UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT
A Manual for the Preparers and Users of
New York and Geneva, 2004
NOTES UNCTAD serves as the focal point within the United Nations Secretariat for all matters related to foreign direct investment and transnational corporations. In the past, the Programme on Transnational Corporations was carried out by the United Nations Centre on Transnational Corporations (1975–1992) and the Transnational Corporations and Management Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Development (1992–1993). In 1993, the Programme was transferred to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. UNCTAD seeks to further the understanding of the nature of transnational corporations and their contribution to development and to create an enabling environment for international investment and enterprise development. UNCTAD’s work is carried out through intergovernmental deliberations, technical assistance activities, seminars, workshops and conferences. Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters combined with figures. Mention of such a symbol indicates a reference to a United Nations document. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Material in this publication may be freely quoted or reprinted, but acknowledgement is requested, together with a reference to the document symbol. A copy of the publication containing the quotation or reprint should be sent to the UNCTAD secretariat and Ellipson.
UNCTAD/ITE/IPC/2003/7 UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION Sales No. E.04.II.D.13 ISBN 92-1-112620-7
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This publication is the third contribution of UNCTAD and the Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR) to the field of environmental accounting. The manual was prepared under the overall direction of Lorraine Ruffing and Con Bartel. The UNCTAD secretariat would like to thank the World Bank for its funding and the authors, Dr. Andreas Sturm, Kaspar Müller (Ellipson Ltd, Basel, Switzerland) and Suji Upasena (Arrow Consult, Kandy, Sri Lanka). This manual was vetted by a number of experts from the ISAR steering group, including Christophe Butz (Pictet & Cie), Claude Fussler (WBCSD), Ndung'u Gathinji (ECSAFA), Dr. Udo Hartmann (DaimlerChrysler Ltd), Charles Peter Naish (Ciba Specialty Chemicals Inc), David J. Moore (CICA), Dr. Suphamit Techamontrikul (Chulalongkorn University Bangkok), R. Child Villiers (Nestlé) and Christopher Wells (ABN AMRO).
To meet this obvious need for guidance. However. it is obvious that in the post-Enron era. It found that the financial information provided by transnational corporations was not reliable. However. Furthermore.
. their suppliers and the community. their customers. The environmental world summits in Rio (1992) and Johannesburg (2002) have shown that the business community has become committed to the concept of sustainable development and to improving its environmental performance. In order to promote the harmonization of financial information and meaningful disclosure to all users of financial statements. various stakeholders are demanding that enterprises report on these improvements. In 1989 ISAR took up the topic of corporate environmental accounting. ISAR issued its first recommendations for environmental disclosure in financial statements in 1991. sustainable value or sustainable business. This is because the conventional model was developed to provide information only on financial position and performance. it is clear that the conventional accounting model is not able to assess an enterprise's environmental performance and its impact on financial performance to the degree desired by all stakeholders.PREFACE The United Nations' work on transparency and accountability originated in 1975 when the former UN Commission on Transnational Corporations became concerned about the lack of meaningful disclosure by transnational corporations in their financial statements. In particular. To achieve sustainable development. enterprise management must take into account the impact of their performance on their employees. This concern about sustainable development is now complemented in the postEnron era by corporate concern about "sustainable value" or "sustainable business". Its objective in issuing a new guideline – Accounting and Financial Reporting for Environmental Costs and Liabilities – was to ensure that different standard-setters did not adopt different solutions for the same problems. On the other hand. transparent or comparable. the financial community is concerned about how environmental performance affects the financial results of an enterprise. as well as information on its corporate governance structures and procedures. In 1998 ISAR revisited the issue of environmental disclosure and expanded its recommendations based on emerging best practices. including its environment. some CEOs believed that environmental information was not necessary for a true and fair view of the enterprise's performance or that it was too difficult to obtain. stakeholders want non-financial information covering the enterprise's environmental and social performance. This guidance was soon followed by intense study and analysis by national standard-setters. The Group soon discovered in its first survey that there were no national accounting standards specific to environmental information disclosure. the Economic and Social Council created the Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR).
their construction and use are highly problematic. This manual presents a method by which environmental and financial performance indicators can be used together to measure an enterprise's progress in attaining eco-efficiency or sustainability. thus improving the quality of environmental reporting and stakeholder satisfaction. the concept of ecoefficiency.This manual presents the results of ISAR's work to extend the conventional accounting model and to link environmental performance with financial performance. Despite the practical usefulness of eco-efficiency indicators. demonstrates such a link. However. where increased profits are achieved under conditions of declining environmental impact. The precise correlation between improved environmental performance of an enterprise and its bottom line is extremely difficult to prove because of the many factors that can affect profits. The manual provides detailed explanations and examples for the preparers and users of eco-efficiency indicators so that they can produce internally consistent environmental and financial information.
Rubens Ricupero Secretary-General of UNCTAD
. iv Abbrevations ...... Conceptual Accounting and Reporting Framework for Ecoefficiency Reporting ... Duty of Users ...... Complement Financial Statements.E................. 9 II....... Reliability .......... 8 II............. 12 II.......3...................................B.............. 7 II.............................................4......... Financial Accounting Framework as a Starting Point ...............................B............ 7 II............C.....4....B............ The Accounting Framework for Eco-efficiency...............................F.........................ii Acknowledgements............................ 3 I................................B. Overview ..1.............B....... Introduction..............3......E...........................................1......2....... Going Concern ...................................... 8 II..................D. Purpose and Status ..................................F.....13 II.................................................. Objectives..............1........... Objectives of Eco-efficiency Indicators............ Relevance and Materiality....................... 4 II.....2.C..... 7 II........ Reporting Scope ..................................... 8 II........ 7 II........................... 10 II...... Elements and Items of an Eco-efficiency Statement ......2....................A... Introduction to the Framework ....................................................................1.......... Qualitative Characteristics................................................2.................13 II.................. Accrual Basis ..........10 II......... 8 II...................C.... Underlying Assumptions .................................14
........................................E................................ Understandability .................................................................... Reporting Entity and the Principle of Congruity ......3.................... 8 II.....A.... Provide Information......B..........................................E........................................ 3 I.. Improve Decision-Making ............... iii Preface........ Rationale for an Accounting Framework for Eco-efficiency Reporting.........................11 II...... Consensus and Quality of Information ...................... xii I.......2.. Scope .......B.....................3............. 7 II.....................11 II..........................11 II...........B................B..... Users and Their Information Needs ... 3 I..F..E... 1 I......................................................F..................................1.............................4...Table of Contents Notes.......F.........................C..................3................................... Comparability ....................................................................13 II............... 1 I... 4 I.........
.......... General Scope ...C........ Global Warming Potential..........B........ Measurement of Energy....B............ 29 III........B.... Energy Sources........F.a.......6.............................. 16 II........................B............ Recognition ...b.....5. Purchase and Sale of Energy................................. Example of Disclosure of Water Use ..........7........29 III. General Definition of Energy and Energy Use ........20 III.............. True and Fair View/Fair Presentation .52 III..................60 III.......C.....b............B........... Objective .5. General ..............C...............7... Scope .c.............................50 III........C.....d....................16 III................16 II....G......58 III................... 60 III...........................3..................30 III.........60 III...20 III........60 III...b....5........ Kinds of Water Use ...B.............D........3.1..................................................... Guidelines ........7. Scope ......a.G.............II...............1.......29 III........................... Global Warming Contribution.............29 III.......................... Annex to Energy Use .......G.......3........7.... Releases of Water...................c.......3.......C....3............3.. Accounting Treatment of Energy Use ........................ Disclosure of Energy Use ..........2.....a. Annexes to Water Use .............................60 III................15 II.. Balancing Qualitative Characteristics ...6........... 19 III............ 20 III........50 III..............D...............4.. Definitions ..............................c............... Measurement.26 III.........C..........................29 III...27 III...d............. Recognition16 II...........D............2...27 III.6.......20 III..... Scope .........C. Definitions ..7...C.......... Definitions .....D....... Conversion Factors from Thermal Equivalents to Work.........20 III...........................B...B......................................3...................3...............C................................................. Disclosure .......... Accounting Treatment of Water Use ..............A............C......................................B....................... 19 III............3........... Forms and Sources of Energy ......C.................. Units and Conversions ..............7.1..2................................................................ Measurement of Water Use ............. Recognition of Energy .....2....D............26 III...C.........C.....29 III............ Global Warming Gases..3.a..3.... Objective ........b.. Water Received and its Source ............................D....B........................3...B................a.....................................26 III.......................3................49 III.............B..........D......50 III........61
........c.. Objective ... Example of Disclosure of Energy Use .....C.3............. Accounting Treatment of Global Warming Contribution...........F..................60 III...............................4...........C............ Recognition and Measurement of Items ..............49 III.......25 III............20 III....21 III........49 III.....1......................B.
............71 III..78 III.....3..79 III..............................83 III.f..............e............4..............E......5..........................75
III...........b............................. General Approach ..d...E......D...................81 III................89 III........... Global Warming Gases Related to Other Industrial Processes .............. Reclamation and Recycling of ODS.....3............ In General ............D...................................3.....c........ Types of ODS...............90
.......63 III.. Ozone-Depleting Substances......... Calculating Global Warming Contribution .4............................D...d.j.....77 III.................b....79 III..E.......E......E.....6.7.........3...b. Purchase of ODS ..D.E... Accounting Treatment of Ozone-Depleting Substances...................E...3................. Main Sectors using Ozone-Depleting Substances .............73 Annex to Global Warming Contribution ..................... Production of ODS...........a.................................4.....E..e..........3..
III.. Annex to Ozone-Depleting Substances .... 77 III....D..........80 III.....h.............................E.. Sales of ODS.....a......62 III......61 Recognition of Global Warming Gases ....D.....E.......65 III... CO2-Emission Factors for Fossil Fuels.81 III..........71 Disclosure of global warming gases .....7...........62 Measurement......83 III.5.5................................E........D...... CO2-Emission Factors for Electricity ........74 III...7........ Objective ..............5............3......D.....
Energy.......3.E.86 III.77 III..g........................ Scope .... Disclosure of Ozone-Depleting Substances.. III..........................74 III......5............d..............81 III..7..................D..........5.2............E............and Transport-Related Global Warming Gases .. Dependency on ODS....7...E...82 III...3....................a.E..........E...............................82 III.... Measurement of Ozone-Depleting Substances .................. Example of a Disclosure of Global Warming Contribution .........k.....7..............................77 III..............c.........................84 III.....E....................c.............. Definitions ......5. Potentials and Contributions .........b...... Destruction of ODS..E.... Forms of Existence of ODS ........... Example of a Disclosure of Ozone-Depleting Substances ..... Controlled Substances and their Ozone Depletion Potential according to the Montreal Protocol ...........77 III..3......... Global Warming Gases Related to Other Industrial Processes ..................... Energy Supply ........D.....d.64 III... Recovery............ III..............a..1..e....... Emissions of ODS .....
III.6..III..84 III.......E................D.....E.D........3... Recognition of Ozone-Depleting Substances.......81 III.......61 III....63 III..................7.D.......b................. Carbon Offset and Sequestration .82 III...............................3...........4. Stocks of ODS .........D....a.3.62 III.E..............D..7.......3.........E..........E.................................... Products Containing Ozone-Depleting Substances .......i...
........................2...........b............................G..... Measurement of Waste ...........................................91 III...............F...... V.............c............................. 107 III.3................7....... 106 III..................4............c..d.... Scope ..7.......F...G.....H................... 91 III........... Consolidation Procedure ............... Consolidation of Eco-efficiency Indicators .............a.97 III..b..........a................ 103 III.....G...................... 103 III.............. Measurement............ Recognition of Waste ..91 III..............F.....5.........91 III.......III.......95 III.................................H.....F.. Objective .........3....... Disclosure of Waste ....H................97 III..... Accounting Treatment of Waste ....f.....................1..........3...............92 III......F.................3...........................F..........................F..........................93 III................. 107 III........ 103 III............................... 114
.....H.......4.....6... Disclosure .....c................................91 III................. 109 IV............... 108 III..... Objective .....3........ Annex to Consolidation .............F.................. VI...........99 III...H.....3.G............................ Annex I of the Basel Convention .6......... General Definition of Waste ...........95 III............2...1.4.96 III.......... Annex to Waste .F...........G......... Example of Disclosure of Waste ......3....................1..................H.b........................ Scope .... Definitions .. References ..... 109 III.. Definitions ..............3................2........F..........F..91 III...............H................96 III.. Disclosure ............................. Equity Method ... 105 III..............7........H...........5....H. Primary Issues in Consolidating Environmental Items ......7.......... Scope of Guidance ............................................................................. Definitions Based on the Quality of Waste ............ Definitions Referring to Waste Treatment Technology .....................................6........ Accounting Treatment of the Financial Items . 106 III........... Definitions Referring to Waste Generated .............. Recognition .......H.............. 108 III.F............ Proportionate Consolidation ........... 113 Authors.. 111 Steering Group.......a..........e....F................F.............F.......7........ 103 III.................................................. 108 III..... 105 III..................... Definitions Referring to the Location of Waste Treatment ...................... 105 III..... Definitions Based on the Classification of Waste .........................................96 III.3...........H..........7.. Full Consolidation .................................. 106 III...................5..............F.......7...... Annex III of the Basel Convention........G................ Objective ......F............... 101 III.......................G............................ Definition .................7................... 106 III............
.................................51 Table 22 Accounting Policy...................36 Table 8 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products OECD Countries K-U........................................................... Coal and Coal Products.......34 Table 6 Densities of Petroleum Products............................................................................................................66 Table 26 Electricity-derived CO 2-Emission Factors for Non-OECD Europe ........................51 Table 21 Energy Flows and Stocks..................................47 Table 20 Energy Requirement ........................................46 Table 19 Typical Net Caloric Values for Biomass Fuels................................................... Gas and Biomass Fuels .28 Table 3 Accounting Policy. other Africa and other Latin America ..........................44 Table 16 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries Vi-Z ........................................................................................................ Water Policy. Energy Policy................28 Table 4 Road Transportation: Guidance Values for Fuel Consumption..................27 Table 2 Water Received and its Use ...40 Table 12 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries I-Lib ....List of Figures Figure 1 Sub-Categories of Water Use ...........................52 Table 23 CO2 Emission Factors of Petroleum Products............64 Table 24 Electricity-derived CO 2-Emission Factors for Non-OECD Asia..............................................................39 Table 11 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries/Territories D-H .................43 Table 15 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries Sr-Ve ..................................35 Table 7 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products OECD Countries A-J ..........................................45 Table 18 Gross and Net Caloric Values for Gas ........................32 Table 5 Net Caloric Values for Petroleum Products ...................................................................65 Table 25 Electricity-derived CO 2-Emission Factors for Africa .37 Table 9 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries A-B ..........................................42 Table 14 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries N-So ...........................................................................................22 List of Tables Table 1 Water Consumption and Return Flow ......................................................................... Targets and Measures ........................................................................38 Table 10 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries/Territories B-C...................................................................41 Table 13 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries/Territories Lit-P .................................... Targets and Measures .45 Table 17 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products other Asia.........................67
........69 Table 30 Electricity-derived CO 2-Emission Factors for OECD Europe............................... Targets and Measures ..... 100 Table 51 Annex III of the Basel Convention List of Hazardous Characteristics Class 1-4..................................... Waste Policy.......73 Table 36 Global Warming Contribution...............................67 Table 28 Electricity-derived CO 2-Emission Factors for Non-OECD Latin America .............................................70 Table 34 Global Warming Potentials Part I .72 Table 35 Global Warming Potentials Part II................................99 Table 50 Annex I of the Basel Convention Categories of Waste to be Controlled Y30-Y45 ....... Global Warming Policy........................................................................................................................88 Table 45 A list of products containing controlled substances specified in Annex A of the Protocol ..................................................................................................98 Table 48 Accounting Policy on Waste........................86 Table 42 Controlled Substances and their Ozone Depletion Potential London Amendment to the Montreal Protocol .85 Table 41 Controlled Substances and their Ozone Depletion Potential Montreal Protocol...........................................89 Table 46 Main Sectors Using Ozone-Depleting Substances........................... Targets and Measures .............85 Table 40 Accounting Policy on ODS..................................................1-9 ............................. 102
...........................................90 Table 47 Waste Generated ...............................84 Table 39 Total Emissions of ODS ....................................70 Table 33 Electricity-derived CO 2-Emission Factors for World Regions ........Table 27 Electricity-derived CO 2-Emission Factors for Non-OECD Former USSR.......................87 Table 43 Controlled Substances and their Ozone Depletion Potential Copenhagen Amendment to the Montreal Protocol Part 1 ..70 Table 32 Electricity-derived CO 2-Emission Factors for OECD Asia-Pacific ...............................................68 Table 29 Electricity-derived CO 2-Emission Factors for Middle East ..................3 ............................................................................................ ODS Policy........................................74 Table 38 Dependency on ODS................. 101 Table 52 Annex III of the Basel Convention List of Hazardous Characteristics Class 5......................98 Table 49 Annex I of the Basel Convention Categories of Waste to be Controlled Y1-Y29 ...............................74 Table 37 Accounting Policy on Global Warming Gases.............................................................................69 Table 31 Electricity-derived CO 2-Emission Factors for North America ........ Targets and Measures ..................................87 Table 44 Controlled Substances and their Ozone Depletion Potential Copenhagen Amendment to the Montreal Protocol Part 2 ...
equivalent GWP global warming potential IAS International Accounting Standards IASB International Accounting Standards Board IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ISAR Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting ODS ozone-depleting potential OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development UN United Nations UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNEP United Nations Environment Programme WBCSD World Business Council for Sustainable Development
Box 1. recognize. Accounting and Financial Reporting for Environmental Costs and Liabilities (1999) and Integrating Environmental and Financial Performance at the Enterprise Level (2000). The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) describes how eco-efficiency is achieved: "Eco-efficiency is reached by the delivery of competitively priced goods and services that satisfy human needs and bring quality of life. The aim of environmentally sound management is to increase eco-efficiency by reducing the environmental impact while increasing the value of an enterprise (Schaltegger/Sturm 1989).
The purpose of the manual is threefold: (a) To give guidance on how to define. The main objective is to describe the method that enterprises can use to provide information on environmental performance vis-à-vis financial performance in a systematic and consistent manner over periods of time.
The term and concept of eco-efficiency was developed in the late 1980s. To improve and harmonize the methods used so that enterprises are able to report eco-efficiency indicators in a standardized format so that they are meaningful to decision makers and can be compared across enterprises.
This manual is a guide for users and preparers of eco-efficiency indicators1 (see Box 1). (WBCSD 1996) An eco-efficiency indicator is the ratio between an environmental and a financial variable. It measures the environmental performance of an enterprise with respect to its financial performance. measure and disclose environmental and financial information as specified within the traditional accounting and reporting frameworks (Box 2). The problem with constructing eco-efficiency indicators is that there are no agreed rules or standards for recognition.I. Most importantly. there are no rules for consolidating environmental information for an enterprise or for a group of enterprises so that it can be used together and in line with the enterprise’s financial items.
2. measurement and disclosure of environmental information either within the same industry or across industries.
INTRODUCTION I. while progressively reducing ecological impacts and resource intensity…" The WBCSD includes a clear target level: An eco-efficient state is reached when economic activities are at a level "…at least in line with the earth’s estimated carrying capacity". The Concept of Eco-efficiency
Investors increasingly require that companies pursue eco-efficient strategies that reduce the damage caused to the environment while increasing or at least not decreasing (shareholder) value. It was first described in a scientific publication back in 1989 (see Schaltegger/Sturm 1989). This manual complements two previous UN reports and should be seen as a series. Overview
measurement and disclosure of environmental transactions and variables. Managers are encouraged to include additional eco-efficiency indicators in their disclosure as they become relevant and material to understanding and evaluating an enterprise's performance in its sector. A reporting framework — such as the Sustainability Reporting Guidelines of the Global Reporting initiative (GRI 2001) — provides additional guidance on the issues to be reported. the manual presents the accounting treatment of the financial item used for constructing eco-
6. In particular the framework draws directly from the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) framework (IASB 2002) and is adapted to report environmental performance vis-à-vis financial performance of the reporting entity. They were chosen by ISAR because they address worldwide problems as reflected in international agreements or protocols. It covers issues of recognition.
7. income statement and cash flow statement). eco-efficiency
4. It also suggests the issues to be reported and the format and structure of disclosure. the manual follows the logic of the widely accepted International Accounting Standards (IAS). Accounting and Reporting Framework
An accounting framework describes an interrelated system that consists of different financial statements (such as a balance sheet.
Box 2. Waste.
These indicators represent a basic set upon which an enterprise could or should report. the structure and the format of the report.g. Energy use. This manual will enable enterprises to report their performance for the five generic environmental issues below: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Water use.
As an attempt to harmonize the provision of eco-efficiency information across the globe. The above list is basically open-ended and should be adapted whenever new environmental issues evolve and/or existing environmental problems are reassessed in the light of new scientific and/or social knowledge. Ozone depleting substances. the UN Sustainability Reporting Guidelines developed by the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)). In addition to the above environmental issues. measurement and disclosure of information. Hence they are generic rather than sector-specific indicators.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
To complement and support existing reporting guidelines (e. This manual therefore covers the technical issues of recognition.
. Global warming contribution. Furthermore they can be used by all enterprises across all sectors.
12. irrespective of agreement by the parties involved. paragraphs 39-42). Benchmarking. the more costly it is. Users must be able to compare the eco-efficiency statements of an enterprise over time so that they can identify trends in its eco-efficiency position and performance. it will not be applied.3 Acceptance can be gained by integrating the views and values of all important target groups.Introduction
efficiency indicators. The basic objective of financial accounting is to provide information that is useful to a wide range of users in making economic decisions. Users must also be able to compare the eco-efficiency statements of different enterprises. All involved parties should therefore agree on the degree of
A standard.1. 8. can also be mandated by the accounting standard-setting bodies or other regulators and would then have to be applied.
11. If there is to be consensus on a framework. paragraphs 12 and 14). Rationale for an Accounting Framework for Eco-efficiency Reporting
This section aims to demonstrate the necessity and usefulness of a conceptual framework for eco-efficiency reporting by discussing some issues and frequently asked questions. A secondary objective is to show the results of the stewardship of management or the accountability of management for the resources entrusted to it (IASB Framework. The basic objective of ISAR in developing guidelines and manuals for ecoefficiency indicators is to provide information that is useful to a wide range of users in making decisions and for the accountability of management for resources entrusted to it. If these groups do not accept a guideline or standard. Assessing the impact of changes in the product line of an enterprise.2. Objectives 10. on the other hand. The most essential aspect of a guideline is its acceptance by the main stakeholder groups involved.
