GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Terms used throughout this study reflect an interdisciplinary approach and merit more thorough discussion than can be provided in footnotes. As used in this discussion, such broad terms reflect an orientation toward performing arts scholarship in common usage. This is justified in that the base of discussion is located in the dances; however, moving between humanities and performance arts usage creates confusion. For that reason, a glossary of these terms clarifying the way in which they are applied in this study is appropriate.

Art and Entertainment Constructed designations of what was art and what was entertainment changed over the Nineteenth Century, setting the stage for the early Twentieth Century in Europe and the United States. This topic is admirably discussed in Lawrence Levine’s book, Highbrow/Lowbrow: The Emergence of Cultural Hierarchy in America. In general, the term “legitimate” was used at the turn of the century to distinguish “highbrow” stage presentations based on enobling themes that only high-class audiences could understand. Legitimate stage presentations included serious stage plays, opera, concert music, and the ballet and were based on European aesthetics. Ticket prices to these productions were too high for regular attendance by the lower classes. “High class” artists were presumed to have spent many years training in the subtleties of their profession under the aegis of large, state-supported schools and professional companies and in the mentorage of other renowned artists associated with a specific city. Such artists were almost exclusively white, Euro-Americans. “Low class” entertainers on the other hand, could be white or colored and were presumed to have simply “absorbed” the mechanics of their craft from imitation of others (despite the fact that effective comic timing requires meticulous training to achieve). While the artist supposedly dedicated his life to his art in “lawful” association with other artists, the entertainer was often thought of as a rogue individual; a clever charlatan of no fixed abode and an opportunist out to cheat the public. “Lowbrow” entertainments included those that pleased or titillated low-class audiences, such as dime museums, fairs,

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It is an arbitrary designation that should be recognized as linguistic (English). Euro-American This term provides a convenient shortcut in this study by combining predominant European cultural attributes such as English. Postcolonial Liberalism. culture is conceived of as being continually permeable and negotiable. assumptions in written documents by artists and critics of the time go unrecognized. but an on-going process of interpretation made cohesive by general common consent of its population. Otherwise. mediatory elements of culture to orient themselves to interpret experiences through language. it is an important distinction in discussions of art and culture. of which Orientalism is one type. or traditional from modern expression. as would be the case for science-fiction narratives) 287 . Although this is both arbitrary and characteristic of only a portion of the American population past and present. Exotic The term “exotic” is a broad designation of anything outside the norm of common European experience. Exoticism is interpreted in this study to include not only distant geographic sites.and vaudeville shows charging minimal admittance fees. “ancient” times (or even in the future. for there is much entertainment in the opera or ballet. and German influences on American culture. People depend upon a concerted assemblage of performative. singers and dancers. Culture in this sense is not a static monolithic construct. Culture Culture as discussed here refers to the second definition of the term presented by Duncan Ivison in his book. French. but also references to remote. Lines of division between “art” and “entertainment” are arbitrary. and a good portion of vaudeville also presented “high class” actors. religious (Christian) and physiological (North European). Rather than defining boundaries between what is authentic and inauthentic.

The Exotic in Western Music lists seven characteristics common to all exotic music in Western arts that are also applicable to exoticism in visual performances (i. French. e. Both exoticism and Orientalism are Eurocentric constructs of non-European cultures and therefore exist only within a context of European influence (the United States). with only minor variation. excluding inheritors of the Eastern (Christian and Islamic) GrecoRoman tradition such as. “American” also means “European” in this sense. Over the course of time. A third type of exotica was attached to ancient cultures of Greece. Egypt. pre-industrial European ethos. Arabia. Gypsies. Italian. greater attention is given to this kind of exoticism. Egypt. Romania. Poland. dance and theatre). Turkey.”).ambiguously designated in the frame of fantasy (“a long time ago. etc. in a place far away . there is in this definition of “European” also a physiological distinction between fair-skinned northerners and dark-skinned “others”. including the Spanish. German. and Rome in part because they could “not speak for themselves” and were therefore interpreted as a foundation of the essential. Morocco. including Europe. The exception is Spain and its colonies. Belman’s book. for any and all non-European characters. Whenever there was a call for an exotic element. from the very inception of the United States as a political entity. The designation. these features were repeated. Even the term “European” is somewhat flexible to include English. Several essays included in the Bellman book describe in detail specific exotic features in musical and presentational terms. I have summarized these recurrent features as follows: 288 . such as swarthy Italians. certain features signaling the exotic in these entertainments became codified. Austrian and Scandinavian inheritors of the (Christian) Western GrecoRoman tradition. and Mediterranean others. . Russia. then. In the discussions of both Gnossienne (Chapter Three) and Faune (Chapter Four). despite a diasporic population of peoples and cultures from all over the world. perhaps due to its ties to North Africa. .

