet
24. a Putting, x = tan θ
We get,
+ − θ −
·
θ
2
1 x 1 sec 1
x tan
− θ θ
· ·
θ
1 cos
tan
sin 2
So,
− −
θ θ  `
· · ·
. ,
1 1
1
y tan tan tan x
2 2 2
So,
( )
′ ·
+
2
1
y
2 1 x
So, ( ) ·
1
y' 0
2
25. a
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
+ + − + +
+ + + − + + ·
x 2x 3x x 2x 3x
x 2x 3x x 2x 3x
ae 8be 27ce 6 ae 4be 9ce
11 ae 2be 3ce 6 ae be ce 0
Alternative solution: Alternative solution: Alternative solution: Alternative solution: Alternative solution:
This you will learn in the chapter of ‘differential
equations’, differential equation whose general
solution is y = ae
x
+ be
2x
+ ce
3x
is given by
(D – 1)(D – 2)(D – 3)y = 0 where D = d/dx.
26. c
 `
− +
. ,
∫
7 6
3x 3x 2 dx
3 7
=
 `
+ − − +
. ,
∫
7 6
3x 2 2 3x 2 dx
3 7
=
¹ ¹
+ − +
' '
¹ ¹
∫
7 20
3x 2 3x 2 dx
3 7
= + − +
∫ ∫
3
2
7 20
(3x 2) dx 3x 2 dx
3 3
= + − + +
5 3
2 2
14 40
(3x 2) (3x 2) c
45 27
27. b Let e
x
= t
e
x
dx = dt
+ −
· · +
+ +
+ + + −
∫ ∫
2 2 2
dt dt 1 t 3 2
log c
4 t 3 2
t 6t 5 (t 3) 2
=
+
+
+
x
x
1 e 1
log c
4
e 5
28. b Since the integrand is a rational function of cosx,
we put tan
 `
·
. ,
x
t.
2
Then
· ·
+  `
−
+ +
+
. ,
∫ ∫ 2
2
2
dx 2dt
I
5 4cos x
4(1 t )
(1 t ) 5
(1 t )
=
+ + −
∫
2 2
dt
2
5(1 t ) 4(1 t )
=
− −  `
· + · +
. , +
∫
1 1
2
dx 2 t 2 1 x
2 tan C tan tan C
3 3 3 3 2
t 9
Hence, K =
2
3
and M =
1
3
.
29. d
−
· · −
∫ ∫
2 4 4
4 3 2
2 2
x 4 1 4
I dx 1 dx
x x x
Putting,
2 3
4 8
1 t and dx dt
x x
− · · , we get
]
· · × · ×
]
] ∫
3/ 4
3/ 4
3/ 2
0
0
1 1 2 1 3 3
I t dt t
8 8 3 12 4 4
·
3
32
30. c Dividing numerator and denominator by cos
2
θ
π
θ θ
+ θ
∫
/ 2
2
2
0
sec d
4 9 tan
Let, tan θ = t, dt = sec
2
θ dθ
∞
·
+
+
∫ ∫
2
2
0
dt 1 dt
4
9
4 9t
t
9
∝
− ]
· ×
]
]
1
0
1 1 t
tan
2
9 2/ 3
3
=
π π
× ·
1
6 2 12
31. c 25 = x² + 16 ⇒ x = ± 3.
32. a Coordinates of point of internal division
=
1 8 4 2 2 8 ( 5) 2 3
, or 0,
10 10 5
− × + × × + − ×  `  `
. , . ,
Coordinates of point of external division
=
2 4 8 ( 1) 2( 5) 8(2) 8 13
, or ,
2 8 2 8 3 3
 ` × − − − −  `
−
− −
. , . ,
33. a (x
1
– 3)
2
+ (2 – 4)
2
= 64 or (x
1
– 3)
2
= 60
or x
1
= 3 2 15 t
Higher Mathematics Booklet  91
34. c Midpoint of (2, 2) and (–4, –4) is (–1, –1).
Length of median =
2 2
(5 1) (–8 1) 85 + + + ·
35. c Short cut: Short cut: Short cut: Short cut: Short cut: Use options. Only in option (c), putting
this in the given equation of line gives
1 2 1
0
a b c
− + ·
or
1 1 2
a c b
+ ·
(which implies that a, b
and c are in HP).
36. b
. .. ..
.
. .. ..
c
r
and
d
r
are collinear.
c kd ∴ ·
r r
( ) ( ) p 1 a 2b k 2p 1 a b
]
⇒ + + · − −
]
r r r r
( ) ( ) ( ) p 1 k 2p 1 a 2 k b 0 ⇒ + − − + + · ]
]
r r
⇒ (p + 1) – k(2p – 1) = 0, 2 + k = 0
[
. .. ..
.
. .. ..
a, b
r r
are linearly independent]
Hence, p =
1
5
37. d Let x, y be two scalars such that
( ) ( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
i j 3k x 2i 3j 4k y i 3j 5k λ + + · − + − + − +
⇒ ( ) ( ) ( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
i j 3k 2x y i 3x 3y j 4x 5y k λ + + · − + + − + − +
⇒ –2x + y = 1; 3x – 3y = λ and –4x + 5y = 3
Solving first and third equations, we get
x =
1
3
−
and y =
1
3
. .. ..
.
. .. ..
The vectors are coplanar
1 1
3 3 2
3 3
λ λ
 `
∴ × − − × · ⇒ · −
. ,
38. c Let x, y be two scalars such that
( ) ( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
2i j k x i 2j 3k y 3i aj 5k − + · + − + + +
( ) ( ) ( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
2i j k x 3y i 2x ay j 3x 5y k ⇒ − + · + + + + − +
⇒ 2 = x + 3y; –1 = 2x + ay; 1 = –3x + 5y
⇒ Solving first and third, we get
x =
1
2
, y =
1
2
∴ Given vectors are coplanar.
∴ –1= 2 ×
1
2
+ a ×
1
2
⇒ a = –4
39. c Let p, q and r
r r r
be the position vectors of P, Q and R
respectively.
Therefore, position vectors of S, T and U are
q r r b p q
, and
2 2 2
+ + +
r r r r r r
respectively.
∴ PS QT RU + +
uur uuur uuur
=
q r r p p q
p q r o
2 2 2
 `  `  `
+ + +
− + − + − ·
. , . , . ,
r r r r r r
r r r r
40. a Since a, b and a b ×
r r
r
are noncoplanar, therefore
( )
r xa yb z a b · + + ×
r r
r r r
for some scalars x, y and z.
Now, ( ) ( )
b r a b xa yb z a b a · × ⇒ · + + × ×
r r r r
r r r r r
= ( ) ( ) ( )
y b a z a b a × + × ×
r r
r r r
( ) ( ) ( )
y b a z a a b · × − × ×
r r
r r r
= ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
y b a z a b a a a b × − ⋅ − ⋅
r r r
r r r r r
or ( ) ( ) ( )
b y b a z a a b a b=0 · × + ⋅ ⋅
r r r r
r r r r
Q
Comparing the coefficients, we get y = 0,
z =
2
1 1
a a
a
·
⋅
r r
r
. Putting the values of y and z in (i),
we get ( )
2
1
r xa a b
a
· + ×
r
r r r
r
.
Short cut: Short cut: Short cut: Short cut: Short cut: Use options. Cross product of (a) with
a
r
yields
b
r
.
41. c ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
PQ (2i 3j 4k) (i j k) i 2j 5k
→
· + − − + + · + −
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
QR (7i 4j 9k) (2i 3j 4k) 5i j 13k
→
· + − − + − · + −
ˆ ˆ ˆ
i j k
PQ QR 1 2 5
5 1 13
→ →
× · −
ˆ ˆ ˆ
i (26 5) j(13 25) k (1 10) · + − + + −
ˆ ˆ ˆ
31i 38j 9 k · − −
The unit vector perpendicular to the plane of ∆PQR
=
2 2 2
ˆ ˆ ˆ
PQ QR 31i 38j 9k
(31) ( 38) ( 9)
 PQ QR 
→ →
→ →
× − −
·
+ − + −
×
=
ˆ ˆ ˆ
31i 38j 9k
2486
− −
92  Higher Mathematics Booklet
42. b A) = sin2A + sin2B + sin2C
( ) ( ) 2sin A B cos A B 2sinCcos C · + − +
( ) ( )
2sin C cos A B cos C · − +
A B C A B C
2sinC 2cos cos
2 2
 − + − − `  `  `
·
. , . , . ,
2sinC 2cos B cos A
2 2
 π π `  `  `
· − −
. , . , . ,
4 sin A sin B sin C · = (iii)
B) = sinA + sinB + sinC
A B A B C C
2sin cos 2sin cos
2 2 2 2
+ −  `  `
· +
. , . ,
C A B C
2cos cos sin
2 2 2
 − `  `  `
· +
. , . , . ,
C A B A B
2cos cos cos
2 2 2
− +  ` `
· +
. ,. ,
A B C
4cos cos cos
2 2 2
·
= (iv)
C) = cosA + cosB + cosC
2
A B A B C
2cos cos 1 2sin
2 2 2
+ −
· + −
C A B A B
1 2sin cos cos
2 2 2
− +  `
· + −
. ,
A B C
1 4 sin sin sin
2 2 2
· +
= (i)
43. b sin 12° sin 48° sin 54°
=
sin12 sin(60 12 ) sin(60 12 ) cos36
sin72
− +
o o o o o o
o
1 sin36 cos36 1
.
4 8
sin72
· ·
o o
o
44. b ( )
2
2
3 1 2
cos sin {dividing by 3 1 2}
2 2 2
θ + θ · + ·
⇒
1
sin sin
3 4 2
π π  `  `
θ + · ·
. , . ,
n
n ( 1) .
4 3
π π
⇒ θ · π+ − −
45. c The given relation can be written
2
2 2
2tan (x / 2) 1 tan (x / 2)
3 4 5
1 tan (x / 2) 1 tan (x / 2)
−
⋅ + ⋅ ·
+ +
⇒ 6 tan
x
2
+ 4 – 4 tan²
x
2
= 5 + 5 tan²
x
2
⇒ 9 tan²
x
2
– 6 tan
x
2
+ 1 = 0 ⇒
x 1
tan
2 3
·
46. b
1
tan tan  ,
6 3
− π  `
θ · · π
. ,
1
sin sin 
2 6
π  `
θ · · π
. ,
3
and cos cos 
2 6
− π  `
θ · · π
. ,
Hence, principal value is
5
.
6
π
θ ·
47. b
1 1 1 1
3 12 3 5
sin cos tan tan
5 13 4 12
− − − −
+ · +
=
1 1 1
3 5
56 56
4 12
tan tan sin
3 5
33 65
1
4 12
− − −
]
+
]
· ·
]
]
− ⋅
]
.
48. c We have
1 1
cot x tan 3
2
− −
π
+ ·
⇒
1 1 1 1
1
cot x tan 3 tan tan 3
2 x 2
− − − −
π π
+ · ⇒ + ·
⇒
1 1
1
3
1 3x 1 1
x
tan tan x 3.
1
0 x 3 0
1 . 3
x
− −
 `
+
+  `
· ⇒ · ⇒ ·
−
. ,
−
. ,
Alternative method: Alternative method: Alternative method: Alternative method: Alternative method: As we know that
1 1
tan x cot x ,
2
− −
π
+ ·
therefore for the given
question, x should be 3.
Higher Mathematics Booklet  93
49. a
A
B
P
Q
O
h
θ θ
6 m
x m
2 3 m √
Let OA and AB be the shadows of tower OP
and flagstaff PQ respectively on the grounds.
Suppose the sun makes an angle
θ
with the
ground. Let OA = x.
In triangles OAP and OBQ, we have
h h 6
tan and tan
x x 2 3
+
θ · θ ·
+
h h 6 h
2 3h 6x x .
x x 2 3 3
+
∴ · ⇒ · ⇒ ·
+
Therefore,
h
tan tan 3 60 .
x
θ · ⇒ θ · ⇒θ ·
o
50. a A committee of 5 persons, consisting of at least
two ladies, can be formed in the following ways:
I. Selecting 2 ladies out of 4 and 3 gentlemen out
of 6. This can be done in
4
C
2
×
6
C
3
ways.
II. Selecting 3 ladies out of 4 and 2 gentlemen out
of 6. This can be done in
4
C
3
×
6
C
2
ways.
III. Selecting 4 ladies out of 4 and 1 gentlemen out
of 6. This can be done in
4
C
4
×
6
C
1
ways.
Since, the committee is formed in each case,
therefore, by the fundamental principle of
addition, the total number of ways of forming
the committee
=
4 6 4 6 4 6
2 3 3 2 4 1
C C C C C C × + × + ×
120 60 6 186 · + + ·
51. c Since SALIM occupies the second position and the
two girls RITA and SITA are always adjacent to
each other. So, none of these two girls can occupy
the first seat. Thus, first seat can be occupied by any
one of the remaining two students in 2 ways.
Second seat can be occupied by SALIM in only one
way. Now, in the remaining three seats SITA and
RITA can be seated in the following four ways:
I II I II I II I II I II III IV III IV III IV III IV III IV V V V V V
1. X SALIM SITA RITA X
2. X SALIM RITA SITA X
3. X SALIM X SITA RITA
4. X SALIM X RITA SITA
Now, only one seat is left which can be occupied by
the 5th student in one way. Hence, the number of
required type of arrangements = 2 × 4 × 1 = 8.
52. d There are 5 vowels and 3 consonants in the word
'EQUATION'. Three vowels out of 5 and 2
consonants out of 3 can be chosen in
5
C
3
×
3
C
2
ways. So, there are
5
C
3
×
3
C
2
groups each
containing 3 consonants and two vowels. Now,
each group contains 5 letters which are to be
arranged in such a way that 2 consonants occur
together. Considering 2 consonants as one letter, we
have 4 letters which can be arranged in 4! ways.
But, two consonants can be put together in 2! ways.
Therefore, 5 letters in each group can be arranged
in 4!
×
2! ways. Hence, the required number of
words = (
5
C
3
×
3
C
2
)
×
4!
×
2! = 1440.
53. c The sample space s can be written
S = {HH, TT, HT, TH}
If E is the event corresponding to occurrence of at
least one head, then
n(E) = 3 (HH, HT, TH)
and n(S) = 4
3
P(E)
4
∴ ·
54. b We have P (at least one of the events A and B
occurs) is 0.6, i.e. P(A ∪ B) = 0.6 and
P(A and B occur simultaneously) = 0.2, i.e.
P(A ∩ B) = 0.2.
Now, P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A ∩ B)
⇒ 0.6 = P(A) + P(B) – 0.2
⇒ 0.6 = 1 – P(
A
) + 1 – P(
B
) – 0.2
⇒ 0.6 = 2 – 0.2 – [P(
A
) + P(
B
)]
⇒ 0.6 = 1.8 – [P(
A
) + P( B )]
⇒ P(
A
) + P( B ) = 1.8 – 0.6 = 1.2.
55. d Let E and F be the events defined as follows:
E = Amit solves the problem, F = Bhim solves the
problem. Clearly, E and F are independent events
such that P(E) =
90 9
100 10
·
and P(F)
=
70 7
100 10
·
. Now the required probability
= P(E ∪ F) = 1 – P(
E
) (
F
) [As E and F are
independent events]
9 7 1 3
1– 1– 1– 1– 0.97.
10 10 10 10
] ]  `  `  `  `
· · × ·
] ]
. , . , . , . , ] ]
94  Higher Mathematics Booklet
56. a Here we are given the midvalues. So we should
first find the upper and lower limits of various
classes.
The difference between two consecutive values is
h = 125 – 115 = 10.
So the lower limit of a class = midvalue –
h
2
, and
upper limit = Midvalue +
h
2
Mid Class Frequency Cumulative
value groups frequency
115 110120 6 6
125 120130 25 31
135 130140 48 79
145 140150 72 151
155 150160 116 267
165 160170 60 327
175 170180 38 365
185 180190 22 387
195 190200 3 390
N = Σf
i
= 390
We have N = 390.
∴
N 390
2 2
·
= 195.
The cumulative frequency just greater than
N
2
= 195 is 267 and the corresponding class is
150 – 160.
So 150160 is the median class.
∴ l = 150, f = 116, h = 10, F = 151
∴ Median
N
2
F
l h
f
−
· + ×
⇒ Median
195 151
150 10 153.8
116
−
· + × ·
57. b Let the frequency of the class 3040 is f
1
and that
of 5060 is f
2
. The total frequency is 229.
∴ 12 + 30 + f
1
+ 65 + f
2
+ 25 + 18 = 229
⇒ f
1
+ f
2
= 79
Median = 46
Clearly, 46 lies in the class 4050.
So 4050 is the median class.
∴ l = 40, h = 10, f = 65 and
F = 12 + 30 + f
1
= 42 + f
1
,
N = 229.
Now
n
F
2
median l h 46
f
−
· + × ⇒
1
229
(42 f )
2
40 10
65
− +
· + ×
⇒ f
1
= 34 (approximately)
Since f
1
+ f
2
= 79, then f
2
= 45.
Hence, f
1
= 34 and f
2
= 45.
Required sum = f
1
+ f
2
= 79.
58. b For the given data,
X
= 67.45 in.
Therefore, MD =
f  X X 
226.50
2.26 in
N 100
−
· ·
∑
59. d
X
= 67.45 in.
Therefore, σ =
2
f(X X)
8.5275 2.92 in.
N
−
· ·
∑
60. Let the daily diet consist of x litres of milk, x
2
kg of
beef and x
3
dozen of eggs.
∴
Total cost per day is Rs. z = 15x
1
+ 75x
2
+ 20x
3
Total amount of vitamin A in the daily diet is
x
1
+ x
2
+ 10x
3
mg
which should be at least equal to 1 mg.
∴
x
1
+ x
2
+ 10x
3
≥
1
Similarly, total amount of vitamins B and C is the
daily diet
100x
1
+ 10x
2
+ 10x
3
≥
50
and 10x
1
+ 100x
2
+ 10x
3
≥
10
Hence, the linear programming formulation to this
diet problem is as follows:
Find x
1
, x
2
, x
3
which minimize z = 15x
1
+ 75x
2
+
20x
3
subject to x
1
+ x
2
+ 10x
3
≥
1
100x
1
+ 10x
2
+ 10x
3
≥
50
10x
1
+ 100x
2
= 10x
3
≥
10
and x
1
, x
2
, x
3
≥
0
1
Matrices
A matrix of order m × n is defined as the arrangement of mn elements in m rows and n columns. General representation of matrix A of order m × n is given by
a11 a A = 21 M a m1
a12 a 22 M am 2
−−− −−−
a1n a 2n = (aij) m × n , 1 ≤ i ≤ m and 1 ≤ j ≤ n. M M − − − a mn
Equality
Two matrices A and B are said to be equal, written as A = B, iff 1. 2. they are of the same order, i.e. have the same number of rows and columns, and the corresponding elements of the two matrices are equal. If A = (a ij )m ×n and B = (bij )o×p , then A = B iff m = o, n = p and aij = bij ∀ i, j
1 2 1 2 1 2 e.g. if A = , B = 3 3 , C = 3 4 , then A ≠ B , but A = C 3 4
Algebra of Matrices
Addition: If A and B are two matrices of same type then their sum is defined to be the matrix obtained by adding the corresponding elements of A and B. It is denoted by A + B. If A = a ij
( )m × n and B = (bij )m×n , then A + B = (cij )m×n where cij = aij + bij .
2 3 1 2 3 5 e.g. + = 4 5 3 4 7 9
1.
Matrix addition is commutative. i.e., If A and B are two matrices of same type then A + B = B + A. Matrix addition is associative. i.e., If A, B and C are three matrices of same type then (A + B) + C = A + (B + C).
2.
Chapter 1  Matrices  1
Subtraction: Same condition as in addition. Resultant matrix is formed by subtracting corresponding elements.
A = (a ij )m×n , B = (bij )m×n , A − B = (a ij − bij )m×n
2 3 1 2 1 1 e.g. 4 5 − 3 4 = 1 1
Multiplication: Matrices A = (a ij )l×m , B = (bij )o×n can be multiplied iff m = o, i.e. numbers of columns in A is equal to the number of rows in B. Resultant in matrix (say C) is of order (l × n) and is given by AB = C = (c ij )lxn where cij =
k=1
∑ a ik bkj
2 × 2 + 3 × 4 11 16 = 4 × 2 + 5 × 4 19 28
m
2 3 1 2 2 ×1 + 3 × 3 e.g. × = 4 5 3 4 4 ×1 + 5 × 3
Transpose of a Matrix: The matrix obtained by changing the rows of a given matrix A into columns is called transpose of A. It is denoted by AT or A ′ . If A = a ij
( )m×n then AT = (a ′ij )m×n where a′ ji = aij .
1 2 1 3 5 T , then A = 3 7 . e.g. if A = 2 7 0 5 0
1. If A is any matrix, then (AT)T = A.
Conjugate of a Matrix: The conjugate of a given matrix A is obtained by replacing the elements of A by their corresponding complex conjugates. The conjugate of A is denoted by A . Thus, if A =
1 1 + i 1 1 − i e.g. If A = , then A = 3 1 + i . 3 1 − i
(a ij )m × n , then A = (a ij )m×n ,
Tranjugate or Transpose Conjugate of a Matrix: The transpose conjugate of a given matrix is obtained by interchanging the rows and columns of the conjugate matrix of A.