14. Consensus and Quality of Information 13. 9. It deals with issues of consolidation of financial and environmental data for the enterprise as a whole. it must attain a certain level of quality. This guidance can serve as a management tool for the following: (a) (b) (c) I. But quality has its price – the higher the quality of information. Disclosure of accounting policies is essential for comparability (IASB Framework.
I. Assessing acquisitions and divestments.
Often it is argued that information about special issues should be suppressed. Qualitative characteristics are important because they also address the requirements of users. the data have to be derived from the same reporting entity and not different subsets of that entity. Qualitative characteristics clearly stipulate the duty of users to understand and to undertake efforts to understand information even if it might be complex. energy requirement per unit of value added provides a good indication of the impact of an energy tax on an enterprise. Accordingly. reliability and comparability (see II. the financial accounting
. The four main qualitative characteristics are understandability. and eco-efficiency indicators thus use data from both environmental and financial accounting systems. while others do not.3. Duty of Users 16. investors and financial analysts) can be improved by linking environmental and financial items. The description and definition of the degree of quality is an integral part of the conceptual accounting framework. A general framework improves the quality and consistency of ecoefficiency statements considerably. Where appropriate. For instance. relevance. Financial Accounting Framework as a Starting Point 18.F. This issue will be discussed further in the consolidation section. industry.and region-specific environmental aspects and issues need to be considered.5).
17. Since a conceptual framework and standards have been developed on an international level for financial accounting. Consequently.B. More explicitly.
I. the applied conceptual frameworks for ecological and financial accounting have to be comparable if environmental and financial data are to be combined to produce eco-efficiency indicators. qualitative characteristics balance the requirements of users and preparers in such a way as to be cost effective (see II. some disclose such information. Thus. The general framework also provides guidance when periodically reviewing existing and newly developed guidelines.B. Since the main objective of financial accounting is to improve the quality of decision making. 15. The characteristics that make information useful to users are termed qualitative characteristics.F). Accounting for eco-efficiency should benefit from the experience of financial accounting and not reinvent the wheel. either because no user would be able to understand it correctly or because it would be too voluminous to describe.4.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
quality the required information should have.
I. There are several reasons for this: (a) Eco-efficiency indicators link environmental and financial items. The quality of decision-making (by enterprise directors. it is proposed to use these as a starting point for eco-efficiency accounting.
framework can serve as a valuable starting point in formulating the respective systems for environmental elements and items.
II.1.g.or region-specific indicators) and in the review of existing guidelines on eco-efficiency indicators. measurement and disclosure of eco-efficiency information related to events and activities of an enterprise with a view to promoting comparability between reporting organizations. Such information is prepared and presented annually and directed towards the common information needs of a wide range of users (see IASB Framework. This framework will follow a similar approach in reporting financial information as specified by International Accounting Standards. Scope 23. Elements and items of an eco-efficiency statement.
CONCEPTUAL ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING FRAMEWORK FOR ECOEFFICIENCY REPORTING II.A. The objectives of eco-efficiency indicators.
This section introduces a conceptual accounting and reporting framework (framework) for eco-efficiency reporting. The definition.II. However eco-efficiency indicators will provide a useful basis for benchmarking.
The framework is concerned with environmental and related financial information on the eco-efficiency of an enterprise. paragraph 6).2.
. additional industry. recognition. Introduction to the Framework
19. The Accounting Framework for Eco-efficiency
21. recognition and measurement of environmental and financial items used in eco-efficiency accounting and reporting. The framework deals with: (a) (b) (c) (d) 24.B. II. Qualitative characteristics that determine the usefulness of ecoefficiency indicators. Purpose and Status 20.B.B. The purpose of this conceptual framework for eco-efficiency reporting is to improve and harmonize the methods used for definition. This framework does not provide standards for eco-performance. This conceptual framework also provides guidance in the development of future eco-efficiency indicators (e.
B. suppliers' customers. Two main shortcomings are mentioned in the 1983 version of the framework of the International Accounting Standards Committee (the predecessor of the International Accounting Standards Board IASB): ". Eco-efficiency data can also be used to forecast the impact of current and upcoming environmental issues on future financial performance. Improve Decision-Making 29.
. paragraph 9).A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Although financial statements support the quality of decision-making. employees. II.3. lenders. the public sector and non-profit organizations can also use the framework. Provide Information 28.
This framework was developed primarily for business organizations to provide information on the eco-efficiency of their enterprises. Most users have to rely on environmental and financial items as their major source of environmental information.
II. Empirical evidence suggests that there is a strong link between eco-efficiency and future cash generation. 4 The information is useful to a wide range of users in making economically and environmentally sound decisions and in evaluating the impact of their decisions. other trade creditors. Complement Financial Statements 30. Eco-efficiency information complements financial statements in order to enhance the quality of decision-making. The users of eco-efficiency indicators include present and potential investors.C. Such information is also necessary for the accountability of management for the use of natural resources entrusted to it (see IASB Framework.C.
II. paragraph 6). paragraphs 12 and 14).. standard-setters are well aware that financial statements are not sufficient. Users and Their Information Needs 26.
II. Objectives of Eco-efficiency Indicators
27. financial statements do not provide all the information that users may need to make economic decisions since they largely portray the financial effects of past events and do not necessarily provide non-financial information" (IASB Framework.2.
II. However.3. and the general public (see IASB Framework. and such information should therefore be prepared and presented with their needs in view (see IASB Framework..C. Governments and their agencies.1.C. paragraph 13). The objective of eco-efficiency reporting is to provide information on the environmental performance of an enterprise with respect to its financial performance (financial performance/environmental performance).
). indicators use a reference item to exclude effects of quantitative changes in activities and to make them comparable. The following definitions refer to the hierarchy of information within an ecoefficiency statement: (a) Element Elements are the broad areas or groupings of financial and/or environmental issues of concern to stakeholders (e. a type of waste. we prefer to stick to the terms and concepts already in use in international accounting standards.
. As we do not see any reason to change accepted terminology. waste. Elements and Items of an Eco-efficiency Statement
Information about environmental performance vis-à-vis financial performance is useful in determining the ability of an enterprise to adapt to changes in the environment in which it operates. equity. II.D. a specific greenhouse gas. sales.e. As we do not see any reason to change accepted terminology.Conceptual Accounting and Reporting Framework for Eco-efficiency Reporting
31. we prefer to stick to the terms and concepts already in use in international accounting standards. etc. income and expense. examples include "per tonne". an energy source used. Note: The Global Reporting Imitative (GRI 2001) uses the term "aspect".5 Item An item or a group of items is information that is related to a specific element (e. cost of goods and services purchased). "per unit of net value added" or "per unit of sales". assets. A given element may have several items or a group of items.
Eco-efficiency statements portray environmental and financial effects of transactions and activities by grouping these effects into broader classes according to their environmental and financial characteristics. 6 Indicator An indicator is a specific measurement of an individual element that is used to track and demonstrate performance related to the element via recognition and measurement of items.g. eco-efficiency indicators are set in relation to a financial item.
Note: The Global Reporting Imitative (GRI 2001) uses the term "category". indicators are ratios composed of an environmental item divided by a financial item.
33. A given element may have several indicators based on different items. As per definition. energy requirement. global warming contribution. liabilities.g. To normalize a dynamic development over time.
This recommendation is based on the identified environmental problems presented in the UNCTAD conceptual paper (UNCTAD 2001). it is recommended to use this framework.or region-specific environmental elements and associated guidance.1. Water use. the definition of the reporting entity for both these items must be congruent.E. Global warming contribution. while financial information means any data on an item that relates to assets. liabilities. the same concepts and criteria used in financial accounting and reporting will be applied when defining the reporting entity for the recognition and measurement of environmental elements and items and the disclosure of such information.
35. net value added).
. II. For the purpose of this manual.
Enterprises are encouraged to define industry. and (4) the environmental problem measured by the indicator must have an impact on the financial performance of an enterprise. Reporting Entity and the Principle of Congruity 37. (2) the environmental indicator must be applicable to all industries across all sectors.g. Env ironmental information is measured in physical units. equity.g. in other words they must represent the same activities of the same entity. activities and legal entities are included or excluded and how and to what extent this is done.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
34. environmental information means any data on an item that relates to one of the above environmental elements. energy use) in relation to a financial item (e.
38. as a starting point for the development of any additional guidance. Underlying Assumptions
36. The criteria for the selection were: (1) the environmental indicator must address a worldwide environmental problem.
39. An eco-efficiency statement will clearly define the reporting entity in terms of which sites.
II. Contribution to ozone depletion. (3) the environmental indicator must link an environmental problem at the macro level to activities of an enterprise at the micro level. income and/or expenses.
This framework and the accompanying guidance recommend 7 that all enterprises report their eco-efficiency at least with respect to the following environmental elements: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Energy use. See also Sturm/Müller 2001. including the guidance for the above elements.E. Waste. As eco-efficiency indicators set an environmental item (e. while financial information is measured in monetary units. When doing so. For the purpose of eco-efficiency statements.
or downstream in the value chain. the basis used should be disclosed (see IASB Framework. Reportable resource uses.2. If this is done the enterprise will expand the boundaries in terms of environmental data and in terms of financial data to maintain congruity (see Box 3). environmental impacts.
. Ideally. Hence they provide information that is useful to users to make informed economic and environmental decisions. which expands the definition of the reporting entity up. Reporting Scope 41. the eco-efficiency data may have to be prepared on a different basis and. The published report should also include the management’s assessment of the consequences of moving towards modes of production and/or service delivery compatible with sustainability (GRI 2001).3. Going Concern 44. emissions.
46. An eco-efficiency statement will make clear the scope of activities reported and provide explanations for any restrictions in reporting scope. If the enterprise either intends or needs to liquidate or curtail materially the scale of its operations. if so.Conceptual Accounting and Reporting Framework for Eco-efficiency Reporting
40. Accrual Basis 42.
43. a reporting entity will cover the impacts of its activities on at least the five environmental elements set out in paragraph 34. Eco-efficiency indicators prepared on an accrual basis inform users not only of past environmental performance vis-à-vis financial performance but also of the potential impact that a change in environmental legislation has on an enterprise's future cash flows.
It is up to the reporting entity to include additional information.
II. paragraph 22). The published data should reflect the assumption that the reporting entity is expected to continue operations into the foreseeable future.4. events and activities will be recognized when they occur and will be recorded and reported in the periods to which they relate (see IASB Framework.
II.E. paragraph 23). 45.
To avoid these problems with sales as a reference figure and to arrive at a consistent eco-efficiency indicator. 47.they do not cover the same activities . meaning that the reporting entity should include processes up. if the environmental item includes activities up. if an enterprise chooses sales as a reference figure. This in turn makes it possible to restrict the environmental data to the reporting entities’ own resource consumption. These approaches illustrate that including up. it must be aware that its own sales also include part of the sales of its suppliers. products and services on a regular basis. the financial item used as a reference figure also covers these activities. Relevance. that is they must match the transactions of the same entities included in a consolidated financial statement. Life-cycle approaches provide highly valuable information but are too costly and impractical to use on larger entities with many activities.F. paragraph 24). a company must deduct the cost of goods and services purchased from its sales figures. and Comparability (see IAS framework. That way the financial figure represents economic activities of the reporting entity only.
Qualitative characteristics are attributes that make the information provided in eco-efficiency statements useful to users. 48. The scope and the objective of life-cycle approaches are to analyse specific products and to optimize these products throughout the value chain. it means that the expansion has to be done for all the company’s activities. It follows the approach used in financial accounting. The four principal qualitative characteristics are (a) (b) (c) (d) Understandability. Reliability. then the relevant environmental information of the suppliers linked to the reporting entities’ purchases must also be included. Otherwise the two items are not congruent .and/or downstream. Especially in the case of an annual company report. emissions or waste production.
II. since environmental and financial data must be consistent. On the other hand. products and services and therefore for all of its suppliers and customers as well.and therefore the eco-efficiency figure is inconsistent and the information worthless. what the company calls purchase cost is sales from the supplier’s perspective. Consequently if sales are used as a reference item and the environmental item should cover the same activities. This is clearly not the intent of an annual report.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Box 3. This framework and guidance clearly takes a different stand on this aspect. which describes the eco-efficiency of an enterprise. Principle of Congruity and the Life-Cycle Approach
Most environmental accounting and reporting guidelines developed by environmentalists and economists take a so-called life-cycle approach. the Guideline on Sustainability Reporting published by the Global Reporting Initiative). it must make sure that.g. If an enterprise expands its eco-efficiency reporting to include the life cycle of its products and services.
.and downstream information is highly impractical.and downstream in the value chain (e.
1.F. paragraph 27). However. Relevance and Materiality 52. materiality provides a threshold or cut-off point rather than being a primary qualitative characteristic that information must have if it is to be useful (see IASB Framework.
The predictive and confirmatory roles of eco-efficiency information are interrelated. information about complex environmental matters which is relevant to the decision-making needs of users should be included and not excluded merely on the grounds that it may be too difficult for certain users to understand (see IASB Framework paragraph 25). paragraph 26). for example.3. Information is material if its omission or misstatement could influence the decisions of users taken on the basis of eco-efficiency statements.2. The relevance of eco-efficiency information is affected by its nature and materiality (see IAS framework. environmental objectives and targets (see IASB Framework. paragraph 26). For this purpose.
II. Eco-efficiency information has the quality of reliability when it is free from material error and bias and can be depended upon by users to represent faithfully what it either purports to represent or could reasonably be expected to represent (see IASB Framework.
II. By helping them evaluate past. Or by confirming or correcting their past evaluations (see IASB Framework. Information must be understandable to users. information about the current level and structure of environmental performance has value to users when they endeavour to predict the ability of an enterprise to take advantage of opportunities and its ability to react in adverse situations. users are assumed to have reasonable knowledge of business environmental issues and accounting and a willingness to study the information with reasonable diligence. Reliability 55. paragraph 30). Understandability 50. paragraph 46).
The application of these four qualitative characteristics normally results in eco-efficiency information that conveys a true and fair view of the ecoefficiency performance of an enterprise (see IASB Framework. The same information plays a confirmatory role in respect of past predictions about. paragraph 31). Eco-efficiency information is relevant when it influences the decisions of users in the following manner: (a) (b) 53.
. Materiality depends on the size of the item or error judged in the particular circumstances of its omission or misstatement.F.Conceptual Accounting and Reporting Framework for Eco-efficiency Reporting
49. present or future events (see IASB Framework.
51. paragraph 29). Thus. For example.
For example. these emissions have to be accounted for (see IASB Framework.
. Such uncertainties are recognized by disclosing their nature and extent and by exercising prudence in the preparation of the ecoefficiency information (see IASB Framework. that is free from bias. paragraph 35). Ecoefficiency information is not neutral if. however. Comparability implies that users must be informed of the policies and methodologies employed in the preparation of eco-efficiency information.
59. by the selection or presentation of information. The substance of activities or other events is not always consistent with what is apparent from their legal or contrived form. Because users wish to compare the eco-efficiency information over time.
60. Eco-efficiency information must be neutral. paragraph 39 and 42). it is necessary that activities and other events are accounted for and presented in accordance with their substance and environmental reality and not according to their legal form. eco-efficiency information must represent faithfully the activities and other events of the reporting entity.
62. Thus. Comparability 61. Users must be able to compare the eco-efficiency information of an enterprise over time in order to identify trends in its eco-efficiency performance. the aggregated emissions of global warming gases should represent faithfully the contribution of the reported activities/transactions of an enterprise to the problem of global warming (see IASB Framework. For eco-efficiency information to be reliable.4. Users must also be able to compare the eco-efficiency information of different enterprises in order to evaluate their relative ecoefficiency performance (benchmarking). Hence. any changes in these policies/methodologies.F. it influences a decision or judgement in order to achieve a predetermined result or outcome (see IASB Framework. paragraph 36). paragraph 33). paragraph 37). This is known as the "substance over form" principle. it is important that the eco-efficiency information show consistent information for the preceding periods (see IASB Framework. and the effects of such changes.
II. paragraph 38). for example. For eco-efficiency information to be reliable. an enterprise may report very low global warming emissions based on the substances listed under the Kyoto protocol but emit major amounts of other non-listed global warming gases. have to contend with the uncertainties that inevitably surround many events and circumstances. The preparers of eco-efficiency information do. the measurement and display of the environmental effect of like activities and other events must be carried out in a consistent way throughout an enterprise and over time for that enterprise and in a consistent way for different enterprises.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
56. The eco-efficiency information must be complete within the bounds of materiality and cost.
To be reliable. An omission can cause information to be false or misleading and thus unreliable and deficient in terms of its relevance (see IASB Framework.
To provide information on a timely basis it may often be necessary to report before all aspects of a transaction or other event are known.
67. Thus. the costs do not necessarily fall on those users who enjoy the benefits (see IASB. It is also inappropriate for an enterprise to leave its reporting policies unchanged when more relevant and reliable alternatives exist. 63. paragraph 41). Conversely. paragraph 40). In achieving a balance between relevance and reliability. As there are trade-offs between different qualitative characteristics it is often necessary to balance the four qualitative characteristics. Furthermore.Conceptual Accounting and Reporting Framework for Eco-efficiency Reporting
Users need to be able to identify differences between the policies and methodologies for like activities and other events used by the same enterprise from period to period and by different enterprises (see IASB Framework. the information may be highly reliable but of little use to users who have to make decisions in the interim. in the interest of both users and the enterprise. It is inappropriate for an enterprise to continue reporting in the same manner on a transaction or other event if the policy adopted is not in keeping with the qualitative characteristics of relevance and reliability. the need for comparability should not be confused with absolute uniformity (see IASB Framework. however. if reporting is delayed until all aspects are known.
64. An enterprise has. thus impairing reliability. Framework paragraph 44). The evaluation of benefits and costs is. substantially a judgemental process. Preparers may need to balance the relative merits of timely reporting and the provision of reliable information. Balancing Qualitative Characteristics 65. Framework paragraph 45). the aim is to achieve an appropriate balance among the characteristics in order to meet the objectives of eco-efficiency reporting. The benefits derived from information should exceed the cost of providing it. when new scientific knowledge is developed which leads to a change in methodology applied to environmental information. Comparability implies that. the overriding consideration is how best to satisfy the decision-making needs of users (see IASB Framework. But it could also be any defined base year.F.5. to balance benefit and cost. paragraph 43). the year used for comparison (which is normally the last year) should be recalculated.
. this should lead to a re-evaluation and recalculation of ecoefficiency information disclosed in the past (assuming that past values are available).
66. The relative importance of the characteristics in different cases is a matter of professional judgement (see IASB. As a minimum. for example. Generally. from which data is recalculated.
71. It involves the depiction of the item in words and by an amount in physical or monetary units (see IASB Framework. Measurement 72. paragraph 86). the item is not recognized. however. performance and changes in the eco-efficiency position of an enterprise. An item can be incorporated if the item has a value that can be measured in physical or monetary units with reliability. such information. 73. or as presenting fairly. II. calculations and estimations are employed to different degrees and in varying combinations: (a) Metered value A metered (or gauged) value is a value that is scaled by means of a balance or other instrument.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
II. the use of reasonable estimates is an essential part of the preparation of eco-efficiency information and does not undermine their reliability. paragraph 82). This is appropriate when knowledge of the item is considered to be relevant to the evaluation of the eco-efficiency position. Estimated value An estimated value is a value based on common practice and applied technology. Recognition 69.6. When. Eco-efficiency statements can be seen as presenting fairly the eco-efficiency position. this should be disclosed. a value must be estimated.G.F. In many cases.1. The application of the principal qualitative characteristics and of appropriate guidelines normally results in eco-efficiency statements that convey what is generally understood as a true and fair view of.
II. True and Fair View/Fair Presentation 68. Recognition and Measurement of Items
70. II. where an average level of technology is assumed.G. performance and changes in position of an enterprise by the users of eco-efficiency statements (see IASB Framework. paragraph 88). a reasonable estimate cannot be made.2. A number of different measurements. Measurement is the process of determining the physical or monetary value at which an item is to be recognized.G. Recognition is the process of incorporating an environmental or financial item that satisfies the criteria for recognition set out in paragraph 70.
. If other levels of technology are used for the estimate. Where relevant it should be disclosed (see IASB Framework.
and in 2001 it used 1.Conceptual Accounting and Reporting Framework for Eco-efficiency Reporting
Calculated value A calculated value is based on (user-) defined algorithms.g. Reference value A reference value is a value used to normalize a dynamic development. the normalized eco-efficiency figure for both years is equal.100 m3. results for different entities with different levels of activities and dynamics are transformed into the same unit.
Example: In the year 2000 company A used 1. estimated) and/or defined conversion factors. Empirical value An empirical value is a value based on empirical studies/research and scientific evidence. we need to divide the water use by a figure that represents the level of activity. metered. Through normalization.
.000 m3 water. The inputs into the calculation are values of different quality levels (e.8 Conversion factor A conversion factor is a consensus value based on generally accepted scientific standards. another value added. so they become comparable. One possibility is sales. concepts or models. To judge the eco-efficiency of that company. Assuming sales were 100 in the year 2000 and 110 in 2001.
The manual describes the following financial items and issues relevant for eco-efficiency indicators: (a) (b) Value added and net value-added. Waste (III.E). Waste generated per unit of net value added. recognizing. The above list is basically open-ended and should be adapted whenever new environmental issues evolve and/or existing environmental problems are reassessed by new scientific and/or social knowledge.
78. purchased goods and services (III.C). 77.
. Water use (I. Companies are encouraged to develop additional indicators (e. The list can also be expanded to cover the particular industry sector.g.
The manual contains a methodology for calculating. Energy requirement per unit of net value added. Global warming contribution per unit of net value added. revenue. Ozone-depleting substances (III. siteor company-specific) using the framework and the included guidelines as guidance. General Scope 74.
III.III.G) Consolidation (I.A). Global warming contribution (III. Dependency on ozone-depleting substances per unit of net value added.D).A.
All figures refer to a calendar year. region-. Energy use (III. measuring and disclosing the following five indicators: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Water consumption per net value added.F). It would be more appropriate for industry associations to specify sector-specific indicators because they are best positioned to obtain industry consensus.A)
76. This manual assesses the impacts of the following environmental variables: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 75.
III. According to the scope of this guidance (see III.org).b.3.B.1. Objective
The objective of this manual is to describe a methodology for the accounting 9 treatment of water use. This guidance is not intended for companies in the public water supply sector.
This methodology should be applied by all enterprises in accounting for all types of water used by them as defined in section III. paragraph 81) this category covers water that is withdrawn by the reporting entity itself but does not cover withdrawal by public water suppliers.