These personages often behaved in an irrational. as if the exotic character was unable to express itself in a cultured and sophisticated manner. 3. and complex personalities. child-like manner that denied them individual adult human qualities. this was reflected in the dancing. suggesting a pre-linguistic. for example. nonsense. conceptually-complex expression in song. Rhythmic patterns in music signifying the exotic were short and repetitive. seductive condition. Both Native American savages and South Sea cannibals chanted nonsense syllables in monotone. The feminization of exotic characters (male and female) in the arts has been the topic of much discussion in the literature. magical. Their fates were also usually tragic: Chinese princesses died of love or went mad. or represented the generality of an entire culture. 289 . Alternatively. pleading for a European (male) sanctuary. Sirens. This reinforced the misconception that foreign arts require little or no formal training. sang in high-pitched voices on sustained vowel sounds with vague melody and no rhythmic meter. the training in exotic performing art is also referred to as esoteric.1. repetitive. Vocalizations consisted of short. clearly focused. and often nonmelodic phrases rather than a linguistically worded. etc. 2. Exotic musical motifs were usually played on European musical instruments with percussion sounds dominating to indicate either a heavy primitivism or an aggressive mood. Musical instrumentation supported and repeated these signature elements. A single male European character could stand up against. aristocratic families in danger of being sold off by their fathers into an unwanted marriage) of a restrictive society longing to be free. as did Chinese sorcerers. 4. “flocks” of exotic people were presented as silent attendants on European princes and princesses. tambourines for Gypsies. and defeat. At the same time. This had the effect of denying individual. Dancers often played instruments to accompany their dancing. A single character dressed in an exotic costume stood for. Native American “noble savages” stoically suffered injustice before dying. emotional. 5. they were usually depicted as the tragic victims (usually beautiful young females from wealthy. When exotic characters were placed in the main role. etc. 7. whole armies of exotic males. or “natural”. sticks for Nautch dancers of India. Exotic characters were often (though not always) confined to supporting roles. These might include rattles for Native Americans. secret. etc. most of whom ran from a fight. 6. Both the dancing and the music were represented as “unlearned”.

then the limitations and strengths of both expressive gesture and oral/written language become apparent. community. This project. regardless of time or place. then. then dance as an avant-garde expression has a similar relationship with Early Modernism. this study of dance in culture makes use of the word humanism in its broadest sense. Certainly the purpose of this study is to examine the dynamics of how these dances negotiate both the continuum and disruptions of this era. and the cosmos. then. “The first humanists also grasped how this project of theirs [humanities] was simultaneously opposed to much of medievalism’s basic assumptions about man’s place in the cosmos” (Fleming). If indeed. The text of a dance.Humanism It is the intent of this study to present dance within its cultural context as a significant contribution to the humanistic project. it is helpful to point out that it is examined as “text” in the sense of paralleling the communicative intent of a language. Although it is not the intent of this investigation to debate the issue of dance as a language. need not be entirely alien to one another. If the intent of communication is given as the basis upon which dance is included in a humanistic discussion. within family. values. In this study. nation. A helpful discussion of this kind of use is presented in Richard Schechner’s series of essays on the topic in his book. Cross-disciplinary uses of such terms as “humanism”. proposes to frame a concert of ideas about the individual’s position in life. As part of an attempt to expand traditional academic concepts of which disciplines. 290 . This frame of concerted ideas gives meaning and purpose to the existence of the individual. and it is recognized that this is at variance with other academic definitions of the humanistic tradition. the term “humanism” is used in context with common usage in performance studies. and texts should be included in the humanities. can be analyzed for its gestalt of meanings and references to the individual’s position in life in a way comparable to examinations of written text for similar characteristics. The End of Humanism: Writings on Performance.