∗ The transpose conjugate of A is denoted by A*, or by Aθ. Thus, A = A '
( )
3 2 2 1 + i 0 1 − i 2 , then A * = e.g. If A = i 3 2 0 −i
2  Higher Mathematics Booklet
A matrix A is said to be a column matrix if A contains only one column..1. A diagonal matrix A is said to be a scalar matrix if all elements in the principal diagonal are equal. 5.. 6. matrix). Chapter 1  Matrices  3 . Adjoint of a Matrix: Let A = (aij)n x n be a square matrix and Cij the cofactor of aij. A matrix A is said to be a zero matrix if every element of A is equal to zero. A matrix A is said to be a row matrix if A contains only one row. i. 8. A matrix A is said to be a square matrix if the number of rows in A is equal to the number of columns in A. If A and B are two matrices of same type. a11 a12 If . −b d ad − bc ad − bc a b −1 If A = and A ≠ 0 . A matrix A is said to be a rectangular matrix if the number of rows in A is not equal to the number of columns in A. 2. then a square matrix B is said to be an inverse of A if AB = BA = In. Then the transpose of the matrix B obtained by replacing each element of A by its cofactor in A is known as the adjoint of A and is denoted by Adj A.. An m × n zero matrix is denoted by Om×n or O. all of whose elements are zero except aii (i = 1. 2. . then (A + B)T = AT + BT. A = a 21 a 22 a 31 a 32 a13 C11 then Adj a 23 A = C12 a 33 C13 C21 C22 C23 C31 C32 C33 Inverse of a matrix: If A be a nrowed square matrix.. matrix A scalar matrix in which all its diagonal elements are 1 is called unit matrix. A matrix. then A = −c a c d ad − bc ad − bc Different Types of Matrices 1. A is called a rectangular matrix if A is not a square matrix. Every matrix has a unique inverse (if exists). ) (which may or may not be zero) in the leading diagonal is called a diagonal matrix. 7.e. matrix (Also called Identity matrix we denote nrowed unit matrix by In. An n × n square matrix is called a square matrix of type n. 3 4.
A square matrix A is said to be a skewsymmetric skewsymmetric. the matrix 3 2 2 −1 AAT = −1 2 2 −1 2 2 1 1 2 −1 2 × 3 2 −1 2 3 2 2 −1 2 2 −1 9 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 9 0 = 0 1 0 = I . 4  Higher Mathematics Booklet . then it is called nonsingular nonsingular. 11.g. Similarly. because e. A square matrix A is called singular if A = 0. j.g. 9 0 0 9 0 0 1 12. 13. if AT = –A ⇒ aij = –aji ∀ i.9. A square matrix A is said to be orthogonal matrix if AAT= I = A AT. e. A square matrix A is said to be a symmetric matrix if AT = A. matrix. AT A = I. if A ≠ 0. 1 −5 7 1 −5 7 −5 3 2 . 10. then A T = −5 3 2 = A . A = 7 2 0 7 2 0 Hence. −1 2 2 1 2 −1 2 is an orthogonal matrix. A square matrix A is said to be a skew matrix if AT = – A. matrix A is symmetric.
then for every positive integer n. symmetric matrix b. Chapter 1  Matrices  5 . singular matrix c. non singular matrix d.e. 1 −3 2 A = −3 1 5 is a 2 −5 1 a. An is equal to 1 −1 4n 1 + 2n a. 3n An = n − 4n n − 1 0 1 + 2n − 4n − = 1 − 2n − n 0 n − 1 n 2. ⇒ A3 = 2A 2 – A = 3A − 2I ⇒ A 4 = 3A 2 – 2A = 4A − 3I Hence we can say A n = nA − (n − 1)I i. 1 − 2n n 1. None of these Sol. ⇒ A 2 – 2A + I = 0 ⇒ A 2 = 2A – I Similarly.Solved Examples 3 −4 If A = . A ≠ 0 Hence matrix is nonsingular. skew symmetric matrix Sol. d. n 1 + 2n 3 −4 3 −4 5 −8 A2 = = 1 −1 1 −1 2 −3 1 + 2n −4n b. n 1 + 2n 4n 1 − 2n c.
−32 51 24 −16 b. −27 51 19 −16 c. −4A = and 2 0 5 −16 12 18 −8 −4 −8 5 0 19 −16 ∴ f(A) = 2A 2 − 4A + 5I 2 = + + = −16 34 −16 12 0 5 −32 51 6  Higher Mathematics Booklet . is equal to 4 −3 19 −11 a. None of these Sol. −32 51 d. 1 2 If A = and f(x) =2x2 – 4x + 5. f(A) = 2A² – 4A + 5I2 −8 1 2 1 2 9 −4 2 18 A2 = 4 −3 = −8 17 ⇒ 2A = −16 34 4 −3 5 0 −4 −8 5I = Also. then f(A).3.
then the product of (– 1)i + j and the minor of aij is called cofactor of aij. If all the elements of a row (or column) of a square matrix are multiplied by a number k then the value of the determinant of the matrix obtained is k times the determinant of the given matrix. The interchange of any two rows (columns) of a determinant changes only its sign and has no effect on its absolute value. The sign of the determinant of a square matrix changes if any two rows (or columns) in the matrix are interchanged. 7. It is denoted by det A or A or . It is denoted by Aij. If aij is an element which is in the ith row and jth column of a. then its determinant can be expressed as the sum of the determinants of two square matrices. 6. If each element in a row (or column) of a square matrix is the sum of two numbers.2 Determinants a b If A = is a matrix then the number (ad – bc) is called determinant of c d a b A. 5. The sum of the products of the elements of any row or column of a square matrix A with their corresponding cofactors is called the determinant of the matrix A. . If aij is an element which is in the ith row and jth column of a square matrix A. 4. c d Determinant of order 3 is given by a11 a12 a13 a a a a a a a21 a22 a23 = a11 22 23 − a12 21 23 + a13 21 22 a32 a33 a31 a33 a31 a32 a31 a32 a33 = a11(a22a33 – a32 a23) – a12 (a21 a33 – a31 a23) + a13 (a21 a32 – a31 a22) Properties of Determinants 1. the value of the determinant of the matrix is zero. Chapter 2  Determinants  7 2. then the determinant of the matrix obtained by deleting the ith row and jth column of A is called minor of aij. 3. It is denoted by Mij. If two rows (or columns) of a square matrix are identical.
k ≠ i or C j ← Ci + mC j + nC k . det B. then xyz is equal to z3 c. –1 1 x x2 Sol. then the determinant remains unaltered. columns by rows and column by column. 1 y y 2 = 0 1 z 1 x z2 x2 y2 − x 2 = 0 z2 − x 2 ⇒ (xyz). 2 If x ≠ y ≠ z and y y x3 y3 = 0 . 9. k ≠ i are performed on the determinant. If A and B are two square matrices of same type. if the operations R i ← R i + mR j + nRk. i. 1 z2 b. We can also multiply rows by columns. If constant multiple of elements of any row(column) be added to (subtracted from) the corresponding elements of some other row(column) of a determinant. None of these z a.e.Example: a1 + a 2 a3 + a 4 b1 c1 b2 c2 a5 + a6 a1 b3 = b1 c3 c1 a3 b2 c2 a5 a2 b3 + b1 c3 c1 a4 b2 c2 a6 b3 c3 8 8. ∆ = 0 ⇒ (xyz). j.j. The product of two determinants each of order 3 is given by: a1 a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 c1 α1 c2 × α 2 c3 α 3 β1 γ 1 β2 γ 2 β3 γ 3 a1α1 + b1 β1 + c1γ 1 a1α 2 + b1 β2 + c1γ 2 a1α 3 + b1 β3 + c1γ 3 = a 2α1 + b2 β1 + c2γ 1 a 2α 2 + b2 β 2 + c2γ 2 a 2α 3 + b2 β3 + c2γ 3 a 3α1 + b3 β1 + c3γ 1 a 3α 2 + b3 β 2 + c3γ 2 a 3α 3 + b3 β3 + c3γ 3 where the rows are multiplied by rows. its value remains unaltered. Solved Examples x x2 1. 0 y − x 0 z−x 8  Higher Mathematics Booklet . then det (AB) = det A. x + y + z d.
Sol 1 1 1 +1 a a a 1 1 1 ∆ = (abc) ⋅ +1 b b b 1 1 1 +1 c c c [R 1 → R 1 + R 2 + R 3 ] 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1+ + + 1+ + + 1+ + + a b c a b c a b c 1 1 1 = (abc) × +1 b b b 1 1 1 +1 c c c = 1 1 1 1 1 (abc) ⋅ 1 + + + ⋅ a b c b 1 c 1 1 1 1 +1 b b 1 1 +1 c c = 0 1 1 1 ∴∆ = 0 and abc ≠ 0 ⇒ 1 + + + = 0 a b c Chapter 2  Determinants  9 . None of these Sol. 1 abc c. 0 1 0 1 x2 y+x = 0 z−x ⇒ (xyz)(y − x)(z − x) = 0 ⇒ xyz = 0 2. 1+ a 1 1 If a. abc b. 1 (a + b + c) d. 1 1 1+ c 1 1 1 then 1 + + + = ? a b c a.1 x ⇒ (xyz)(y − x)(z − x). b and c are all different from zero and ∆ = 1 1 + b 1 =0.
. + nCrxr + . n being a positive integer. (1 + x )− n = 1 − nx + 10  Higher Mathematics Booklet ..... There are (n + 1) terms in the expansion of (x + a)n. The binomial coefficients of terms equidistant from the beginning and the end are equal. nC1. 4.. nCr = nCn – r (0 ≤ r ≤ n)...(n + r − 1) r x + ..3 Binomial Theorem. 2 1 {(1 + x)n – (1 – x)n} = nC1x + nC3x3 + nC5x5 + . usually denoted by Tr + 1 and is given by Tr + 1 = nCr xn – r ar or . 5. 3. 2. This is called the binomial theorem... In any term of binomial expansion of (x + a)n.. + nCn xn = r=0 ∑ n nC xr r 2. 3... 0 ≤ r ≤ 1. i. 2! 3! n(n + 1) (n + 2). + nCrxn–rar + . Properties of binomial expansion 1. the sum of the exponents of x and a is n.. (1 – x)n = nC0 – nC1x + nC2x² – ..e.. (1 + x)n = nC0 + nC1x + nC2 x² + ... 2 n (n + 1) 2 n (n + 1)(n + 2) 3 x − x + ... nCn xn 1 {(1 + x)n + (1 – x)n} = nC0 + nC2 x² + nC4 x4 + . nCn are called binomial coefficients. + nCn –1x1an–1 + nCnx0an = r=0 n ∑ nC xn–r ar r where x and a are any real or complex expressions and nC0.. + (–1)r nCr xr + . +(–1)r r! 4. Exponential and Logarithmic Series Binomial Expansion of (x + a)n . for positive integral index n (x + a)n = nC0xna0 + nC1xn–1a1 + nC2xn–2a² + .. Important Deductions from Binomial Expansion of (x + a)n 1.+ (–1)n... The general term of the expansion is (r + 1)th term.
6...... 2 < 1+ 1 1 1 + + + .. If x ∈ R and – 1 < x ≤ 1 then loge (1 + x) = x − 9. = ∑ ( −1) 1! 2! 3! n! n =0 4.. e= n =0 ∑ ∞ ∞ 1 1 =∑ = n! n =1 (n − 1)! n =k ∑ ∞ 1 (n − k)! . < 3 1! 2! 3! n ∞ x x 2 x3 n x + − + ..(n + r − 1) r + . r! = 1 + nx + = 1 − nx + 7..(n − r + 1) r + ... r! Exponential theorem: x If x ∈ R ... n 6..... the series e = 1 + x Thus e = x x 2 x3 + + + . eax = 1 + ax + (ax )2 (ax )3 2! + 3! + ..718281828 ...... x 2 x3 x 4 + − + .. + (−1)r x + . = ∑ 2! 3! 4! 5! n =0 n! 7.... + x + .. 2 3 4 x 2 x3 x 4 − − − . e− x = 1 − 5. e = 1+ ∞ 1 1 1 1 + + + . = ∑ 1! 2! 3! n! n =0 e is an irrational number and its approximate value is 2...... 2 3 4 10... (1 − x )− n n(n + 1) 2 n (n + 1)(n + 2) 3 x + x 2! 3! n(n + 1)(n + 2). is called exponential series. 1! 2! 3! xn n =0 n! ∑ ∞ Important Deductions from the Exponential and Logarithmic Series 1.. Exponential and Logarithmic Series  11 .. (1 − x )n n (n − 1) 2 n (n − 1)(n − 2) 3 x − x 2! 3! n (n − 1)(n − 2).... log 2 = 1 − Chapter 3  Binomial Theorem.. 2.. 2 3 4 8.... 3. e−1 = ∞ −1 ( ) 1 1 1 1 − + − + .. If x ∈ R and x < 1 then loge (1 – x) = − x − 1 1 1 + − + .
+ x r + . = − (1 − x )(3 − x ) 2 1 − x 3 1 − x 3 = 1 1 x (1 − x )−1 − 1 − 3 2 6 −1 Therefore. 1 + + + . Find the coefficient of xr in {(1 − x )(3 − x )} ... {(1 − x )(3 − x )} 1 = A B 1 1 + ⇒ A = .6.. 2 6 3 3 = 12  Higher Mathematics Booklet .. . the coefficient of xr = 1 1 − 2 6 × 3r = 1 (1 – 3– (r + 1)) 2 r 1 1 x x (1 + x + x 2 + .7.2 a 2 b6 = 70 x6 y10 a 2 b6 1 2..B = − 1− x 3− x 2 2 1 1 1 1 Therefore..Solved Examples 1.). Sol. 3 x2 Find the 5th term of 1 a2 3 x2 T4 + 1 = 8 C 4 1 a2 4 − 3 b2 5 y2 8 Sol..3. 5 −y 2 3 b2 4 = 8! x6 y10 .5 x6 y10 4. 4! 4! a2 b6 = 8.
... 2x − 2 3 n Therefore.. + ( −1) + .. Sol. + ( −1) + . coefficient of xn in loge 1 + 3x + 2x 2 ( ) ( −1)n −1 n + ( −1) n −1 2 n (−1) n −1 = (1 + 2 n ) n n Chapter 3  Binomial Theorem. We have: loge (1 + 3x + 2x²) = loge{(1 + x) ( 1 + 2x)} = loge (1 + x) + loge (1 + 2x) n x 2 x3 n −1 x = x − + − ..3.. + 2 3 n n (2x)2 (2x)3 n −1 (2x) + − .. Find the coefficient of xn in the expansion of loge (1 + 3x + 2x 2 ) . Exponential and Logarithmic Series  13 .
f(x) lies in ∈ . In this case. whenever x lies in deleted δneighbourhood of a. RightHand Limit (RHL) A function f(x) tend to a limit L. a + δ [ . left. there exist δ > 0 such that f (x) − L < ∈ whenever x ∈ ] a − δ . a + δ ) − {a} Note that limit is generally written as lim or lt. as x tends to 'a' from right if for any ∈ > 0. 14  Higher Mathematics Booklet .t. as x tends to 'a' from left if for any ∈ > 0. LeftHand Limit (LHL) A function f(x) tend to a limit L. L− ∈ < f (x) < L+ ∈ whenever x ∈ (a − δ . right. there exist a corresponding number δ > 0 such that 0. i. If(x)–L< ∈ whenever 0 < x – a < δ. we write x →a − Lt f (x) = L and say that L is the lefthand limit of f(x).e. x →a lim f (x) = L iff x →a − lim f (x) = lim f (x) = L x →a + Rationalisation: Particularly used when numerator or denominator involves radical expressions (square or cube roots etc.e. Working rule LHL = f (a − ) = lim f (x) = x → a– 0<h→0 lim f (a − h) f (a + h) RHL = f (a + ) = lim f (x) = x → a+ 0<h→0 lim Limit exists iff LHL = RHL . a [ . In this case. there exist δ > 0 such that f (x) − L < ∈ whenever x ∈ ] a .i. we write x →a + Lt f (x) = L and say that L is the righthand limit of f(x).4 Limits Definition The number 'L' is said to be the limit of f(x) as x tends to 'a' if for any arbitrary ∈ > 0 however small.neighbourhood of L or equivalently x →a lim f (x) = L iff ∀ ∈ > 0 ∃ δ > 0 s.) For example to find lim a−5 a −3 − 7−a a →5 .
x→0 lim sin x = 0. = lim = lim a−5 × ( a − 3 + 7 − a) . x x→ ∞ x lim (1 + x ) 1/ x = e. x 8. x→a lim tan x = tan a for a ≠ ( 2n + 1) sin x = 1. 6. x→ 0 7. x x→0 13. x→ a lim {x} = a lim cos x = 1. x→0 lim 9. If n is a real number then lim ex − 1 = 1. ∀ a ∈ R.= lim a−5 a −3 − 7−a a →5 × a −3 + 7−a a −3 + 7−a . x π . 4. If n is a real number then lim sin nx = n. 12. ∀ a ∈ R. 5. n ∈ Integer. 15. 14. x→ 0 x→ a x→ a lim cos x = cos a. 2. 3. x→0 x 11. x→0 10. x→0 x lim x→0 1 lim 1 + = e. ex − 1 = 1. a →5 (a − 3) − (7 − a) a−5 × ( a − 3 + 7 − a) a →5 2(a − 5) 2 2 = 2 a →5 2 = lim Some Standard Limits: 1. lim tan x = 0. 2 lim tan x = 1. Chapter 4  Limits  15 . lim sin x = sin a. x→0 x lim tan nx = n.
lim f (x) = f (a) x →a (b) f(x) is continuous at every interior point of open interval (a. LHL = RHL = f(a) x →a − x →a + should be in a straight line. lim f (x) = f (a) . it must satisfy three x →a conditions: (1) (2) (3) f(a) exists.e. (c) f(x) is continuous at right endpoint x = b from left. where a < b. i. LHL = RHL and lim f (x) = f (a) the limit equals to the function value.Continuity Working rule: A function y = f(x) defined on an open interval I is said to be continuous at an interior point x = a. if lim f (x) = lim f (x) = f (a) . 16  Higher Mathematics Booklet . i.e. Continuity in a Closed Interval A function f(x) is said to be continuous in a closed interval [a.e. lim f (x) = f (b) . i. x →a Continuity of a Function in an Open Interval A function f(x) is said to be continuous in an open interval (a. or. b]. for f(x) to be continuous at x = a.e. if the following three conditions are satisfied.e. a lies in the domain of f(x) x →a lim f (x) exists i. i. b) if f(x) is continuous at every point in (a. (a) f(x) is continuous at left endpoint x = a from right. b). i.e. x →b − A function which is not continuous at x = a is said to be discontinuous at x = a and function is said to be discontinuous function. b).
–1 1 b. Limit for the function f(x) does not exist. 0 d. Note that lim lim x →0 x does not exist as lim 1 1 = lim = −∞ x 0<h →0 0 − h x →0 + 1 1 = lim = ∞ and x 0<h →0 0 + h h →0 x →0 − RHL = f (0+) = lim f (0 + h) = lim 1 − e −1/(0 + h) 1+ e −1/(0 + h) h →0 = 1− 0 = 1 as e−∞ = 0 1+ 0 LHL = f (0 – h) = lim f (0 – h) h →0 0 −1 = = −1 e1/(0 – h) + 1 h →0 e –1/ h + 1 0 + 1 Since LHL ≠ RHL. e1/ x − 1 lim = x →0 e1/ x + 1 a. h →0 lim e1/(0 – h) − 1 = lim e –1/ h – 1 2. Does not exist Sol. 1 c. x → −∞ lim x2 +1 = lim x +1 x → −∞ 1+ 1 x 1+ 1 x2 1 x 1 + x lim = x→–∞ x2 = 1 = 1 1 1+ 0 1+ x Chapter 4  Limits  17 .Solved Examples 1. x → −∞ lim x2 +1 = x +1 Sol.