. An enterprise is a water supplier when the rationale for the activities of the company is to distribute water to users. Water received is any input of freshwater into the reporting entity. deliveries or conveyance gains. internal reporting.
III. and use of materials and energy flow information. Public water supply refers to water withdrawn by public and private water suppliers. estimation.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
III. which is linked with ordinary and extraordinary activities of the reporting entity: (a) Withdrawal Withdrawal is the quantity of water (i) removed from a ground water source or (ii) diverted from a surface water source for the reporting entities’ use.2. Water Received and its Source 84.
Traditionally "accounting" has a financial connotation. Accounting Treatment of Water Use III.B. and other cost information for both conventional and environmental decision-making within an organization (Source: www. According to the US EPA Environmental Accounting Project.B. 81.3.3.B. General 83.
The following terms are used in this methodology. Environmental Management Accounting (EMA) can be defined as the identification. 80.a. environmental cost information. Figure 1 provides an overview of the categories and subcategories of water use.EMAwebsite.B.B. collection. 82. In recent years the term "accounting" has also been applied to non-financial environmental aspects of management.2. analysis. be it withdrawals.3. 79.
waste assimilation. current knowledge does not allow for a quantitative inclusion of these flows into an eco-efficiency statement.c. fish and shrimp farming. from a surfaceor ground water source. paragraph 106(b)). deliveries. commercial and industrial use. Withdrawals.
III. biodiversity.d.c.B.B. and the collection. livestock and other animals.3.(vii). wetlands preservation. freshwater dilution of saline estuaries.(ii). Kinds of Water Use 85. (a) Off-stream water use Off-stream use involves the withdrawal or diversion of water from a source. hydroelectric power generation.(vii)) In-stream water use In-stream use is water that is used. see III. fish and shrimp farming. for example. transportation. 10 Commercial in-stream water use activities include. Water use is divided into off-stream use and in-stream use.3. distribution and use. treatment and release of wastewater and return flow.3. (b) ecological needs include fish and wildlife preservation.
In-stream uses can be broadly characterized as streamflows to meet human needs and streamflows to meet ecological needs: (a) human needs include recreation.(i) – III. Conveyance gains Conveyance is the systematic and intentional movement or transfer of water from one point to another. transportation.3.B. water used for irrigation.c.B. enterprises are advised to disclose qualitative information on in-stream water use for the time being. and cultural resource preservation. Although in-stream water use is an important aspect of water preservation. but not withdrawn. paragraph 100). and maintenance of the riparian zone. Off-stream water use covers the following: domestic.Guidelines
Delivery Deliveries are the quantity of water delivered to the reporting entity by a public water supplier. aesthetics. mining and power generation (see III. its treatment.c.3. Conveyance gains may occur through infiltration and inflow (conveyance losses may occur through evaporation from an open system or seepage.
.B. hydroelectric power generation. With the exception of in-stream water use for hydroelectric power generation (turbine water. see III. releases and return flows are the endpoints of conveyances.
Domestic water-use activities include withdrawals from ground and surface water. deliveries from public water suppliers.B.g.
In the case of the tourism industry.3.3.
Domestic Water Use
Water use is considered to be domestic under the following circumstances: (a) (b) The use takes place in and on property owned by the reporting entity. The water is used for purposes such as drinking. washing dishes and clothes. usually through septic systems. car washing. water use by customers is considered commercial water use (see III. usually during outdoor use.c. student accommodation on campus. flushing toilets. releases into surface water.B. The water is used by employees/members of the organization or their families during non-working hours (e. etc. food preparation.
.c. and watering lawns and gardens.(i) 86. but also through washing and cooking. bathing.(ii)). consumptive use in the form of evaporation. company-owned restaurant or housing).A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Figure 1 Sub-Categories of Water Use
source of water kind of use kind of release without treatment water withdrawal domestic release of wastewater commercial without treatment conveyance loss irrigation livestock & other animals mining conveyance gain instream water power generation incorporated into products and crops consumption by humans and livestock evaporation (and transpiration) cooling water released to a small water body cooling water released to a significant water body return flow with on-site treatment public wastewater collection system surface water. 11
87. ground water or soil
water received water delivered
turbine water for hydroelectric power generation
III. ground water or wastewater-collection systems.
and drying. washing floors and other surfaces.(iii) 90. washing. for example. leisure parks and ski resorts and for transportation .B.3. ground water or surface water. but also from wash water and food preparation.(iv). pools and laundries. slurry conveyance. 14 Water used in smelting and refining of minerals is considered as industrial use.
III. consumptive use through evaporation and product incorporation (as in a bottling plant). 93.
III. water used as process and production water and boiler feed and for air conditioning.c. fountains and watering lawns. water and wastewater treatment.
Commercial Water Use
Commercial water use includes water used by commercial facilities . Off-stream fish hatcheries engaged in hatching fish for release to public lakes and streams for fishing are also classified as commercial use. recycling.B. releases to ground water and surface water.such as hotels. air-conditioning.(iv) 92.Guidelines
III. mining of minerals. deliveries of reclaimed wastewater. releases to wastewater collection systems. sanitation.(ii) 88.
Mining water use includes water used for the extraction and on-site processing of minerals. III. and releases to ground and surface water. Industrial Water Use
89. motels. office buildings. Water use activities in mining include: withdrawals from ground and surface water. deliveries from water suppliers.
Industrial water use includes water used to manufacture products such as steel. consumptive use in the form of evaporation. It includes. cooling. deliveries from public water suppliers. which are included in separate categories (see III.3. and natural gas. 13 Industrial water use does not include water used for power generation for sale to third parties.3. transport of materials.c. tailings disposal.3. cooling.c. restaurants. or the extraction of crude petroleum and gases. chemical and paper. and steam generation for internal use.(vii)). hospitals and educational institutions. retail stores. Water Use for Mining
91. deliveries from water suppliers. snow and ice making. usually during outdoor use.B. for example. petroleum. coal. Industrial water-use activities include water withdrawal from ground and surface water.B. Industrial water use includes.as well as by non-commercial entities such as government and military facilities.
Commercial water-use activities include withdrawals from ground or surface water. wastewater treatment. toilet flushing.3.B. 12 Water used for off-stream fish and shrimp farming is considered commercial water use.c.
. water for food preparation.c. and dewatering. release into wastewater-collection systems. consumptive use as evaporation and product incorporation during dust control. including ores. as well as water used in refining petroleum and metals.
B. consumptive use through evaporation and product incorporation (in plants and releases to ground and surface water). It also includes evaporation from stock ponds and incidental water losses.
Water use for livestock and other animals includes water used to raise cattle. which is considered commercial offstream water use (see paragraph 89). It excludes water used for fish and shrimp farming. The water used for hydroelectric power generation which drives the turbine generators and is returned to the stream or is recycled is considered return flow and not consumptive use. hogs. biomass.(ii).3.B.B.
Water-use activities in irrigation include: water withdrawal from ground and surface water.B. 15 Watering of lawns and gardens is considered domestic or commercial water use.
100. cleaning and waste-disposal systems.
The thermoelectric power generation category includes water used in the generation of electric power when the following fuel types are used: fossil.B. a major river or a lake at a temperature not significantly higher than the water body (see III. llamas.c.d. water used by the animals for drinking.3. nuclear. horses in captivity and others. waste.
Water Use for Irrigation
Water use for irrigation includes water used in agricultural activities for irrigation purposes. 16 Under this category.(vi) 96.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
III. deliveries from water suppliers.d).c. goats.3. poultry.3. In general the release of cooling water is considered consumptive use (see III. The hydroelectric power generation category includes water used in the generation of electric power by utilising either cascading water or water pressure. cooling of an animal or a product and processing animal products are included.(vii) Generation 98. consumptive use in the form of evaporation and incorporation into the animal and animal products. Water Use for Thermoelectric and Hydroelectric Power
. 95. and releases of wastewater. Water-use activities in the livestock and animal specialties categories include withdrawals from ground or surface water. dairy sanitation.c.(v) 94. It is not considered consumptive use if the release is discharged into a significant water body such as an ocean. 101. Cooling water used for thermoelectric power generation in the condenser to cool the steam back into water is discharged as return flow or is recycled through cooling ponds or towers.3. Water Use for Livestock and other Animals
III. or geothermal energy. sheep. deliveries from public water suppliers. paragraph 105). such as milk.
(iii) Release of wastewater to surface water. This category includes: (i) Release of wastewater into public wastewater collection systems after use by the reporting entity. Return flow is the quantity of water that is discharged after use to surface water.d.B.B.d. It includes water that evaporates.3.g. washing of stacks. ground water or soil so that it becomes available for immediate 17 reuse. 106.3.B. (ii) Release of wastewater into public wastewater collection systems after use and on-site treatment by the reporting entity. or otherwise removed from the immediate water environment. Water that is returned to the soil to percolate downwards to a deep water table with the intention of making it available again is considered consumptive use.(ii)
105.d. is incorporated into products or crops.
The criterion used here is "immediate" to differentiate between consumption and return flow. blowdown (purging) of boilers. which draws a questionable line between consumption and return flow. It also includes waste water that is released to the public waste water collection system.3. III. Return flow is either (a) (b) Off-stream cooling water released to a significant surface/ground water body or In-stream use of water to drive a turbine to produce hydroelectricity. although it is available for future (but not for immediate) consumption.Guidelines
102. water is degraded in quality). It includes: (a) Release of waste water This is the quantity of water released after use or treatment by the reporting entity.(i) Return flow
103. Releases of Water III. 104. and in nuclear plants. water and wastewater treatment. ground water or soil after use by the reporting entity. to surface or ground water bodies or to the soil18 and that is not available for immediate consumption (e. transpires. is consumed by humans or livestock.
. Water Consumption
III. Water consumed is that amount of water received that is not available for immediate reuse/consumption. Make up water to replace the water lost as steam. Water consumption is the difference between water received and off-stream return flow (see Figure 1). to keep the nuclear fuel from overheating and melting is considered consumptive use. As all water released becomes available for reuse sooner or later immediate is the only criterion. plant and employee sanitation.
B. Conveyance losses (see III.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
(b) (c) (d) (e) (f)
(iv) Release of wastewater to surface water. Recognition
. which are not used as reserves (e. 112.
107. Qualitative information on the wastewater treatment technology applied on-site and in the public wastewater system. cubic metres). The accounting policies adopted on water use. Total water consumption. If water is temporarily stored on-site the stock should be recognized at the beginning and at the end of the reporting period. the amount per source and use category as recognized during the accounting period and the respective amounts of the previous year. III. Water use should be metered. Measurement of Water Use
110. water in tubes. Disclosure
114.g.B. An enterprise should disclose: (a) (b) (c) The eco-efficiency indicator "water consumption per net value added". Water use as defined by III. Cooling water that is not released to a significant water body (see III. The total amount of water received. 111. If an amount of water used is estimated or calculated the range of uncertainty should be recorded.5. paragraph 84(c)).).4.B. 113.3. This excludes water in closed systems.c. small boilers used to catch an overshoot of water. Water use should be reported according to volume (litres. Water use should be measured in litres or cubic metres.B.3 should be recognized in the period in which the flow occurs.6. Water incorporated into products and crops. III. The item "water consumption" is used for the calculation of the eco-efficiency indicator "water consumption per net value added" (see paragraph 76(a)).b. 109. ground water or soil after use and on-site treatment by the reporting entity. etc. Water consumed by humans and livestock (drinking). the total return flow and the respective amount per category as defined and recognized during the accounting period and the respective amounts of the previous year. Water evaporated and transpired. III.B.(vii).3. paragraph 101).
the objectives and targets regarding water use and the measures taken to achieve the targets. Table 1 Water Consumption and Return Flow
Water consumption (m3) Release of wastewater to public wastewater collection systems . Example of Disclosure of Water Use 115. 116. ^Best available technology applied. A disclosure on water use consists of three parts: (a) (b) (c) Total water consumption and return flow (Table 1). Water received and its use (Table 2).without treatment Conveyance losses Consumption by humans and livestock Evaporation Cooling water Change in water storage Total water consumption° Net value added (€) Eco-efficiency indicator "water consumption/net value added" (m3/€) Return flow (m3) Cooling water Total return flow° Notes: *Average treatment technology applied. ground water or soil .Guidelines
The management's stance on the water use policy.7. water policy.486
.7. targets and measures (Table 3). Enterprises are advised to only include the line items that actually show a flow. III.490 2001 1 100 1 000 1 000 1 100 200 50 600 300 0 5 350 11 000 0.B.without treatment Release of wastewater to surface water.
Annexes to Water Use
III.7.a. Accounting policy on water use.B. An example of a disclosure of water use is given in the annex. °Total Water Consumption + Return Flow = Water Received 100 100 150 150 2000 1 000 1 000 1 000 1 000 100 20 500 280 0 4 900 10 000 0.B.a.with on-site treatment* .with on-site treatment^ . The following tables show an example of a disclosure on water use.
Water Policy.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Table 2 Water Received and its Use
Water Received [m3 ] Water withdrawal from a ground water source Water diverted from a surface water source Water delivered Conveyance gains Total water received Use Domestic Commercial Industrial 2000 4'000 500 500 5'000 100 900 4'000 2001 4'100 600 800 5'500 150 950 4'400
Table 3 Accounting Policy. Targets and Measures
Accounting policy Water policy Targets Measures
C. 123.b. An enterprise is an energy producer when the rationale for the activities of the company is to sell energy in whatever form.C.C. General Definition of Energy and Energy Use 122. the quality in terms of renewable/non-renewable energy and energy-linked emissions of greenhouse gases are not covered by this manual but by the accounting guidance on energy supply and greenhouse gases. Accounting Treatment of Energy Use III. This guidance is not intended for energy-producing 19 enterprises. Objective
117.C. The focus of this guidance is therefore on entropy and energy conservation. Definitions
118.a. Energy is the capacity for doing work and/or the capacity for providing heat.1. 120. products and/or services shall be considered a purchase of energy regardless of
Energy is not produced but rather transformed from one form to another. the technology and the source used.3. The objective of this manual is to describe a method for the accounting treatment of energy use. The terms used for the accounting treatment of energy use are defined as follows: III. The impacts of energy use or issues concerning the supply of energy.C. This guidance should be applied by all enterprises in accounting for all types of energy used by them as defined in III. III.3.Guidelines
III.3.3. In the future specific guidance on energy use by energy-producing companies needs to be developed by the industry itself. Any form of energy from any source as defined by III. products and/or services.C.C. Energy use is defined as all inp uts into the reporting entity whose purpose it is to use its productive capacity for doing work and/or for providing heat for the reporting entities’ activities.c that a company receives from third parties and is used for the company's activities. This manual treats energy flows from a thermodynamic perspective.2. in everyday language the term "produced" is used.
. III. For the energy-producing industry this guidance on energy should be used with care.3. III. Purchase and Sale of Energy 124. Nevertheless. 119.
c that a company transfers to third parties and is being used for the third parties’ activities. gas works gas and substitute gas. solar process heat. kerosene. solar space heating and cooling). ocean thermal heat. passive solar heating. (iv) The combustion of biomass Including: direct combustion of biomass. III. The different forms and sources of energy relevant for companies covered by this manual (non-energy sector only) are: (a) Heat from (i) The combustion of petroleum Including: liquefied petroleum gases and methane.b. petroleum coke.
Non-energy refined petroleum products used such as white spirit. sub-bituminous coal. heavy fuel oil.C. lubricating oils and grease. aviation gasoline. peat. paraffin waxes. patent fuel and brown coal/peat briquettes (BKB).20 (ii) The combustion of gas Including: natural gas. solar hot water systems. Different forms and sources of energy are defined in the appendix III. 125.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
whether the underlying financial transaction has a negative or positive value for the reporting entity. coke oven coke.7.3. Any form of energy from any source as defined by III. products and/or services shall be considered a sale of energy regardless of whether the underlying financial transaction has a negative or positive value for the reporting entity. lignite and brown coal. (v) The combustion (incineration) of waste (vi) Steam Including: district heating systems and other steam generated outside the reporting entity (vii) The surrounding natural systems Including: geothermal heat (deep heat mining. gas coke.C.
. (iii) The combustion of coal and coal products Including: coking coal (hard coal). bitumen (asphalt). including shallow ground and ambient air heat pumps).C.c. naphtha. biofuels and biochemicals. coke oven gas. gas/diesel fuel. industrial spirit. blast furnace gas. Forms and Sources of Energy 126. bituminous coal and anthracite (hard coal).3. direct solar heat (concentrating solar systems. jet fuels. mineral oils and other non-energy petroleum products are not considered energy use. motor gasoline. 127.
Work21 (i) Electricity (i. Assumptions made should be disclosed. Non-road transportation. compressed air) (iii) Mechanical work (e. If no fuel data are available. Petrochemical feedstock use is not considered energy use.g. Assumptions made should be disclosed. When the purpose of the process from which the heat originates is not heat generation.6).
21 22 23
Work involves the net directed movement of matter from one location to another. 131. For the purpose of this guideline.e. transport services supplied by third parties other than subcontractors (see next paragraph) are not accounted for. for example rented personnel transports. marine shipping.C.
. it is regarded as excess heat. a wind rotor)
128. estimation values based on the technology of the vehicle should be used. These services can nevertheless be disclosed separately (see III. nuclear power station. (a) Vehicle transport by road shall be accounted for using the actual fuel consumption of the vehicles used.22 132. If no fuel data are available. including geothermal heat. steam. inland shipping. train freight. batteries) (ii) Pressure-volume work (e. ocean thermal heat and direct solar heat. A subcontractor works in the name and on behalf of the company.g. including air freight. estimation values based on the technology and/or model year of the vehicle should be used. 129. company owned or rented business jets. is not accounted for. a water wheel in a mill. passenger flights and passenger trai n rides shall be accounted for using actual fuel or electricity consumption of the mode of transport used. rotation produced by a combustion engine. Heat from the surrounding natural system. from hydropower. Table 4 provides guidance. Transport-related energy use includes all transports carried out as part of the company’s business activities (transportation of goods and personnel) either by the company itself or by a subcontractor23 in charge of a company's transports. The use of excess heat from third parties is not accounted for. 130.
5 43.9 13.8 20.9
5.0 12.9 17.3
l / 100 km
Gasoline passenger car Low-emission vehicle technology Three-way catalyst control Early three-way catalyst control Oxidation catalyst Non-catalyst control Early non-catalyst controls Uncontrolled Light duty gasoline trucks Moderate control Low-emission vehicle technology Three-way catalyst control Early three-way catalyst control Oxidation catalyst Non-catalyst control Uncontrolled Heavy duty gasoline vehicle Three-way catalyst control Non-catalyst control Uncontrolled Diesel passenger car and light trucks Advanced control Moderate control Uncontrolled Light duty diesel truck Advanced control Moderate control Uncontrolled Heavy duty diesel vehicle Advanced control Moderate control Uncontrolled Motorcycles (4 stroke) Non-catalyst controls Uncontrolled Source: IPCC (1996(b)).
>1996 1996 1983 1978 1973 1964
1989-95 1988-91 1980-90 1971-79 pre-1970 –
>1996 1996 1983 1978 1973 1964 1996 1983 1968 1996 1983 1978 1996 1983 1978 1996 1983 1968 1996 1973
16.4 11.3 9.7 16.8 12.2 21.7 20.5 55.3
10.4 43.3 11.9
22.0 10.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Table 4 Road Transportation: Guidance Values for Fuel Consumption
Model Year US Europe
l / 100 km 11.7 45.5 9.1 8.6 10.0 24.5 16.1
7.2 13.5 41.5 8.3 13.7 41.8 25.1 22.4 13.
Petroleum Products 134. 135. III.C. heavy fuel oil and petroleum coke.B for coal and coal products.i.C.A for petroleum products. To make them comparable they are converted into thermal equivalents using their respective net caloric content 24 (see III.i. gas/diesel fuel. aviation gasoline. Different energy commodities such as petroleum products. Petroleum products include ethane.c.c.3.c. (OECD/IEA 2001a). motor gasoline. In the case of coal and oil. naphtha.3. If the energy commodity is used in a country for which specific values are listed then these values should be used. Petroleum products are converted into heat equivalents using the net caloric content of the energy commodity.C.D for biomass fuels).3. coal products and biomass fuels all have a different caloric content. jet kerosene. gas.i. 136.C. LPG. other kerosene.Guidelines
.C.3.C. Otherwise the default value should be applied (Table 5).i.c.c. jet gasoline. III. NCV is 5 per cent less than gross values.3. coal.A.
The difference between net caloric value (NCV) and gross caloric value is the latent heat of vaporization of the water produced during combustion of the fuel.C for gas and III.3. while for most gases the difference is between 9 and 10 per cent.c.i.(i) Conversion Factors from Energy Source to Thermal Equivalents for Fossil Fuel and Biomass Fuels 133. III.
84 Viet Nam
Paraguay 45.21 43.31 44.13
Pakistan 45.59 43.24 43.88 43.14 Namibia
49.60 46.19 45.38 Sri Lanka
40.54 43.89 50.37 42.12 43.12 42.33 43. 2001b.88 43.54 43.02 44.53 42.64 45.27 46.31 47.29 47.43 43.55 43.12 43.09 28.98 47.09 45.12 42.13 36.64 47.59 Nepal 49.01 44.27 46.75 43.38
42.33 40.99 44.57 43.66 40.96
Nicaragua 47.10 41.75 43.80 44.19
50.12 43.87 41.40
46.96 43.24 43.21 42.86 44.01 30.74 41.29 44.96
43.55 40.77 44.93 45.12 43.12
South Africa 46.85
46.39 35.53 44.03 39.16 43.43 41.54 43.16 46.01 45.00 40.43 46.31 43.19 47.19 46.71 41.75 41.64 45.54 43.05 45.57
46.03 43.64 43.13
Source: OECD/IEA (2001a.71 41.91 41. see Table 6 for a conversion from volume to mass.09 40.80 44.21
44.54 43.50 41.11 47.25 43.80 44.21 42.89 51.60 46.50 41.58 43.07 43.21 43. 2001c).94 47.45
42.83 44.29 43.
43.43 45.88 43.96 43.64
46.33 30.91 42.96 41.89
45.98 Lebanon Default and country specific values [GJ per tonne] Algeria Argentina Brazil China.12 43.50 44.21 45. PR Colombia
43.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Table 5 Net Caloric Values for Petroleum Products
Net caloric values Product Ethane LPG Motor gasoline Aviation gasoline Jet gasoline Jet kerosene other kerosene Gas/diesel fuel Heavy fuel oil Naphtha Petroleum coke Product Ethane LPG Motor gasoline Aviation gasoline Jet gasoline Jet kerosene other kerosene Gas/diesel fuel Heavy fuel oil Naphtha Petroleum coke Product Ethane LPG Motor gasoline Aviation gasoline Jet gasoline Jet kerosene other kerosene Gas/diesel fuel Heavy fuel oil Naphtha Petroleum coke Default value 47.05 43.91 42.99 43.92
46.10 43.25 42.03 45.29 42.