antihistoricist departure from macrocosmic to microcosmic dimensions preoccupation with self-referentiality fractured and discordant lack of predetermined pattern rejection of philosophical idealism functionalism rejection of absolute polarities elitist open sexuality aware of the consequences of technology moral relativism the arts as an ideal state cultural despair However. this convenient depiction of Modernism as an abrupt break from Victorianism does not accurately accommodate cultural and artistic trends discussed in this study. 7. or the idealization of women and children expressed in Romanticism is also familiar in Victorian expressions (Chapter One). The term “Modernism” can be approached in several different ways. Cantor marks out these characteristics of Modernism: 1. elitism. and the concern for social improvement. 11. Norman Cantor in his book. cultural despair. 14. 13. 6. 9. 2. and functionalism”. 4. 5. In a broadly generalized historic sense. The American Century: Varieties of Culture in Modern Times presents Modernism of the first half of the Twentieth Century as a rebellion against Victorianism. Modernism was against it (43). the Western tradition can be separated into two halves between the Ancient and the Modern World. which fashioned itself in rebellion against established order retained much in common with Victorianism.Modernism and avant-garde Two main resources consulted for this study offered conflicting definitions of “Modernism”. Some historians place this separation in the 291 . Even the avant-garde aspect of Modernism. 8. 12. 10. that whatever Victorianism was. 3. All these cultural movements had their own arenas of “moral relativism.

suggesting an awareness of mutable social roles and identities. the Renaissance encouraged. During this period of nascent modernism. ethical. and spiritual arenas depends upon either an agreed-upon community or personal construct. As will be discussed. . it is in the tensions arising from the anxieties of self-doubt and defiance (in a multitude of variations) of established order that the avant-garde impetus is directly identified. . according to Micheleti. the philosophical and sociological shifts into Modernism also can be said to have converged with art near the end of the Age of the Enlightenment (approximately on-going during the 1700’s) and the commencement of Romanticism (approx: 1770-1830). this Renaissance pairing of “self as maker” and “self as player of the game” suggests an awareness of the mechanisms by which social and cultural systems are created and recreated to ensure continuity and survival. each one layered over another. at about the time a change of perception in humanity’s position in the cosmos took place. the measure and maker (homo faber) of systems for cooperative functioning. Put another way. To employ a comparable framework. In the context of Modernism. xviii). This convergence was considered in the epistemological examinations of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) and Georg Hegel (1770- 292 . Projects in which these dynamics are in question are humanistic endeavors. the possibility of reversing the dictates of a hieratical system arose as a result of a rebirth of humanistic investigation. whether in the form of philosophical inquiry. then. the individual person finds that meaning in aesthetic. the struggle to establish beneficial political and legal systems.an interdependent system based on individual effort enhanced by mercantile enterprise and military inventiveness” (Atchity: Preface to The Renaissance Reader. Whereas prior to the Renaissance no option to question the rule of authority was available. This idea suggests that the modern person is distinctive as one aware of self. The modern person is also the player of the game (homo ludens). the Renaissance goal was. “. “The discovery by man of himself and the world”. both of which are interpretive.Renaissance. a crisis of identity arose when the individual found him.or herself in conflict with roles created by social obligation. or expressed in the arts. And in the process of negotiating these shifts. and interdependent. In an effort to restore the position of rational investigation attributed to Ancient Greece and Rome.

The first is an historical avant-garde that is charted through its examples in art and a philosophical basis for that art. Arthur Dantoii states that: This exaltation of art marks a distinction between these thinkers [Kant and Hegel] and their predecessors of the seventeenth century. the bourgeoisie). Over the course of his explanation of these German philosophers and the way in which their discourses on the nature of aesthetics suggested avenues of experimentation in art. requires the presence of that against which it rebels in order to continue to exist. In this study. these pursuits collectively indicated a pattern of self-examination and reflection leading to spiritual transformationiii. the second kind of avantgarde is also important to this study: [an]. As with most terms used in this study. From: The Age of Modernism: 13-27). . the term avant-garde is used in its broadest sense. the many “isms”. However. the avant-garde movement within the broad period of Modernism is focused on as in defiance of middle-class precepts that are both modern and Victorian. sometimes these two kinds of avant-gardes are expressed in the same movement (Schechner: 16-7). like Romanticism. Of course. . the part that leads the way and is the first to get hit by the opposition. “experimental” performance: whatever is happening at the boundaries. or unity of purpose among art. in advance of the mainstream. presents two kinds of avant-garde. some of which are discussed in Chapter One. Avant-garde artists succeeded by failing. Kant proposed that art had potential as an individually-interpretive activity situated between intellectual and moral judgment as a corrective to the limitations of pure reasoning. religion and philosophy (Der absolute Geist). At the same time. as an indication of how successful their art was. e. self-conscious way (“A Century of Self-Analysis: Philosophy in Search of an Identity”. they deemed the degree to which their art was opposed by the status quo (i. 293 .in any special. Hegel stressed the concept of accord.1831). who found scant occasion to write about art. the avant-garde. that is. Richard Schechner’s assembly of essays. . . In Hegel’s discussion. The End of Humanism. The term avant-garde means at the front of a military advance.