3. 0 c. 2 1 xe x 1 b. x →∞ lim (4 n 1 n n +5 ) = Sol. x →∞ lim 1 (4 n + 5n ) n 4 n n = lim 5 1 + = 5(1 + 0)° = 5 5 x →∞ 1 5. sin 5x x →0 tan 3x lim Sol. Does not exist Sol. 1 d. RHL = lim x → 0+ 1 + ex = lim h 1+ −1 eh = lim 1 he h 0 < h →0 1+ 1 h e 0 < h →0 = 0 =0 1+ 0 LHL = lim 1 xe x − x →0 1+ 1 ex = lim −1 −he h 0< h →0 1+ −1 eh = −0 × 0 = 0 = RHL 1+ 0 4. x →0 lim 1 xe x 1+ 1 ex = a. sin 5x 5x 5x = 5 3 lim sin 5x = 1 and lim tan 3x = 1 lim x →0 x →0 3x tan 3x 3 x →0 5x 3x 3x 18  Higher Mathematics Booklet .
f(x) is continuous at x = 4 and 7 For checking the continuity in the open interval (4. i.e.6. x →6+ x →6− Therefore. To check continuity at 4. 7). RHL = lim 4x − [x] = x → 4+ 0<h →0 lim 4(4 + h) − [4 + h] = 16 – 4 = 12 LHL = lim f (x) = 12 and f(4) = 12 ∴ LHL = RHL = f(4) x → 4− To check continuity at 7. Chapter 4  Limits  19 . x≤4 12 Check the continuity of the function f (x) = 4x − [x] 4 < x < 7 in 22 x≥7 [4. 7]. 7]. A function which is not continuous x = a is said to be discontinuous at x = a and function is said to be discontinuous function. RHL = lim 4x − [x] = lim 4(6 + h) – [6 + h] = 24 – 6 = 18 x →6+ h →0 LHL = lim 4x – [x] = lim 4(6 – h) – [6 – h] = 24 – 5 = 19 x →6 – h →0 f(6) = 4 × 6 – [6] = 24 – 6 = 18 3 lim f (x) ≠ lim f (x) . f(x) is not continuous at x = 6. LHL = lim 4x − [x] = lim 4(7 – h) – [7 – h] = 28 – 6 = 22 and x →7 − h →0 RHL = f (7) = 22 = LHL. function f(x) is not continuous in the closed interval [4. let us check the continuity at x = 6.
−h . Derivability in an Interval A function f(x) is said to be derivable in an open interval (a. Rf'(a) is also denoted by f'(a+).e. i.e. where a is some interior point of domain of f(x). A function f(x) is said to be derivable in a closed interval [a. x−a i. and is given by h →0 lim f (a + h) − f (a) .e. i. f (a + h) − f (a) f (a − h) − f (a) = lim h −h 0< h →0 0< h →0 lim d Derivative of f(x) at x = a is denoted by f'(a) or Df(a) or f (x) dx x = a LeftHand Derivative (LHD) of f(x) at x = a. if lim x →a f (x) − f (a) exist. is denoted by Rf'(a).5 Differentiation Differentiability Derivability at a Point The function f(x) is said to be derivable or differentiable at x = a. lim h →0 f (a + h) − f (a) exist. is denoted by Lf'(a) and is given by f (a − h) − f (a) . where h > 0. −h h →0 lim RightHand Derivative (RHD) of f(x) at x = a. h ∴ f'(a) exist iff both Lf'(a) and Rf'(a) exist and are equal. where h > 0. b). b). h (b) f(x) is derivable at every point of (a. if it exist. (c) f(x) is derivable at right endpoint x = b from left. b] if (a) f(x) is derivable at left endpoint x = a from right.e. if it exist. b) if f(x) is derivable at every interior point of (a. Lf'(a) is also denoted by f'(a–). Lf'(a) = Rf'(a) = f'(a). lim 20  Higher Mathematics Booklet h →0 f (b − h) − f (b) exist. If Lf'(a) ≠ Rf'(a) we say that function is not differentiable at x = a. i.
Here h is a small number. d {x} = 1. provided the dx dx h h →0 limit exist. Example of a function which is continuous but not differentiable at a point is. k is constant. Quotient rule d u = dx v v du dv −u dx dx v2 Some Standard Derivatives 1. f(x) = x. 4. either positive or negative. continuous functions which have corners or kinks in their graph are not derivable at those points. dx 3. If c is a constant then d {c} = 0 dx 2. f ′(x) = lim f (x + h) − f (x) . But if a function is not continuous at a point. f'(x) is called the derived function of f(x). 3. d (k) = 0 dx d du (ku) = k dx dx d du dv ± (u ± v) = dx dx dx Product rule d dv du +v (uv) = u dx dx dx 5. then it is not differentiable at that point. Derived Function Let y = f(x) be a function with domain D. Chapter 5  Differentiation  21 . Algebra of Derivatives In the following results. but it is not differentiable at x = 0. dx d {x n } = nx n − 1. then it is also continuous at that point. but converse is not always true. Generally. u and v are functions of x 1. This function is continuous at x = 0. The derivative of f(x) is denoted by f ′( x ) or dy d or f (x) or Df(x).Relation between Continuity and Differentiability If a function is differentiable at a point. 2.
dx d {sec x} = sec x tan x for x ≠ ( 2n + 1)π / 2. If f’ is differentiable at x. By Induction. dx d {cos x} = − sin x . If y = f(x) then f(n) (x) is denoted by 22  Higher Mathematics Booklet . 6.4. then the derivative of f’ at x is called second derivative of f at x. dx 8. 10. If u is a function in x and y is a function in u. π d {tan x} = sec 2 x for x ≠ ( 2n + 1) ' n ∈ Z . n ∈ Z . nth derivative of f(x) can be defined for all n ∈ N as f (n) (x) = d n −1 f (x) dx dn y dx n 15. dx d 1 {log x} = for x > 0. dy dy du = .b]. dx x 5. It is dx du dx 14. It is noted by f” (x) or f(2) (x). dx d x {a } = a x log a. dx 2 d {cot x} = − cos ec 2 x for x ≠ nπ . d x {e } = e x . 12. . then known as chain rule. 9. Then the derivative f’ is a function on [a. dx 11. 7. dx d {co sec x} = − co s ec x cot x for x ≠ nπ . d {sin x} = cos x . ∈ Z . 13. n ∈ Z . Let f be a differentiable function on [a. b].
then nth order derivative of y or f(x) is denoted by yn or f(n)(x). m > 0. ( m − n )! m! (ax + b )m − n a n . If f(x) is a polynomial function of degree less than n where n ∈ N then f(n) (x) = 0. dx dy is called double derivative of f(x) and is denoted dx by d2y dx 2 or y2 or f ′′(x) . If n is a positive integer. (m – n + 1) (ax + b)m – n × an If f(x) = (ax + b)m. 19..dn y 16. dx n = d d n − 1y . Successive Differentiation Let y = f(x0 be a differentiable function then y1 = The derivative of dy = f ′(x). If y = (ax + b)m then yn = m(m – 1) (m – 2) .. dny dx n or y(n) or Dny or Chapter 5  Differentiation  23 . m ∈ Z. dx dx n − 1 17. n ∈ N then i) m < n ⇒ f(n) (x) = 0 ii) m = n ⇒ f(n) (x) = n! an iii) m > n ⇒ f(n) = 18.
nth Order Derivative of Some Special Functions 1. 3. m! if n < m. D n (ax + b)−1 = (−1)n n! a n (ax + b)− n −1 or n (−1) n n! n 1 1 (−1) n! Dn a ⇒ Dn = = ax + b (ax + b)n +1 x (x) n +1 6. m! x m−n (m − n)! If m > n. then Dn{xm} = 0 D n (x)m = m(m − 1)(m − 2) .. when m = n. (m − n)! If n > m. then Dn(ax+b)m = 0. nπ Dn sin(ax + b) = a n sin ax + b + 2 nπ Dn cos(ax + b) = a n cos ax + b + 2 8. Dn log e (ax + b) = (−1)n −1 (n − 1)!a n (ax + b)n 7. 9. whereas when m < n. (m − (n − 1))x m − n = Dn (amx) = amx (log a)nmn. 4. D n eax cos(bx + c) = a 2 + b2 { } ( ) n/2 24  Higher Mathematics Booklet .. Dn(xn) = n!. then If m ∈ N then D n (ax + b)m = (ax + b)m − n × a n × Dn (ax + b)m = n!a n 5. Particularly Dnax = ax(log a)n Dneax+b = aneax+b 2. whereas if n = m. D n eax sin(bx + c) = a 2 + b2 { } ( ) n/2 b × eax sin bx + c + n tan −1 a b × e ax cos bx + c + n tan −1 a 10.
Solved Examples
1. If y =
1 xx , find d2 y dx 2
Sol.
y = x–x ⇒ log y = –x log x
1 dy 1 ⇒ y dx = –x · + log x (–1) x
⇒
⇒
dy = (–log x – 1) y dx d2 y dx
2
=−
dy y 1 1 1 (log x + 1) − = −(− log x − 1) ⋅ (log x + 1) − ⋅ x dx x x xx x
= (1 + log x)2 ⋅ x − x − x −(x +1)
d3 y dx 3
2.
For y = log { 1 – log( 1 – x ) }, the value of
1 6
at x = 0 is
a. 1
b. 2
c. –
d. –1
Sol.
1 − e y = log(1 − x) at x = 0 , ey = 1 ⇒ ey y ' = 1 at x = 0, y ' = 1 1− x
2
⇒ e y ( y ') + e y y '' =
3
1
(1 − x )
2
at x = 0, e y = 1, y ' = 1, y '' = 0
2 (1 − x)3
⇒ e y ( y ' ) + 2e y y ' y ''+ e y y ' y ''+ e y y ''' =
At x = 0, e y = 1, y ' = 1, y '' = 0, y ''' = 1
Chapter 5  Differentiation  25
3.
d dx
e2x log x =
e = log x
2x
Sol.
d dx
log x
d 2x d e 2x − e 2x e ( log x ) 2 log x ⋅ e2x − dx dx x = 2 (log x)2 (log x )
( )
=
( 2x log x − 1) e2x 2 x (log x )
1 x+ 1 x+ 1 x+ 1 x − 1...∞
4.
y = x+
Sol.
dy 1 dy y2 dy 1 dy ⇒ = 1 + 2 = 1 ⇒ ⇒ + =1 dx y dx y 2 + 1 dx y 2 dx
siny = xsin(a + y), then
dy is equal to dx
5. Sol.
x=
sin y sin(a + y)
Differentiate w.r.t. y ′
dx sin(a + y) cos y − cos(a + y) sin y sin(a + y − y) sin a = = = 2 2 2 dy sin (a + y) sin (a + y) sin (a + y) ⇒ dy sin 2 (a + y) = dx sin a
6.
1 + sin x + 1 − sin x y = tan–1 1 + sin x − 1 − sin x
a. independent of x c.
dy , then is dx
sin x + 1 b. tan–1 sin x − 1
d.
x 2
π +x 2
Sol.
dy is independent of x, as dx
x π x 1 + cos x −1 y = tan −1 = tan cot = − 2 2 2 sin x
26  Higher Mathematics Booklet
6
Integration
Indefinite Integrals:
If
d (g(x)) = f(x), then ∫ f (x) dx = g(x) + c , where c is any arbitrary real dx
number and is called constant of integration. The function f(x) in
∫ f (x) dx is
called the integrand the function g(x) is called integral or antiderivative or integrand, primitive of the function f(x) w. r. t. x. If F(x) is an antiderivative of f(x) then F(x) + c, c ∈ R is called indefinite integral of f(X) with respect to x. It is denoted by integration. ∫ f ( x ) dx. The real number c is called constant of integration
Some Standard Indefinite Integrals
1.
n If n ≠ − 1 then ∫ x dx =
xn + 1 + c. n +1
2.
∫ dx = x + c.
3.
∫
1 x
1
dx = 2 x + c.
4.
∫ x dx = log  x  + c.
5.
∫e
x
dx = e x + c.
6.
If a > 0, and a ≠ 1, then ∫ a x dx =
ax + c. log a
7.
∫ cos x dx = sin x + c. ∫ sin x dx = − cos x + c.
8.
9.
∫ sec
2
x dx = tan x + c.
Chapter 6  Integration 27
∫ 1 dx = ln x + x 2 − a 2 + c = cosh −1 x +c. a a2 + x2 Substitution: x = a tanθ or a sinh θ 1 x2 − a2 Substitution: x = a secθ or a coshθ 20. ∫ co sec x cot x dx = −co sec x + c. ∫ sec x tan x dx = sec x + c. a 28  Higher Mathematics Booklet . ∫ a 2 − x 2 dx = a tan 1 1 −1 x + c. a a2 − x2 1 19. x dx = ln x + a 2 + x 2 + c = sinh −1 + c . 18.∫ x dx = sin −1 + c. 17. ∫ . a 21. ∫ tan x dx = log  sec x  + c. 15. ∫ 1 1− x 2 13. ∫ co sec 2 x dx = − cot x + c. ∫ 1 + x 2 dx = tan If x > 1. ∫ ∫ 1 x x −1 2 dx = sec −1 x + c = − co sec −1 x + c and if x < – 1 then 1 x x −1 2 dx = − sec −1 x + c = co sec −1 x + c. 12.10. dx = sin −1 x + c = − cos −1 x + c 14. ∫ cot x dx = log  sin x  + c. 16. 11. then 1 −1 x + c = − cot −1 x + c.
∫ ax2 + bx + c dx . ∫ dx dx ax + bx + c 2 . ∫ px + q px + q ax 2 + bx + c dx. 2 2 Substitution: x = a tanθ or a cotθ or a sinhθ. ∫e x [f (x) + f '(x)] dx = ex f (x) + c Integrals of Various Type Type 1 ∫ ax 2 + bx + c . ∫ x 2 − a 2 dx = 25. ∫ ax 2 + bx + c dx Express ax2 + bx + c in the form of perfect square and then apply the standard results. x a2 x 2 − a 2 − ln x + x 2 − a 2 + c . x +c. 1 1 x 2 a2 a + x 2 + ln x + a 2 + x 2 + c . a Substitution: x = a tan θ. Type 2 ∫ ax2 + bx + c dx. Integration By Parts : If f(x) and g(x) are two integrable functions then ∫ f ( x ) g ( x ) dx = f ( x ) ∫ g ( x ) dx − ∫ f ' ( x ) ∫ g ( x ) dx dx. a +x 23. p(x) ∫ (px + q) x ax 2 + bx + c dx . ∫ a 2 − x 2 dx = 2a log a − x + c. ∫ a 2 + x 2 dx = 24. where p(x) is any polynomial of Chapter 6  Integration 29 . 2 2 Substitution: x = a secθ or a coshθ. 27. −1 ∫ a 2 + x 2 = a tan dx 1 26.22.
let px + q = λ d ax 2 + bx + c + µ where λ and µ are dx constants. dx = . Reduce fourth integral to first type. ∫ a sin x + b cos x + c . dx ∫ a sin 2 x + b sin x cos x + c cos2 x + d f(tan x)dx where f(tanx) is polynomial in tanx Divide numerator and denominator by cos2x and then substitute tan x = t.In first three of these. b]. dx dx dx ∫ (a sin x + b cos x)2 . b]. Then integral value is λx + µ ln denominator + c. ∫ a + b cos x . cos x = . ( ) Type 3 ∫ a + b sin2 x . where in first integral substitute ax2 + bx + c = y and second is of type 1. Similarly in fifth. If ∫ f ( x ) dx = F ( x ). express numerator as d λ (deno min ator ) + µ (deno min ator) + ν dx Definite Integrals Let f(x) be a function defined on [a. this will break the given integral into two integrals. sec2x dx = dt. ∫ a sin2 x + b cos2 x . 30  Higher Mathematics Booklet . ∫ a + b cos2 x . dx dx dx ∫ a sin x + b cos x dx . It is denoted by ∫ f ( x ) dx. ∫ a sin x + b cos x + c dx In first three of these substitute tan x 2dt 1− t2 2t = t . then F(b) – F(a) is called the definite integral of f(x) over [a. express numerator as d λ (deno min ator ) + µ (deno min ator) by comparing the coefficients dx find the value of constants. by dividing p(x) by ax2 + bx +c. which you can find by comparing the coefficients. then integral reduces to Type 2. Type 4 ∫ a + b sin x . sin x = 2 2 2 1+ t 1+ t 1+ t2 c sin x + d cos x d sin x + e cos x + f In fourth. The real number a is called the lower limit and the real number b is a b called the upper limit limit.
if f(x) is periodic with period T and n ∈ Z Hint: Substitute nT + y for x.Some Standard Definite Integrals 1. f ( x ) dx = 0 −a if f(x) is an odd function. ∫ a b f ( x ) dx = f ( t ) dt a ∫ b 2. ∫T nT a+T f(x) dx = ∫0 f(x) dx . n ∈ Z .e. ∫ a 2 ( x ) dx. ∫ a b f ( x ) dx = − f ( x ) dx. a 2 ( x ) dx. then (a) b + nT b 9. Chapter 6  Integration 31 . if f(x) is an even function. + f ( x ) dx. ∫ f ( x ) dx = ∫ f (a − x ) dx. If a < c < b then ∫ a b f ( x ) dx = f ( x ) dx. ∫ ∫ 2a 7. 0. ∫ a a b f ( x ) dx = f (a + b − x ) dx. m. a c ∫ c ∫ b 4. 0 0 a a 5. ∫a T a+T f(x) dx is independent of a. ∫a + nT f(x) dx = ∫a f(x) dx . b ∫ a 3. if f(2a − x) = f(x). If f(x) is a periodic function with period T and a ∈ R + . 0. ∫ 8. by substituting T + y for x T a (b) 0 ∫ f (x ) dx = n ∫ f (x ) dx 0 a+T (c) ∫a f(x) dx = ∫0 f(x) dx i. f ( x ) dx = 0 0 if f(2a − x) = −f(x). a ∫ b 6.
Sol. given integral dx 6x + 4 dx becomes λ +µ 2 2 3x + 4x + 5 3x + 4x + 5 dx Integrating 2 3x + 4x + 5 2x − 3 Sol. tan −1 3 11 11 11 3 2 32  Higher Mathematics Booklet . Sol. ∫ 3x 2 + 4x + 5 dx d Put 2x − 3 = λ (3x 2 + 4x + 5) + µ = λ (6x + 4 ) + µ . (4e)x dx = 2x 4 + 3 dx x2 + 1 2. ∫ ∫ ∫ = 1 3 ∫ x2 + 4 x + 5 = 3 ∫ dx 3 1 3 dx 2 2 x + 3 + 1 3 3x + 2 = . 2x 4 + 2x 2 − 2x 2 − 2 + 5 x2 + 1 ∫ ∫ 2x 4 + 2x 2 x +1 2 dx + ∫ −2x 2 − 2 x +1 5 2 dx + ∫ x2 + 1 dx 5 2 = 2x dx − 2dx + ∫ ∫ x2 + 1 dx = 2x 3 − 2x + 5 tan −1 (x) + c 3 3. ∫4 ∫ ∫ ∫ = x x e dx (4e)x +c ln(4e) Sol.Solved Examples 1. ∫ 3sin x + 4 cos x dx 3 sinx + 4 cosx = 5 (sinx cosα + cosx sinα) = 5 sin(x + α) where 4 α = tan −1 3 1 dx 1 1 (x + α) = = +c cos ec (x + α)dx = = ln tan 5 sin(x + α) 5 5 2 ∫ ∫ 4.
we get λ = 5. 2∫ dx 7 − (x 2 − 2x) 2 dx 2 = 1 2∫ dx 9 − (x − 1)2 2 = 1 2 ∫ 3 2 − (x − 1) 2 = 1 2(x − 1) sin −1 +C 3 2 Chapter 6  Integration 33 . 1 1 −1 Let x − 1 = ⇒ x = + 1 dx = dt t t t2 1 − 2 dt dt dt t =− =− I= 2 2 2 (t + 1) + 4t 1 1 5t 2 + 2t + 1 + 1 + 4 t t = 1 − dt dt 1 −1 t2 =− = dt 2 2 2 2 2 5 (t + 1) + 4t 1 1 1 2 + 1 + 4 t + 5 + 5 t t ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ = −1 1 2 1 ln t + + t 2 + t + + C 5 5 5 5 ln 1 1 1 2 1 + + + + +C 2 x −1 5 5 (x − 1) 5 (x − 1) = −1 5 = −1 5 ln 1 1 x2 + 4 + + +C x −1 5 5(x − 1)2 dx 6. ∫ 1 7 + 4x − 2x 2 Sol.1 13 µ. ∫ (x − 1) 1 x2 + 4 dx Sol. = − 3 3 1 13 3x + 2 2 tan −1 = In  3x + 4x + 5  − +C 3 3 11 11 Comparing the coefficients.
−3 ∫ x dx = −3 ∫ 0 x dx + ∫ x dx 0 3 If x < 0.. 1 ∫ 2 x 3−x + x dx Sol. 1 ∫ 2 3−x 3 − (3 − x) + 3 − x dx = ∫ 1 2 2 3−x x + 3− x 3− x x + 3− x dx 2 2I = 1 2 ∫ 2 x 3− x + ⇒Ι= x dx + ∫ 1 dx = ∫ 1 x + 3−x 3− x + x dx 2 I = ∫ dx 1 2 −1 1 = 2 2 9. ∫ 0 dx 1 + cot x π/2 Sol.π/2 7..e. we get 2I = π/2 0 ∫ sinx + cos x cos x + sinx dx i.. (i) π/2 0 ∫ a a dx Q ∫ f(x)dx = ∫ f(a − x)dx π π 0 0 sin − x + cos − x 2 2 π sin − x 2 = π/2 ∫ 0 cos x cos x + sin x dx .. (ii) Adding (i) and (ii).2 I = π π ⇒I= 2 4 8. x = − x 34  Higher Mathematics Booklet . ∫ 0 sin x sin x + cos x dx . −3 ∫ 3 3 x dx Sol.
x → ∞ 0 π ⇒t→∞ 2 ∫ a 2 t 2 + b2 1 a2 dt = 1 2 ∞ a 0 2 b2 t + 2 a ∞ ∫ dt = . −3 ∫ 3 x2 2×9 x dx = 2∫ x dx = 2∫ x dx = 2 = =9 2 2 0 0 0 3 3 3 π/2 10. a 1 at tan −1 = b b 0 ab 1 π π −1 at tan b = ab 2 − 0 = 2ab 0 ∞ Chapter 6  Integration 35 . Sol. sec2x dx = dt. π/2 ∫ 0 sec2 x dx a 2 tan 2 x + b 2 Let tanx = t. x = − x 0 = −3 ∫ x2 −x dx + ∫ x dx = − 2 3 0 0 −3 x2 + 2 3 0 9 9 = 0 −− + 2 2 =9 Same can be obtained as follows x is an even function. x → 0 ⇒ t → 0 . ∫ 0 1 a sin x + b 2 cos 2 x 2 2 Dividing the numerator and the denominator by cos2x.x > 0.