If the actual net caloric value is known. Coal and Coal Products 137. Coal and coal products include coking coal (hard coal). 139.
.i.3. lignite and brown coal.B. (litre per tonne) OECD Europe
Default 2 678 1 843 1 351 1 414 1 356 1 260 1 260 1 230 1 185 1 058 874
1 414 1 343 1 311 1 252 1 252 1 025
III. and Table 9 to Table 17 for non-OECD countries). gas coke. coke oven coke. sub-bituminous coal. Otherwise country-specific or region-specific values should be applied. these values should be used. 2001b.Guidelines
Table 6 Densities of Petroleum Products
Density Product Ethane LPG Naphtha Aviation gasoline Motor gasoline Jet gasoline Jet kerosene other kerosene Gas/diesel fuel Heavy fuel oil Petroleum coke Source: OECD/IEA (2001a. Coal and coal products are converted into heat equivalents using the net caloric content of the energy commodity (see Table 7 and Table 8 for OECD countries. patent fuel and brown coal/peat briquettes (BKB). bituminous coal and anthracite (hard coal).C. 2001c). 138.c. peat.
67 28.56 29.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Table 7 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products OECD Countries A-J
Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Australia 28.40 18.48
Source: OECD/IEA (2001b).12 8.64 19.31 28.72 Austria 28.05 20.65 25.50 8.00 5.05 28.61 8.28 Japan 30.98 26.62 Greece 29.05 18.31 15.05 28.00 28.40 28.39 27.05 27.65 20.30 28.37 29.37 10.64 28.38 14.56 8.31 26.00 10.31 25.50 28.00 28.91 32.00 18.29 8.37 29.37 29.59 8.78 8.05 20.30 25.31 26.80 18.05 16.23 Italy 30.31 24.83 8.37 29.75 19.30 Hungary 31.89 18.64 21.
.37 31.66 28.37 28.00 8.61 14.17 17.30 29.06 29.10 France 30.86 8.37 29.31 29.20 29.65 21.28 16.40 28.37 29.31 29.55 Canada 27.21 15.11 19.00 28.31 28.55 28.57 8.35 26.03 22.05 21.10 Germany 29.37 17.39 20.55 30.14 12.75 8.25 8.37 16.37 8.31 27.00 8.03 17.08 18.05 20.31 29.00 Denmark 25.10 Belgium 29.37 32.68 8.31 28.11 24.37 27.31 29.00 8.29 16.68 8.00 25.30 28.30 Finland 29.05 20.27 25.12 25.10 Iceland 28.65 28.10 Ireland 29.48 9.65 18.29 16.30 29.68 11.75 16.50 8.37 8.58 14.67 30.00 20.10 27.37 29.00 Czech Republic 29.43 23.23 24.
05 20.48 8.18 8.76 18.31 28.31 20.04 8.04 20.02 28.10 Spain 3 21.68 28.50 28.10 Sweden 3 26.94 13.31 28.37 24.05 20.93 20.31 29.48 18.31 20.10
Source: OECD/IEA (2001b).05 21.37 29.20 12.31 29.Guidelines
Table 8 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products OECD Countries K-U
Rep.49 8.04 14.84 8.37 29.73 25.28 28.04 28.33 7.30 20.10 8.68 27.16 8.45 19.00 10.62 21.45 28.10 2 8.55 24.37 29.31 26.31 26.37 28.75 8.38 8.10 29.16 22.40 28.25 Switzerland 28.03 29.05 28.37 8.82 17.10 28.31 18.54 14.93
Netherlands New Zealand 28.10 Portugal 29.10 8.37 29.30 28.30 25.37 29.84 23.31 27.05 20.05 28.22 12.31 28.22 United States 29.50 2 Slovak Republic 28.37 8.52 26.37 12.06 8.37 29.12 28.51 20.17 27.52 20.48 23.05 28.10 8.96 20.03 8.35 28.00 23.05 20.67 24.05 20.10 Poland 29.10 Norway 28.30 29.37 27.10 20.10
Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes
Luxembourg 29.31 28. of Korea 27.37 29.31 28.37 31.43 United Kingdom 29.10 30.37 29.
.37 8.05 20.37 29.50 28.10 Turkey 31.37 8.33 8.37 8.50 28.10 8.06 20.50 29.57 8.47 28.93 20.93 25.10
Mexico 23.37 8.05 20.17 35.30 30.37 8.37 29.
31 26.12 20.65 25.21 8.65 14.37 8.80 8.21 20.37 8.95 25.93 8.37 8.65 18.21 Bangladesh 20.05 13.37 25.37 27.75 25.37 27.10 20.30 6.37 29.31 25.93 8.37 8.37 29.37 8.65 8.46 20.37 8.75 8.37 25.05 25.84 8.54 25.65 18.75 25.66 25.37 25.37 Brunei 25.37 28.37 29.40 15.37 8.37 27.10 20.93 20.10 20.05 8.
.84 27.58 14.75 25.34 20.83 8.70 8.21 9.65 14.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Table 9 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries A-B
Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke BKB/Peat Briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke BKB/Peat Briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes 20.10 Benin
Source: OECD/IEA (2001c).37 Angola 25.75 8.75 8.37 8.95 13.54 14.12 8.75 8.75 25.37 29.75 8.37 25.31 25.10 Brazil 26.21 27.58 14.75 8.21 6.65 8.90 20.21 Bulgaria 27.37 29.10 Bahrain 25.65 8.84 9.75 8.37 8.58 14.75 8.37 Armenia 18.10 Bosnia and Herzegovina 25.58 14.10 18.37 27.12 11.37 8.54 14.31 27.75 25.75 Argentina 24.37 8.37 8.95 13.10 Belarus 25.75 25.65 14.37 8.31 30.37 24.76 8.70 8.58 18.31 25.37 20.91 32.21 20.12 Albania 27.37 27.21 Algeria 25.37 8.70 24.37 27.58 18.91 8.10 Bolivia 25.14 Azerbaijan 18.21 9.37 29.37 31.
75 25.30 6.83 8.80 8.34 Colombia 27.10 Croatia 28.80 26.
.37 8.37 Bulgaria 27.91 8.14 18.35 8.91 32.10 Côte d'Ivoire 25.31 26.37 29.37 27.23 25.21 27.21 27.37 26.37 8.37 25.75 25.21 27.37 29.75 25.75 26.05 Costa Rica 25.75 8.75 25.66 25.31 27.37 25.43 28.37 8.37 8.17 8.37 Cuba 25.37 20.37 8.21 29.75 8.37 26.37 28.80 20.37 25.37 25.37 8.37 8.60 29.80 8.37 8.37 27.23 8.37 Congo 8.75 25.10 Taiwan POC 26.75 8.37 8.31 27.21 8.75 8.37 Cameroon 25.75 8.60 8.75 Chile 28.37 8.37 8.37 8.75 8.31 30.10 Cyprus 25.17 17.21 20.10 20.37 25.10 20.21 6.60 14. DR 25.37 8.37 8.37 8.43 20.23 8.75
Source: OECD/IEA (2001c).37 17.10 20.37 29.37 25.10 Brazil 26.37 8.43 17.75 25.75 8.75 25.47 18.31 27.76 20.80 28.37 8.10 20.10 Congo.21 8.00 14.21 20.21 20.37 27.75 Brunei 25.12 11.93 8.21 27.43 17.37 8.10 China 21.37 31.17 28.40 15.37 8.Guidelines
Table 10 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries/Territories B-C
Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes 20.80 8.97 14.75 8.37 8.
37 8. China 25.37 8.31 27.75 8.37 25.37 8.37 8.21 27.31 25.37 29.10 Gabon 25.37 25.79 24.37 25.75 25.37 Eritrea
Source: OECD/IEA (2001c).75 25.37 29.37 27.12 20.10 Georgia 18.75 25.37 25.75 8.37 8.75 8.37 8.37 25.37 27.10 20.75 8.65 18.37 20.45 8.37 8.21 20.31 27.65 14.58 14.45 24.10 20.45 8.37 29.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Table 11 Net Calo ric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries/Territories D-H
Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes 20.21 8.75 25.37 25.37 8.58 14.75 25.75 8.37 8.31 27.37 25.75 8.58 18.21 28.75 8.10 Ethiopia Dominican Republic 25.65 8.10 Honduras 25.75 8.75 8.75 Gibraltar 25.75 8.75 8.37 8.10 20.37 8.21 8.37 27.37 8.21 Ecuador 25.05 20.31 16.75 8.31 29.21 8.37 8.75 25.21 Hong Kong.75 El Salvador 25.
.75 8.37 8.37 25.37 8.75 8.75 8.37 8.31 27.75 25.37 25.10 20.75 25.37 25.10 Haiti 25.75 8.21 8.37 29.37 29.75 8.21 Egypt 25.37 27.75 25.75 8.37 8.37 8.37 29.37 20.37 Guatemala 27.75 25.37 8.10 Estonia 24.37 8.75 Ghana 25.
37 27.21 27.95 14.37 India 19.58 25.37 20.22 8.65 14.95 25.37 27.80 14.37 8.75 8.21
Source: OECD/IEA (2001c).65 18.10 8.10 Libyan AJ 25.10 Jordan 25.12 28.75 25.75 8.22 4.21 Iran.10 Jamaica 25.98 19.65 14. Islamic Rep.58 14.21 20.37 20.37 8.37 8.37 8.10 Kenya 25.75 8.80 19.37 20.75 25.37 8.37 8.65 18.21 20.75 25.31 25.75 8.98 9.75 8.21 20.37 8.Guidelines
Table 12 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries I-Lib
Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net Caloric Values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net Caloric Values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes 20.21 Iraq 25.37 27.31 25.65 14.10 Korea.37 25.75 27.12 27.37 25.37 25.37 29.37 29.75 8.37 8.37 8.12 20.37 8.65 8.10 Lebanon 27.37 27.75 25.19 26.75 8.10 Kazakhstan 18.75 25.10 20. DPR 25.19 8. 25.75 25.37 25.10 27.37 20.21 20.98 9.37 8.37 25.10 Kyrgyzstan 18.58 18.21 27.21 Indonesia 25.75 8.75 17.37 25.21 Israel 26.75 8.47 20.37 25.37 8.21 20.58 17.75 8.37 8.75 17.75 8.65 25.75 25.67 8.58 14.37 4.65 8.31 25.37 25.95 14.37 8.65 8.58 18.22 26.37 8.37 27.75 8.37 27.37 27.75 8.75 25.10 Kuwait 25.37 27.10 20.58 8.10 Latvia 25.
.86 8.58 14.37 8.75 25.37 25.37 29.58 14.37 8.37 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.67 8.
65 11.31 25.05 13.37 29.75 25.37 8.37 8.21 20.70 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.37 8.75 25.37 25.21 20.73 8.37 8.75 8.69 8.21 Moldova.37 8.37 8.65 25.95 13.31 27.10 Nigeria 25.37 20.21 27.
.65 14.37 8.05 25.37 29.10 Nepal 25.37 8.21 20.21 20.12 25.37 8.31 26.37 29.90 Malaysia 29.70 24.37 20.75 25.37 18.00 8.10 27.37 25.30 Macedonia.12
Source: OECD/IEA (2001c). Republic of 18.37 29.37 8.75 25.10 Netherlands Antilles 25.31 29.10 Namibia 22.37 25.31 29.37 27.10 Mozambique 25.37 26.37 27.30 29.95 25.65 8.12 8.37 25.75 8.37 8.75 25.10 27.37 20.37 27.73 8.70 8.37 25.37 Lithuania 25.10 27.58 14.10 Oman 25.21 20.75 22.75 8.68 29.12 8.75 8.95 13.31 27.31 11.21 20.37 8.75 8.12 14.37 25. FYR 25.26 8.12 14.21 20.00 8.10 14.10 Pakistan 18.58 18.73 18.38 Malta 25.37 8.75 25.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Table 13 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries/Territories Lit-P
Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes 27.21 20.31 11.37 27.65 Morocco 24.37 8.37 8.37 24.69 8.37 8.21 20.58 14.37 8.12 25.37 27.75 8.37 8.75 8.37 25.37 8.75 8.75 8.37 8.10 Myanmar 25.75 25.21 20.05 8.37 8.65 18.37 8.37 25.30 11.10 Nicaragua 25.65 14.37 25.
96 29.95 27.75 25.10 Saudi Arabia 25.75 25.37 8.65 26.37 8.99 27.33 8.91 22.73 8.37 8.21 20.83 15.37 8.37 27.21 20.75 8.37 27.37 8.73 8.37 8.37 27.10 20.75 8.37 8.75 8.99 8.99 25.73 18.37 27.21 Nigeria 25.75 8.37 25.37 25.83 22.75 25.37 8.37 8.37 8.21 20.37 8.58 South Africa 27.37 8.31 26.37 25.10 Qatar 25.10 Peru 29.41 14.31 29.37 25.37 27.65 Slovenia 17.50
Source: OECD/IEA (2001c).43 25.57 7.75 8.37 27.90 Paraguay 25.10 Russian Federation 22.37 8.37 8.37 8.75 25.76 9.37 27.75 8.37 8.Guidelines
Table 14 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries N-So
Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net Caloric Values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes 20.01 17.37 27.95 8.21 8.75 8.71 7.75 8.37 25.75 25.75 8.37 8.21 20.10 20.21 8.95 17.31 29.37 8.10 20.21 20.37 27.31 Oman 25.21 20.79 14.83 15.37 18.10 24.25 18.75 8.75 8.37 25.21 8.
.37 8.10 Senegal 25.37 27.37 20.10 Romania 25.75 25.75 25.37 25.37 29.37 Pakistan 18.00 30.00 8.82 9.10 Singapore Panama 25.37 8.37 8.37 27.91 15.10 Philippines 24.91 9.75 8.21 20.75 8.37 26.95 25.75 8.33 8.
37 25.30 20.65 21.37 8.75 25.37 29.58 14.38 12.75 8.58 14.58 14.75
Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net Caloric Values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net Caloric Values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes
Sri Lanka 29.37 30.75 8.75 25.65 14.37 25.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Table 15 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries Sr-Ve
Trinidad & Tobago 25.75 25.75 8.56 30.31 25.75 8.65 14. of 25.37 8.37 29.37 8.37 8.12 20.21
8.65 8.37 29.75 25.31 8.37 25.31 25.75 25.56 8.
.21 20.21 20.10
Syrian AR 25.75 8.58 18.37 27.65 8.65 18.12 20.75 8.10 Uzbekistan 18.58 14.58 14.37 8.56 8.65 14.37 27.58 14.37 8.37 8.10 Ukraine 21.21 20.21 20.37 8.31 25.75 25.63 26.75 8.37 25.10 Venezuela 30.37
Tajikistan 18.37 8.65 8.37 27.75 8.37 8.75 25.65 14.65 18.59 21.21 20.37 27.37 27. United Rep.37 27.37 25.37 8.75 8.38 12.37 8.37 25.10 Uruguay 25.37 8.59 14.10
Turkmenistan 18.10 Tunisia 25.37 27.37 27.21
Togo 25.12 20.58 18.10 Thailand 26.37 29.37 25.65 18.37 8.75 29.10
8.14 27.75 8.10
8.37 27.21 20.37 8.65 8.21 20.75 8.10
Source: OECD/IEA (2001c).58 18.21 20.31 25.75 25.37 29.14 12.10 United Arab Emirates 25.12 20.37 26.31 8.59 14.38 27.14 8.75 8.
As the net caloric content varies considerably.95 25.10 20.37 8.31 27.10 20.45 8.90 Zambia 24.31 27.45 23.37 24.21 20.75 25.75 25.95 13.37 23.10 Viet Nam 23. Gas 140.37 8.37 25.31 26.00 8.12
Source: OECD/IEA (2001c).10 Other Latin America 25.75 8.45 8.
III.05 13.37 8.00 8.71 8.C.10 Other Asia 25.75 8.31 27. FR 25.c.21 20.71 8.37 25.37 8. Gas includes natural gas.71 24.10 20. 141.21 20.75 8.37 8.37 27.Guidelines
Table 16 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries Vi-Z
Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes 20.75 8.37 8.05 8.37 29.37 29.21 Yugoslavia.75 8.95 13.37 27.37 8.37 8.21 Yemen 25.37 8.i. 142.10 20.3.75 25. coke oven gas and blast furnace gas.31 27. the value as declared by the supplier should be used.
Table 17 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products other Asia.37 8.37 27.37 8.75 8.75 25.37 29.75 8.37 8.37 25.37 25.C.75 8. Gas is converted into heat equivalents using the net caloric content of the energy commodity.37 25. gas works gas (including substitute gas).37 8.37 29.37 29.00 27.21 Zimbabwe 27.05 25.
Source: OECD/IEA (2001c).37 8. other Africa and other Latin America
Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Other Africa 25.
000 37.b.i. 145.c.
.220 39.80 34.82 34.000 37.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
If the actual net caloric value is not known but the country of origin is known these specific values from Table 18 should be applied. Net caloric values of biomass fuels vary considerably even among the same fuel type.9 0.10 34.41 > 33.
(MJ per m3) Gross caloric Factor to convert gross value caloric content to net 38.9 0.416 38.9 0.9 0.C.9 0.57 36.130 33.579 38.9 0.57 34.9 0. By default the value as declared by the supplier of the energy commodity should be used. biofuels and biomass (see annex.7. Biomass fuels are converted into heat equivalents using the net caloric content of the energy commodity. III.32 29.518 40.9 0.9 0. If no specific value is provided standard values listed in Table 19 should be applied.20 33.20 36.3.9 0.D. Biomass fuels 143.20 MJ/m3 should be applied.50 please use specific values
III. the default value of 34.600 42.460 0.(v)) 144.90 35.889 38.9 1 Net caloric value 34.C. Table 18 Gross and Net Caloric Values for Gas
Caloric values Product Natural gas (default value) Natural gas originating from: Russian Federation United States Canada Netherlands United Kingdom Indonesia Algeria Uzbekistan Saudi Arabia Norway Gas works gas and substitute gas Coke oven gas Blast furnace gas Source: OECD/IEA (2001b.54 37. If no country-specific value is provided in Table 18. 2001c). Biomass fuels include biochemicals.9 0.000 40.9 0.
Source: IPCC (1996b).3.c. including waste.4 9.0 0.0 24.0 15. The reporting entity shall disclose the specific values chosen and the underlying assumptions. dry zone Wood oven-dry Wood charcoal Charcoal Dung Bagasse Wet Air-dry Agricultural waste Other waste Dung cakes (dried) Coffee husks Rice hulls (air-dry) Wheat straw Maize (stalk) Maize (cobs) Cotton gin trash Cotton stalk Coconut husks Coconut shells
(a) mcwb: moisture content weight basis.4 11.0
50.4 15. (c) Assuming air-dry wood.0 11.0 10.2 16. Other energy sources.2 15.9 15.0 11.Guidelines
Table 19 Typical Net Caloric Values for Biomass Fuels
Biomass fuel Fuelwood (c) Wood wet.0 8. are converted into thermal equivalents using the specific net caloric content of the combusted material as indicated by the supplier. (b) Typical values to be considered as rough approximations.0 50.0 40.0
Typical net calorific value (b) (MJ/kg) 15.0 5.0 8.0 13.0 9.0 4. an estimate has to be made.0 12.
III.2 14.8 17.7 15.0 13. If no specific value is available.0 12.C.1 12.0 40.5 16. humid zone Wood air-dry.0 30.0 29.
Moisture content (% mcwb) (a) 20.0 12.0 16. freshly cut Wood air-dry.0 12.9 16.6 20.0 20.(ii) Conversion Factors from Energy Source to Thermal Equivalents for other Energy Sources 146.
000 kWh electricity. But why the 0. which is converted into steam to propel a turbine (= work). less gas needs to be purchased: 18.35 is not very suitable as conversion processes within a specific company will in almost any case be different from the default value. the one that converts fossil fuels (= heat) to electricity (= work). The result using the default factor then would be: company A 6 .A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
. Both purchase 1. is 0. Obviously this does not reflect the reality.
Company A Conversion efficiency Energy source Electricity Gas 54 000 thermal work 3 600 10 800 MJ MJ 1 000 3 000 4 000 10 000 0.810 kWh work equivalent. Assume that two different companies both use gas as a major energy source.250 kWh work equivalent. If the actual efficiency is taken to convert the amount of gas purchased to work equivalents both will end up having used 3.2 kWh/MJ converting natural gas (= heat) into work. they will have the same eco-efficiency.35 kWh/MJ we get a more adequate result:
Company A Conversion efficiency Energy source thermal Electricity Gas 54 000 0.35 kWh/MJ
Company A uses 5. while company B is highly efficient with an efficiency of 0.000. This perfectly reflects the real situation.4 kWh kWh KWh € kWh/€ 18 621 0.35 (OECD/IEA 1997).2 kWh/MJ thermal work 3 600 10 800 MJ MJ 1 000 3 000 4 000 10 000 0. The eco-efficiency of company A is 0. for example 0.63 kWh KWh € kWh/€ 18 621 6 517 MJ 1 810 2 810 10 000 0.28 kWh/€.58 kWh/MJ. Company A has an average efficiency of 0.000 kWh of electricity (= work) in addition to gas. while company B has a much higher eco-efficiency of 0.35 work 3 600 18 900 MJ 5 250 6 250 10 000 0.621 MJ thermal for company B compared with 54.28 kWh kWh € kWh/€ Energy requirement Net value added Eco-efficiency MJ 1 000 kWh kWh/MJ thermal work 3 600 MJ 1 000 kWh Company B 0.4 kWh kWh kWh € kWh/€ Company B 0.000 kWh work equivalent.58 kWh/MJ
Energy requirement Net value added Eco-efficiency
If we start with the amount of energy purchased and then convert thermal energy to work equivalents using the proposed default factor of 0.63 kWh/€. Assuming they have the same net value added of €10. Conversion Factor
One could argue that using a default conversion factor of. see the following example in the table below.810 kWh work equivalent of gas. Technically both need 4. So why not use the company-specific efficiency for the conversion of heat equivalent to work equivalent? To see the effect of using a default value. namely 0.250 kWh work equivalent of gas while company B uses 1 . Both use 1. company B 2 .4 kWh/€.000 kWh work equivalent of energy for their processes. As company B is more efficient.000 MJ thermal for company A.35 as the default value? B ecause the average efficiency of one of the most important and widely used conversion processes.