It is from a close reading of these art history books that the five avant-garde attributes of Modernism (exoticism. Modernism and avant-garde is taken here as an attitude in which certain kinds of experimentations with the above cited characteristics were ongoing. naturalism. modular construction patterns made it possible to market and distribute performing arts and entertainments in the same context as concrete products in a mass market configuration. Modular Organization Modular organization and construction appear with remarkable consistency regardless of medium in all instances of public display and marketing of goods and services. the same principles apply to the construction of a skyscraper as to the construction of artworks. progressive and experimental. along with patterns of marketing. the artists and their creations are discussed in the framework of this latter sense of the avant-garde. and response to technology) are taken. For this reason. it is more accurate to say that Modernism supported both a continuation of Victorianism and the radical experimentation of the avant-garde in an antagonistic and mutually-preserving relationship.While the movements of avant-garde artists in Europe influenced the approach the dance artists in Russia (Nijinsky) and the United States (St. For the purposes of discussing performing arts. In this sense. This reading of the term is consistent with the humanities survey textbook by DeWitt and Platt. Elements of basic modularization as discussed by Bradd Shore (Culture in Mind. The Western Humanities. distortions of time and space. are discussed as avant-garde expressions in Chapter Five. As discussed particularly in Chapter Five. including dance. Arts and entertainments. Denis and Shawn) took in their dances. spiritualism. and of which those collected around the avant-garde represent the more radical. this study relies more upon the model presented in Hilton Kramer’s The Age of the Avant-Garde: An Art Chronicle of 1956-1972 and Joachimides and Rosental’s The Age of Modernism: Art in the 20th Century as useful in discussing the dances. 151) are as follows: 294 .

Although the stage pictures of Gnossienne. there are two ways in which naturalism is expressed in them. a quantitative rather than qualitative multiplicity is produced.1. and Incense are carefully contrived. 4. non-dance) movements such as kneeling. these configurations as well as the units comprising them are interchangeable. or spins. individual variation of expression lies within the limited parameters of a modular system. “naturalism” has proved the most problematic. Constant experimentation in devising configurations is encouraged. The way this term is used in this investigation is confusing because the three dances under examination appear highly stylized and presentational in their movements. running. walking. One is that all three dances incorporate pedestrian (i. These movements are performed in such a way that anyone might duplicate them without specialized training. Modular systems promote an egalitarian bias because any one configuration is equal to any other. Faune. Variations among the constructing units and multiple combinations of those units produce entities that appear to be different. which permit freedom of movement in the 295 . However. 5. yet they are claimed to be “natural and therefore true”. The consumer’s attention is directed to surface features because modular systems have no intrinsic interior. extensions. Modular construction employs a series of interlocking (or inter-related) units organized to construct a more complex entity. Naturalism is also expressed in the costumes. 3. Naturalism Of all the terms used in this study. and swaying. 2. e. there are no spectacular balletic leaps.

effeminate. a laborer. and males of all other nationalities performed an “artificial” self associated with the arts and “book learning”. The fusion between artistic performance and public social performance occurred at this time to create a dichotomous opposition between what was considered “American” versus “non-American” (everybody else). the Faun wears soft-soled sandals. created out of a worldly sophistication. probably bi. opera. ballet. “contrived” and “artificial” therefore not true and natural. scholarly. a ritualized performance of the artist in these dances—because it is not the norm. or “contrived” in a European context. and decadently sophisticated in the social graces (particularly dancing). masculine. free of an “unnatural” urban environment. Females (associated with a cultured indoors. To be male was to be “not-female”. The other sense in which “naturalism” acts upon the dances in this study is that since social performance of the self is artificial. Feminine artistic activities—particularly dancing—were “alien” activities to the American male. This polarized perception was particularly acute in the performance of masculinity in the US and was directly related to issues of political dominance at home and abroad. While the Incense worshipper and Gnossienne’s priest are barefoot. uneducated. non-socially-coded fashion. alien. During the time period in question. artistic.—is intimate and 296 . robust. that European context had previously (before 1900) provided the model upon which American arts and social graces had been based. outdoors self-sufficiency) performed a “natural” self. the American male must be rough.dancing body. If the European male was slight. he was in all ways “unauthentic”. However. A “true” or “authentic” American male spent his time (or at least acted and looked as if he did) outdoors. by 1900 that European model had provided the means by which the upper classes separated (“purified”) themselves from the lower classes. and social class performances in public were considered “artificial”. The term “natural” attaches to these dances because they are performed in a nonballet. rendering European arts and artists—as well as those Americans who emulated them—to be viewed as “alien” to American values in other classes. etc. and heterosexual. Directly opposite then.or homosexual. The American man (associated with an uncultured. because it is exotic. In the United States. urban dependency).