Examples: Length. Then the line segment AB has both magnitude and direction. a = a a . 2.e. 36  Higher Mathematics Booklet . Two or more vectors are said to be equal if they have the same magnitude and same direction. Properties of Vectors 1. are all scalars. 3.) of P is OP .7 Vectors Scalar and Vector Quantities (i) Scalar: A quantity which has only magnitude. time. acceleration. then the KKKH position vector (p. (ii) Representation of Vectors B A Let A be an arbitary point in space and B any other point. are all vectors. temperature etc.. Examples: Displacement. P O If initial point is chosen as origin O and P be any other point. A vector of unit magnitude is called unit vector A unit vector in the vector. i. force etc. from A to B. velocity. A vector is denoted by a and its magnitude by a or a.v. Vector: A quantity which has magnitude as well as direction or a directed line segment is called a vector. Point A is called the initial point (or tail) and B is called the terminating point (or head) H KKK H H of vector AB . volume..e. H a H H H H ˆ ˆ direction of a is given by a and is denoted by a . mass. i.
13. i) If m > 0. r2 = x 2 a + y 2 b + z 2 c then 9. Two nonzero vectors a. P. b = b1i + b2j + b3k. Q are x1 i + y1 j + z1 k and x2 i + KKK H 2 2 2 y2 j + z2 k then PQ = ( x1 − x 2 ) + ( y1 − y 2 ) + ( z1 − z 2 ) The vectors a = a1i + a2j + a3k. 5. Vector addition : If a. c= c1i + c2j + c3k are 14. b) = 0. b are two vectors. H A vector having direction opposite to that of a but having the same H magnitude is called the negative vector and is denoted by − a . b) = 180° a Two nonzero vectors a. b) is a the angle between vector a and vector b. Then the product ma is defined as follows. where (a. then m a = 0 7. 11. Two nonzero vectors a. then there exists three points A. 8. A null vector is of zero magnitude and have any arbitrary direction. KKK H KKK H B. AA . then m a is a vector of length (– m) a and having direction opposite to that of a iii) If m = 0. e.4. r1 + r2 = ( x1 + x 2 ) a + ( y1 + y2 )b + ( z1 + z 2 ) c If r = xi + yj + zk then r = i j k 12. 10. ii) If m < 0. C in the space such that a = AB b = BC . b) = 0 or (a. 6. x 2 + y2 + z 2 If the position vectors of the points.g. b) = 180° a a If r1 = x1 a + y1 b + z1 c. then m a is a vector of length m a and having direction same as to that of a. A vector having its head and tail at the same point is called a null or a KKKH H zero vector denoted by 0 . b are unlike vectors ⇔ (a. Define a + b = KKK KKK KKK H H H AB + BC = AC Scalar multiplication : Let m be a scalar and a be a vector. a1 a 2 linearly dependent iff b1 b 2 c1 c2 a3 b3 = 0 c3 Chapter 7  Vectors  37 . b are like vectors ⇔ (a. b are parallel ⇔ (a.
b + a . Let a. 23. b be the position vectors of the points A. B respectively.15. b) a 19. 24.b = a1b1 + a2b2 + a3b3 2 2 2 If a = a1i + a2j + a3k then a = a1 + a 2 + a 3 22. If a is a vector then a . b. b = a b cos (a. a = a 2 . b are two nonzero vectors then cos (a. b = b1i + b2j + b3k. If a. Dot product : Let a. a. b be the position vectors of the points A. The vectors a = a1i + a2j + a3k. b) = a b 38  Higher Mathematics Booklet . 20. then i) a. b = b. b ≠ 0 then a.b If a. 21. c are three vectors. If a = a1i + a2j + a3k. B respectively. c= c1i + c2j + c3k are a1 a 2 coplanar iff b1 b 2 c1 c2 16. The position vector of the point P which divides AB in the ratio m : n is mb + na m+n 17. c ii) (b + c) . a.na m−n 18. a + c . a. The dot product or direct product or inner product or scalar product of a and b is denoted by a . a = b . a3 b3 = 0 c3 Let a. If a. (b + c) = a . The position vector of the point P which divides AB externally in the ratio m : n is mb . b are two vectors then a . b be two vectors. b = 0 2) If a ≠ 0. b = b1i + b2j + b3k then a. b and is defined as follows 1) If a = 0 or b = 0 then a .
If a. 28. where n is the unit vector perpendicular to the planed generated by a. c = (b × c) . i j If a = a1i + a2j + a3k. 2 31. c are the position vectors of the vertices of a triangle. 30. 29. b. (b × c) are called scalar c. c If a. b be two vectors. 27. b. 26. b ≠ 0. b. are vectors. If a. n form a right handed system of noncoplanar vectors. c. then a × b = a b sin (a. b. b are parallel. 34. a = (c × a) . b so that a. b is denoted by a × b and is defined as follows 1) If a = 0 or b = 0 or a. b. b is a 32.25. The cross product or vector product or skew product of the vectors a. b are two vectors then a × b = – b × a. then the vector area of the triangle = 1 a (a × b + b × c + c ×a ×a). b. b) n. b. then i) a × (b + c) = a × b + a × c ii) (b + c) × a = b × a + c × a i) i × i = j × j = k × k = 0 ii) i × j = k = – j × i. k × i = j = – i × k. b = b1i + b2j + b3k then a × b = a1 a 2 b1 b 2 k a3 b3 If a. n form a right handed system. c. then (a × b) . If a. c are three vectors. b are two vectors then [a a b] = [a b a ] = [b a a ] = 0. b are not parallel. b n a. 36. c are three vectors then 33. then a × b = 0 2) If a ≠ 0. b. If a. a . j × k = i = – k × j. c = c1l + c2m + c3n where l. [a b c ] = [b c a ] = [c a b] = – [b a c ] = – [c b a ] = – [a c b] 35. b= b1l + b2m + b3n. m. c are three vectors. a. The length of the projection of b on a vector perpendicular to a in the a ×b plane generated by a. then (a × b) . triple products of a. Cross product : Let a. then a1 b1 [a b c] = [l m n] c1 a2 b2 c2 a3 b3 c3 Chapter 7  Vectors  39 . If a. If a = a1l + a2m + a3n.
b. (c × d) = b . b. 40. None of these Let P and Q be the points with position vectors 2 a + 3 b and a − 2 b respectively. Let R and S be the points dividing PQ in the ratio 3 : 2 internally and externally respectively. 39. d are four vectors then (a × b) .d If a. 42. Find the position vectors of the points which divide the join of the points 2 a + 3 b and a − 2 b internally and externally in the ratio 3 : 2. → → → → 3 a − 2 b + 2 2 a + 3 b 7→ = a = 5 3+2 → → → → 40  Higher Mathematics Booklet . c.c a. d. Then Position vector of R. − a − 12 b 5 → → 8→ → a + b . 41. Three vectors a. − c. c b . [i j k] = 1 b + c c + a ] = 2 [a b c ] [a +b i × (j × k) + j × (k × i) + k × (i × j) = 0 a × (b × c) + b × (c × a) + c × (a × b) = 0 i × (a × i) + j × ( a × j) + k × (a × k) = 2a a [a ×b b × c c × a ] = [a b c ] 2 Solved Examples 1. c are coplanar iff [a b c ] = 0. 44. 43. → 7→ → a . a. then (a × b) × (c × d) = [a b d] c – [a b c] d = [a c d] b – [b c d] a. a + 12 b 5 → → → → b. d 38. Sol.37. c. − 4 a − 13 b 5 → 7→ → a . If a. 45. b. d are four vectors. a.
→ → → → 3 a − 2 b − 2 2 a + 3 a → → Position vector of S = = − a − 12 b 3−2 2. 3 Given vectors a . Find the value of [ a b c ] = a. → → π 4 c. –4 → → → Sol. ˆ ˆ ˆ i j ˆ Given vectors are a = 2i − 3j + 4k. p → ˆ ˆ ˆ j ˆ i ˆ ˆ Sol. –19 c. –37 b. b = ˆ + 2ˆ − k ˆ j ˆ and c = 3i − ˆ + 2k . 4 d. B. 2 b. AB = (2i + 5j) – (i + ˆ + k) = ˆ + 4j – k.(−2i − 8ˆ + 2k) j ˆ 1 + 16 + 1 4 + 64 + 4 → → → = −1 ⇒ θ = π. If the position vectors of A. Angle between AB and CD is given by cos θ = ˆ ˆ j ˆ (i + 4ˆ − k). 0 b. –7 d. 4. C and D are ˆ + ˆ + k. π 2 d. 3i + 2j – 3k ˆ i j ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ and ˆ – 6j – k. 49 2 −3 4 [ a b c ] = 1 2 −1 = − 7 3 −1 2 → →→ → → →→ Sol. then the value of λ is j a. b and c are coplanar. then angle between AB and CD is i ˆ ˆ a. → → → ∴[ a b c ] = 0 −2 −2 4 ⇒ −2 4 −2 = 0 4 −λ −2 →→→ ⇒ –2(–8 – 2λ ) +2(4 + 8) + 4( 2λ – 16)= 0 ⇒λ=2 Chapter 7  Vectors  41 . 2i + 5j. → 3. ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = (i – 6j – k) – (3i + 2j – 3k) ˆ ˆ ˆ = –2i – 8j + 2k. ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ If the vectors a = − 2i − 2ˆ + 4k b = − 2i + 4ˆ − 2k and j j ˆ ˆ c = 4i − λˆ − 2k are coplanar. –2 c.
ˆ ˆ j i j ˆ If a = 2i + 2ˆ + 3k. For any three vectors a . 6 Sol: → → → → → → 3 a + p c is perpendicular to b ∴ a + p c . [ a + b b + c c + a ] is equal to a. c . b (−2 + 4 + 3) = − (−3 + 2) = 5 → → → → →→ →→ → →→→ 6.b → → c. 5 → c. [ a b c ]2 d. 2[ a b c ] → → → → → → → → → → →→→ → → → b.5. b . then a + pc is → → → perpendicular to b if p = a. b = 0 → → = 0 ⇒p=− a. b + p c . None of these Sol: [a + b b+ c c+ a] = ( a + b ) ⋅ [( b + c ) × ( c + a )] → → = (a + b ) [ b × c + b × a + c × c + c × a] = ( a + b ) ⋅[ b × c + b × a + 0 + c × a ] → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → → = a ⋅( b × c ) + b⋅( b × a ) + a ⋅( c × a ) → → → → → → → → → + b⋅( b × c ) + b⋅( b × a ) + b⋅( c × a ) = [ a b c ] + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + [ b c a ] = 2[ a b c ] →→→ →→→ →→→ → → → → → → → → → 42  Higher Mathematics Booklet . 8 d. 2( a + b + c ) c. b = − ˆ + 2ˆ + k → → ˆ j and c = 3i + ˆ . b → → → → ⇒ a . –5 b.
r = 0. q = H H H and r = H H H . q and H be the r vectors defined by the relations H H H H H H H H b×c H c ×a a×b p = H H H .r is equal to a. 1 c. Chapter 7  Vectors  43 . a b c a b c HH HH Similarly. b. H H H H H b× c 1 H H H a ⋅ p = a ⋅ H H H = H H H a ⋅ b × c = 1 and a b c a b c ( ) ( ) H H H H H c×a H H H 1 a ⋅ q = a ⋅ H H H = H H H a ⋅ ( c × a ) = 0. then a b c a b c a b c H H H H H H H H H (a + b). 3 Sol. p + (b + c).7. b and c be three noncoplanar vectors. and p.q = c. H H H H H Let a. 0 b.r = b.q = c.p = c.p = b. 2 d. q + (c + a).r. Therefore. H H H H H H H H a + b ⋅ p + b + c ⋅ q + (c + a ) ⋅ r ( H H H H H H H H H H H H = a ⋅p + b⋅p + b⋅q + c⋅q + c⋅ r + a ⋅ r ) ( ) = 1+1+1 = 3 . =1and HH H H HH HH HH a.
8
Complex Numbers
Definition
Any number of the form a + ib, where a and b are real numbers, is called complex number. Generally, complex numbers are denoted by z (= a + ib say). Here a is called the real part of z, and b is the imaginary part of z. Notation for the same is Re (z) = a, Im (z) = b, where Re (z) stands for the real part of z and Im (z) stands for the imaginary part of z. Any complex number a + ib can also be written as (a, b).
Properties
1. Two complex numbers z1 and z2 are equal if Re (z1) = Re (z2) and Im (z1) = Im (z2). Therefore, a + ib = c + id ⇔ a = c and b = d. Note that we cannot compare two complex numbers (except equality), i.e. we cannot say whether a complex number z1 is more than or less an another complex number z2. Let z1 = (a1, b1), z2 = (a2, b2) ∈ C. Then define the sum of z1 and z2 as z1 + z2 = (a1 + a2,b1 + b2). Here + is called complex addition. For e.g. (a1 + ib1) + (a2 + ib2) = (a1 + a2) + i (b1 + b2) Similarly, (a1 + ib1) – (a2 + ib2) = (a1 – a2) + i (b1 – b2) Let z1 = (a1, b1), z2 = (a2, b2) ∈ C. Then define the sum of z1 and z2 as z1 . z2 = (a1a2 – b1b2, a1b2 + a2b1). Here ‘.’ is called complex multiplication. For e.g. (a1 + ib1) (a2 + ib2) = (a1a2 – b1b2) + i (a1b2 + a2b1) Commutative law for addition: If z1, z2 ∈ C, then z1 + z2 = z2 + z1 addition: Associative law for addition If z1, z2, z3 ∈ C, then (z1 + z2) + z3 = z1 + (z2 + z3) Distributive law for addition: If z1, z2, z3 ∈ C, then z1 +( z2 + z3) = z1z2 + z1z3
2.
3.
4. 5.
6.
Modulus and Argument If P is a point in the complex plane corresponding to the complex number z = a
b + ib, then a = r cosθ, b = r sinθ, where r = a 2 + b2 = OP and θ = tan–1 . r is a
called modulus of the complex number z and is written z and q is called argument or amplitude of z, written as arg(z) or amp(z). Therefore, r = z =
b –1 a 2 + b2 and θ = arg(z) = tan a , i.e. polar coordinates of z is (r, θ).
44  Higher Mathematics Booklet
Euler’s form
iθ z = a + ib = r(cos θ + i sin θ ) = r.e , where cos θ + i sin θ = e iθ
7.
a – ib is called the conjugate of z = a + ib and is denoted by z . Properties of Conjugate (i) z z = z² (iii) z1z 2 = z1 z2 (ii) z1 ± z 2 = z1 ± z 2 (iv) z1 = z1 z2 z2
8.
If z1 and z2 be two complex numbers, then (i) z1 + z 2 ≤ z1 + z 2 (ii) z1 − z 2 ≤ z1 + z 2 (iii) z1 − z 2 ≥ z1 − z 2 (iv) z1.z 2 ≥ z1 z 2
z1 z1 (v) z = z if z 2 ≠ 0 2 2
(vi) kz1 = k z1 if k is any positive real number. Cube Roots of Unity If z is a cube root of unity, then
z
1 = 13 1 1
=1 (cos 0 + i sin 0) 3 = (cos 2rπ + i sin 2rπ ) 3
= cos
2rπ 2rπ + i sin , where r = 0, 1, 2 3 3
2π 2π 4π 4π + i sin + i sin , cos or z = 1, −1 + i 3 , −1 − i 3 , 3 3 3 3 2 2 which are the cube roots of unity. They are also denoted by 1, ω, ω2, ∴ z = 1, cos
where ω =
−1 + i 3 . 2
Properties of CubeRoots of Unity 9. 10. 11. 12. 1 + ω + ω2 = 0
ω3 = 1
The product of the cube roots of unity is one. 1, ω , ω2 are in Geometric Progression.
Chapter 8  Complex Numbers 45
Solved Examples
1.
i+ 3 −i + 3
a. 1
200
i− 3 + i+ 3
b. –1
200
200
= c. 0 d. None of these
Sol.
i+ 3 We have −i + 3 i(i + 3) = i(−i + 3)
200
i− 3 + i+ 3
200
i(i − 3) + i(i + 3)
200
200
−1 + i 3 2 = − −1 − i 3 2
−1 − i 3 2 + −1 + i 3 2
200
ω = −ω 2
200
ω2 + ω
200
−1 + i 3 −1 − i 3 and ω 2 = 3 ω = 2 2
200 1 1 2 − + ω 200 = (−ω 2 ) 200 + ω 200 3 = ω = ω ω 400 + ω200 = (ω3)133 ω + (ω3)66 ω2 = ω + ω2 = –1 =ω
2.
a + bω + cω2 + dω3 + eω4 = 2 3 4 a ω + b ω + cω + d ω + e a. ω b. ω3 c. ω5
5
(Given ω5 = 1) d. None of these
Sol.
a + bω + cω 2 + dω 3 + eω 4 Let Z = aω + bω 2 + cω 3 + dω 4 + e a + bω + cω 2 + dω 3 + eω 4 = aω + bω 2 + cω 3 + dω 4 + eω 5 5 = 1, Since ω
Z=
1 1 5 ⇒ Z = 5 =1 ω ω
46  Higher Mathematics Booklet
denoted simply as P(x. called the ordinate of the point P. Some Standard Properties and Results The distance between the points A (x1.9 Coordinate Geometry Cartesian Coordinates II q u ad ran t Y I q u ad ra nt P (x . x). For an arbitrary pair of real numbers x and y. y) is different from (y. Note that (x. Let OX and OY be two mutually perpendicular straight lines in the plane of paper. B and C are collinear. whereas the abscissa and the ordinate together are its coordinates. then AB + BC = AC or AC + CB = AB or BA + AC = BC. whereas the two together are called the coordinate axes The plane is called the XYplane or axes. y1) and B (x2. If A. which means that point (x. y) M X x ax is IV q u ad rant ya xis O III q u ad ran t 1. the line OY is yaxis. The distance OM (= x) is called the abscissa and the distance MP (= y) is abscissa. there exists a unique point A in the XYplane for which x will be its abscissa and y its ordinate. y) is an ordered pair. plane. draw a straight line parallel to OY to meet OX in M. The line OX is called xaxis. The point 'O' is known as origin From any point 'P' in the origin. Chapter 9  Coordinate Geometry  47 . 3. coordinate plane. AB = 2. y). y2) is ( x1 − x 2 )2 + ( y1 − y2 )2 Three or more points are said to be collinear if they lie on a line.
B (x2. The point which divides the line segment joining the points A (x1. y2) is 1 x1y 2 − x 2 y1 2 48  Higher Mathematics Booklet . The area of the triangle formed by the points O (0. y1) and B (x2. y1). y3) is = x 2 2 x3 = = 1 x 2 − x1 2 x3 − x1 y 2 − y1 y3 − y1 y1 1 y2 1 y3 1 1 [(x1y2 − x2 y1 + (x2 y3 − x3 y2 ) + (x3 y1 − x1y3 ] 2 10. If P (x. then the fourth vertex is (x1 – x2 + x3. B (x2. The centroid of the triangle formed by the points A (x1. y1).0). y3) are three consecutive vertices of a parallelogram. y1). B (x2. 9. B (x2. y2) then x1 − x y1 − y = x − x 2 y − y 2 and P divides AB in the ratio x1 – x : x – x2 that is also equals to y1 – y : y – y2. (x2 . A (x1. 3 3 8. 7. y) lies in the line joining A (x1. (x3. y2) in the ratio l : m lx 2 + mx1 ly 2 + my1 . y2) x1 1 and C (x3. y1 – y2 + y3). y2). (l ≠ m ) (ii) externally is l−m l−m 5. B (x2. The area of the triangle formed by the points A (x1. The midpoint of the line segment joining A (x1. (l + m ≠ 0 ) (i) internally is l+m l+m lx 2 − mx1 ly 2 − my1 . y3) is. C (x3.4. y1). y1). 2 6. If (x1. y2). x1 + x 2 + x 3 y1 + y 2 + y3 . y2) is x1 + x 2 y1 + y 2 2 . y1).