Work equivalents should be expressed in GWh.35 x MJ
x 0. Energy purchased or sold should be measured in an adequate SI unit (kWh. 148.C.g. For the purpose of eco-efficiency reporting within this framework. "ASME International Steam Tables for Industrial Use".g.C. And when it is probable that the amount or value can be measured. Within this framework two different categories of energy are accounted for: heat and work. electricity). thermal equivalents should be expressed in MJ.). The conversion factor for thermal energy to work equivalents will be 0. the "Bureau International des Poids et Mesures". Steam from whatever external source is accounted for using standard steam tables.C. The organization in charge. for a complete conversion table of different energy units).35 (see Box 4 for the rationale). Energy as defined by paragraph III.d.2778
150.7.(ii).C.C. The factor to convert MJ into GWh is 0.Guidelines
III. The amount of energy purchased and sold should be weighed or metered. III. thermal energy needs to be converted so that it is of a quality comparable to that of energy supplied to the reporting entity in the form of work (e. 149. Recognition of Energy
. m3.5. GWh
= 0. American Society of Mechanical Engineers 2000). Measurement of Energy
153.3. 154.4.c. 25 III. Conversion Factors from Thermal Equivalents to Work 147. Steam tables come as voluminous books and/or software packages.2778 (see annex III.C. Stocks of energy commodities as defined in III. MJ. For that reason they are not listed in the guidelines. international abbreviation SI) for the recommended practical system of units of measurement. The 11th Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (1960) adopted the French name Système International d'Unités (International System of Units.3 should be recognized in the period in which it is: (a) (b) Purchased or sold. kg etc.3 should be recognized at the beginning and at the end of an accounting period. Therefore. provides a list of all SI units [http://www.26
Steam tables are published by various national engineering associations (e.
152.bipm. energy should be valued by its capacity to provide work.
C. An example of a disclosure of energy use is given in the annex. If an amount is estimated or calculated the range of uncertainty should be recorded.6.a. The amounts of each energy source recognized during the accounting period and the respective amounts of the previous year. The item energy requirement is used for the calculation of the eco-efficiency indicator "energy requirement per net value added" (see paragraph 76(b)). Disclosure of energy use consists of three parts: (a) Total energy requirements (Table 20). The accounting policies adopted for energy use.7.
. all energy purchased. covering energy purchased. 156.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
155. Example of Disclosure of Energy Use 159.C. energy sold and stocks of energy converted into heat and work equivalents. Disclosure of Energy Use
158.C. targets and measures (Table 20). Annex to Energy Use
III. energy sold and stocks of energy.7. energy policy. The total energy requirement recognized during the accounting period and the respective amounts of the previous year expressed in work equivalents.7. sold or in stock shall be converted in a first step into heat equivalents (this step is obsolete when the company purchases energy in the form of work) and in a second step into work equivalents. covering energy purchased.C. III. including the respective conversion factors used. the objectives and targets regarding energy use and the measures taken to achieve the targets.a. Raw data on the above flows and stocks (Table 21). Accounting policy. III. The management's stance on energy use. For the purpose of eco-efficiency reporting. An enterprise should disclose: (a) (b) (c) (d) The eco-efficiency indicator "energy requirement per unit of net value added". Total energy requirement is defined as purchased work equivalents minus sales of work equivalents plus/minus a decrease/increase in stocks of energy commodities expressed in work equivalents.
12.12.962 10 500 6 829 21 616 7 694 41 639 5 834 5 834 2 402 -7 694 -5 292 30 513 11 000 2.)* 2001 2002 10 000 1 663 24 018 0 35 680 4 862 4 862 -1 201 0 -1 201 29 618 10 000 2.774
Energy purchased Electricity Natural gas Bituminous coal (Argentina) Bituminous coal (Brazil) Total energy purchased Energy sold Steam Total energy sold Stocks Bituminous coal (Argentina) Bituminous coal (Brazil) Stocks Total energy requirement Net value added (€)
Eco-efficiency indicator "energy requirement/n et value added" (MWh/€)
* Note: e.02 1 000 5 000 kWh m3 t t MJ t t 24 702 15 826 MJ/t MJ/t 34.01 2 000 0 2002 10 500 550 000 9 000 5 000 60 000 31.g.)* 2001 2002 Work (MWh work) 2001 2002 10 000 17 100 247 020 0 264 120 50 000 50 000 -12 351 0 -12 351 201 769 18 810 222 318 79 130 320 258 60 000 60 000 24 702 -79 130 -54 428 205 830 10 000 10 500 10 500 Total (MWh work eq.00 1 500 0 Amount 2001 10 000 500 000 10 000 0 50 000 31.12.2 24 702 15 826 MJ/m3 MJ/t MJ/t Conversion
Table 20 Energy Requirement
Energy requirement Heat (GJ heat eq. = equivalent
Table 21 Energy Flows and Stocks
Energy flows and stocks (raw data) Energy purchased Electricity Natural gas Bituminous coal (Argentina) Bituminous coal (Brazil) Energy sold Steam Stocks Bituminous coal (Argentina) Bituminous coal (Brazil) 31.
(Note: The following definitions are based on the definitions used by the International Energy Agency for its statistics .iea.htm)
160. Crude oil is unrefined petroleum that reaches the surface of the ground in a liquid state. this includes petroleum. They consist mainly of propane (C3H8) and butane (C4Hl0) or a combination of the two.(i) Petroleum
161.http://www. A fossil fuel is any naturally occurring fuel of an organic nature formed by the decomposition of plants or animals. It is used as a fuel for land-based spark ignition engines. Energy Policy.org/stats/files/queoil. 163.C. midgrade and premium quality depending on the octane value. Ethane is a naturally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon (C2H6) extracted from natural gas and refinery gas streams. Petroleum products are obtained from the processing of crude oil (including lease condensate) and other hydrocarbon compounds.7.b. Motor gasoline may include additives. 164. They are normally liquefied under pressure for transportation and storage.b. crude oil stabilization and natural gas processing plants. oxygenates and octane enhancers. such as sulphur. Targets and Measures
Accounting policy Energy policy Targets Measures
III. including lead compounds such as TEL (tetraethyl lead) and TML (tetramethyl lead). natural gas and coal.
.) are highly variable. etc. This category includes field or lease condensate recovered from associated and nonassociated gas where it is commingled with the commercial crude oil stream. III.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Table 22 Accounting Policy. Its physical characteristics (density. It consists of a mixture of light hydrocarbons distilling at between 35oC and 215oC. Liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) are light saturated paraffinic hydrocarbons derived from the refinery processes.C. 162. It is a mineral oil of natural origin comprising a mixture of hydrocarbons and associated impurities. Motor gasoline exists as regular.7. viscosity.
trucks. obtained mainly by cracking and carbonizing residue feedstock.
170. This category also includes "catalyst coke" deposited on the catalyst during refining processes. Leaded: motor gasoline with TEL (tetraethyl lead) and/or TML (tetramethyl lead) added to enhance octane rating.7kPa and 20. Aviation gasoline is motor spirit prepared especially for aviation piston engines. 166. distilling at between 100oC and 250oC. Several grades are available depending on uses: diesel oil for diesel compression ignition (cars.90 kg/l. marine diesel and diesel used in rail traffic. In addition. Gas/diesel fuel is primarily a medium distillate distilling at between 180oC and 380oC. Heavy fuel oil covers all residual fuel oils (including those obtained by blending). The flash point is always above 50oC and density is always more than 0. Kerosene comprises refined petroleum distillate and is used in sectors other than aircraft transport. 171. Kerosene-type jet fuel is a distillate used for aviation turbine power units. marine.). Naphtha comprises material in the 30oC and 2l0oC distillation range or part of this range. Naphtha-type jet fuel includes all light hydrocarbon oils for use in aviation turbine power units. It distils at between 150oC and 300oC. for heating purposes. There are two qualities: (a) (b) Low sulphur content: sulphur content lower than 1 per cent. They are obtained by blending kerosene and gasoline or naphtha in such a way that the aromatic content does not exceed 25 per cent in volume. Naphtha is a feedstock destined for the petrochemical industry (e. 172. It may contain traces of organic lead. which are established by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). a freezing point of -60oC and a distillation range within the limits of 30oC and 180oC.6kPa. etc. tar and pitches in processes such as delayed coking or fluid coking. 169. The two most important qualities are "green coke" and "calcinated coke". it has particular specifications. for electrode manufacture and for production of chemicals. and the vapour pressure is between 13. It has the same distillation characteristics between 150oC and 300oC and flash point as kerosene.Guidelines
Unleaded: motor gasoline where lead compounds have not been added to enhance octane rating. ethylene manufacture or aromatics production) or for gasoline production by reforming or isomerization within the refinery.g. It is used as a feedstock in coke ovens for the steel industry. High sulphur content: sulphur content of 1 per cent or higher. with an octane number suited to the engine.
. light heating oil. 167.
165. Petroleum coke is a black solid residue. 168. this coke is not recoverable and is usually burned as refinery fuel. It consists mainly of carbon (90 to 95 per cent) and has a low ash content.
III.C. It is used for steam raising and space heating purposes. Non-agglomerating coals with a gross calorific value of between 17. and by reforming and simple mixing of gases and/or air. residual fuel oil.
.865 kJ/kg contains more than 31 per cent volatile matter on a dry mineral matter-free basis. it is recovered on leaving the furnaces and used partly within the plant and partly in other steel industry processes or in power stations equipped to burn it. This category includes substitute natural gas that is a high-calorific-value gas. occurring naturally in the earth.5 MJ/m3) and by its high methane content (above 85 per cent).(iii) Coal
177. 174.865 kJ/kg on an ash-free but moist basis and with a mean random reflectance of vitrinite of at least 0. Gas works gas covers all types of gases. Natural gas is a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons.7. etc. which are not connected with gasworks and municipal gas plants.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
III. by cracking of natural gas. that is used as a fuel.(ii)
173. Used for steam raising and space heating purposes.
178. It includes gas produced by carbonization (including gas produced by coke ovens and transferred to gas works gas). Coke oven gas is a by-product of solid fuel carbonization and gasification operations carried out by coke producers and iron and steel plants.C.7. Sub-bituminous coal is a dull black coal. Anthracite is the hardest coal and gives off the greatest amount of heat when it burns. Coking coal has a quality that allows the production of a coke suitable to support a blast furnace charge. It is therefore used in the manufacture of iron and steel. Substitute natural gas is distinguished from other manufactured gases by its high heat value (above 33. It gives off a little more energy (heat) than lignite when it burns. Hard coal comprises coking coal and other bituminous coal/anthracite: (a) Coking coal is a hard.435 kJ/kg and 23. Other bituminous coal not included under coking coal. 175. Blast furnace gas is obtained as a by-product in operating blast furnaces.b. by total gasification with or without enrichment with oil products (LPG. It is chemically and physically interchangeable with natural gas and is usually distributed through the natural gas grid. Hard coal refers to coal of gross calorific value greater than 23. dry carbon substance produced by coal at a very high temperature in the absence of air.). transport and distribution of gas. including substitute natural gas produced in a public utility or private plants.6. whose main purpose is manufacture. composed primarily of methane (CH4). 176. manufactured by chemical conversion of a hydrocarbon fossil fuel.b.
(Note: The following definitions are based on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US) definitions. 180. 182.Guidelines
179. Patent fuel is a composition fuel manufactured from hard coal fires by shaping with the addition of a binding agent (pitch). a soft. brownish-black coal that forms the lowest quality level of the coal family. 184. Solar hot water systems that heat water for other purposes than heating. fossil sedimentary deposit of plant origin with high water content (up to 90 per cent in the raw state). easily cut. principally coking coal.gov/clean_energy/whatisRE. Lignite dust is included in this category.7. for example coffee bean drying. 181. of light to dark brown colour. http://www. The largest portion of the world's coal reserves is made up of lignite/brown coal. Concentrating solar systems that use the sun's heat to produce steam and convert it to electricity. Coke oven coke is used mainly in the iron and steel industry acting as an energy source and chemical agent. Solar space heating and cooling. Direct solar energy includes the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Photovoltaic (solar cell) systems which produce electricity directly from sunlight. 183.C. Gas coke is used for heating purposes. Brown coal/peat briquettes (BKB) is a composition fuel manufactured from lignite/brown coal or peat.html)
III. Coke oven coke also includes coke and semi-coke made from lignite/brown coal.b. Gas coke is the by-product of hard coal used for production of town gas in gas works. porous or compressed.(iv)
Direct Solar Energy
185. The lignite/brown coal is crushed. it is low in moisture and volatile matter. Solar process heat for industrial and commercial uses.435 kJ/kg and greater than 31 per cent volatile matter on a dry mineral matter-free basis. foundry coke and semicoke (the solid product obtained from carbonization of coal at low temperature) are included in this category. at high temperature. Passive solar heating and day lighting systems that use solar energy to heat and light buildings. Coke oven coke is the solid product obtained from carbonization of coal.
. Peat is a combustible soft. dried and moulded under high pressure into an even-shaped briquette without the addition of binders. Coke breeze. Lignite and brown coal are non-agglomerating coals with a gross calorific value of less than 17.
the resulting hot gas is sent through a tube and then converted into liquid methane.(v)
Biomass Fuels (Biomass-Based Solar Energy)
186.b.C.7. After gasification.(vi)
187. The chemical conversion process is called pyrolysis.b.b. and it occurs when biomass is heated in the absence of oxygen. Biomass Biomass is burned directly. Geothermal Energy
III. Hydropower includes: (a) Dams Most large-scale hydropower plants use a dam on a river to store water in a reservoir. Hydropower
III.7. spinning it. which is used for many applications. Using the shallow ground to heat and cool buildings.C. Methanol.7. Other biofuels include methanol and reformulated gasoline components. There are three types of electricity conversion
.C. Geothermal energy refers to: (a) (b) (c) Production from the earth's heat. Ocean energy conversion includes: (a) Ocean thermal energy.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
III. Biomass fuels includes: (a) Biochemicals Heat is used to chemically convert biomass into a fuel oil. River plants Hydropower river plants use not a reservoir. Production of heat directly from hot water within the earth. or is converted into a gaseous fuel (e. The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol (an alcohol) and biodiesel (an ester). commonly called wood alcohol. methane). Biofuels Biomass is converted into liquid fuels for transportation needs.g. Water released from the reservoir flows through a turbine. electricity or any other form of energy. Ocean Energy
189. which in turn activates a generator to produce electricity. biomass turns into a liquid – called pyrolysis oil – which can be burned like petroleum. to generate heat.7.C.(vii)
188.b. After pyrolysis. but a canal to channel the river water through a turbine. is produced through the gasification of biomass. including electricity generation.
(i) Wave Energy For wave energy conversion. Hybrid systems combine both closed-cycle and open-cycle systems. open-cycle and hybrid. float systems that drive hydraulic pumps. activating a generator. The vapour expands and turns a turbine. As a result. Even though the sun affects all ocean activity. while ocean thermal energy is fairly constant. or air. and oscillating water column systems that use the waves to compress air within a container. This produces steam that passes through a turbine/generator. which is quite different from ocean thermal energy. The mechanical power created from these systems either directly activates a generator or transfers to a working fluid. which then drives a turbine/generator.
. Also. Closed-cycle systems use the ocean's warm surface water to vaporize a working fluid. Ocean mechanical energy conversion includes: Ocean mechanical energy. there are three basic systems: channel systems that funnel the waves into reservoirs. unlike in the case of thermal energy. tides are driven primarily by the gravitational pull of the moon. such as ammonia.Guidelines
systems: closed-cycle. The turbine then activates a generator to produce electricity. which has a low-boiling point. and waves are driven primarily by the winds. water.
(ii) Tidal Energy A barrage (dam) is typically used to convert tidal energy into electricity by forcing the water through turbines. Open-cycle systems actually boil the seawater by operating at low pressures. tides and waves a intermittent re sources of energy. the electricity conversion of both tidal and wave energy usually involves mechanical devices.
.000.2 0.C.000.C.7.01 0.8 3.000.(i)
Prefix exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto deca deci centi mili micro nano pico femto atto
Symbol E P T G M kg h da d c m µ n p f a Factor 1018 1015 1012 109 106 103 102 101 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 10-15 10-18 1.1605 5.931 x 10-4 1
III.388 x 10-5 10-7 1 2.6 x 10-5 MBtu 947.02381 0.968 x 107 1 3412 GWh 0.000.000 1.000.000.000 100 10 0.000 1.000.52 x 10-8 8.000.000 1.000.c.000.C.0063 6.7.000.615 1 0.000.(iii)
(2) to: (1) from: gal US gal UK bbl ft3 l m3
General Conversion Factors for Volume
gal US gal UK (3) multiply by: 1 1.001 0.229 0.001 0.000.0353 35.220 220 bbl 0.289 ft3 0.001 0.48 0.1868 x 10-3 4.159 0.785 4.1868 x 104 1.8 1 107 0.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
III.000.2778 1.0038 0.3147 l 3.1781 0.c.968 3.000.000.001 0.546 159 28.000.C.000 1.1337 0.2642 264.000.000 1. Units and Conversions III.c.000.(ii)
(2) to: (1) from: TJ Gcal Mtoe MBtu GWh
General Conversion Factors for Energy
TJ (3) multiply by: 1 4.000.0045 0.000.02859 1 0.97 6.c.7.163 x 10-3 11630 2.7.283 0.1 0.001 0.000.252 860 Mtoe 2.000.000.001
III.000.000.8327 1 34.000.000.000.3 1 1000 m3 0.201 42 7.0551 x 10-3 3.6 Gcal 238.
2 0.1023 1.001 1 1.2046 2204.120 1 5 x 10-4 lb 2.54 x 10-4 lt 9.84 x 10-4 0.102 x 10-3 1.984 1 0.C.016 0.6 240 2000 1
2) to: 1) from: kg t lt st lb
General Conversion Factors for Mass
kg 3) multiply by: 1 1000 1016 907.46 x 10-4 st 1.454 t 0.893 4.c.7.9072 4.
a.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
. Global Warming Potential 196. This manual does not deal with specific aspects of energy-producing enterprises (see the definition in the guideline for energy use in III.D. 192.2. III. A specific guideline on the global warming contribution by energy-producing companies.3. Global warming potential is the assumed impact of a substance on global warming. they should be included. The values are listed in Table 34.1.D. Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and. Methane (CH4).D. Global warming gases are all gases that are listed under the Kyoto Protocol/Convention (the protocol): (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Carbon dioxide (CO2). the agricultural sector and forestry needs to be developed. III. The contribution of a gas is considered significant when its share of the total global warming contribution of the company exceeds 1 per cent.
194. Global Warming Gases 193. III. This guidance should be applied in accounting for substances that contribute to global warming and which are listed under the Kyoto Protocol/Convention.
Accounting Treatment of Global Warming Contribution
190.3.b. III.2).D. These industries should use this manual on global warming contribution with care. Scope
191.3. agricultural activities and forestry. Nitrous oxide (N2O).D. Definitions
III. 195. The objective of this manual is to provide guidance regarding the accounting treatment of the global warming contribution of an enterprise. Hydrofluorocarbons HFCs. Global warming potentials are based on current scientific knowledge and are expressed in kg carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents per kg of the substance.D. uses or emits other substances that contribute to global warming other than the ones listed in the protocol and these gases make a significant contribution to the total global warming contribution of the reporting entity. If a enterprise produces. Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).
and transport-related global warming impacts are reduced to CO2 emissions caused by the use of non-renewable energy sources. For the time being. Examples include cement production.D.C). It is expressed in kg carbon dioxide (CO 2) equivalents per year. Global warming contribution is the amount of global warming gases (kg per year) multiplied by their respective global warming potential (kg CO2/kg and year). Electricity derived CO 2 emissions are based on the technology and fuels used in a specific country – the so-called electricity-mix. 199.
We are well aware that .c. Values are derived from data provided by the International Energy Agency. Energy. methane) are not considered.g.3.g.
.d. other global warming gases stemming from the use of energy and transport services (e. It is assumed that all carbon is oxidized to CO2 and no carbon is stored in residuals (e. A list of different fuels and the respective CO2 emissions is provided in Table 23. waste incineration and others. 27 201. the longer a substance is potentially able to contribute to global warming. CO2 emissions stemming from the use of fossil fuels are derived from the carbon content of the fuel. A country list is provided in Table 25. 203. Global warming potentials are dependent on the time frame: the longer the period. including electricity suppliers. For practical reasons. 204.Guidelines
197. Renewable energy is assumed to have no global warming contribution. Global Warming Gases Related to Other Industrial Processes 205. 202.3.3. Agricultural activities such as rice farming and cattle breeding also fall into this category. ashes).D.D. The amount of non-renewable energy and electricity used is based on the energy requirement as recognized using the guideline on energy use (III.when taking the whole product life cycle of renewable energy sources/systems into account – renewable energy sources are not 100 per cent free of global warming gas emissions. III. energy. Process-related and other global warming gases are all global warming gases caused by non-energy and non-transport processes. Global Warming Contribution 198. these are not dealt with specifically in this manual (see paragraph 192). The total global warming contribution of an enterprise is used as an indicator for the effect the enterprise has on an increase in global temperature.and Transport-Related Global Warming Gases 200. III. For the purpose of this manual the values for the 100-year time frame are used. Global warming potentials can be expressed in a 500-year time frame. III. However.e.
Recognition of Global Warming Gases
III. Global warming gases relating to other industrial processes are only recognized when these gases contribute significantly to the total global warming contribution of the reporting entity. 210. Global warming gases should be recognized in the period in which they are emitted. waste disposal.28 209. III.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
III. hydrology. while other energy-linked global warming gases (e.4.C.D. Examples of non-global-warming-related externalities include: negative impacts on biodiversity. economic development. 208. outsourcing activities which w ere once done on-site. gender issues. The programme is an additional component and not business as usual (= baseline). In General 206. Examples of global warming-related externalities include: activities simply shifting to other areas. The contribution of a gas is considered significant when its share of the total contribution of the company exceeds 1 per cent. Besides a clear statement of intent to reduce global warming contribution. the additional component should be demonstrated by using historical data. For the purpose of eco-efficiency reporting. Carbon offset/sequestration programmes undertaken by the reporting entity.4.D. chemical usage. non-methane volatile organic compounds) depend on the technology used. programme-induced changes in up.