Turkish.unobserved and therefore “true”. Resources exploring these dynamics in greater detail are Brewster and Jacob’s book. Manhood in America. Russian. but the supposed natural and non-artificial simplicity of Greek classicism in its “pure. although British economic trade and cultural domination had begun many years earlier). not reveal them. Japanese. and therefore “false” (particularly for women) were intended to obscure true feelings. 297 . Moroccan. etc. The very word “Oriental” is a western construct broadly encompassing perceived and interchangeable characteristics of these cultures. Chinese. lush wealth and sensuous freedom that flattered the European male gaze. such pose reflected not illusion. These include a more or less generalized exotica in the Near East. or pose in a theatrical performance was not normal everyday life. Arrested action. the ways in which various cultures are exoticized are determined by their subject status to western nations (i. The amalgam of these subject cultures in European depictive and performing arts suggested a feminized. This is in the sense of Delsarte the idea that the movements of these dances are stylized and ritualized in a highly presentational form that they convey a reality of the inner self of the person/persona/character that ordinary pedestrian movements could not. Exotic references to Greek arts embedded in all three dances (although “Indian”. Spanish (Gypsy). unadulterated” form. e. Far East Orientalism included. Persian. Socially-performed mannerisms—considered artificial. Theatre to Cinema (which explains the relationship of posed images from live stage to film via Delsartism) and Michael Kimmel in his book. Orientalism The term “Oriental” is a broad designation based upon European concepts of nonEuropean Eastern cultures subject to imperialistic rule in contemporary and ancient images. Although Russia and Spain also had exotic associations. “Siamese” (Thai) and Moslem/Hindu Indian sources. Arabian. Presented in an exotic context. the costume of Incense invokes Greek robes) are discussed at length in their respective chapters. Egyptian. Since Orientalism has deep associations with Imperialism (Said). one particularly useful in discussing The Incense (Chapter Two). they did not fall under the same kinds of generalizations as Orientalism. as India was subject to Great Britain from 1857 to 1948.

These include a more or less generalized exotica in the Near East. children (abolition of child labor) and women (elimination of sweatshops and prostitution). Arabian. Persian. Supported by small business. 298 . and middle-class urban reformers. government must first “purify” itself through reform and then act to protect its weakest members. industrialization. the “Americanization” of immigrants. Progressivism was paternalistic and moderate and at the same time supported women’s suffrage. it simply maintained that the most rich and powerful had a moral responsibility to administer to the most poor and weak. Far East sources of Orientalism included. Moroccan. etc. Egypt. the approach did not challenge capitalism directly. greater attention is given to this type of exoticism. A third type of exotica was attached to ancient cultures of Greece. As a particular approach to social and economic reform Progressivism appeared in the latter part of the Nineteenth Century and faded during the First World War. In this sense. The belief was that. Japanese. Other points of Progressivism were prohibition. and restriction of immigration. Chinese. and Rome in part because they could not “speak for themselves” and were therefore interpreted as a foundation of the essential. But some of its effects on foreign policy in the United States continue in the attitude that it is the responsibility of the most powerful nation to guide the less fortunate to a better life. and immigration. The term “oriental” is a broad designation based upon European concepts of non-European Eastern cultures subject to imperialistic rule in contemporary and ancient images. Turkish. pre-industrial European ethos. In the discussion of both Gnossienne (Chapter Three) and Faune (Chapter Four). given abuses and inequalities in society. “Siamese” (Thai) and Moslem/Hindu Indian. Egyptian. Progressivism This term describes an attitude rather than a cohesive movement in the United States as a cultural response to urbanization. professionals.Native American and African imagery presented a slightly different context of exotica because these did not come under direct European rule. Progressivism was not entirely consistent.