Therefore. y3) is given by ax1 + bx 2 + cx3 ay1 + by 2 + cy3 . 4 d. (4. sin 2A + sin 2B + sin 2C sin 2A + sin 2B + sin 2C 15. The incenre of ∆ABC with sides a.y3 12. (2. Three points A. y3) is given by x sin 2A + x 2 sin 2B + x3 sin 2C y1 sin 2A + y 2 sin 2B + y3 sin 2C O 1 . y must be 3 or –9. (2. B. y2) and C(x3. y3) is 1 2 x1 . −1) 2. y2) and C(x3. 1) . 6 Let the ordinate be y.x2 y1 . –1) Let P. 13. y2). 1) . b and c and vertices A(x1. a+b+c a+b+c 14. 3 or (4. Then. (4. if the abscissa of the other end be 10. A line is of length 10 units and one end is at the point (2. Orthocenter of triangle A(x1.y2 x1 . y3) is given by x tan A + x 2 tan B + x3 tan C y1 tan A + y 2 + y3 tan C H 1 . y2) and C(x3. 3 or –9 b. Q be the points of trisection Sol: 0 +6 6−3 ∴ P ≡ 3 . The area of the triangle formed by the points (x1. (2. C are collinear if area of ∆ ABC is zero. 3 or (2.y1).–1) d. The points of trisection of the line joining the points (0.y1). 0+12 36 ∴ Q ≡ 3 . (x3. 1). 9 or –3 c. then ordinate must be a.x3 y1 . Circumcentre of triangle A(x1. 1) c. –3). (x2. tan A + tan B + tan C tan A + tan B + tan C Solved Examples 1.11. B(x2. –3) are a. . (3.(4. . 0). y1). B(x2. –1) b. B(x2. 3) and (6. (10 − 2)2 + (y + 3)2 = 10 .y1). –1). Sol: Chapter 9  Coordinate Geometry  49 . (4.
Cannot be determined x1 + x 2 y1 + y 2 2 . 0) c. then the coordinates of the centroid of the triangle are a. −5c −3c − 1 × = −1 or –15c – 5 = –12c + 4 −4c 3c − 1 6. (3. = 1. (0. –3) and (4. –3 c. 2c) and (4c. 2√3) is 3× a. (2. 3) d.− is circumcentre 3 3 a.0). 8 c. 3 b. x1 + x 2 + x3 4 + 0 + 8 = =2 3 2.1). x2 + x3 = 0. (0. 1) b. None of these Length of side of an equilateral triangle is equal to √3 R where R is the circumradius. 50  Higher Mathematics Booklet . 1 3 d.e. (1. 0) b. 1). side = 4. 28 d. 2) c. 5). 3) d. √3). y3 + y1 = 10 Hence. If the midpoints of sides of a triangle are (2. orthocentre is same as centroid G = 0 +3+0 0 + 3 +2 3 . (0.3 i. 1 – c) and (–c. and x3 + x1 = 8. ( 3 . y2 + y3 = –6. 1 1 8 R= 1 − . and y1 + y 2 + y3 2 − 6 + 10 = =1 3 2.3. (0. 2 2 8 = 8 3 The orthocentre of the triangle whose vertices are (0. If the line joining (c + 1. 18 Sol: b.1) ⇒ x1 + x2 = 4. 3 . or c = –3.e. (1.3 Short cut: Centroid of the triangle formed by the midpoints of sides will be same as that formed by the vertices. centroid is (2. 2 ≡ Sol: (2. y1 + y2 = 2 Similarly. + 1 + = 3 3 3 Therefore. − 1 3 Sol: Product of slopes = –1 i. 3 3 ( ) 5. The length of the side of an equilateral triangle with vertex (1. –4c) then c is equal to a. –3c) is perpendicular to the line joining (3c. None of these Sol: Since the triangle is equilateral. 1) and 1 1 .
cos (A + B) . sin2 θ = 1 – cos2 θ. 6. π 1 + tan A cos A + sin A (i) tan 4 + A = 1 − tan A = cos A − sin A π 1 − tan A cos A − sin A (ii) tan 4 − A = 1 + tan A = cos A + sin A 12. 10. 2. sin2 θ + cos2 θ = 1. cosec θ + cot θ = (i) cos(A + B) = cos A cos B – sin A sin B (ii) cos(A – B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B (i) sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B (ii) sin(A – B) = sin A cos B – cos A sin B 7. cosec2 θ – cot2 θ = 1 sec θ + tan θ = 1 sec θ − tan θ 1 co sec θ − cot θ 4. 8. (i) tan (A + B) = (ii) tan (A – B) = tan A + tan B 1 − tan A tan B tan A − tan B 1 + tan A tan B 9. (i) sin (A + B) + sin (A – B) = 2 sin A cos B (ii) sin (A + B) – sin (A – B) = 2 cos A sin B (iii) cos (A + B) + cos (A – B) = 2 cos A cos B (iv) cos (A – B) – cos (A + B) = 2 sin A sin B Chapter 10  Trigonometry  51 . 5. sin (A + B) . sin (A – B) = sin2 A – sin2 B = cos2 B – cos2 A. cot2 θ = cosec2 θ – 1.10 Trigonometry Some Standard Formulae and Results 1. sec2 θ – tan2 θ = 1 1 + cot2 θ = cosec2 θ. cos (A – B) = cos2 A – sin2 B = cos2 B – sin2 A 11. 3. cos2 θ = 1 – sin2 θ 1 + tan2 θ = sec2 θ. tan2 θ = sec2 θ – 1.
cos 18. b and c. Law of Sines: 1 sin A sin B sin C = = = 2R a b c Law of Cosines: cos A = b2 + c2 − a 2 c2 + a 2 − b2 a 2 + b2 − c2 . r2. 2 s(s − a) 2 s(s − b) tan (s − a)(s − b) C = . cos = 2 2 2 bc ca ab 17. Semiperimeter of the triangle will be denoted by a+b+c ) and its area by S or ∆. r and (r1. cos C = 2bc 2ca 2ab 16. inradius and 3 exradii will be denoted by R. (s − b)(s − c) (s − c)(s − a) A B = . 2 Circumradius. cos B = . C+D C−D (i) sin C + sin D = 2 sin cos 2 2 C+D C−D (ii) sin C – sin D = 2 cos sin 2 2 C+D C−D (iii) cos C + cos D = 2 cos ⋅ cos 2 2 C+D C−D (iv) cos C – cos D = –2 sin ⋅ sin 2 2 C+D D−C = 2 sin ⋅ sin 2 2 Notations Used: We shall denote the lengths of sides BC. CA and AB of a ∆ABC by a. 2 bc 2 ca sin C (s − a)(s − b) = 2 ab A B C s(s − a) s(s − b) s(s − c) = .13. tan = . tan 18. 15. 2 s(s − c) 52  Higher Mathematics Booklet . s=( 14. sin A B (s − b)(s − c) (s − c)(s − a) = . sin = . r3) respectively. cos = .
Area of a triangle: (i) ∆ = 1 1 1 ab sin C = bc sin A = ca sin B 2 2 2 (ii) ∆ = s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c) (iii) ∆ = 21. abc 4∆ Inradius ∆ (i) r = s (ii) r = (s − a ) tan (iii) r = 4R sin A B C . r = (s − b) tan . Likewise for b and c. r = (s − c) tan 2 2 2 A B C sin sin 2 2 2 25. r2 = = s tan . cot A = 2 (s − b )(s − c ) s (s − a ) . 2 2 2 2 2 2 A B C cos sin 2 2 2 r3 = 4R cos (ii) r1 = ∆ ∆ ∆ A B C = s tan . B−C b−c A = cot 2 b+c 2 22. Napier's analogy: (i) tan B C−A c−a cot (ii) tan = 2 2 c+a C A−B a −b cot (iii) tan = 2 2 a+b 23. cot B = 2 (s − a )(s − c ) s (s − b ) . Circumradius a b c (i) R = 2 sin A = 2 sin B = 2sin C (ii) R = 24. r2 = 4R cos sin cos . cot C = 2 (s − a )(s − b ) s (s − c ) 20. abc = rs . r3 = = s tan s−a 2 s−b 2 s−c 2 Chapter 10  Trigonometry  53 . Radii of escribed circles (i) r1 = 4R sin A B C A B C cos cos .19. 4R Projection formula: a = b cos C + c cos B.
6. Solution set of sin2 x = sin2 α is {nπ ± α : n ∈ Z}. 4. k ∈ R. xy > 1. y > 0. xy > 1 54  Higher Mathematics Booklet . where α is the principal solution of cos x = cos α. k ≤ 1 is {nπ + (–1)n α : n ∈ Z}. where α is the principal solution. xy < 1 x+y = –π + tan–1 1 − xy for x < 0. Solution set of sin x = k. Solution set of tan2 x = tan2 α is {nπ ± α : n ∈ Z}. x+y tan–1 x + tan–1 y = tan–1 1 − xy for x < 0. Solution set of tan x = k. for x > 0. 8.Trigonometric Equations Some Standard Results 1. 7. 3. Solution set of cos x = k. y < 0. where α is the principal solution. Inverse Circular Functions Some Standard Results 1. 9. for x > 0. x+y . 5. where α is the principal solution. Solution set of sin x = 0 is {nπ : n ∈ Z}. k ∈ R is {nπ + α : n ∈ Z}. = π + tan–1 1 − xy 2. y < 0. 2. k ∈ R. Solution set of cos2 x = cos2 α is {nπ ± α : n ∈ Z}. k ≤ 1 is {(2nπ ± α) : n ∈ Z}. π Solution set of cos x = 0 is (2n + 1) : n ∈ Z 2 Solution set of tan x = 0 is {nπ : n ∈ Z}. where α is the principal solution of sin x = sin α. xy < 1 tan–1 x + tan–1 y = tan–1 1 − xy x+y . y > 0. where α is the principal solution of tan x = tan α.
If x < 0. 2x 2 tan–1 x = tan–1 . for x > 7. for –1 ≤ x < 0 10. y > 0 then tan–1 x – tan–1 y = tan–1 1 + xy x−y .3. 5. 2 tan–1 x = sin–1 1− x2 1+ x2 2x 1+ x2 .∀ x ∈ R = cos–1 . for x ≤ (ii) 2 cos–1 x = π – cos–1 (1 – 2x2). (i) 2 cos–1 x = cos–1 (2x2 – 1). for x ≤ 2 1 2 (ii) 2 sin–1 x = π – sin–1 2x 1 − x . (i) cos–1 x = sin–1 1 − x 2 . for –1 ≤ x < 0 Chapter 10  Trigonometry  55 . for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 (ii) sin–1 x = – cos–1 1 − x 2 . if x < 0 9. 1 2 (i) 2 sin–1 x = sin–1 2x 1 − x . x−y If x > 0. if x2 > 1 1− x2 8. if x > 0 = –cos–1 1− x2 1+ x2 . (i) sin–1 x = cos–1 1 − x 2 . for x > 2 1 2 1 2 6. for 0 ≤ x ≤ 0 (ii) cos–1 x = π – sin–1 1 − x 2 . y < 0 then tan–1 x – tan–1 y = tan–1 1 + xy 4. if x2 < 1 1− x2 2x = π + tan–1 .
Solved Examples 1. ( 2n + 1) π 10 π nπ π + or 2 5 10 d. where Q is below AX. π 3π 5π 1 + cos 1 + cos 1 + cos 8 8 8 a. π 3π 3π 1 + cos 1 + cos 1 − cos 8 8 8 π 1 − cos 8 56  Higher Mathematics Booklet . nπ + Sol. 1+ 2 2 2 Sol. π 4 b. the angle XAQ. Then the angle XAP where P is a point above AX is called angle of elevation of P as seen from A. cos d. 7π 1 + cos is equal to 8 π 8 1 2 b. or 2 5 10 2. In the figure shown. If sec 4θ − sec 2θ = 2. is called angle of depression of some point Q. Note that both the angles — angle of elevation and angle of depression — are measured with the horizontal line.Angle of Elevation and Depression of a Point P A α = EL E of P β = D EP of Q X Q Suppose a straight line AX is drawn in the horizontal direction. Similarly. None of these sec 4θ − sec 2θ = 2 ⇒ cos 2θ − cos 4θ = 2 cos 4θ cos 2θ ⇒ – cos 4θ = cos 6θ ⇒ 2 cos 5θ cos θ = 0 ⇒ θ = nπ + π nπ π + . then the general value of θ is a. ( 2n + 1) c. the angle of elevation of top of the pole AC standing on inclined plane PQ is ∠ABM (not ∠ABC). 1 8 c.
a = 3 + 1 . 2 c. C = 45° ⇒ C = 105° Sol. = 1 1 1 − θ = 4 2 8 2 In ∆ ABC . ( ) 3 +1 2 2 ) 1 2 = 2 4. C = 45°. In a ∆ ABC . then C = a. cos A cos B cos C = = a b c ⇒ cos A cos B cos C = = k sin A k sin B k sin C ⇒ cot A = cot B = cot C ⇒ A = B = C = 60° ∴ ∆ ABC is equilateral ∴ Area = 3 × (2)2 = 3 sq. 3 d. 3 2 d. 2 c. 1 cos A cos B cos C and the side a = 2. Q c= a sin C sin A ⇒ ( 3 + 1 sin 45° sin 75° ) ⇒ ( 3 +1 . B = 30°. 3 Sol. units 4 Chapter 10  Trigonometry  57 . then area of = = a b c b. 4 B = 30°. 1 b. if the triangle is a. 2 π 2 3π = 1 − cos 1 − cos 8 8 2 = sin 3π π π 3π 1 sin 2 = 2 sin sin 4 8 8 8 8 2 2 1 π π = cos − cos 4 4 2 3.
1 r d. Sol. Therefore. 1 1 1 If r.e. 0 < θ < π . We have 6 sinx cosx + 4 cos2x = 3 sin2x + 4 cos2x. the value of r + r + r 1 2 3 is a. 5 and – 5 respectively. R r c. the maximum and minimum values of 3 sin2x + 4 cos2x are (32 + 42 ) and – (32 + 42 ) . Sol. 6. then sin2θ + cosec2θ = is equal to a. None of these sin θ+ cosec θ = 2 ⇒ (sin θ+ cosec θ) = 4 2 ⇒ sin 2 θ + cos ec 2 θ + 2 = 4 ⇒ sin 2 θ + cos ec 2 θ = 2 7. 1 b4 c. 0 b. If sinθ + cosecθ = 2. 2 4 = 3 + 1 sin(θ + 15o + θ − 15o ) ⇒ =2 3 − 1 sin(θ + 15o − θ + 15o ) o ⇒ sin 30 = 2 ⇒ sin 2θ = 1 ⇒ 2θ = 8. r1. then find the value of θ 3 tan θ − 150 = tan θ + 150 tan θ + 150 ( ) ( ) ⇒ ( ) = 3 ⇒ tan(θ + 15o ) + tan(θ − 15o ) tan(θ + 15o ) − tan(θ − 15o ) tan (θ − 150 ) sin 2θ π π (Q 0 < θ < π) ⇒ θ = . If 3 tan (θ – 15°) = tan (θ + 15°). r2 and r3 have their usual meanings. 2r R d. 1 c. R 2r Sol. sin 2A + sin 2B + sin 2C 2RsinAcosA + 2RsinBcosB + 2RsinCcosC = 2 (sin A + sin B + sin C ) 2RsinA + 2RsinB + 2RsinC = 4 sin A sin B sin C A B C r = 4sin sin sin = A B C 2 2 2 R 2 4 cos cos cos 2 2 2 9. i.5. a. a cos A + b cos B + c cos C is equal to a+b+c r R b. 2 d. None of these 58  Higher Mathematics Booklet . Sol. In a ∆ ABC. Find the maximum and minimum values of 6 sinx cos x + 4xcos2x.
then the third angle is equal to a. 10. 30 Sol. 60 d. d = 60m ⇒ x = 30 and Chapter 10  Trigonometry  59 . 30 3 60° x d 30° 30 3 30 3 = tan 30° = tan 60° and x+d x 30 3 1 = .e. A man at top of the 30 3 m high tower sees a car moving towards the tower at angle of depression of 30°. (d) Sum of two angles = cot–12 + cot–13 1 1 = tan–1 + tan–1 2 3 1 1 2+3 = tan–1 1 1 1− × 2 3 = tan–11 = π 4 π 3π = 4 4 Third angle = π − 11.Sol. a. After some time the angle of depression becomes 60°. i. 1 1 1 s−a s−b s−c 3s − 2s s 1 + + = + + = = = r1 r2 r3 ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ r If two angles of a triangle are cot–12 and cot–13. Find the distance travelled by car in that duration. 30 + d 3 90 = 30 + d. π 6 b. π 4 c.e. 120 b. 3π 4 Sol. i. π 3 d. 90 c.
. nP = n (n – 1) (n – 2) . Combination Some Standard Properties and Results The number of (linear) permutations that can be formed by taking r 1. n! = 1 . If n is a nonnegative integer. . 7. n nP = r 5. Combination & Probability Definition Each of the different orders of arrangements. 4. . r) or P r . collections. ( n − r )! n! The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken all at a time nP = n!. 3 . irrespective of the order in which the things appear in the group.11 Permutation. obtained by taking some. The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time is equal to the number of ways of filling of r blank places arranged in a row by n dissimilar things. is called a Combination. n 8. or Permutation. of a number of things. 6. when each things may occur at any number of times is n nr −1 n −1 ( ). (i) 0! = 1 (ii) If n > 0 then n! = n × (n –1)! If n is positive integer. i. r 3. 2 .. things at a time from a set of n dissimilar things (r ≤ n) is denoted by nPr n or P(n. that can be formed by taking some. nP r = (n–1)Pr + r(n–1)Pr–1 The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken not more than r at a time. (n – r + 1). or all. then n! is the product of first n positive integers. then factorial n is denoted by n! or n! and defined as follows. is called a Permutation Each of the different groups.. 2. of a number of things. or all. 60  Higher Mathematics Booklet .e. 9.
Formation of a combination by taking r elements from a finite set A means picking up an r element subset of A. Pr . 2 15. Combination & Probability  61 .. r! ( n − r )! n 20. 18.. The number of circular permutations of n things taken r at a time in one 13. nC r = Pr n ( n − 1)( n − 2 ). The number of permutations of n things taken all at a time when p of n! them are all alike and the rest all different is p! . The number of circular permutations of n different things taken r at a n time is Pr . 22. The number of combinations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time is equal to the number of r element subsets of a set containing n elements. ( n − r + 1) = . 11. Chapter 11  Permutation..r 21. The number of circular permutations of n different things taken all at a time is (n – 1)!.10. 2r The number of circular permutations of n things taken all at a time in direction is one direction is n 1 (n – 1)!.. r) or C r or r 16. nC r = n! .3. nC r nC r = nCn–r + nCr–1 = (n+1)Cr If nCr = nCs then r = s or r + s = n. A selection that can be formed by taking some or all of a finite set of things (or objects) is called a combination. 19. 23.2. 14. r 12. r! 1. The number of combinations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time is n n denoted by nCr or C(n... 17.
. The number of ways in which kn things can be divided into k equal groups of n things each is . 28. 34.. 33. The total number of combinations of p + q things taken any number at a time. The number of ways in which (m + n) things can be divided into two different groups of m and n things respectively is ( m + n )! m! n! . Any change in the given order of the things is called a derangement.. The total number of combinations of (p + q) things taken one or more at a time when p things are alike of one kind and q things are alike of second kind is (p + 1) (q + 1) – 1.. The number of ways in which 2n things can be divided into two equal groups of n things each is ( 2n )! 2 2! ( n!) ( kn )! k k! ( n!) . 27.. In n things from an arrangement in a row. nCn = 2n. The number of diagonals in a regular polygon of n sides is nC 2 –n= n ( n − 3) 2 . 31. + (−1) n ⋅ n! 1! 2! 3! 62  Higher Mathematics Booklet . 26. 25. the number of ways in which they can be deranged so that none of them occupies its original place is = 1 1 1 1 . + nC1 + nC2 + . 30. n! 1 − + − + . includes the case in which nothing will be selected. nC 0 29. The total number of combinations of n different things taken one or more at a time is 2n – 1. The total number of combinations of (p + q) things taken any number at a time when p things are alike of one kind and q things are alike of second kind is (p + 1) (q + 1). The total number of combinations of n different things taken any number at a time is 2n.24. 32.