CO2 emissions are related to the carbon content of the fuel. future trends and financial aspects (usually the aspect of carbon offset adds additional costs to a project compared with the baseline). only the amount of CO2 linked to the use of energy is recognized. based either on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). on Activities Jointly Implemented (AJI) or on similar initiatives. methane.d).D. capacity building etc.4.3. market incentives which lead to an increase in emissions elsewhere. 29 The programme is supplied with sufficient financial and managerial capacity and has the appropriate infrastruc ture and technological support.and transport-related global warming gases are recognised when the underlying energy is recognized (see the guideline on energy use. 207. economic priorities and regulations of the country of the participating party. are recognized when the following conditions are met: (a) (b) The programme does not violate the development objectives.b.or downstream processes leading to higher emissions.
.a. The programme does not cause negative externalities.g. Carbon Offset and Sequestration 211. Energy.
Fourth step: Significant global warming gases relating to other industrial processes are included. An independent body reviews the above criteria and a recognized national or international certification body certifies the effect.
212.5.C).5. The measurement of global warming contribution is mainly a matter of calculations. Third step: The amount of electricity expressed in work equivalents is converted to CO 2 emissions (the amount of CO2 linked to the use of electricity for different countries is listed in Table 25). Fifth step: The amounts of the different global warming gases are multiplied by their respective global warming potential to arrive at the global warming contribution of the reporting entity.D. Second step: The amount of energy expressed in heat equivalents is converted to CO2 emissions (the amount of CO2 linked to the use of nonrenewable energy sources is listed in Table 23). General Approach 213.Guidelines
The programme is monitored continuously and data on its carbon effect are collected on a yearly basis within an acceptable level of certainty. III.D. If the above conditions are met the offset or sequestrated amount of global warming gases can be deducted. It consists of the following steps: (a) (b) First step: The total energy requirement as defined by the guideline on energy use is determined (see III.
60 63.60 108.5.20 27.73 100.50 19.33 69. 50 per cent of the carbon content should be included as methane.80 15.60 20.07 101.17 94.83 94. Gas and Biomass Fuels
Carbon content (t C/TJ) 16. gas and biomass fuels (Table 23) are based on data provided by IPCC and are used for national greenhouse gas inventories (IPCC 1996b).20 20. Coal and Coal Products.90 19.90 25.b. It is assumed that all carbon is oxidized.50 29.80 17.80 26.
III. If biogas is released and not combusted.60 98.87 74.60 28.07 77.80 25.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Table 23 CO2 Emission Factors of Petroleum Products.00 Carbon emission factor (t CO2/TJ) 61. For gas biomass.50 71.
.50 25.60 56.17 108.10 47.60 94. CO2-Emission Factors for Fossil Fuels 214.50 25. a) This value is a default value until a fuel-specific CEF is determined.30 71.07 73.20 21.20 27.30 13. the carbon emission factor is based on the assumption that 50 per cent of the carbon in the biomass is converted to methane and 50 per cent is emitted as CO2.80 29.00 18.97 94.00 66.67 242.D.27 96. CO2-emission factors of petroleum products.20 105. coal and coal products. (44/12).80 26.00
Fuel carbon emission Petroleum products Ethane Lpg Naphtha Aviation gasoline Motor gasoline Jet gasoline Jet kerosene Other kerosene Gas/diesel fuel Heavy fuel oil/residual fuel oil Petroleum coke Coal and coal products Coking coal Other bituminous coal Anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite / brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Gas Natural gas (dry) Gas works gas Coke oven gas Blast furnace gas
Note: The carbon ("C") content is multiplied with the molecular weight ratio of CO2 to C.
.001007 0.000956 0. Maldives. Electricity-derived CO 2-emission factors are based on IEA data.000210 0.Guidelines
III. CO2-Emission Factors for Electricity 215. 216. Solomon Islands and Vanuatu) t CO2/kWh 0.000533 0. public combined heat and power generation and public heat plants. Table 24 Electricity-derived CO2-Emission Factors for Non-OECD Asia
Asia (Non-OECD) Bangladesh Brunei China.000797 0. Whenever country-specific factors are known these should be used. The factors in Table 24 to Table 33 have been calculated by taking CO2 emissions from public electricity and heat production (OECD/IEA 2001a) which incorporate emissions from public electricity generation.000556 0.000440 0. DPR Malaysia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Singapore Sri Lanka Thailand Viet Nam Other Asia (Afghanistan.5. Bhutan. China India Indonesia Korea. Papua New Guinea. which are assumed to have zero CO2 emissions.000621 0. Total emissions are then divided by the total electricity production (OECD/IEA 2001b) including electricity from nuclear power and renewables.000325 0.000690 0. Samoa.000603 0.000593 0.000486 0.000033 0. Kiribati.D. Fiji.000989 0. French Polynesia.c. to arrive at an emission factor of tonnes of CO2 per kWh of electricity produced. People's Republic of Taiwan (POC) Hong Kong. New Caledonia.000836 0.
A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Table 25 Electricity-derived CO2-Emission Factors for Africa
Africa Algeria Angola Benin Cameroon Congo, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of the Côte d'Ivoire Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Ghana Kenya Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nigeria Senegal South Africa Sudan Tanzania, United Republic of Togo Tunisia Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Other Africa (Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Niger, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Swaziland and Uganda) t CO2/kWh 0.000687 0.000328 0.000938 0.000952 0.000000 0.000004 0.000674 0.000480 0.000683 0.000024 0.000256 0.000189 0.000250 0.000632 0.000739 0.000001 0.000017 0.000365 0.000920 0.000862 0.000447 0.000035 0.001154 0.000564 0.000558 0.000000 0.000779 0.000629
Table 26 Electricity-derived CO2-Emission Factors for Non-OECD Europe
Europe (Non-OECD) Albania Bosnia-Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Gibraltar Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Malta Romania Slovenia Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of t CO2/kWh 0.000021 0.001572 0.000685 0.000418 0.000860 0.001613 0.000908 0.000971 0.001120 0.000640 0.001689
Table 27 Electricity-derived CO2-Emission Factors for Non-OECD Former USSR
Former USSR (Non-OECD) Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Estonia Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lithuania Moldova, Republic of Russian Federation Tajikistan Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan t CO2/kWh 0.000442 0.009216 0.001677 0.001476 0.000140 0.009002 0.000136 0.000976 0.011594 0.000992 0.001760 0.000045 1.744000 0.001317 0.001296
A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Table 28 Electricity-derived CO2-Emission Factors for Non-OECD Latin America
Latin America (non-OECD) Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Netherlands Antilles Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Trinidad and Tobago Uruguay Venezuela Other Latin America (Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Dominica, French Guiana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guyana, Martinique, Saint Kitts and Nevis and Anguilla, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Suriname) t CO2/kWh 0.000343 0.000482 0.000057 0.000461 0.000104 0.000024 0.000863 0.000655 0.000231 0.000269 0.000214 0.000415 0.000260 0.000676 0.000746 0.000585 0.000262 0.000000 0.000131 0.000696 0.000187 0.000191 0.000455
000737 0.000394 0.000000 0.000002 0.001082 0.000375 0. Islamic Republic of Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Syrian Arab Republic United Arab Emirates t CO2/kWh 0.000497 0.000373 0.000851 0.000762
Table 30 Electricity-derived CO2-Emission Factors for OECD Europe
Europe (OECD) Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Portugal Spain Sweden United Kingdom Czech Republic Hungary Iceland Norway Poland Slovak Republic Switzerland Turkey t CO2/kWh 0.000705 0.000672 0.000540 0.000476 0.000045 0.000544 0.000372 0.000048 0.000580 0.000745 0.Guidelines
Table 29 Electricity-derived CO2-Emission Factors for Middle East
Middle East Bahrain Iran.000157 0.000823 0.000639 0.000002 0.000004 0.001104 0.000259 0.000808 0.000815 0.000254 0.000699 0.000841 0.000565 0.000498 0.000487
000616 0.000297 0.001653 0.000476 0.000683 0.000540 0.000514
Table 32 Electricity-derived CO2-Emission Factors for OECD Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific (OECD) Japan Republic of Korea Australia New Zealand t CO2/kWh 0.000912 0.000124
Table 33 Electricity-derived CO2-Emission Factors for World Regions
World Regions World Africa Latin America Asia excluding China China Former USSR Middle East OECD total OECD North America OECD Pacific OECD Europe Non-OECD Europe Non-OECD total European Union t CO2/kWh 0.000527 0.000356 0.000792 0.000196 0.000819 0.000371 0.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Table 31 Electricity-derived CO2-Emission Factors for North America
North America Mexico Canada United States t CO2/kWh 0.000362 0.001007 0.000169 0.000349
.000663 0.000420 0.
218.5. III. Calculating Global Warming Contribution 219.d. the amounts of global warming gases are multiplied by their respective global warming potentials.e.5. The item "global warming contribution" is used for the calculation of the ecoefficiency indicator "global warming contribution per unit of net value added" (see paragraph 76(c)). The amount of global warming gases related to other industrial processes should be metered. 222. Table 34 and Table 35 provide values for the main global warming gases and groups of global warming gases.D. Global Warming Gases Related to Other Industrial Processes 217. To arrive at the global warming contribution pertaining to the activities of the enterprise. 220. Where the actual substance is not known but the substance group is known the highest value of that group should be applied.
. If an amount is estimated or calculated the range of uncertainty should be recorded.D. 221.Guidelines
4 330 52.0 9 400 5.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Table 34 Global Warming Potentials Part I
Global warming gas Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide Methane Methane Nitrous oxide Nitrous oxide Hydrofluorocarbons HFC-23 HFC-32 HFC-41 HFC-125 HFC-134 HFC-134a HFC-143 HFC-143a HFC-152 HFC-152a HFC-161 HFC-227ea HFC-236cb HFC-236ea HFC-236fa HFC-245ca HFC-245fa HFC-365mfc HFC-43-10mee CO2 CH 4 N2O CHF3 CH2F2 CH3F CHF2CF3 CHF2CHF2 CH 2FCF3 CHF2CH2F CF3CH3 CH2FCH2F CH 3CHF2 CH3CH2F CF3CHFCF3 CH 2FCF2CF3 CHF2CHFCF3 CF3CH2CF3 CH 2FCF2CHF2 CHF2CH2CF3 CF3CH2CF2CH3 CF3CHFCHFCF2CF3 Lifetime Global Warming Potential (years) (100 years) (kg CO2-equivalent per kg carbon dioxide) 1 (kg CO2-equivalent per kg methane) 12.4 120 0.0 4 300 0.0 3 500 13.9 890 15.0 1 200 220.5 43 1.2 1 300 10.9 640 7.6 97 29.0 23 (kg CO2-equivalent per kg nitrous oxide) 114 296 (kg CO2-equivalent per kg hydrofluorocarbons) 260.0 3 400 9.8 1 300 3.
.0 1 500 (kg CO2-equivalent per kg sulphur hexafluoride) 3 200 22 600 50 000 5 700 10 000 11 900 2 600 8 600 2 600 8 600 3 200 10 000 4 100 8 900 3 200 9 000
Fully fluorinated species SF6 CF4 C2 F6 C3 F8 C4F10 c-C4F8 C5F12 C6F14 Source: IPCC (2001).6 1 100 13.3 12 33.0 12 000 5.0 550 2.2 950 9.
Table 35 Global Warming Potentials Part II
Global warming gas Ethers and halogenated ethers CH3OCH3 HFE-125 CF3OCHF2 HFE-134 CHF2OCHF2 HFE-143a CH 3OCF3 HCFE-235da2 CF3CHClOCHF2 HFE-245fa2 CF3CH2OCHF2 HFE-254cb2 CHF2CF2OCH 3 HFE-7100 C4F9OCH3 HFE-7200 C4F9OC2H 5 H-Galden 1040x CHF2OCF2OC2F4OCHF2 HG-10 CHF2OCF2OCHF2 HG-01 CHF2OCF2CF2OCHF2 Source: IPCC (2001). the objectives and targets regarding global warming and the measures taken to achieve the targets.7. The total global warming contribution during the accounting period and the respective amounts of the previous year.
.2 6100 4. The accounting policies adopted for global warming gases.1 2700 6.4 570 0.015 1 150 14900 26. An example of a disclosure of global warming contribution is given in the annex.3 1800 12.D.6 340 4. Lifetime Global warming potential (years) (100 years) (kg CO2-equivalent per kg per fluorocarbons) 0.D.2 1500
Disclosure of global warming gases
223. The amount of each category of global warming gas recognized during the accounting period and the respective amounts of the previous year.a. An enterprise should disclose: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) The eco-efficiency indicator "global warming contribution per unit of net value added".77 55 6. The management's stance on energy use.4 750 2. III.0 390 0.22 30 5.
Example of a Disclosure of Global Warming Contribution 224./kg 67 800 000 67 800 000 392 040 000 10 000 000 39.7.D.D. A disclosure on global warming contribution consists of two parts: (a) Global warming contributions (Table 36) caused by CO2-emissons related to energy use and other global warming gases caused by other industrial energy processes.
Annex to Global Warming Contribution
III. global warming policy. Global Warming Policy. Targets and Measures
Accounting policy Energy policy Targets Measures
. Table 36 Global Warming Contribution
CO2 emissions related to energy use Energy requirement 2001 2002 Electricity (Germany) 10 000 000 11 000 000 Electricity (Switzerland) 20 000 000 25 000 000 Natural gas (dry) 1 700 2 000 Bituminous coal 2 000 2 200 Motor gasoline 500 600 Energy derived global warming contribution Other industrial Processes Other global warming gases Sulphur hexafluoride (t) Other global warming gases Total global warming contribution Net value added Eco-efficiency indicator "global warming contribution/net value added" 2001 3'000 2002 Global warming contribution 2001 2002 4 980 000 5 478 000 40 000 50 000 95 370 000 112 200 000 189 200 000 208 120 000 34 650 000 41 580 000 324 240 000 367 428 000 (100 y) (t CO2) (t CO2) (t CO2) (t CO2) (t CO2) (t CO2)
MWh MWh GJ GJ GJ
Global Warming Potential (GWP) kg CO2-eq. Accounting policy on global warming gases.7.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
III.155 (t CO2-eq/€)
Table 37 Accounting Policy on Global Warming Gases.204 63 280 000 (t CO2-eq) 63 280 000 (t CO2-eq) 430 708 000 (t CO2-eq) 11 000 000 (€) 39. targets and measures (Table 37).a.
Energy Supply 225. III.b.(i) Renewable Energy
226. mineral oils and other non-energy petroleum products are not considered energy use.b.(v)). Geothermal energy (see III. energy supply is divided into two broad categories.
.C. Renewable energy is divided into the following sub-categories according to its source (for a more detailed description see III. 229. petroleum coke. lubricating oils and grease. gas/diesel fuel.C.7. Non-Renewable Energy
III. Hydropower (see III.7.C.7. gas works gas and substitute gas.C.D. jet fuels. Ocean thermal and mechanical energy (see III.7.7.(v)).(viii)). paraffin waxes. bitumen (asphalt).Guidelines
III. Biomass energy (see III. Non-renewable energy refers to any energy resource that is either not replaced or is replaced very slowly by natural processes.b.C. kerosene. Non-renewable energy is divided into the following sub-categories according to its source (for a more detailed description see III.7.C.b. 227.b): (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Direct solar energy (see III.(v)).b.b): (a) Petroleum Including: liquefied petroleum gases and ethane.b. naphtha.b.7.b. heavy fuel oil. energy supply that is based on renewable energy sources and energy supply based on non-renewable energy sources.(vii)).(ii)
228.7.7. motor gasoline.30 Gas Including: natural gas.C.(vi)).D. blast furnace gas. Wind energy (see III. or from other natural movements and mechanisms of the environment. All other energy sources (including waste) are considered to be nonrenewable. aviation gasoline. coke oven gas.b.C.7. industrial spirit.D.7. Renewable energy refers to any energy resource that is naturally regenerated over a short time scale and derived directly or indirectly from the sun. For the purpose of accounting for global warming gases.
Non-energy refined petroleum products used such as white spirit.
All other energy sources not listed in the above paragraph and not defined as renewable are considered "other non-renewable energy". peat. bituminous coal and anthracite (hard coal). patent fuel and brown coal/peat briquettes (BKB).
. sub-bituminous coal. III. Nuclear fuels Within the scope of this guideline (energy sector is excluded) nuclear fuels are not considered an energy source and therefore not taken into account as a source of global warming gases (see also the guideline on energy use. lignite and brown coal.3.c).C. gas coke.
230. coke oven coke.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Coal and coal products Including: coking coal (hard coal).
B. The objective of this manual is to provide guidance regarding the accounting treatment of ozone-depleting substances.
Also see UNEP 1999.31 III. C or E of the Protocol. The terms used in this manual are defined as follows. Definitions
233. as compared with the same mass of CFC-11 (CFCl3).E.Guidelines
III. Ozone-depleting potential values are listed in Annex A. Ozone-depleting potential (ODP) is an assigned value indicating a substance's impact on the stratospheric ozone layer per unit mass of a gas.E. and Can be influenced by an enterprise through specific measures and programmes. III. that is.7. For illustrative purposes a list is provided in III.a. 236. B.
. The result indicates the contribution of the amount of that substance to the depletion of the ozone layer expressed in CFC-11 equivalents.E.
Accounting Treatment of Ozone-Depleting Substances
231.1. Ozone-depleting substances (ODS) are all bulk chemicals/substances – existing either as a pure substance or as a mixture – that are controlled under the Montreal Protocol.3.a. Defined in this manual. C or E of the Protocol.E. Ozone-depleting contribution (ODC) is calculated by multiplying the amount of an ozone-depleting substance by the ozone-depleting potential of that substance (see Box 5).E. 235. Potentials and Contributions 234. This guidance should be applied by enterprises in accounting for all ozonedepleting substances which are: (a) (b) III. they are listed in Annex A.E.2.a. Ozone-Depleting Substances. Scope
232.3. For illustrative purposes a list is provided in III. III.7.E.
This means that 100 kg of halon-1211 has the same impact on the depletion of the ozone layer as 300 kg CFC-11. Ozone-depleting substances which exist as a substance Ozone-depleting substances are sold as pure substances or as mixtures (blends).E. a refrigerator or a fire extinguisher are examples of a use system. The reference substance normally taken is CFC-11 with an ozone depletion potential of 1.g. How much is the ozone-depleting contribution of this specific halon use? The answer is quite simple: multiply the amount of halon-1211 (100 kg) by the ozone depletion potential value of 3 (kg CFC-11 equivalent/kg halon-1211) to come to the ozone depletion contribution (ODC) of 300 kg CFC-11 equivalent. The most important ozone-depleting substances are controlled under the Montreal Protocol. In the Annex of the Montreal Protocol every substance controlled is listed together with a value expressing the ozone depletion potential. Assume a company uses 100 kg of halon-1211 during a reporting period.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Box 5. Ozonedepleting substances are considered part of a use system when the product is applied directly to realize its intended use and is not contained in a container used for storage or transport of the substance. A limited number of ozone-depleting substances are not yet controlled under the Protocol because they have not been produced or consumed in significant quantities. ozonedepleting substances. Mixtures are chemicals which contain two or more ozonedepleting substances or one or more ozone-depleting substances mixed with other non-ozone-depleting chemicals (see Box 6). Such substances are considered to be embodied in goods or equipment.b.7. III. An ozone depletion potential value indicates how much impact a certain substance has on the depletion of the ozone layer relative to a reference substance. in principle. be it liquid or gaseous (for examples see annex. refrigerator).c). ozone depletion potential values are expressed in kg CFC11 equivalents per kg of the respective substance.
III. Forms of Existence of ODS 237. Ozone-depleting substances can exist in two forms: (a) Ozone-depleting substances which exist as part of a "use system". foam) or by a release valve (e. Example: The ozone-depleting substance Halon-1211 is listed with an ozone depletion potential of 3. Containers are not considered products. therefore. Ozone-depleting substances that are part of a use system can be separated from the product by a special purpose recovery process (e.g. How to Calculate the Ozone-Depleting Contribution
All substances having an ozone-depleting potential above zero are.3.
.E. These are generally chemicals containing chlorine and/or bromine. A pure controlled substance contains only one ozone-depleting substance. A variety of goods and equipment contain ozone-depleting substances.
reclaimed or recycled prior to use is a new substance. 32
Consumption equals production plus imports minus exports of controlled substances. 239.h. For example. reclaimed or recycled.
III. reclamation and recycling of ozone-depleting substances Feedstock use of ozone-depleting substances Ozone-depleting substances that are used in the manufacture of other chemicals and are completely transformed in the process are defined as feedstock. Hydrocarbon 600a is not an ODS and does not need to be reported. In other words.E. For example. unused). without being consumed.5 tons of R-406A.E. any ozone-depleting substance that has not been recovered. Production of ozone-depleting substances means literally the amount of virgin ozone-depleting substances added by the reporting entity. this would add 0.d. Production of ODS 240. 41 per cent HCFC-142b and 4 per cent HC-600a.825 tons to the HCFC-22 figure (1. III. a large number of ODS mixtures used as refrigerants and solvents exist.3. Types of ODS 238. In particular.55) and 0. when they are used in the production of other chemicals. 241. Process agents Ozone-depleting substances are considered process agents.
.3.c. when they are manufactured using ODS which are not recovered.3. Source: UNEP (1999).41). If the company purchases 1. The following operations of the reporting entity cannot be considered as producing ozone-depleting substances: (a) (b) Recovery. carbon tetrachloride is commonly used in the production of CFCs. reclaimed and/or recycled as defined in III.5 multiplied by 0. R-406A contains 55 per cent HCFC-22. Ozone-depleting substances are considered reused if they have been recovered.615 tons to the HCFC-142b figure (1. for example as a catalyst or an inhibitor of a chemical reaction.E. Mixtures
A number of mixtures containing different ODS have been introduced as replacements for pure ODS.Guidelines
Box 6.5 multiplied by 0. Ozone-depleting substances are considered new (virgin.
Ozone-depleting substances as substances for goods manufactured Any ozone-depleting substance existing either as a pure substance or a mixture (as defined in paragraph 237(b)) that a company receives from third parties and which is used to deliver a certain feature for the reporting entity's manufactured goods. Ozone-depleting substances embodied in equipment for own use Any ozone-depleting substances embodied in the reporting entity's equipment as defined in paragraph 237(a) that a company receives from third parties and is used to deliver a certain feature for the reporting entity's own equipment.E. Equipment is considered to be a enterprise's own when the entity that operates the equipment is part of the same legal entity or is consolidated in the financial statement of the group (for consolidation issues see I. Equipment is considered to be a company's own when the entity that operates the equipment is part of the same legal entity or is consolidated in the financial statement of the group (for consolidation issues see I.A). be it purchased or manufactured.e. Ozone-depleting substances embodied in traded goods Any ozone-depleting substance embodied as defined in paragraph 237(a) in traded goods and used to deliver a certain feature either for the reporting entity or for third parties.