. . emotions. and non-European groups. nationalism. .Romanticism The movement of Romanticism is closely connected with Symbolism in the perspective of this study because they precede the specific avant-garde attributes under discussion. and idealization of women.a style that emphasizes the imagination. . as opposed to a more geographic. idealistic vision of utopia for mankind by the benevolent hand of the artist. The movement promoted individual initiative. let alone achieve rational integrity. Symbolism sought to capture the ephemeral experience of life. Pastoral nostalgia for a figuratively glorious past took precedence over the decadence and ugliness of industrialized urbanization.asserting emotion and intuition over rationalism . While Romanticism offered a broad. Romanticism sought to subsume the rational into a balanced relationship with the irrational in an effort to discover the “true and essential self” from which right action would be directedivand nostalgically bring about a return to a former. . But Symbolism also had the effect of defining the general rebellion of Romanticism into a perpetually 299 . spiritual expression centered in the private thoughts of the individual. Romanticism offered a corrective measure to rational thought and scientific progressivism characteristic of the previous Age of Enlightenment. And in this directive the man of feeling. or external expression in Romanticism. and an expression of transcendent reality was overcome by the 1870s by Symbolism. was to lead the wayv. in reaction against 18th century classicism and rationality (447). the closely-related movement of Symbolism appeared late in the Nineteenth Century as a dialogue between poetry and painting. imagination. The creative (poet) artist as “a man of feeling” was extolled for his visionary genius with access to fundamental reality and the capacity to inspire mankind toward improvement. . children. communion (or striving against) with nature. and creativity of the individual artist. free expression of feeling. Romanticism is defined as: . Since human beings clearly would not always abide by logic and the dictates of rational behavior alone. political. As discussed in greater detail in Chapter Four. Symbolists (such as the poet Mallarmé) turned toward a more internalized. The Romantic rebellion against neoclassicism through personal aesthetics. According to The Dictionary of the Arts. of passion and poetic vision. more innocent and therefore uncorrupted social state.

Their preoccupation with experiential transformation as gateway to spiritual revelation suggests a psychological reaction to scientific and technological advances such as the theories of Darwin and Freud which did not complicate the earlier Romantics. the more rational knowledge about the nature of existence was sought. or fantastic”(The Dictionary of the Arts: 500). who was the first to use the term “Renaissance” in the midnineteenth century is quoted in the preface of Kenneth Atchity’s The Renaissance Reader (HarperPerennial. It is this condition of regenerating opposition to the status quo that made it possible for the avant-garde to remain innovative. As the inroads of scientific discovery progressively brought to rational light elements of human existence formerly shrouded in mystery. and he fought a heroic. spiritual value) by the crass stupidities of the middle-class. Danto claims Kant as “the first real modernist” because he was the first philosopher to bring into examination the mechanisms of criticism as a legitimate study (13). shocking and “new” while continuing to sustain the illusion that the avantgarde was always about to be eliminated by a larger. Instead of exploring geographic frontiers. the “unknown-unknowable” continued to retreat beyond those borders. Some of those borders were to be found on the symbolic grounds of internal expression and meaning. i The French historian Jules Michelet . . Symbolists were engaged in. “. mystical. the Symbolists turned inward as the external realms of Romanticism’s sublime nature retreated. This model emphasizes the Romantic notion that the individual artist of vision is always about to be destroyed (along with everything else of true. more powerful middle-class mercantilism (Kramer: 3-5). Hisvi only recourse was to strategies of subversion. Symbolists internalized that battle. By way of answering this profound need for mystery in the human psyche. .seeking to express moods and psychological states.volatile condition of spiritual self-validation. In other words. the more essential it became to maintain a realm of experience that could not be encompassed by that knowledge. 1996). .Their [Symbolist] subjects were often mythological. ii 300 . . losing battle.

v iv The English Romantic poet.iii It is precisely this impetus of unity among elements of performance that was the goal of the German composer Wagner. In other words. part-human (Id for Freud) being which must be tapped in order to discern the “truth” of the human condition. Percy Shelley. wrote passionately for the poet to become the legislator of a new world order. beauty. or part-animal. The arcitypal Romantic poet was male. vi 301 . the same principles of romanticism in early experimental dance was conveyed by women. essential self” constituting the individual free of outer societal corruptions was identified as the daemon. and universality” It is interesting that this “core. and is a mark of spiritualism in the dances which suggests “fundamental truth. the human is once again placed in “the center of the universe” as the unchanging source from which apparently-immutable but ultimately humanly-constructed institutions of society arise.

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