This can be done in 6P3 ways.. 3 girls can be seated in ways.. another q things and so on = (p + q + r + . Let there be 10 boys and 6 girls in a class and we have to select a group of 6. m! n! (b) If 2m things are to be divided into two groups..Solved Examples 1...)! p!q!r!.. we have to select a group of 4 as 2 particular girls are already included in the group.e. So. Chapter 11  Permutation... p2 are alike of second kind. where n = p + q + r + . then the number of combinations = nC1 + nC2 + . from remaining 11 students (7 boys and 4 girls) which can be done in 11C4 ways.. (a) The number of ways in which (m + n) things can be divided into two groups containing m and n things respectively = m + nCn = (m + n)! m+n = Cm.e.... In how many ways 5 boys and 3 girls can be seated in a row so that no two girls are together? The 5 boys can be selected in a row.+ nCn = 2n – 1. the number of ways = containing p things. Combination & Probability  63 . the total number of sitting arrangements = 5 P5 × 6 P3 = 5! × 6 × 5 × 4 = 14400 3.. where n = p + q + r + . so we may arrange 3 girls in 6 places. 5P5 = 5! ways. In how many ways can the first three prizes be won? The total number of ways in which the first three prizes can be won is the number of arrangements of seven different things taken 3 at a time. Here. by taking some or all of p1 + p2 + . if three particular boys never come and two particular girls are always present.] – 1.. Sol. Seven schools are participating in a Quiz competition. each containing m (2m)! 2(m!)2 (c) The number of ways to divide n things into different groups.. Hence. (d) If some or all of n things be taken at a time. pr are alike of rth kind is given by (p1 + 1) (p2 + 1).(pr + 1) – 1. one things. i. when p of them are alike of one kind. i.... the required number of ways 7! 7! 7 × 6 × 5 × 4! 7 = 210 = P3 = (7 − 3)! = 4! = 4! 2. (f) Total number of ways to make a selection. q of them are alike of another kind and so on is [(p + 1)(q + 1)(r + 1).. In each of these arrangements 6 places are created shown by the marks as given below: _B _ B _ B _B _ B _ Since no 2 girls have to sit together.+ pr things. taking some or all at a time.. Sol. where p1 are alike of one kind.. (e) Total number of combinations of n things..
. Choices and for the last player we have choices... In how many ways can a pack of 52 cards be divided equally among four players in order? Here 52 cards are to be divided into four equal groups and the order of the groups is important..(i) . 4... It is denoted by S. Sol... for the second player 39C13 choices.xn. + x pn p2 ) .. Alternate method: For the first player we have 52C13 choices. There are 6 letters and 6 directed envelopes. for the third player 26C13 ..(1 + x 2 + . Every subset of S is called an event event. pn objects of nth kind. Two events A.. xn at the most pn times. So... the required number of ways..... then the number of ways of choosing r objects out of these (p1 + p2 + . 1 1 1 1 1 1 Number of ways = 6! 1 − + − + − + 1! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! 6! 6! 6! 6! 6! − + − + = = 360 – 120 + 30 – 6 + 1 = 265. sample points Let S be a sample space of a random experiment.. 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! PROBABILITY THEORY Some Standard Properties and Results 1.. 5. 64  Higher Mathematics Booklet .. + x p1 )(1 + x 2 + . B in a sample space S are said to be disjoint or mutually exclusive if A ∩ B = ∅ .. 3.... Sol.. x1 can be used at the most p1 times. x2 at the most p2 times.+ pn) objects = Coefficients of xr in (1 + x + . p2 objects of second kind. 52! (13!)4 4! 4! = 52! (13!)4 . 2.. Then the number of ways to have r things is given by (i). The elements of S are called points. Hence the total number of ways = 52 C13 × 39 C13 × 26 C13 × 13 C13 = 52! (13!)4 . The set of all possible outcomes (results) in a trial is called sample space for the trial. + x This problem can also be stated as: ) Let there be n distinct objects x1.. Find the number of ways in which all letters are put in the wrong envelopes.(g) If there are p1 objects of one kind.
then PA = 1 − P ( A ) . Combination & Probability  65 15. then the probability of B after the event A has occurred is called conditional probability of B given A.. It is denoted by P(B  A). . .. An event B in a S is said to be complement of A if A.. 10. 16. An in a sample space S are said to be mutually exclusive or pairwise disjoint if every pair of the events A1. by B  A. 8. A2. If A is an event in S then P(A). Two events A. 11. If A is an event in a sample space S. .. If A is an event in a sample space S. If E is an elementary event in S. B in a sample space S are said to be complementary if A ∪ B = S. the image of A. Chapter 11  Permutation... Two events A. B are two events in a sample space S and P(A) ≠ 0.. 7. 1 . then the ratio P(A) : P ( A ) is called the odds favour to A and P ( A ) : P(A) is called the odds against to A. A2.. If A. A ∩ B = ∅ . then P(E) = 5. Let S be a finite sample space and P be a probability function of S. . Let A. An are disjoint. An in a sample space S are said to be exhaustive if A1 ∪ A2 ∪ . The events A1. The events A1. B be two events in a sample space S. B are two events in a sample space S. A2. 9. B in a sample space S are said to be exhaustive if A ∪ B = S. Let A be an event in a sample space S. The complement B of A is denoted by A . then P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A ∩ B) If A.. 12. n 13. is called probability of A.. 6. B are complementary in S. An = S. 14. If A ⊆ B then P(A) ≤ P(B). Addition theorem on probability: If A.4. Let S be a sample space containing n sample points. B are two events in a sample space then the event of happening B after the event A happening is called conditional event It is denoted event.
B are two events in a sample space S such that P(A) ≠ 0. 19. 18. B in a sample space S are independent iff P(A ∩ B) = P(A) P(B).17.. 22. B2 . Multiplication theorem of probability: Let A. If A1. 20. Two events A. B be two events in a sample space S such that P(A) ≠ 0. A2 are two mutually exclusive and exhaustive events and E is any event then P(E) = P(A1) P(E  A1) + P(A2) P(E  A2) If A1. then P(B  A) = n (A 1 B) n (A ) . then P ( Bk  A ) = P ( A  Bk ) P ( B k ) i =1 ∑ P (A  Bi ) P (Bi ) n 66  Higher Mathematics Booklet . If A. Then (i) P(A ∩ B) = P(A) P(B  A) (ii) P(A ∩ B) = P(B) P(A  B) Two events A. P(B) ≠ 0. 21. B in a sample space S are said to be independent if P(B  A) = P(B). Bayes' Theorem If an event A can occur in combination with one of the mutually exclusive events B1. A3 are two mutually exclusive and exhaustive events and E is any event then P(E) = P(A1) P(E  A1) + P(A2) P(E  A2) + P(A3) P(E  A3).. A2. Bn.
one card is drawn at random. A1.4 Sol.Solved Examples 1. 13 1 = 52 4 Also. there is one card which is both an ace and a spade. P(A2) = 0. P(A1) = 0. 4 and 2% are defective bolts.02 A1 A2 A3 A A A We are supposed to find P 1 .e. number of aces in a pack of 52 cards is 4. Combination & Probability  67 . In a bolt factory — machines A. n(A) = 4 ⇒ P(A) = 4 1 = 52 13 Sol. E E E P = 0. B and C manufacture respectively 25. n(A ∩ B) = 1 ⇒ P(A ∩ B) = 4 13 1 16 4 1 + − = = = 52 52 52 52 52 13 4 .e.05 . 13 ∴ The probability of occurrence of either an ace or a spade is 3. What is the probability that its either an ace or spade? Let A be the event that the card drawn is an ace and B be the event that the card drawn is a spade. A3 as E: The bolt is defective A1 = The bolt is produced by machine A A2 = The bolt is produced by machine B A3 = The bolt is produced by machine C Then. What are the probabilities that it was manufactured by A. P 2 and P 3 E E E Chapter 11  Permutation. What is the probability of getting a multiple of 3 in a throw of a single die? Total number of outcomes n = 6 Total number of favourable cases m = 2 (occurrence of 3 and 6) Required probability = 2. P = 0.04 . Also n(B) = B ⇒ P(B) = i. m 2 1 = = n 6 3 Sol.25. A2. P = 0.35 and P(A3) = 0. From a pack of 52 cards. i. We know that. B and C? Define events E. Out of their output 5. A bolt is drawn from the produce and is found defective. 35 and 40% of the total.
P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) − P(A ∩ B) .02) = 69 A 2 28 Similarly.05) + (0.35 × 0.04) + (0. As failing of A is independent of failing of B thus we have P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) − P(A). 1 8 b. E P ( A1 ) . B: B fails. = = 4 2 4 2 8 8 68  Higher Mathematics Booklet .P A1 A2 A3 0. Let us define two events as A: A fails. P + P ( A2 ).25 and probability that B fails in the examination is 0. then the probability that either A or B fails in the examination is a. 5 8 d.e. 7 8 Sol. P A1 A1 P = E E E E P ( A1 ) .Now.25 × 0. P = E 69 A A A and P 3 = 1 − P 1 − P 2 E E E 25 28 16 − = =1− 69 69 69 4. P + P ( A3 ) .P(B) = 1 1 1 1 2 + 4 −1 5 + − .4 × 0. 3 8 c.05 25 = (0.25 × 0.5. using Bayes' theorem. If the probability that A fails in the examination is 0. then we have to find probability of A or B i.
.f.) n N . See the cumulative frequency (c. x2. Determine the total number of observations.) just greater than For grouped or continuous frequency distribution. th th n and + 1 2 th For discrete frequency distribution. 2 Chapter 12  Statistics  69 . Step 1 Step 2 Obtain the frequency distribution.. say. If n is 2 n even. . Step 1 Find the cumulative frequencies (c. Prepare the cumulative frequency column and obtain N = Σ fi Find N . which is the median. then median is the AM of the values of 2 observations.12 Statistics Median The median is that value of the variable which divides the group in to two equal parts.. then median is the value of observation. xn in ascending or descending order of magnitude.f. One part comprises all the values greater than and the other part comprises all the values less than the median. where N = ∑ fi 2 i =1 Step 2 Find Step 3 N and determine 2 the corresponding value of the variable. n Step 2 Step 3 n +1 If n is odd. Calculation of Median For individual observations Step 1 Arrange the observations x1.
Mathematically. 5. N = Σ fi. 7. 9 has two modes. 9. Q2 = Median. A distribution having a unique mode is called ‘unimodal’ and one having more than one is called ‘multimodal’. there will be three such points Q1. 10. and is called bimodal. F = cumulative frequency of the class preceding the median class. Note: The mean deviation from the median for any distribution is minimum. 16 has no mode. h = width (size) of the median class. 5. 10. 3. The mode may or may not exist. 12. 11. mode is the value of the variable corresponding to the maximum frequency. 9. Q2 and Q3 (such that Q1 ≤ Q2 ≤ Q3) termed as three quartiles. 4.Step 3 N and determine the 2 corresponding class. In case of continuous frequency distribution. 5. where (f1 − f0 ) − (f2 − f1 ) l = Lower limit of modal class h = Magnitude of the modal class. 5. L = lower limit f of the median class. 10. it may not be unique. Examples The set 2. 4. 2. and even if it does exist. f1= frequency of the modal class f0= Frequency of class preceding the modal class f2= Frequency of class succeeding the modal class 70  Higher Mathematics Booklet . Mode = I + h(f1 − f0 ) . 4. Calculation of Mode In case of frequency distribution. 18 has mode 9. 12. f is frequency of the median class. 15. hN h 3N − C . Quartiles The values which divide the given data into four equal parts are known as quartiles. Q3 = l + f 4 − C f4 where l = Lower limit of the class containing Q1 or Q3 f = Frequency of the class containing Q1 or Q3 h = Magnitude of the class containing Q1 or Q3 C = Cumulative frequency of class preceding the class containing Q1 or Q3 Q1 = l + Mode Mode is the value which occurs most frequently in a set of observations. 9. This class is known as the median class. 8. See the cumulative frequency just greater than N/2−F Step 4 Use the formula: Median = L + × h . 7. the class corresponding to the maximum frequency is called the modal class and the value of mode is obtained as. where. The set 3. The set 2. 7. Obviously. 4 and 7. 7.
XN is the set of N observations. mean deviation about A is given by MD = 1 1 Σ fi  Xi − A  = Σ fi  di  =  X − X  n n Standard Deviation If X1. X3 . D1 The above formula can be rephrased as Mode = L1 + D + D c . Range = Xmax–Xmin. In case of frequency distribution. Quartile deviation 5.. Range 2. Let Xmax be the greatest observation and Xmin the smallest observation of the variable.. the class containing the mode) D1 = Excess of modal frequency over frequency of next lower class D2 = Excess of modal frequency over frequency of next higher class c = Size of the model class interval. 10 – 90 percentile range Range It is the difference between two extreme observations of a distribution. X2. Mean deviation 3. . Then. 2 1 where L1 = Lower class boundary of the modal class (i. Xn are n given observations. then the mean deviation (MD) about A. is given by 1 1 Σ  Xi − A  = Σ  di  . Mode = 3 Median – 2 moderately’ moderately Mean Measures of Dispersion The various measures of dispersion are as follows 1. where di = Xi – A. then its standard deviation is given by σ = 1 Σ (Xi − X)2 where X is the AM alternative formula for N Σf i X i 2 Σf X − i i = N N 2 standard deviations is σ = X2 − X2 Chapter 12  Statistics  71 . X2. Mean Deviation (MD) If X1.. Standard deviation 4. Median (Md) and Mode(Mo) In case of symmetrical distribution.. Modulus removes the n n effects of negative deviations and therefore gives us the absolute value of the deviation.e. Relationship Between Mean (M). Mean = Median = Mode In case of a ‘moderately asymmetrical distribution.
.The root mean square deviation about any point a is defined as S = ∑ (Xi i =1 N − a)2 .. x2. Quartile deviation (QD) = For a symmetrical distribution... . + cnxn Subject to a11x1 + a12x2 + . Linear Programming Problem (LPP) Given a set of m linear inequalities or equations in n variables. it is useful in comparing distribution where the units may be different... 72  Higher Mathematics Booklet .. (iii) where x1.. . xn{≤.. maximization type or minimization type. + a2n . =. 2 Therefore... variance = σ = 1 Σ (Xi − X)2 .. The general form of linear programming problem is maximize (or minimize). Generally. + amn . xn{≤.. (ii) am1x1 + am2 x2+ . + a1n . Inter quartile range = Q3 − Q1 . (QD) or Semi InterQuartile Range Q3 − Q1 2 (or Semi interquartile range) Quartile deviation is more commonly used as a measure of dispersion than interquartile range. =.. xn{≤. Sample variance means variance of a sample drawn out from a population. where a is the average N Variance It is the square of the standard deviation. x3. =... Q3 − md = md − Q1 ⇒ md = Coefficient of Variation : CV = Q3 + Q1 2 σ ×100 X Note that the coefficient of variation is independent of the units used.. ≥} b1 a21x1 + a22x2 + . we wish to find nonnegative values of these variables which will satisfy these inequalities. (i) z = c1x1 + c2x2 + . Quartile Deviations. xn ≥ 0 . .. For this reason. ≥} b2 . The inequalities or equations are called the constraints and the function to be maximized or minimized is called the objective function which can be of function. s2 represents N sample variance and σ2 represents population variance. ≥} bm and x1. A disadvantage of the coefficient of variation is that it fails to be used when X is close to zero. xn are the variables whose values we wish to determine and (i) are called the decision variables variables... x2.
feasible region region. Calculate the median for the following distribution: Class: 510 1015 1520 2025 2530 3035 3540 4045 Frequency: 5 6 15 10 5 4 2 2 Sol. Feasible solution A solution of an LPP which also satisfies the nonnegativity restrictions of the problem is called its feasible solution The set of all feasible solutions of an solution. F = 11. h = 5. LPP is called the Solved Examples 1. the inequalities or equations in (ii) are called the constraints constraints.5 − 11 13. Calculation of median Class 510 1015 1520 2025 2530 3035 3540 4045 Frequency 5 6 15 10 5 4 2 2 N = 49 Cumulative frequency 5 11 26 36 41 45 47 49 Here N = 49 ⇒ N 49 = = 24.5. f = 15. the set of inequalities in (iii) is known as the set of nonnegativity restrictions restrictions.5 f 15 15 Chapter 12  Statistics  73 . The cumulative frequency just greater than 2 2 N is 26 and the corresponding class is 1520. the expression (≤ = ≥) means that one and only one of the signs ≤ = ≥ holds for a particular constraint but the sign may vary from constraint to constraint. N −F 24. Thus 1520 is the median class 2 such that i= 15.(ii) (iii) (iv) (v) the linear function z which is to be maximised or minimised is called the objective function function. Solution A set of values of the decision variables which satisfy the constraints of a linear programming problem (LPP) is called a solution of the LPP LPP.5 ∴ Median = l + 2 × h = 15 + × 5 = 15 + × 5 = 19.
6. 1 (5 + 5) = 5.00 . 2.00 . Find the mean.99 270.279.25 of 4 4 the cases.25 (from 16. 48. 8 and 9. Mean = 5. = 4.299.995 + Q2 = 269.7. the numbers are 48.5.6.319. N 65 = = 16.6.00 . 49.99 280.25 (10) = Rs. (b) Arranged in an array. 49. 48. Median = Arithmetic mean of two middle numbers Sol.00 . 6 and (b) 51.9 (a) Arranged in an array.99 260. 3. 279. 9.25 – 8) of the 10 cases from the second class. 50.259.309.8.7. Mode ( M 0 ) = l + f − f−1 72 − 36 252 × i = 21 + × 7 = 21 + .1.42 74  Higher Mathematics Booklet .3 and 51. 2 Mode = Number most frequently occurring = 5.99 Total Number of employees 8 10 16 14 10 5 2 65 Sol. 5.00 . we have The first quartile Q1 is wage obtained by counting Q1 = 259. Q2 and Q3 Wages 250. 8. 6.00 .995 + 8. 48. the numbers are 2. 5. Since the first class contains 8 cases.00 .5. 16 0. 10 14. 50. Using the method of linear interpolation. we must take 8.99 310. 10 3. Mean = 49.25.99 290. Mode = non existent.99 300. Table below shows a frequency distribution of the weekly wages of 65 employees.5. 5. 6. 5.9. 290.289. Compute the mode of the following distribution: Class intervals: 07 714 1421 2128 2835 3542 4249 Frequency : 19 25 36 72 51 43 28 Sol. 268. 2f − f−1 − f1 144 − 36 − 51 57 = 21 + 4.2.5 (10) = Rs.269. 2. 5. and mode for the sets (a) 3. beginning with the first (lowest) class.3. Find the quartiles Q1.75 (10) = Rs. median. 2.75. Median = middle number = 49.06.995 + Q3 = 289. 5.42 = 25.
5. Therefore. 891. Wage (Amount in Rs. h = 20 fi xi – A ui = (xi – A) / h xi fiui 800 7 –100 –5 –35 820 14 –80 –4 –56 860 19 –40 –2 –38 900 25 0 0 0 920 20 20 1 20 980 10 80 4 40 1000 5 100 5 25 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Σfi ui = –44 Σfi = 100 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Here A = 900. 1 n 44 fi u i = 900 + 20 − ∴ Mean = X = A + h = 891. σ = ∑ (X − X)2 . mean wage = Rs. (a) Prove that σ = ΣX 2 ΣX − = N N 2 X2 − X2 (b) Use the formula in part (a) to find the standard deviation of the set 12. 6. (a) By definition.) 800 820 860 1000 Number of workers 7 14 19 5 900 25 920 20 980 10 Sol. Find the mean wage from the data given below.5.2. h = 20. ∑ 6. 18.2 N 100 i =1 Hence. 3. N 2 ∑ (X − X)2 = ∑ (X2 − 2XX + X σ = 2 ) N N ∑ X2 − 2X∑ X + NX = N 2 Chapter 12  Statistics  75 . Sol. 15. With the help of this method. calculation of multiplying two inconvenient numbers is avoided. Let the assumed mean be A = 900. 10. 7.
minimize the total cost of production c. minimize the profit If x1 and x2 are the numbers of units of products A and B respectively. The firm can sell all that it produce at the prevailing market price. The objective function (z) is b. i. maximize the total profit d. 3 for each unit of B. The manufacturing requirements in hours per unit of product are given below for A and B. 2x1 + 3x2 a. testing 200. 2 for each unit of A and Rs. 7. x1 + 2x2 ≤ 30 c.25 = 4. 3x1 + x2 ≥ 60 d. assembly and testing b. turning.5 . N N Therefore. Each of these products requires four different manufacturing operations: grinding. x1+ 2x2 > 30 d. x1 + 2x2 = 30 c. turning 60. Now answer the following questions. assembly and testing. units of products A and B which will optimize the profits ii. The objective is to a. The constraint for grinding is a. hours required for grinding and turning products A and B b. 3x1 + 2x2 b. turning. A manufacturer can produce two different products A and B during a given time period.∑ X2 − 2X ∑ X + X2 = X2 − 2X2 + X2 = X2 − X2 = ∑ X2 − ∑ X N N N N (b) X 2 = 2 ∑ X2 = 114 and X = ∑ X = 9. The contribution to profit is Rs. The key decision to be made is to determine number of a. assembly 200. hours required for assembling and testing products A and B c. 2x1 + 2x2 iv. Both (a) and (b) d. x1 + 2x2 76  Higher Mathematics Booklet . then iii.87 . A B Grinding 1 2 Turning 3 1 Assembly 6 3 Testing 5 4 The available capacities of these operations in hours for given time period are: grinding 30. σ = 114 − 90. minimize the total hours required for grinding. which the company decided to produce.
the total profit the manufacturer gets after selling the two products A and B. The constraint for turning is a. the correct answer is (a). 3x1 + x2 = 0 b. the correct answer is (c). x2 ≥ 0. iii. x2 ≥ 0 b. In order to produce these two products A and B. Hence. x1 ≤ 0. the correct answer is (d). x1 ≤ 0. The objective is to maximize the total profit. v. vii. x2 ≤ 0 ≤ x1 Sol. is given by Z = 2x1 + 3x2. Since the manufacturer does not have more that 30 hr available in grinding centre. the correct answer is (d). the correct answer is (b). 3x1 + x2 ≤ 60. 3x1 + x2 = 60 d. Hence. Hence. x2 ≥ 0 d. 6x1 + 6x2 = 0 vii. the total number of hours required at the grinding centre are x1 + 2x2. Since the manufacturer does not have more than 200 hr in the testing centre. The key decision to be made is to determine the number of units of products A and B to be produced by the company. the correct answer is (b). The total number of hours required at the assembly centre is 6x1 + 3x2. Hence. The constraint for testing is a. x1 ≥ 0. iv. 6x1 + 3x2 > 200 d. 5x1 + 4x2 ≥ 200 b. Since the manufacturer does not have more than 60 hr available in turning centre. ii. 6x1 + 3x2 = 200 b. x1 + 2x2 ≤ 30. we must have 5x1 + 4x2 ≤ 200. the correct answer is (d). 5x1 + 4x2 ≤ 200 viii. i. viii Since it is not possible for the manufacturer to produce negative number of the products. Hence. The total number of hours required at the testing centre is 5x1 + 4x2. The constraint for assembly is a. Chapter 12  Statistics  77 . 5x1 + 3x2 ≥ 0 d. 5x1 + 3x2 ≤ 200 c. Since the manufacturer does not have more than 200 hr in the assembly centre. Hence. we must also have x1 ≥ 0. 3x1 + x2 ≤ 60 vi. Hence. The total number of hours required at the turning centre is 3x1 + x2. the correct answer is (d).e. 6x1 + 3x2 ≤ 200. x2 ≤ 0 c. vi. The nonnegative restrictions are a. Hence. i. 3x1 + x2 > 60 c. 6x1 + 3x2 ≤ 200 c.v. The objective function (z).