. Goods are considered supplied when they are purchased by the reporting entity from third parties.A).3. Repackaging is not considered a change of product. Purchase of ODS 242. other manufactured and semi-manufactured goods into a finished product using technical know-how. ODS are purchased in many different forms: (a) Ozone-depleting substances embodied in supplied goods Any ozone-depleting substances embodied in a use system as defined in paragraph 237(a) and used to deliver a certain feature for a product that is sold.A). equipment and energy with the purpose of selling the product to a third party. A good is considered to be manufactured when the reporting entity processes raw materials.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
III. A process is considered to be a company's own when the entity that operates the process is part of the same legal entity or is consolidated in the financial statement of the group (for consolidation issues see I. Goods are considered traded when the reporting entity sells supplied goods leaving them unchanged. Ozone-depleting substances as substances for own equipment Any ozone-depleting substance as defined in paragraph 237(b) that a enterprise receives from third parties and is used to deliver a certain feature for the reporting entity's own equipment. Ozone-depleting substances as substances for own production process Any ozone-depleting substance as defined in paragraph 237(b) that a company receives from third parties and which is used to deliver a certain feature for the reporting entity's own production process.
reclaim. 246.g. and so forth. drying. Dependency on ODS 245.f.3. Reclamation Reclamation means the reprocessing and upgrading of a recovered ozone-depleting substance through such methods as filtering. Stocks of ODS 243. in goods. The dependency of an enterprise on ozone-depleting substances is defined as production plus purchases and stocks. Reclamation and Recycling of ODS 247.E.E.i.
III. equipment. results in the permanent transformation or decomposition of all or a significant portion of such substances. containment vessels. distillation and chemical treatment in order to restore the substance to a specified standard of performance. Stocks include ozone-depleting substances in containers. Destruction of ODS 248.3.
III. recovery. III.3. The item "dependency on ozone-depleting substances" is used for the calculation of the eco-efficiency indicator "dependency on ODS per net value added" (see paragraph 76(d)).E. Stocks are defined as any ozone-depleting substance stored or accumulated on the reporting entity’s premises for use.3. 244. Ozone-depleting substances can be recovered.
. when applied to ozonedepleting substances. recycling or destruction in the future. III. Repackaging is not considered a change of a substance. reclaimed and recycled: (a) Recovery Recovery means the collection and storage of ozone-depleting substances from machinery.Guidelines
Ozone-depleting substances as substance for trade Any ozone-depleting substances as defined in paragraph 237(b) and used to deliver a certain feature either for the reporting entity or for third parties. Substances are considered traded when the reporting entity sells supplied substances leaving them unchanged. Recycling Recycling means the reuse of a recovered ozone-depleting substance following a basic cleaning process such as filtering and drying. during servicing or prior to disposal. Destruction of ODS refers to any process which. in own equipment and in use as process agents.E.h. Recovery.
ODS in equipment. 252. Ozone-depleting substances handed over to third parties . reclaimed. Sales of ODS 249. recycled. 33
For information about the composition of mixtures.unepie. from it.3 should be recognized in the period in which they are (a) (b) Produced. destroyed.
III. III.for purposes other than recovery. Sales of ODS shall be divided into the following four sub-categories: (a) (b) (c) (d) ODS in manufactured goods. sold and in stock. reclamation or destruction .3 should be recognized at the beginning and at the end of an accounting period. sold or emitted.E. 253.org/ozonaction. destroyed.3. Recognition of Ozone-Depleting Substances
254.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
III. reclaimed. ODS in traded goods. A mixture containing ozone-depleting substances shall be recognized according to their respective components. recovered.3. The item "emissions of ozone-depleting substances" can be used for the calculation of a secondary eco-efficiency indicator "emissions of ODS per net value added". An emission of an ozone-depleting substance occurs when the substance leaves the reporting entity during ordinary and extraordinary activities of an enterprise in such a way that it is technically impossible to regain control over the relevant ODS. 256. purchased.shall be considered sales regardless of whether the underlying financial transaction has a negative or positive value for the reporting entity. reused. Emissions of ODS 251. recycling.E.C. Ozone-depleting substances as defined in III. 250.E. and When it is probable that the amount or value can be measured. used as feedstock. circulated by UNEP Industry and Environment OzonAction Programme. recycled. Stocks of ozone-depleting substances as defined by III. or refer to the OzonAction website at http://www. Emissions of ozone-depleting substances can be derived by calculating the total dependency on ODS and subtracting the amount recovered.4.C. refer to the database reference tool known as the OAIC-DV MKV.
. ODS in containers.html.j.
litres and cubic metres. If an amount is estimated or calculated the range of uncertainty should be recorded. metric tons.
. 261.E.F. Ozone-depleting substances should be measured in kilograms. An example of a disclosure of ozone-depleting substances is given in the annex. The accounting policies adopted for ozone-depleting substances. and According to the respective ozone depletion potential (kg or metric t CFC-11 equivalent. 259.E. The total amount of ozone-depleting substances recognized during the accounting period and the respective amounts of the previous year. global warming potential). An enterprise should disclose: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) The eco-efficiency indicator "dependency on ODS per net value added". III. According to weight (kg. III. Ozone-depleting substances should be weighed or metered. Ozone-depleting substances shall be reported (a) (b) III. The total ozone depletion contribution as recognized during the accounting period and the respective amounts of the previous year.5.E. Special attention should be drawn to replacement technology and replacement substances and their respective environmental impact (e. Disclosure of Ozone-Depleting Substances
262. Measurement of Ozone-Depleting Substances
258. metric t) of the respective substance. 260. the objectives and targets regarding ozone-depleting substances and the measures taken to achieve the targets. The ozone depletion potential of a substance shall be recognized according to the latest ozone depletion potential values listed in the Montreal Protocol.g.6. see Box 5 in III.a).Guidelines
257. The targets shall be compared with the targets set out in the Montreal Protocol.3. The management's stance on ozone-depleting substances and the Montreal Protocol.
Total emissions of ODS (Table 39). Accounting policy on ODS. purchase and stocks. reclamation.E. ODS policy.traded goods purchased ODS for .supplied goods .) 2000 2001 40 40 20 20
Purpose and form Production produced ODS Production of ODS Purchase purchased ODS embodied in .own production processes .04
1 1 0 0
0.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
III. feedstock use.
Annex to Ozone-Depleting Substances
III. recycling.goods manufactured .08 4.own equipment .84 72. stocks and sales.08
0.925 0.E.supplied equipment . destruction.663
Eco-efficiency indicator "dependency on ODS/value added" (t/€)
The difference between the total amount and the amount listed as new ODS (virgin) is used ODS (recycled).44 92.7.52
52 0.a. Table 38 Dependency on ODS
Total (t substance) 2000 2001 1 000 1 000 500 500 New ODS * (t substance) 2000 2001 10 10 50 50 Total ODC (t CFC-11 eq.
. targets and measures (Table 40).8 52. Example of a Disclosure of Ozone-Depleting Substances 263. covering recovery.88
10 000 11 000 0.04
Purchase of ODS Stocks ODS in goods ODS as substance in containers ODS in equipment halon-1301 ODS in use as process agent HCFC-124 Stocks of ODS Total dependency on ODS Net value added (€)
10 0.4 48.for trade
ODP 0.7. An ODS disclosure consists of three parts: (a) (b) (c) Total dependency on ODS (Table 38).04
1 1 200 10 1 211
1 1 300 20 1 321
48 0. covering production.04 0.
1. recycled ODS Destruction of ODS and feedstock use feedstock use of ODS ODS destroyed halon-1301 Destruction of ODS and feedstock use Sales ODS in manufactured goods ODS in traded goods ODS as substance in containers ODS in equipment sold halon-1301 Sales Stocks of ODS (from Table 38) Total ODS emissions (derived) Net value added (€) Secondary eco-efficiency indicator "emissions of ODS/value added" (kg/€)
Table 39 Total Emissions of ODS
Purpose and form Substance ODP Total (t substance) 2000 2001 Total ODC (t CFC-11 eq.781
Table 40 Accounting Policy on ODS.44 21.012
2.84 1. Targets and Measures
Accounting policy on ODS ODS policy Targets Measures
2. recycled ODS Recovered Reclaimed Recycled HCFC-124 Recovered.88
Total dependency on ODS (from Table 38) Recovered. reclaimed.) 2000 2001 92.104
0 0 52. reclaimed.96 11 000 1. ODS Policy.5
15 15 48.52 72.0848 0.12
0.04 10 000 2.
b. Copenhagen (1992).0 6. 34 265. the highest value in that range shall be used for the purposes of this guideline.E. Table 41 lists controlled substances and their respective ozone-depleting potential according to the Montreal Protocol. Controlled Substances and their Ozone Depletion Potential according to the Montreal Protocol 264.0 1.0 0. Vienna (1995). Ozone-depleting potentials are based on existing knowledge and will be reviewed and updated periodically.0 0. Where a range of ozone-depleting potentials is indicated.
. 267.0 10. Ozone-depleting potentials are expressed in kg CFC-11 (CFCl3) equivalent per kg of the respective substance 266. The texts of the adjustments and amendments to the Protocol as agreed by the Parties to the Protocol are available at the Ozone Secretariat in UNEP or the Treaties Sections of the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of various Governments.8 1.7.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
III. Montreal (1997) and Beijing (1999). 268.6 3.0
As adjusted and/or amended in London (1990). Table 41 Controlled Substances and their Ozone Depletion Potential Montreal Protocol
Annex A Group Group I CFCl3 CF2Cl2 C2F3Cl3 C2F4Cl2 C2F5Cl Group II CF2BrCl CF3Br C2F4Br2 (Montreal Protocol) Substance (CFC-11) (CFC-12) (CFC-113) (CFC-114) (CFC-115) (halon-1211) (halon-1301) (halon-2402) Ozone-Depleting Potential 1.
Ozone-depleting potential 1.1.04 0.0 1.08 0.055 0.0 1.01–0.2-trichloromethane.04 0.0 1.05 0.1
Table 43 Controlled Substances and their Ozone Depletion Potential Copenhagen Amendment to the Montreal Protocol Part 1
Annex C Group Group I CHFCl2 CHF2Cl CH2FCl C2HFCl4 C2HF2Cl3 C2HF3Cl2 CHCl2CF3 C2HF4Cl CHFClCF3 C2H 2FCl3 C2H 2F2Cl2 C2H 2F3Cl C2H 3FCl2 (Copenhagen Amendment to the Montreal Protocol) Substance (HCFC-21)
Number of isomers 1 1 1 2 3 3 – 2 – 3 4 3 3
Ozone-depleting potential 0.04 0.1.1 (methyl 0. Identifies the most commercially viable substances with ODP values listed against them to be used for the purposes of the Protocol.022 0.Guidelines
Table 42 Controlled Substances and their Ozone Depletion Potential London Amendment to the Montreal Protocol
Annex B Group Group I CF3Cl C2FCl5 C2F2Cl4 C3FCl7 C3F2Cl6 C3F3Cl5 C3F4Cl4 C3F5Cl3 C3F6Cl2 C3F7Cl Group II CCl4 Group III C2H 3Cl3 (London Amendment to the Montreal Protocol) Substance (CFC-13) (CFC-111) (CFC-112) (CFC-211) (CFC-212) (CFC-213) (CFC-214) (CFC-215) (CFC-216) (CFC-217) Carbon tetrachloride 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.02–0.007–0.06 0.02–0.02 0.0 1.0 1.07
(HCFC-22) (HCFC-31) (HCFC-121) (HCFC-122) (HCFC-123) (HCFC-123)** (HCFC-124) (HCFC-124)** (HCFC-131) (HCFC-132) (HCFC-133) (HCFC-141)
This formula does not refer to 1.06 0.05 0.02–0.0 1.0 1.005–0.02–0.008–0.02 0.
A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Table 44 Controlled Substances and their Ozone Depletion Potential Copenhagen Amendment to the Montreal Protocol Part 2
Annex C Group Group I cont.001–0.02 0.10 0.065 0.10 0.07 0.09 0. CH3CFCl2 C2H 3F2Cl CH3CF2Cl C2H 4FCl C3HFCl6 C3HF2Cl5 C3HF3Cl4 C3HF4Cl3 C3HF5Cl2 CF3CF2CHCl2 CF2ClCF2CHClF C3HF6Cl C3H 2FCl5 C3H 2F2Cl4 C3H 2F3Cl3 C3H 2F4Cl2 C3H 2F5Cl C3H 3FCl4 C3H 3F2Cl3 C3H 3F3Cl2 C3H 3F4Cl C3H 4FCl3 C3H 4F2Cl2 C3H 4F3Cl C3H 5FCl2 C3H 5F2Cl C3H 6FCl Group II (Copenhagen Amendment to the Montreal Protocol) Substance (HCFC-141b)** (HCFC-142) (HCFC-142b)** (HCFC-151) (HCFC-221) (HCFC-222) (HCFC-223) (HCFC-224) (HCFC-225) (HCFC-225ca)** (HCFC-225cb)** (HCFC-226) (HCFC-231) (HCFC-232) (HCFC-233) (HCFC-234) (HCFC-235) (HCFC-241) (HCFC-242) (HCFC-243) (HCFC-244) (HCFC-251) (HCFC-252) (HCFC-253) (HCFC-261) (HCFC-262) (HCFC-271) Number of isomers – 3 – 2 5 9 12 12 9 – – 5 9 16 18 16 9 12 18 18 12 12 16 12 9 9 5 Ozone-depleting potential 0.04 0.09 0.007–0. Therefore.03 0.09 0.007–0.003–0. we do not list them in this guideline.008–0.05–0.07 0.002–0. Bromochloromethane 1 0.005–0.11 0.02–0.23 0.03–0.13 0. Consult the Copenhagen Amendment to the Montreal Protocol for the original list.02–0.01 0.003–0.002–0.01–0.005–0.52 0.008–0.6
.004–0.01–0.033 0.01–0.09 0.08 0.12 0.03
Note: HBFCs (hydrobromofluorocarbons) have already been phased out by all Parties.009–0.01–0.12
Group III CH2BrCl Annex E Group Group I CH3Br
Substance Methyl bromide
Ozone-depleting potential 0.07 0.14 0.015–0.005 0.02 0.001–0.025 0.28 0.
.g.: • • • • • • Refrigerators Freezers Dehumidifiers Water coolers Ice machines Air conditioning and heat pump units
Aerosol products Portable fire extinguishers Insulation boards. Table 45 lists products which contain ozone-depleting substances as specified in Annex A of the Protocol. Table 45 A list of products containing controlled substances specified in Annex A of the Protocol
Products Automobile and truck air conditioning units (whether incorporated in vehicles or not) Domestic and commercial refrigeration and air conditioning/heat pump equipment. panels and pipe covers Pre-polymers Source: UNEP (1999).E.c. Products Containing Ozone-Depleting Substances 269.Guidelines
Carbon Tetrachloride. 1301. HCFCs 225. 11. 115. 113. 114 Polyurmethane foam.
. 113. 225cb. 2402. Methyl Chloroform (1. 124. heat pumps. and structures and transportation e.g. Main Sectors using Ozone-Depleting Substances 270. 124 CFCs 12. Source: UNEP (1999).1. 123. commercial. extruded polystyrene HCFCs 22. air conditioning Electronics. perishables. 141b. tobacco fluffing Halons 1211.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
III. 112) CFC-113. metal applications cleaning. polyolefin foams. 123. 124. CFCs 11. 113.d. 142b (in particular for various kinds of insulation. 12. Table 46 Main Sectors Using Ozone-Depleting Substances
Sector Aerosols and sterilants Foams Sub-sector Substance mainly used CFCs 11. 142b. durables.
Note: The following substances are not included in the list: B I substances (other fully halogenated CFCs) are rarely used and C II substances (HBFCs) are not used. packaging. cushions/bedding) Fire extinguishing Domestic. industrial. 114. dry cleaning. food processing and storage. other fully halogenated CFCs (CFC 13. 225ca. Table 46 lists products which contain controlled substances as specified in Annex A of the Protocol.1-trichloromethane). 123.7.E. HCFCs 22. HCFCs 22. 12. 114. 141b Methyl Bromide
Fire fighting Refrigeration
Fumigation etc. 123. aerosols Fumigation of soil. transport refrigeration. coatings and inks. precision cleaning. phenolic foams.
brick and glass. III.F.F.
Examples of mineral waste include rock. Mineralized waste is non-mineral waste treated in a manner that the result is of mineral quality. Accounting Treatment of Waste III. Waste can be solid. liquid or have a paste-like consistency. This guidance should be applied by all enterprises in accounting for all types of waste generated by them as defined in III. agricultural waste and most industrial waste.2.3. Waste is divided into the following sub-categories according to its quality: (a) Mineral Waste that is categorized as mineral or mineralized is inert (see Box 7).F. accumulated net costs/revenues during the reporting period are used to determine the market value. essentially insoluble and not decomposable. Waste is defined as a non-product output with a negative or zero market value.F. General Definition of Waste 273.F. Non-mineral Waste that is categorized as non-mineral has the potential to be chemically and/or biologically reactive. III. Definitions
271. Discharge requires special landfill technology and/or long-term landfill management.1. If the value of the waste fluctuates according to market conditions.b. Examples include household waste.36 Mineral quality waste is safe by nature.a. III. The objective of this manual is to provide guidance regarding the accounting treatment of waste. All waste containing carbon that can be oxidized is non-mineral waste.F.Guidelines
III.3. It can be discharged without requiring special landfill technology and/or long-term landfill management. Definitions Based on the Quality of Waste 275.3. Scope
272. Non-mineral waste can be mineralized through waste treatment technology.
.F. Water and air-polluting emissions – although they are non-product output – are not regarded as waste. for example all carbon is oxidized through an incineration process. is soluble and/or 37 decomposable.3. 274.
(b). as a result of being radioactive. Forest and Landscape.F. The eluate is the liquid left after the process of elution. Wastes which are not covered by any of the above paragraphs (a). consisting of dissolved matter and the solvent used. is subject to other national or international control systems. When a crushed sample of waste is extracted with distilled water no more than a certain limit of waste per kg of dry substance is dissolved. or considered to be. hazardous waste by the domestic legislation in the country where the waste is generated by the reporting enterprise. The concentration of heavy metals is limited.3. Waste is further classified according to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Basel Convention). Technical Ordinance on Waste. carbonates or aluminates. Defined limits of different substances are not exceeded in the eluate 39 of the waste.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Box 7. (c) or (d) shall be regarded as "other waste". usually an absorbed material from an absorbent material. by washing it out with a solvent. If no specific information is available on the quality of the waste it is assumed to be non-mineral.
(b) (c) (d)
279.c. Waste that possesses any of the characteristics contained in Annex III of the Basel Convention. 95 per cent) relative to the dry substance consists of material similar to stone such as silicates.g. 1996 Elution is the process of removing one substance from another. Definitions Based on the Classification of Waste 277.F.
Based on the definition by the Swiss Agency for the Environment. Inert material38
Waste is deemed to be inert if chemical analysis reveals the following: A high percentage of waste by weight (e. III. Waste that is not covered under paragraphs (a) and (b) but is defined as. Waste which. 278.a) and possessing any of the characteristics contained in Annex III of the Basel Convention. Waste is classified as hazardous when one or more of the following conditions are met: (a) Waste belonging to any category contained in Annex I of the Basel Convention (see III.7.
III. (iv) Open-loop The recycled. or product after it has been removed from a clearly defined service cycle in a new manufacturing process that goes beyond cleaning. that are supposed to be treated adequately (for treatment schemes that convert waste to energy see Box 8). Waste treatment technologies are processes applied to waste to permanently alter their condition through chemical. reused or re-manufactured material is not returned to the processes of the reporting entity. (v) Closed-loop The recycled. Definitions Referring to Waste Treatment Technology 280. however. (b) Waste incineration Incineration of waste. ash. Pre-treatment processes that condition the waste for recycling are regarded as part of the recycling path. reporting companies shall further distinguish between open. it is returned to the market. It results in the output of "other" waste streams. repair or refurbishing. Energy recovery (called "thermal recycling") is not regarded as recycling but as incineration. 283. biological or physical means.and closed-loop reuse. (iii) Recycling is recovery and reuse of materials from scrap or other waste materials for the production of new goods. Types of controlled incineration processes include:
. which renders it harmless. heat etc. repair or refurbishing may be done between uses. Waste treatment technology is divided into the following sub-categories: (a) Reuse. Waste treatment includes temporary storage but not collection and transportation of waste. For the purpose of eco-efficiency.d.. cleaning. mineralizes it and reduces the volume of solid residuals. for final disposal. and intend to reduce or eliminate their danger to people and the environment.F. reused or remanufactured material is returned to the processes of the reporting entity. Reuse does not include a manufacturing process. Treatment of waste means recovery of waste. slag. 282. recycling (i) Reuse is the additional use of a component. 281. re-manufacturing. (ii) Re-manufacturing is the additional use of a component. In-process recycling is the shortest possible closed-loop. part or product after it has been removed from a clearly defined service cycle. re-manufacturing and recycling. that is air emissions. Waste is considered temporarily stored when it will later undergo a waste treatment process. part. instead.3.
A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
(i) Low-temperature (municipal) waste incinerators; (ii) High-temperature waste incinerators; (iii) Cement kilns.
Box 8. Waste to Energy Schemes
Waste can be directly combusted in waste-to-energy incinerators or it can be processed as refuse-derived fuel before incineration (or combustion e.g. in power plants), and it can be gasified using pyrolysis or thermal gasification techniques. Another waste-to-energy process is the recovery of landfill gas or the gas produced by anaerobic fermentation (digestion) of municipal sewage sludge. For the purpose of this guideline we suggest that incineration not be distinguished by the type of energy recovery scheme attached to the incineration process but rather that incineration schemes be distinguished by the technology used to mineralize waste. The fact that energy is recovered should be disclosed.
Sanitary landfill Sanitary landfills provide outlets for the ultimate disposal of waste generated. A sanitary landfill is a controlled area of land on which waste is disposed of, in accordance with standards, rules or orders established by a regulatory body. Waste material is placed in trenches or on land, compacted by mechanical equipment and covered with earth and a final cover. Within the category of sanitary landfill three technologies can be distinguished: (i) Bioactive sanitary landfills The material is of non-mineral quality (see III.F.3.b). It is reactive and therefore needs extensive control systems covering the operational, closure and post-closure phase.40 The chemical composition of the residues is not known.