1 c. –2 b. 2 12 = a + ib. a. a b c b . –i The modulus of ea + ib is b. i d.Practice Exercise 1. 12 b. 4 7. zero c. –1 c. then find the value of Z4 + Z3 + Z2 + Z + . 7 − 1 7 1 − 7 2 − 7 3 7 c. 2 −1 The inverse of the matrix is 1 3 3 7 a. ea . x2 + 2 d. ea 2. 2+ 3+i Given 2+ 3 −i a. c. x +1 x + 2 x + 4 The value of x + 3 x + 5 x + 8 is x + 7 x + 10 x + 14 a. 1 b. 3 d. 0 c. 2 b. The least value of Z is a. Then a + b will be equal to b. ea+b a. 24 5 d. 1 7 1 − 7 2 7 78  Higher Mathematics Booklet . If Z3 + 3iZ2 – 3Z – i = 0. 2 c. 1 b+c c+a a+b 6. 2 c. 3 d. Infinitely many 5. Find the number of solutions of the equation Z – i = Z + i a. a. 1 7 1 7 2 7 3 − b. 1 b. b 3. None of these 8. 4 d. 12 5 4. a a+b b+c c+a = k c a c+a a+b b+c b c then find the value of K. The complex number Z is represented by a point P on the line 3x + 4y = 12. ea–b d. − 1 7 1 7 2 7 3 7 d.
∞ . (x + 1)ex d. 3 −5 If the matrix is expressible as (P + Q). 1 2 If A = . −2 −1 3 −2 c. 1! 3! 5! b. Find the coefficient of x7 in the expansion of (x – 2x²)–3.. is 3 4 a. Find the coefficient of xn in the expansion of e 7x + e x e3x . 6e d. Sum the series: 1 + 1 + 3 x + 1 + 3 + 5 x 2 + 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 x3 + . 5e 32 52 72 + + + . 1 −3 −2 4 4 −3 b. 2n n (2 + (−1n ) n! c. then the value of adjA. 4e c. Does not exist 10. 2! 3! 4! 14. 1+ 1 + a 1 + a + a2 1 + a + a2 + a3 + + + . then P = 0 −3 a.. ea + e a −1 c.. 67584 b. 1! 2! 3! 4! x x a. where P is symmetric and Q 1 −1 is skewsymmetric.. 56842 d. 2 −1 0 −3 d. (x – 1)e c. −3 0 11. ea − e a −1 15. 3 0 3 −2 b. a. 4 −2 −3 1 d. Find the sum a. ea − e 2 b. 72424 c. d.9. (x + 2)e b. ea −1 a −1 d. a. None of these 12. −2 1 c. (x – 2)ex Sum the following series to infinity. None of these Practice Exercise  79 . None of these 13. a.. 2n (−1) n n! 2n n (2 − (−1) n ) n! b...
a = b = 1 d. f(x) is continuous in R but not differentiable in R d. x →0 lim 1 6 (cos x )2 − (cos x )3 sin 2 x b. e– 2 1 1 c. then find the value of h →0 lim f (1 − h ) − f (1) h 3 + 3h is 22 3 a. b = –1 20. 2 3 d. 6 c. e 2x +1 = b. y x ax y 1 − x8 1 − y8 b. 0 d. 19. e–1 d. 13 d.then a. a = b = 0 b. f(x) is neither continuous nor differentiable in R 21. d. None of these 80  Higher Mathematics Booklet . x is rational If f(x) = 2. b such that x2 +1 lim − ax − b = 0 x +1 x →∞ a. c. 1 12 c. x 3 1 − y8 y3 1 − x 8 c. x is irrational . 1 3 If f(x) = 3x10 – 7x8 + 5x6 – 21x3 + 3x2 – 7. f(x) is continuous in R ~ Q c. f(x) is continuous in R ~ {1} b. then f′(5) is equal to a. a = 2. 18. b = –1 c. None of these Find the value of constant a. x +1 lim x →∞ x + 2 a. − = a. dy = dx a. 50 3 b. Let f(x + y) = f(x) f(y) for all x and y. 3 8 8 If a(x4 – y4) = 1 − x + 1 − y then 22. 1 17. 1.16. 5 b. a = 1. If f(5) = 2 and f′(0) = 3.
1 d. which of the following is true? a. x + y . y2 – 11y1 + 6y = 0 d. ∫ (7x − 2) 3x + 2 dx 5 3 14 40 (3x + 2) 2 − (3x + 2) 2 + c a. d. y3 – 6y2 + 11y1 – 6y = 0 b. sec2 (x + y) − sec2 (x − y) (x + y) sec2 (x + y) + sec2 (x − y) x−y sec2 (x + y) + sec2 (x − y) c. x 2x 3x If y = ae + be + ce . Does not exist 25. None of these c.23. then y'(0) = If y = tan −1 x a. 14 40 (3x + 2) 2 − (3x + 2) 2 + c 45 27 14 40 (3x + 2) 2 − (3x + 2) 2 + c 15 27 7 20 (3x + 2) 2 − (3x + 2) 2 + c 14 9 5 3 3 3 5 3 c. Practice Exercise  81 . If tan (x + y) + tan (x – y) = 1. y3 + 6y2 – 11y1 + 6y = 0 26. 1 2 b. 15 9 b. (x + y) sec 2 (x + y) (x − y) sec 2 (x − y) b. ( ) sec2 (x + y) − sec2 (x − y) d. 1 + x2 −1 . – sec2 ( x + y ) + sec2 ( x − y ) sec2 ( x + y ) − sec2 ( x − y ) 24. 0 c. then dy = dx a.
2) to (4. − . 32 3 d. π 6 c. internally and externally. –3 c. − . 5 3 3 8 13 3 c. The value of the integral ∫ 0 dθ 4 cos θ + 9 sin 2 θ 2 a. π 4 b. 3 32 π/2 c. then which of the following is 2 2 3 x2 − 4 x4 true? a. . 4 ex + 5 1 c. . − 3 32 30. M = 2 3 29. None of these 82  Higher Mathematics Booklet . 3 3 5 8 13 5 b.27. 1 Find the coordinates of the point which divides. 0. ∫ e2x + 6ex + 5 dx 1 ex + 1 +c a. then the abscissa of another point is a. M = 1 4 d. 31. 0. . the line joining (–1. 3 8 13 a. 0. tan–1 4 4 ex 1 ex + 1 log +c b. K = 1 b. None of these 28. None of these The coordinates of a point are (0. K = c. The value of the integral ∫2 4 dx is a. 4 log ex − 1 ex + 1 +c d. If ∫ 5 + 4 cos x dx x =K tan 1 M tan + C. ± 3 d. 3 b. If the distance between the two points is 5. 1) and the ordinate of another point is –3. 3 3 3 d. –5) in the ratio 2 : 8. π 12 d. − . 3 32 b. 32.
1 3 → → → → → → b. 2) and (3. r = xb − H  a 2  b 2 H H H H H H c. 1 b.33. –2 38. b. 3 ± 2 15 b. 85 d. –5 37. The value of p for which the vectors c = ( p + 1) a + 2 b and d = ( 2p − 1) a − b are collinear is a. then straight line always passes through a fixed point. 3 + 2 15 c. O d. 4 Let S. − 2i + 3j − 4k and ˆ − 3j + 5k are coplanar. 65 b. then the H H solution of the equation H × a = b is given by r H H H H H a×b H H a×b H a. If A (2. 2) → c. –3 d. – ) 2 36. If a. The vectors a and b are noncollinear. None of these 34. T and U be the middle points of the sides QR. RP. → → → 40. B (– 4. then the length of median passing through C will be a. –4 d. PQ respectively of a ∆PQR. ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ If the vectors ˆ + λ ˆ + 3k. − 1 3 c. 4) be 8. a. r = xa + H b. – 8) are the vertices of any triangle. – 4) and C (5. –2) → b. 3 − 2 5 d. (–1. Practice Exercise  83 . (–1. 0 → 39. then j the value of a is a. 113 x y 1 + + =0 a b c 35. ˆ + 2ˆ − 3k and 3i + aj + 5k are coplanar. Then PS + QT + RU b. None of these H H If nonzero vectors a and b are perpendicular to each other. c are in harmonic progression. 2). i j i ˆ then the value of λ is a. ˆ j ˆ i ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ If the vectors 2i − ˆ − k. − 1 2 b. 2 c. 2 c. 117 c. 1 5 c. –2) 1 d. r = x(a × b) d. Find the value of x1 if the distance between the points (x1. which is a. (1. r = x(b × a) a. (1. 3 d.
If the position vectors of three points P. BI. AIV. tan A tan B tan C III. nπ + (−1) c. 5π 6 c. i j ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 2i + 3j − 4k and 7i + 4ˆ + 9k . CIV. Match the following two lists given that A + B + C = π (A) sin 2A + sin 2B + sin 2C (B) sin A + sin B + sin C (C) cos A + cos B + cos C (D) tan A + tan B + tan C a. 1 16 d. 1 3 46. nπ + (−1) n a. If 3 sin x + 4 cos x = 5. cos θ = − . ˆ ˆ 31i + 28ˆ + 9k j 2405 ˆ ˆ ˆ c. 1 4 b. then the most general value of θ is π 4 b. If tan θ = − θ will be a. None of these 44. then find the value of tan a. π 6 and sin θ = 1 3 . d. 1 6 c. nπ + π π − 4 3 n π π − 4 3 d. 1 + 4 sin IV. CI. Q and R are respectively ˆ + ˆ + k . DII d. DII A B C sin sin 2 2 2 II. then the principal value of 2 2 7π 6 π 6 b. 4 sin A sin B sin C I. AI. CIV. DIII c.41. BII. AIII. 1 3 d. ˆ ˆ ˆ 31i − 28j − 9k 2405 d. BIV. − 84  Higher Mathematics Booklet . nπ + ( −1) π π − 4 3 45. The value of sin 12° sin 48° sin 54° is a. 4 cos A B C cos cos 2 2 2 b. 1 6 1 3 x 2 b. AIII. CI. If 3 cos θ + sin θ = 2 . 1 8 c. then the unit vector perpendicular to the j ˆ plane of the ∆PQR is a. None of these 42. 31i − 38j − 9k 2486 b. DII 43. BIII.
1264 d.98 b.6. 16 c.2 c. None of these 48. 1. 3 4 d. 30° c. 242 d. 1 2 b. 186 b. What is the probability that at least one of them will solve the problem. 1 3 1 4 c. 0. 980 c. 52. 0. (ii) at most two ladies are included? a. then find the value of x 2 b.4 b. 12 b. 45° d. a. 1 4 c. the probability of having at least one head is a. None of these The principal wants to arrange 5 students on the platform such that the boy 'SALIM' occupies the second position and the girl 'SITA' is always adjacent to the girl 'RITA'.97 Practice Exercise  85 .2. In how many ways this can be done. sin 56 65 −1 c. 1. 164 c.47. −1 −1 If cot x + tan 3 = π . 60° b. 24 How many fivelettered words containing 3 vowels and 2 consonants can be formed using the letters of the word 'EQUATION' so that the two consonants occur together? a. sin 65 56 −1 b. 1. 1 The probability that at least one of the events A and B occurs is 0. sin 13 25 d. A committee of 5 is to be formed out of 6 gentlemen and 4 ladies. selected at random from the book? a. a. 1440 In the simultaneous tossing of two perfect coins. 53.8 55. then find P( A ) + P( B ). How many such arrangements are possible? a.6 d.96 d. 0. None of these If a flag staff of 6 m high placed on the top of a tower throws a shadow of 2 3 m along the ground. 3 12 Which of the following can be a possible value of sin −1 + cos−1 5 13 −1 a.95 c. If A and B occur simultaneously with probability 0. 51. 1684 b. 1. 8 d. Amit can solve 90% of the problems given in a book and Bhim can solve 70%. 54. when (i) at least two ladies are included. then the angle (in degrees) that the sun makes with the ground is a. 49. 3 d. None of these 50. 0.
82 Total 229 Variable: 1020 Frequency : 12 a. 79 4050 65 5060 ? c. Compute the median for the following data: Midvalue : 115 Frequency : 6 a. 76 58.92 inch The objective of a diet problem is to ascertain the quantities of certain foods that should be eaten to meet certain nutritional requirements and minimize cost. 2. Find the mean deviation of the heights of the 100 male students. 2. If the median of the following frequency distribution is 46. 2 Minimum daily requirement 1 mg 50 mg 10 mg Formulate the problem as a linear programming problem. 2. b.64 inch b. C. B. Litre of Vitamin milk 1 A 100 B 10 Vitamin Rs. 75 Rs. 2. None of these 57. 162. beef and eggs and to vitamins A.26 inch c. 2. 2.76 inch d.56. 155. The consideration is limited to milk. 86  Higher Mathematics Booklet . find the sum of the missing frequencies: 2030 30 3040 ? b. Height (inches) 6062 6365 6668 6971 7274 Number of students 5 18 42 27 8 Total = 100 a. 74 6070 25 7080 18 d. 15 Cost Dozen kg of beef eggs 1 10 10 10 100 10 Rs. The number of milligrams of each of these vitamins contained with a unit of each food is given below: 60.48 inch Find the standard deviation of the heights of the 100 male students as given in above question 10.6 d.4 175 38 185 22 195 3 b.8 125 25 135 48 145 72 155 165 116 60 c. a.84 d.48 inch c. 153. 2. 2.94 inch 59.
P is a point which represents Z. a Applying R 2 →R 2 – R 1 and R 3 → R 3 – R 1 . On taking Z = x + iy. the value of the expression Z4 + Z3 + Z2 + Z + 1 = 1 + i – 1 – i + 1 = 1. Z represents the distance OP. 2 0 5. 7.Answer key 1 11 21 31 41 51 1. ea + ib = ea(cosb + i sinb). b Applying C 1 → C 1 + C 2 + C 3 . Therefore.e. real axis. (Z + i)3 = 0.(0) + (4). Therefore.e. 5 a b c b a 2c a b c 4.) y = 0. The value of OP will be least. it becomes x2 + (y – 1)2 = x2 + (y + 1)2.ormulae a a b c c c 2 12 22 32 42 52 a b b a b d 3 13 23 33 43 53 d c d a b c 4 14 24 34 44 54 d d a c b b 5 15 25 35 45 55 d a a c c d 6 16 26 36 46 56 b b c b b a 7 17 27 37 47 57 a b b d b b ei α / 2 e−i α / 2 8 18 28 38 48 58 c d b c c b 9 19 29 39 49 59 c b d c a d 10 20 30 40 50 b d c a a We have Z3 + 3iZ2 – 3Z – i = 0. we get (3). By problem. the value of Z will be least if OP becomes the perpendicular from O to the line 3x + 4y = 12. The condition Z – i = Z + i => y = 0. The length of the perpendicular from O to the line 3x + 4y = 12 is = = e iα = cos α + i sin α where α = 12 π 6 2.e. i. Z = –i.) 4y = 0. c A −1 = = α α α + i 2 sin cos 2 2 2 α α α 2 cos2 − 2 i sin cos 2 2 2 2 cos2 1 3 1 1 3 1 = 6 + 1 −1 2 7 −1 2 Higher Mathematics Booklet  87 . d 8. i. Let O be the origin. Alternative method: Locus of z is the perpendicular bisector of the line segment joining i and –i. (i.e. i. d = cos(2π ) + i sin(2π ) = 1 + i0 = 1 Therefore.e. a 2+ 3+i 2 + 3 −1 = cos(12α ) + i sin(12α ) 3. y2 – 2y + 1 = y2 + 2y + 1. Therefore. the equation will have many solutions. Hence. a Answer Key and Explanations Higher Mathematics . (i. So the modulus of ea + ib = ea. 2+ 3+i = 2+ 3 –i 1+ 3 i + 2 2 = 1 + cos α + i sin α 3 i 1 + cos α – i sin α 1+ – 2 2 [C 1 → C 1 + C 2 + C 3 and taking out (–1) common from C 2 and C 3 ].(0) − 12 12 = 5 . [C 3 →C 3 – 2C 2 ]. 9 + 16 The least value of Z will be a+b+c c+a a+b a + b + c − b −c ∆ = 2 a + b + c b + c c + a = 2 a + b + c −a − b a+b+c a+b b+c a + b + c −c −a [C 2 → C 2 – C 1 and C 3 → C 3 – C 1 ] = 12 . we get ∆ = x +1 x + 2 x + 4 x +1 1 3 2 3 4 = 2 1 2 6 8 10 6 2 4 [C 2 →C 2 – C 1 and C 3 →C 3 – C 1 ] x +1 1 1 = 2 6 1 0 = −2. a + b = 1 + 0 = 1 6. and x any value. d The given equation is Z – i = Z + i.
Putting r = 10 in (i).. Therefore... A + AT 2 1 3 −5 T 3 A = .1 + (n − 1) ⋅ 2}x n −1 n 2 x n −1 = =2 n! n! = nx n −1 (n − 1) + 1 n −1 = x (n − 1)! (n − 1)! x n −1 x n −1 + ... c Tn = 1 + 3 + 5 + . 3. Then Tn = = 1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 5 . n! 1 1 − a n ⇒ Tn = n! 1 − a 1 1 an 1 1 1 an ⇒ Tn = n! 1 − a − 1 − a = (1 − a ) ⋅ n! − (1 − a ) n! 12! 9 7 T11 = 2 x = 132 × 29 × x 7 . 2. n terms n − 1 x n! 1 n{2. because (x – 2x²)–3 = (1 – 2x)–3x–3. 2. the coefficient of xn in e 7x +e x e3x = 4 ( −1) 2 2 + = n! n! n! n n n n {2n + (−1)n } 4n 2 + 4n + 1 (2n − 1)(2n − 2) + 10n − 1 = (2n − 1)! (2n − 1)! 1 10n − 1 1 5(2n − 1) + 4 + = + (2n − 3)! (2n − 1)! (2n − 3)! (2n − 1)! = 88  Higher Mathematics Booklet . A = 1 −1 −5 −1 13. a Consider the series (2n + 1)2 Here t n = (2n − 1)! = 32 52 72 + + + .(r + 2) r r −3 2 x 1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ r! (r + 2)! r r −3 (r + 2)! r −1 r −3 ⋅2 x = ⋅2 x . .. (i) 2 × r! r! 7. and adding columnwise. b We have e 7x + e x e3x = e 4x + e −2x = (4x) n ∞ ( − 2x) n +∑ n! n =0 n! n =0 ∞ n =1 ∑ (1 − a)n! − (1 − a)n! ∞ 1 an ∑ = 1 1 e − ea ea − e = (e − 1) − (e a − 1) = (1 − a) (1 − a) (1 − a) a − 1 = 4 n n ∞ ( − 1) n 2 n n x +∑ x n! n! n =0 n =0 ∑ ∞ 15... (n − 2)! (n − 1)! 10. 3. + e x 1! 2! ( −1)r 3 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 5 ..(r + 2) r! ( −1)r 2 r x r = ( −1)2r 3 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 5. c a b d − b adj = c d −c a Remember: Adjoint of a 2x2 matrix can be obtained by interchanging principal diagonal elements and changing the signs of other two elements.. 10! Hence... the sum of the given series = ∞ x n1 x n1 +∑ (n − 2)! n =1 (n − 1)! n =1 Tr +1 = x = x −3 ⋅ = x −3 ⋅ −3 (−3) (−3 − 1)(−3 − 2).9... Putting n = 1. 1! 3! 5! Therefore..(−(r + 2)) r! (−1)r 2 r x r 1 x x 2 x3 = (−1)! + 0! + 1! + 2! + . b P= or Tn = 11. ∞ . + a n −1 ... we must have For this term to contain x r – 3 = 7 ⇒ r = 10....... n = 1.(−3 − (r − 1)) ⋅ r! (−2x) r ∑ ∞ (−3)(−4)(−5). Therefore. the coefficient of x7 = 132 × 29 = 67584 . = x + + 0! 1! 2! x x2 1+ + + . 12. Let Tr + 1 denote the (r + 1)th term in the expansion of (x – 2x²)–3. . + 1 x x2 + ... d = xex + ex = (x + 1) ex Let Tn is the nth term of the given series.(r + 2) r r −3 2 x r! 14..... we get = 1 + a + a 2 + . a Suppose x7 occurs in (r + 1)th term.
. b If S = 32 52 72 + + + . sin x + (cos x )− 3 sin x 2 3 2 sin x cos x A − B = cot −1 a 2 A – B = 2 cot–1a sin–1x4 – sin–1y4 = 2 cot–1a ⇒ 4x 3 1 − x8 − 4y3 dy =0 1 − y8 dx = Lim =− − x →0 1 2 1 1 (cos x )− 2 + (cos x )− 3 2 3 2 cos x dy x 3 = dx y3 1 − y8 1 − x8 1 1 1 1 − =− 2 2 3 12 f (1 − h) − f (1) h + 3h 3 23. b Let x4 = sinA y4 = sinB a(sinA – sinB) = cosA + cosB A − B A + B A + B A − B a 2sin cos = 2 cos cos 2 2 2 2 A−B A−B A−B ⇒ a sin = cos ⇒ cot =a 2 2 2 − −(x + 2) 1+ 2 / x 1 1 − = e −2 lim x+2 x →∞ 17.f '(0) = 2.. 2x +1 16..3 = 6 h As f(5 + 0) = f(5) = f(5). i. b h →0 = 5 5 e − e −1 + e + e −1 = ⋅ 2e = 5e 2 2 h →0 ƒ(h) − ƒ(0) = 2. b x →0 (cos x ) 2 Lim − 1 − (cos x )3 1 sin 2 x = Lim x →0 1 2 1 1 (cos x )− 2 . 1! 3! 5! (1 − a ) x 2 − (a + b ) x + 1 − b x2 + 1 − ax − b = Lim Lim x +1 1+ x x →∞ x →∞ For this limits to exist. d By definition of rational and irrational numbers. ƒ′(5) = lim = 2 lim ƒ(5 + h) − ƒ(5) ƒ(5)(ƒ(h) − 1) = lim h h h →0 = 1 2 (e − e−1 ) + 5 ⋅ 1 (e + e−1 ) + 4 ⋅ 1 (e − e−1 ) 2 2 ( ) 21. So now the above limit reduces to (1 − b ) − (1 + b ) + − (1 + b ) x + 1 − b x = Lim Lim 1 x +1 x →∞ x →∞ 1+ x then S = ∞ n =1 ∑ ∞ tn ∞ ∞ = 1 1 1 +5 ∑ +4∑ (2n − 3)! (2n − 2)! n =1 (2n − 1)! n =1 n =1 ∑ 1 1 1 1 1 = + + + . b x +1 lim x →∞ x + 2 2x +1 − −(x + 2) x + 2 1 = lim 1 − x+2 x →∞ 2 +1/ x 22. −h h →0 h2 + 3 1 53 = f ′(1) − = 3 3 = (sec2(x – y) – sec2(x + y)) ⇒ dy dx dy sec 2 (x + y) + sec 2 (x − y) = dx sec 2 (x − y) − sec 2 (x + y) Higher Mathematics Booklet  89 .f(0). d tan(x + y) + tan(x – y) = 1 dy dy 2 sec2(x + y) 1 + + sec (x − y) 1 − = 0 dx dx ⇒ sec2(x + y) + sec2(x – y) 18. 1! 3! 5! 2! 4! 1 1 1 + 4 + + + ..e. + 5 1 + + + . Hence a = 1. degree of numerator must be less than or equal to the degree of denominator.= 1 1 1 +5 ⋅ + 4⋅ (2n − 3)! (2n − 2)! (2n − 1)! 19.. 2 = 2f(0) ∴ f(0) = 1... ∞. 1! 3! 5! = –(1 + b) = 0 ⇒ b = –1 So a = 1 and b = –1 20... d h →0 Lim f (1 − h) − f (1) −1 = Lim .
y = tan tan = 2 2 2 ∫ 5 + 4 cos x = ∫ (1 + t ) 5 + 4(1 − t ) dx 2dt 2 2 (1 + t ) 2 = 2 So. differential equation whose general solution is y = aex + be2x + ce3x is given by (D – 1)(D – 2)(D – 3)y = 0 where D = d/dx. y′ = 2 1 + x2 ( 1 ∫ 5(1 + t ) + 4(1 − t ) dt 2 2 ) = 2 ∫t dx 2 +9 = 2 t 2 x 1 tan −1 + C = tan −1 tan + C 3 3 3 2 3 So. a (x1 – 3)2 + (2 – 4)2 = 64 or (x1 – 3)2 = 60 or x1 = 3 ± 2 15 90  Higher Mathematics Booklet . y ' (0 ) = 1 2 Hence. tan θ = t. b Since the integrand is a rational function of cosx. c 7 3 Dividing numerator and denominator by cos 2 θ π/ 2 ∫ 3x − 7 6 3x + 2 dx 7 = 3 ∫ ∫ ∫ 4 + 9 tan 0 sec2 θ dθ 2 θ 6 3x + 2 − 2 − 3x + 2 dx 7 20 3x + 2 dx Let. dt = sec2θ dθ ∞ = 7 3 7 3 ∫ 3x + 2 − 7 3 ∫ 4 + 9t dt 0 2 = 1 9 ∫ 4+t dt 9 = 2 1 1 × 9 2 3 −1 t tan 2 / 3 0 ∝ = (3x + 2) 2 dx − 5 20 3 ∫ 3x + 2 dx = 3 1 π π × = 6 2 12 = 14 40 (3x + 2) 2 − (3x + 2) 2 + c 45 27 31. 29. or − .24. b Let ex = t exdx = dt ∫t dt 2 + 6t + 5 = ∫ (t + 3) dt 2 − 22 = 1 t +3− 2 +c log 4 t +3+ 2 1 ex + 1 +c = 4 log x e +5 2 × 4 − 8 (−1) 2(−5) − 8(2) 8 13 . 1 − 4 x 2 = t and 8 x3 dx = dt . Coordinates of point of internal division −1 × 8 + 4 × 2 2 × 8 + (−5) × 2 3 . a 25 = x² + 16 ⇒ x = ± 3. K = 2 1 and M = . x = tan θ We get. 3 3 25. 28. = 2−8 2−8 3 3 33. = or 0. d I= ∫ 4 x2 − 4 x 4 dx = 2 ∫ 4 1 4 1− dx 3 x2 2 x Putting. c 32. we get 3 3 = 4 32 I= 3/ 4 1 3/ 4 1 2 1 3 t dt = × t 3/ 2 0 = 12 × 4 8 0 8 3 ∫ 30. c 26. a (aex + 8be2x + 27ce3x ) − 6 (aex + 4be2x + 9ce3x ) +11(ae x + 2be 2x + 3ce3x ) − 6 (ae x + be 2x + ce3x ) = 0 Alternative solution: This you will learn in the chapter of ‘differential equations’. x we put tan = t. Then 2 I= 1 + x2 −1 sec θ − 1 = x tan θ θ 1 − cos θ = = tan sin θ 2 θ θ 1 −1 = tan −1 x So. a Putting. 5 10 10 Coordinates of point of external division 27.
The vectors are coplanar 1 1 ∴ 3 × − − 3 × = λ ⇒ λ = −2 3 3 . Q and R respectively.34. p = 5 37.. d Let x. a r r r Since a. Only in option (c). ( ) ( ) 41. putting this in the given equation of line gives 1 2 1 1 1 2 − + = 0 or + = (which implies that a. Putting the values of y and z in (i). 3x – 3y = λ and –4x + 5y = 3 Solving first and third equations. r r ∴ c = kd r r r r ⇒ ( p + 1) a + 2b = k ( 2p − 1) a − b 40. b . c ˆ j ˆ ˆ i j ⇒ 2i − ˆ + k = ( x + 3y ) ˆ + ( 2x + ay ) ˆ + ( −3x + 5y ) k ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ j ˆ i PQ = (2i + 3j − 4k) − (i + ˆ + k) = ˆ + 2ˆ − 5k j ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ j ˆ QR = (7i + 4ˆ − 9k) − (2i + 3j − 4k) = 5i + ˆ − 13k j ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ → → PQ × QR = 1 2 −5 5 1 13 → → ⇒ 2 = x + 3y. therefore r r r r r r = xa + yb + z a × b for some scalars x. b are linearly independent] r r r r r r r r r Now. and respectively. 1 = –3x + 5y ⇒ Solving first and third. Therefore. c Midpoint of (2. 36. y and z. x= ∴ –1= 2 × 1 1 +a× ⇒ a = –4 2 2 ˆ i j(13 = ˆ (26 + 5) − ˆ + 25) + k (1 − 10) ˆ ˆ ˆ = 31i − 38j − 9 k The unit vector perpendicular to the plane of ∆PQR PQ × QR = → → →  PQ × QR  ˆ ˆ 31i − 38ˆ − 9k j 2486 → = ˆ ˆ ˆ 31i − 38j − 9k (31)2 + (−38)2 + (−9)2 = Higher Mathematics Booklet  91 . r (a × b ) . q and r be the position vectors of P. –1). 2) and (–4.. r r ⇒ ( p + 1) − k ( 2p − 1) a + ( 2 + k ) b = 0 ( ) ⇒ (p + 1) – k(2p – 1) = 0. 2 + k = 0 r r [. b = r × a ⇒ b = xa + yb + z a × b × a ( ( )) 1 Hence. c Short cut: Use options.y= 2 2 ∴ Given vectors are coplanar. 2 2 2 uur uuu uuur r ∴ PS + QT + RU r r r r r r q + r r r + p r p + q r r = 2 − p + 2 − q + 2 − r = o r r c and d are collinear.. y be two scalars such that ˆ + λ ˆ + 3k = x −2i + 3j − 4k + y ˆ − 3j + 5k ˆ ˆ ˆ i j ˆ i ˆ ˆ r r = y b×a + z ( ) ( ) r r (( a × b ) × a ) r r r r r = y ( b × a ) − z ( a × ( a × b )) r r r r r r r r = y ( b × a ) − z (( a ⋅ b ) a − ( a ⋅ a ) b ) ( ) r ˆ i j ˆ i j ⇒ ˆ + λ ˆ + 3k = ( −2x + y ) ˆ + (3x − 3y ) ˆ + ( −4x + 5y ) k r r r r r r r r or b = y b × a + z (a ⋅ a ) b Q a ⋅ b=0 ( ) ( ) ⇒ –2x + y = 1... 1 1 z= r r= r a ⋅a a 2 1 1 x = − and y = 3 3 . we get 1 1 . b and a × b are noncoplanar. b a b c a c b and c are in HP). position vectors of S. we get y = 0. r r r Let p. we get Comparing the coefficients. –1 = 2x + ay. a. r r r 1 we get r = xa + r 2 a 38. Cross product of (a) with r r a yields b . . T and U are r r r r r r q+r r+b p+q . c 35. Length of median = (5 + 1)2 + (–8 + 1)2 = 85 39. y be two scalars such that ˆ j ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 2i − ˆ + k = x ˆ + 2ˆ − 3k + y 3i + aj + 5k i j ˆ Short cut: Use options. –4) is (–1. c Let x.
principal value is θ = 5π . x should be 3. b 3 12 3 5 sin −1 + cos −1 = tan −1 + tan −1 5 13 4 12 + 56 −1 4 12 −1 56 = sin −1 = tan . b A B C sin sin = (i) 2 2 2 48. 6 A B C co s co s = (iv) 2 2 2 C) = cosA + cosB + cosC = 4 cos = 2 cos A+B A−B C co s + 1 − 2sin 2 2 2 2 C A−B A+B − co s co s 2 2 2 47. 2 6 C C A−B = 2co s cos + sin 2 2 2 A−B A+B C = 2co s cos + co s 2 2 2 and cos θ = Hence. 4 3 92  Higher Mathematics Booklet . . b A) = sin2A + sin2B + sin2C 45.42. c The given relation can be written 3⋅ 2 tan (x / 2) 1 + tan 2 (x / 2) + 4⋅ 1 − tan 2 (x / 2) 1 + tan 2 (x / 2) =5 = 2sin ( A + B) cos ( A − B) + 2sin C cos C = 2 sin C (cos ( A − B ) + c os C ) A−B+C A − B − C = 2sin C 2 cos c os 2 2 π π = 2sin C 2 cos − B c os − A 2 2 = 4 sin A sin B sin C = (iii) B) = sinA + sinB + sinC C C A+B A−B = 2sin cos + 2sin cos 2 2 2 2 ⇒ 6 tan ⇒ 9 tan² x x x + 4 – 4 tan² = 5 + 5 tan² 2 2 2 x x x 1 – 6 tan + 1 = 0 ⇒ tan = 2 2 2 3 46. therefore for the given 2 question. 4 8 sin 72o o o o o o o 1 π π ⇒ tan −1 + tan −1 3 = 2 x 2 = 1 +3 3x + 1 1 −1 1 ⇒ tan −1 x = ⇒ x = 3. b 3 1 2 cos θ + sin θ = {dividing by 2 2 2 ( 3) 2 + 12 = 2} Alternative method: As we know that π 1 π = sin ⇒ sin θ + = 3 2 4 π . c −1 −1 We have cot x + tan 3 = −1 −1 ⇒ cot x + tan 3 = π 2 sin 12° sin 48° sin 54° = sin12 sin(60 − 12 ) sin(60 + 12 ) cos 36 sin 72o 1 sin 36o cos 36o 1 = . b tan θ = sin θ = −1 π = tan π. 3 6 1 π = sin π. 3 x 44. = tan ⇒ x −3 0 0 1− 1 . = tan 1 − 3 ⋅ 5 4 12 33 65 3 5 = 1 + 2sin = 1 + 4 sin 43. 2 6 − 3 π = cos π. tan −1 x + cot −1 x = ⇒ θ = nπ + (−1)n π π − .
the number of required type of arrangements = 2 × 4 × 1 = 8. Clearly. Hence. F = Bhim solves the problem. Let OA = x.6 = 2 – 0.e. first seat can be occupied by any one of the remaining two students in 2 ways. Now the required probability 100 10 = P(E ∪ F) = 1 – P( E ) ( F ) [As E and F are independent events] 9 7 1 3 = 1 – 1 – 1 – = 1 – × = 0. 5 letters in each group can be arranged in 4! × 2! ways. But. c Since SALIM occupies the second position and the two girls RITA and SITA are always adjacent to each other. This can be done in 4C3 × 6C2 ways. TT.6 = 1. P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A ∩ B) ⇒ 0. the required number of words = (5C3 × 3C2 ) × 4! × 2! = 1440.8 – 0. none of these two girls can occupy the first seat. This can be done in 4C2 × 6C3 ways. tan θ = 50.2 ⇒ 0.e. consisting of at least two ladies. x 54. we have 4 letters which can be arranged in 4! ways. = ⇒ 2 3h = 6x ⇒ x = x x+2 3 3 There are 5 vowels and 3 consonants in the word 'EQUATION'. c Therefore. Now. we have h h+6 tan θ = and tan θ = x x+2 3 ∴ h h+6 h . HT. In triangles OAP and OBQ. Hence. each group contains 5 letters which are to be arranged in such a way that 2 consonants occur together.2. b ∴ P(E) = 3 4 A committee of 5 persons. Higher Mathematics Booklet  93 . d Q 6m P h θ B 2 √3 m A θ xm O Let OA and AB be the shadows of tower OP and flagstaff PQ respectively on the grounds. Selecting 2 ladies out of 4 and 3 gentlemen out of 6.97. therefore. Since. a 52. i. This can be done in 4C4 × 6 C1 ways. P(A ∩ B) = 0. HT. E and F are independent events such that P(E) = 90 9 = and P(F) 100 10 = 70 7 = . the committee is formed in each case. Now. i. by the fundamental principle of addition. there are 5C3 × 3C2 groups each containing 3 consonants and two vowels. The sample space s can be written S = {HH.2 ⇒ 0. 3. 2. 4.6 = 1 – P( A ) + 1 – P( B ) – 0.6. a h ⇒ tan θ = 3 ⇒ θ = 60o. III. Therefore. Considering 2 consonants as one letter. the total number of ways of forming the committee = 4 C2 × 6 C3 + 4 C3 × 6 C2 + 4 C4 × 6 C1 We have P (at least one of the events A and B occurs) is 0. Selecting 3 ladies out of 4 and 2 gentlemen out of 6. only one seat is left which can be occupied by the 5th student in one way. Three vowels out of 5 and 2 consonants out of 3 can be chosen in 5C3 × 3C2 ways. 55. TH) and n(S) = 4 53. then n(E) = 3 (HH.2. P(A ∪ B) = 0.6 = 1.49.6 and P(A and B occur simultaneously) = 0. II. Thus. two consonants can be put together in 2! ways.6 = P(A) + P(B) – 0.8 – [P( A ) + P( B )] ⇒ P( A ) + P( B ) = 1. d = 120 + 60 + 6 = 186 51. can be formed in the following ways: I. Selecting 4 ladies out of 4 and 1 gentlemen out of 6. Now.2 – [P( A ) + P( B )] ⇒ 0. 10 10 10 10 1. TH} If E is the event corresponding to occurrence of at least one head. Second seat can be occupied by SALIM in only one way. So. in the remaining three seats SITA and RITA can be seated in the following four ways: I X X X X II SALIM SALIM SALIM SALIM III SITA RITA X X IV RITA SITA SITA RITA V X X RITA SITA Let E and F be the events defined as follows: E = Amit solves the problem. So. Now. Suppose the sun makes an angle θ with the ground.2.
x3 ≥ 0 94  Higher Mathematics Booklet . F = 151 ∴ Median = l + 2 N −F 60. f ×h ⇒ Median = 150 + 195 − 151 × 10 = 153.5275 = 2. 2 2 The cumulative frequency just greater than ∴ 59. ∴ x1 + x2 + 10x3 ≥ 1 Similarly. Therefore. b For the given data. 46 lies in the class 4050.8 116 Let the daily diet consist of x litres of milk. The difference between two consecutive values is h = 125 – 115 = 10. Required sum = f1 + f2 = 79. h = 10. x2 kg of beef and x3 dozen of eggs. 58. a Here we are given the midvalues. x2. So the lower limit of a class = midvalue – 57. x3 which minimize z = 15x1 + 75x2 + 20x 3 subject to x1 + x2 + 10x3 ≥ 1 100x1 + 10x2 + 10x3 ≥ 50 10x 1 + 100x 2 = 10x 3 ≥ 10 and x1. ∴ Total cost per day is Rs. So we should first find the upper and lower limits of various classes.56. MD = 6 25 48 72 116 60 38 22 3 N = Σfi = 390 ∑ f  X − X  = 226.45 in.92 in. Hence. b h . σ = ∑ f(X − X)2 N = 8. ∴ l = 40. f1 = 34 and f2 = 45. x2. So 4050 is the median class.26 N 100 in We have N = 390. total amount of vitamins B and C is the daily diet 100x1 + 10x2 + 10x3 ≥ 50 and 10x1 + 100x2 + 10x3 ≥ 10 Hence.50 = 2. ∴ l = 150. h = 10. N = 195 is 267 and the corresponding class is 2 150 – 160. then f2 = 45. and 2 upper limit = Midvalue + h 2 Cumulative frequency 6 31 79 151 267 327 365 387 390 Let the frequency of the class 3040 is f1 and that of 5060 is f2. So 150160 is the median class. Therefore. f = 65 and F = 12 + 30 + f1 = 42 + f1.45 in. X = 67. z = 15x1 + 75x2 + 20x3 Total amount of vitamin A in the daily diet is x1 + x2 + 10x3 mg which should be at least equal to 1 mg. d X = 67. The total frequency is 229. ∴ 12 + 30 + f1 + 65 + f2 + 25 + 18 = 229 ⇒ f1 + f2 = 79 Median = 46 Clearly. f = 116. N = 229. the linear programming formulation to this diet problem is as follows: Find x1. N 390 = = 195. Midvalue 115 125 135 145 155 165 175 185 195 Class groups 110120 120130 130140 140150 150160 160170 170180 180190 190200 Frequency n −F 2 × h ⇒ 46 Now median = l + f 229 − (42 + f1 ) = 40 + 2 × 10 65 ⇒ f1 = 34 (approximately) Since f1 + f2 = 79.
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