(ii) Sanitary landfills for stabilized residues Similar to (i) but for materials that will not form either gases or water soluble substances when in contact with water, air or other stabilized residues. The chemical composition of the residues is well known. (iii) Sanitary landfills for inert materials The material is inert (mineral quality, see III.F.3.b). Therefore the landfill needs no control systems during the operation phase, closure and post-closure phase.
For example, ground water is monitored, corrective action requirements are in place, closure and post-closure criteria are defined, an operation and maintenance manual and a leachate management plan exists, and so on.
Open dumpsite An open dumpsite is an uncontrolled area of land on which waste is disposed, either legally or illegally. Special cases: Pre-treatment and temporary on-site storage of waste (i) Pre-treatment Pre-treatment processes prepare waste for incineration or landfill. For the purpose of this guideline, pre-treatment does not constitute a separate category of waste treatment technology. Waste that undergoes external pre-treatment is dealt with under waste incineration and landfill. If the path is not known and documented, landfill is assumed. (ii) Temporary on-site storage Waste that is temporary stored on-site and for which the treatment technology is not yet known constitutes a separate category of waste treatment technology. The reporting entity shall give special attention to include adequate information on the technology used and the processes involved in the on-site storage.
284. If no company-specific information on the treatment technology is available, landfill is assumed as the default treatment technology. 285. Companies shall disclose information on the quality of treatment technology applied to waste. The classification should at least cover the following categories (world-wide or country specific): (a) (b) (c) Best available technology; Average technology; Worst available technology.
286. If no information is disclosed on the type of technology used it is assumed to be the worst available technology. III.F.3.e. Definitions Referring to the Location of Waste Treatment 287. On-site refers to all processes and activities that take place on premises under the control of the reporting entity. 288. Off-site refers to all processes and activities that take place on premises out of the control of the reporting entity. 289. Control is the power to govern the financial and operating policies of an enterprise so as to obtain benefits from its activities (IAS 27, paragraph 6). III.F.3.f. Definitions Referring to Waste Generated 290. Total waste generated during a reporting period is defined as the total amount of all mineral, non-mineral and/or hazardous waste as defined by
A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
III.F.3.c and treated by any waste treatment technology as defined by III.F.3.d This excludes the amount that is treated either on-site or off-site (see III.F.3.e) through closed-loop recycling, reuse or remanufacturing processes (see paragraph 283(a)(v)). 291. The item "waste generated" is used for the calculation of the eco-efficiency indicator "waste generated per unit of value added" (see paragraph 76(e)). III.F.4. Recognition of Waste
292. Waste as defined by III.F.3.a should be recognized in the period in which it is generated. If generated waste is temporarily stored on-site the stockpile should be recognized at the beginning and the end of the reporting period. 293. The quality of waste as defined by III.F.3.b should be recognized in the period in which it is generated. 294. The class of waste as defined by III.F.3.c should be recognized prior to being treated. 295. Waste treatment technology as defined by III.F.3.d should be recognized when the waste is treated (on-site treatment) and/or when it gets out of the control of the reporting enterprise (off-site treatment). III.F.5. Measurement of Waste
296. Waste should be weighed or metered. 297. Waste should be measured in kilograms and metric tons, litres or cubic metres. 298. If an amount of waste is estimated or calculated the range of uncertainty should be recorded. 299. Waste shall be reported according to weight (kg, t) and not volume (litres, m3). III.F.6. Disclosure of Waste
300. An enterprise should disclose: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) The eco-efficiency indicator "waste generated per unit of net value added"; The accounting policies adopted on waste; Total amount of waste recognized during the accounting period and the respective amounts of the previous year; The quality of the waste as recognized; The classification of the waste as recognized;
III. the objectives and targets regarding waste and the measures taken to achieve the targets.
Annex to Waste
III. Energy recovery in waste-to-energy schemes. A disclosure on waste generated consists of three parts: (a) (b) Total waste generated according to the quality and classification of the waste and the treatment technology applied.G. waste policy. The management's stance on waste management policy. Example of Disclosure of Waste 301. targets and measures (Table 48).a. Accounting policy on waste.7.
(f) (g) (h)
The treatment technology as recognized. An example of a disclosure of waste is given in the annex.7. III.F.
3 18.3 75.3 14.2 38.656 0.7 5.8 74.0 -14.4 16. recycling • Reuse • Remanufacturing • Recycling Incineration • Low-temperature • High-temperature • Cement kilns Sanitary landfills • Landfills for bioactive materials • Landfills for stabilized materials • Landfills for inert materials Open dumpsite Temporary stored on-site° Total Closed-loop reuse.1 3.3 1 000 1 100
0.3 21.0 0. Targets and Measures
Accounting policy Waste policy Targets Measures
.5 -1.1 1.0 210.1 -1.0 7.0 0.9 51.3 28. while the column "hazardous" lists that amount of non-mineral waste that is classified as hazardous.4 16.4 35.3 22.1 78.6 61.1
321.4 8.2 5.8 10.3 671.2 -2.8 73.5 130.4 3.3 68.0 0.3 55. recycling • Reuse • Remanufacturing • Recycling Total waste generated Net value added (€) Eco-efficiency indicator "waste generated/net value added" (m3/€) Notes: Quality and classification Mineral Non-mineral Non-hazardous Hazardous 2000 2001 2000 2001 2000 2001 83.7 10.6 6.4 52.4 438.3 9.2 0.9 -0.3 20.9 67. Waste Policy.5 22.0 222.2 0.6 99 51.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Table 47 Waste Generated
Waste generated Treatment technology Open-loop reuse.0 1.8 32.6 125.6 -15.2 10. °To store waste temporary on-site best technologies are used.3 0.5 14.4 227.9 34.5 97.4 24.7 13.4 9.5 8.9 340.9 16.0 -0.3 -15.4 1.5 -10.1 0.9 0.6 12.4 74.0 -1.1 0.3 56.0 26.3 12.8 15.9 208.4 45. remanufacturing.6 10.
Table 48 Accounting Policy on Waste.1 44.438
*The columns "non-mineral" and "mineral" add up to 100%.2 79.2 87.6 41.4
656.2 104.3 5.8 126.8 3.0 30.3 97.6 -3.1 72.2 12.0 -12.0 -2.7 Total* 2000 2001
189.7 58.0 0.6 21.2 -0.8 60 80.2 1.5 82.0 -5.0 46.0 -12.2 12.6 453.8 39.3 19.7 33.3 5.6 36.0 -1.9 5.5 -1.5 39.6 230.4 107.2 7.0 68.1 71.0 3.1 -1.0 21.7 90.2 -12.4 107. remanufacturing.6 42.8 23.5 26.4 2.8 105.9 132.3 9.8 7.9 19.1 -0.9 335.0 -10.2 8.7 58.0 1.0
331.5 5.4 94.4 55.
Under the Basel Convention (Annex I. dyes. distillation and any pyrolytic treatment Wastes from production.Guidelines
III. tellurium compounds Mercury. formulation and use of inks. antimony compounds Tellurium. varnish Wastes from production. latex. categories Y1-45) the categories of waste in Table 49 have to be controlled. mercury compounds
Y11 Y12 Y13 Y14
Y15 Y16 Y17 Y18 Y19 Y20 Y21 Y22 Y23 Y24 Y25 Y26 Y27 Y28 Y29
. selenium compounds Cadmium. cadmium compounds Antimony. hydrocarbons/water mixtures. emulsions Waste substances and articles containing or contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and/or polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) and/or polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) Waste tarry residues arising from refining. Annex I of the Basel Convention 302. pigments. medical centres and clinics Wastes from the production and preparation of pharmaceutical products Waste pharmaceuticals. formulation and use of organic solvents Wastes from heat treatment and tempering operations containing cyanides Waste mineral oils unfit for their originally intended use Waste oils/water.7. plasticizers.F. paints. beryllium compounds Hexavalent chromium compounds Copper compounds Zinc compounds Arsenic. formulation and use of resins. Table 49 Annex I of the Basel Convention Categories of Waste to be Controlled Y1-Y29
Category Definition Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7 Y8 Y9 Y10 Clinical wastes from medical care in hospitals.b. arsenic compounds Selenium. formulation and use of photographic chemicals and processing materials Wastes resulting from surface treatment of metals and plastics Residues arising from industrial waste disposal operations Metal carbonyls Beryllium. lacquers. formulation and use of biocides and phytopharmaceuticals Wastes from the manufacture. formulation and use of wood preserving chemicals Wastes from the production. glues/adhesives Waste chemical substances arising from research and development or teaching activities which are not identified and/or are new and whose effects on man and/or the environment are not known Wastes of an explosive nature not subject to other legislation Wastes from production. drugs and medicines Wastes from the production.
Y44). thallium compounds Lead. Y43.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Table 50 Annex I of the Basel Convention Categories of Waste to be Controlled Y30-Y45
Category Definition Y30 Y31 Y32 Y33 Y34 Y35 Y36 Y37 Y38 Y39 Y40 Y41 Y42 Y43 Y44 Y45 Thallium. Y41.
. Y39. phenol compounds including chlorophenols Ethers Halogenated organic solvents Organic solvents excluding halogenated solvents Any congenor of polychlorinated dibenzo-furan Any congenor of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin Organohalogen compounds other than substances referred to in this Annex (e. lead compounds Inorganic fluorine compounds excluding calcium fluoride Inorganic cyanides Acidic solutions or acids in solid form Basic solutions or bases in solid form Asbestos (dust and fibres) Organic phosphorous compounds Organic cyanides Phenols.g. Y42.
UN Class1 1
Code Characteristics H1 Explosive An explosive substance or waste is a solid or liquid substance or waste (or mixture of substances or wastes) which is in itself capable by chemical reaction of producing gas at such a temperature and pressure and at such speed as to cause damage to the surroundings.c..3
III.) Flammable solids Solids.2
4. regulations varying from the above figures to make allowance for such differences would be within the spirit of this definition. Table 51 Annex III of the Basel Convention List of Hazardous Characteristics Class 1-4. and being then liable to catch fire.1
4. lacquers. Substances or wastes which. closed-cup test. which under conditions encountered in transport are readily combustible. other than those classed as explosives.6EC. by interaction with water. or to heating up on contact with air. or not more than 65. or waste solids.
4. paints. categories H1-H13) hazardous waste possesses the characteristics listed in Table 51 and Table 52.
. Annex III of the Basel Convention 303. According to the Basel Convention (Annex III. United Nations. or liquids containing solids in solution or suspension (for example. Flammable liquids The word "flammable" has the same meaning as "inflammable. in contact with water. 1988).5.3
Corresponds to the hazard classification system included in the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (ST/SG/AC. etc." Flammable liquids are liquids. (Since the results of open-cup tests and of closed-cup tests are not strictly comparable and even individual results by the same test are often variable. but not including substances or wastes otherwise classified on account of their dangerous characteristics) which give off a flammable vapour at temperatures of not more than 60. open-cup test. Substances or wastes liable to spontaneous combustion Substances or wastes which are liable to spontaneous heating under normal conditions encountered in transport. are liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable gases in dangerous quantities. emit flammable gases Substances or wastes which.1
H4. New York.F.10/1Rev.7. or mixtures of liquids. varnishes.2
H4. or may cause or contribute to fire through friction.
or even destroy.2
H6. Organic Peroxides Organic substances or wastes which contain the bivalent-OO-structure are thermally unstable substances which may undergo exothermic selfaccelerating decomposition. including carcinogenicity. Toxic (Delayed or chronic) Substances or wastes which. by chemical action.2
H6. of yielding another material. Liberation of toxic gases in contact with air or water Substances or wastes which. e. Standardised tests have been derived with respect to pure substances and materials.1 Oxidising Substances or wastes which. generally by yielding oxygen. leachate.) H5. tests to define quantitatively these hazards do not exist. which can be applied to materials listed in Annex I. will cause severe damage when in contact with living tissue.. in order to decide if these materials exhibit any of the characteristics listed in this Annex.2
6. Infectious substances Substances or wastes containing viable micro-organisms or their toxins which are known or suspected to cause disease in animals or humans. by interaction with air or water.g. the combustion of other materials. may involve delayed or chronic effects. Many countries have developed national tests. are liable to give off toxic gases in dangerous quantities. Ecotoxic Substances or wastes which if released present or may present immediate or delayed adverse impacts to the environment by means of bioaccumulation and/or toxic effects upon biotic systems. Tests The potential hazards posed by certain types of wastes are not yet fully documented. may. they may also cause other hazards. or. or contribute to. by any means. will materially damage.1
5.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Table 52 Annex III of the Basel Convention List of Hazardous Characteristics Class 5. Poisonous (Acute) Substances or wastes liable either to cause death or serious injury or to harm health if swallowed or inhaled or by skin contact. other goods or the means of transport. Further research is necessary in order to develop means to characterise potential hazards posed to man and/or the environment by these wastes.1 Code Characteristics (cont.1-9
UN Class1 5. if they are inhaled or ingested or if they penetrate the skin. in the case of leakage. which possesses any of the characteristics listed above. Corrosives Substances or wastes which. after disposal. cause. while in themselves not necessarily combustible.2
III.G. Accounting Treatment of the Financial Items III.G.1. Objective
304. The objective of this manual is to provide guidance on the accounting treatment of the financial items used as reference figures for normalization in eco-efficiency accounting and reporting. III.G.2. Scope
305. This guidance should be applied by all enterprises in accounting for all reference figures used as normalization values for eco-efficiency indicators. III.G.3. Definitions
306. All financial items are defined in line with the International Accounting Standards (IAS). 307. For the purpose of eco-efficiency accounting and reporting, the following items are of importance and are defined as follows: (a) (b) (c) Value Added (see Box 9) Value Added = Revenue – Purchase of Goods and Services Net Value Added = Value Added - Depreciation on tangible assets Revenue is defined as the gross inflow of economic benefits during a period arising in the course of the ordinary activities of an enterprise when those inflows result in an increase in equity, excluding increases relating to contributions from equity participants (see IAS 18). Revenue includes only gross inflows of economic benefits received and receivable by the enterprise on its own account. It does not include taxes collected on behalf of third parties, nor does it include the amounts collected on behalf of the principle as in an agency relation. Revenue is generated from the following transactions as defined by IAS 18: (i) Sales of goods; (ii) Rendering of services; (iii) Interest, royalties and dividends Purchase of goods and services is the gross outflow of economic benefit to the supplier of the goods and services during a period arising in the course of the ordinary activities of an enterprise when those outflows would qualify as revenue according to IAS 18 with the supplier.
A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Box 9. Value Added/Net Value Added
Value added is a widely used but often poorly understood concept in accounting. It is widely used in the sense that value added is the aggregate that gets taxed by a value added tax scheme. A value added tax is levied on the value which is added to the goods or services in question at each stage in the production and distribution process. This is achieved by levying a tax at each point en route, as ownership passes from one person to another. At every stage, "output" tax is charged on the current sales value, but the "input" tax which has been charged by those at an earlier stage of the game can be offset or recovered. Thus the tax liability at each stage is based on the difference between the value of the outputs and the value of the inputs (hence "added value"). Most countries have implemented a VAT. For social reporting it is used to show how the value created is distributed amongst different stakeholders (employees, lenders, authorities, shareholders). Value added is used as a normalization figure in environmental reports especially with multi-product companies, where for example tonnes of production is meaningless. There are two alternative ways to calculate value added, one method asks how value added is generated (source or tax approach), while the other asks how value added is distributed (distribution approach): • • Source or tax approach: Value added = Revenue – Cost of goods and services purchased Distribution approach: Value added = Salaries + Depreciation + Amortisation + Interest Paid + Taxes + Dividends + Retained Profit
Both approaches yield the same answer. 42 For the purpose of eco-efficiency accounting we need to go one step further (Lahti-Nuuttila 2002). Investment goods are not accounted for as goods and services purchased but rather as depreciation, although both are purchased from outside the enterprise. For the purpose of eco-efficiency accounting, investment goods (tangible assets to be precise) and goods purchased should not be treated differently. Their value has been created outside the enterprise and the energy, water etc. used and the waste produced for the production of the asset are accounted for within the accounts of the enterprise that produced the respective asset. Therefore, depreciation on tangible assets is deducted from value added. The resulting figure is defined as follows: Net value added = Revenue – Cost of goods and services purchased – Depreciation on tangible assets Net value added = Salaries + Amortization on intangible assets + Interest paid + Taxes + Dividends + Retained Profit
On the assumption that tangible assets are purchased from outside the enterprise. In turn, only amortisation of intangible assets is included in value added under the distribution approach.
308. The financial items shall be recognized according to applicable IAS standards. III.G.5. Measurement
309. The financial items shall be measured according to applicable IAS standards. III.G.6. Disclosure
310. The financial items shall be disclosed according to applicable IAS standards.
paragraph 6).H. (iii) Control is the power to govern the financial and operating policies of an enterprise so as to obtain benefits from its activities (IAS 27. more than half of the voting power of an enterprise (IAS 27. paragraph 2). The following terms are used in this guideline with the meanings specified: (a) A subsidiary is an enterprise that is controlled by another enterprise (known as a parent) (IAS 27. the methods of consolidation must be known and it must be clear that all entities consolidated have applied uniform accounting policies for like transactions and other events in similar circumstances.H.
312.2.H. A joint venture is a contractual arrangement whereby two or more parties undertake an economic activity. The objective of this manual is to provide guidance on the accounting treatment for eco-efficiency indicators and their environmental and financial items respectively. Definition
314. An associate is an enterprise in which the investor has significant influence and which is neither a subsidiary nor a joint venture of the investor (IAS 28.H.
. Primary Issues in Consolidating Environmental Items
311. The method of consolidation For a useful analysis of consolidated data. paragraph 12). Objective
313. paragraph 6). its investments in associates and/or joint ventures. paragraph 3). which is subject to joint control (IAS 31. III. certain data may or may not appear in the consolidated group accounts. directly or indirectly through subsidiaries. According to the consolidation method applied. paragraph 6).1.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
III. III. (ii) A group is a parent and all its subsidiaries (IAS 27.3. The primary issues in consolidating environmental items are: (a) The scope of consolidation The scope of consolidation indicates which enterprises are and which are not integrated into the consolidated figures. paragraph 6). for a parent and its subsidiaries. Consolidation of Eco-efficiency Indicators III. The scope and the methods of consolidation applied can influence the consolidated financial and environmental figures materially. Control is presumed to exist when the parent owns. (i) A parent is an enterprise that has one or more subsidiaries (IAS 27.
Consolidated eco-efficiency statements should be prepared using uniform accounting policies for both the environmental and the financial items for like transactions and other events in similar circumstances (IAS 27. Accounting policies for consolidation as defined by IAS 27.E.Guidelines
Consolidated eco-efficiency information is the eco-efficiency data of a parent and its subsidiaries.
320. investments in associates (IAS 28) and investments in joint ventures (IAS 31).H.1 of the framework on the principle of congruity). Scope of Guidance
III. 318. Therefore the consolidation method used for the consolidated financial report (equity. full. its interests in associates and joint ventures presented as those of a single enterprise.H. The implications are as follows: (a) (b) The consolidated eco-efficiency data fully include the environmental and financial items of subsidiaries that are controlled by the parent.1) shall also be applied to the consolidation of the environmental items used for the eco-efficiency indicators. Consolidated using the equity method. for a description of these methods see I. The starting point for the recognition and measurement of eco-efficiency information .are activities and events of the reporting entity. then the environmental items shall also be consolidated on the basis of equity consolidation.5. If the financial items or group of financial items used for a consolidated eco-efficiency statement (net value added. 319. This guidance should be applied by all enterprises in the preparation and presentation of consolidated eco-efficiency data for subsidiaries (IAS 27). 316. proportional consolidation. then the environmental items shall also be fully consolidated. 28. In the case of associates where equity consolidation is applied the consolidated eco-efficiency data do not include environmental and financial items of the associates.regardless of whether it is environmental or financial . paragraph 21).4. III. 31 and other standards apply accordingly.
315. This implies that uniform accounting policies must be applied when consolidating financial and environmental items (see paragraph above).
. Proportionally consolidated then the environmental items shall also be proportionally consolidated. an enterprise shall look at the same set of activities and events as when recognizing the financial information (see II. purchase of goods and services) are (a) (b) (c) Fully consolidated.A. revenue. Consolidation Procedure
317. When recognizing environmental information.
Full Consolidation 323. income and expenses. equity. A management discussion on the financial and environmental aspects of mergers. liabilities. In a consolidated eco-efficiency statement an enterprise should disclose a listing of all subsidiaries. The magnitude of control (e. A management discussion on the financial and environmental aspects of the consolidation methodology and procedure applied. the parent enterprise owns or controls. In that case. and any unrealized losses would also be eliminated unless costs cannot be recovered.27. in practice. This means that. Inter-enterprise balances and inter-enterprise transactions are totally eliminated.
322. Under full consolidation. 324.g. The enterprise under the parent’s control is referred to as a subsidiary. The eco-efficiency information of all consolidated entities.7.
III. proportionately. The consolidation method used in the financial statements. The carrying amounts of any inter-enterprise investments (in particular.H. or by using the equity method.H. acquisitions or divesting activities in the reporting period.H. Annex to Consolidation
(e) (f) III. Full consolidation is normally applied to all enterprises that are controlled by a parent enterprise. 50 per cent or more of voting rights. directly or indirectly. equity consolidation or proportional consolidation. the financial statements of the enterprises in the group are combined on a line-by-line basis by adding together like items of assets.
321. those of the parent enterprise) and the related portion of the equity of each of the group enterprises are eliminated. environmental and financial items of the joint venture are included in the consolidated ecoefficiency data in line with the percentage used in financial consolidation. the percentage of voting share).31): III. Any unrealized profits resulting from inter-enterprise transactions are eliminated. The standard procedures are (IAS 22.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
In the case of joint ventures where proportionate consolidation is applied the consolidated eco-efficiency data include environmental and financial items of the joint venture. regardless of whether they are consolidated fully. investments in associates and joint ventures including (a) (b) (c) (d) The names and descriptions of all subsidiaries. IAS and other standards require three different methods of consolidation depending on the stake of the investor: full consolidation.7. investments in associates and joint ventures.6.a.
paragraph 8). The consolidated income statements reflect the transnational corporation’s share of the operating results of the other enterprise" (UNCTAD 1994. "Significant influence" is described by the IASB as the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investee but not control over those policies (IAS 28. inter-enterprise balances and inter-enterprise transactions are eliminated. inter-enterprise balances and inter-enterprise transactions are eliminated. The equity method is normally applied for investments in "associates". Equity Method 325.
Under the cost method. the investment is recorded at its initial cost. paragraph 3). As is the case in full consolidation. the method is not permitted in some jurisdictions. Even in this situation. liabilities. An "associate" is an enterprise which is neither a subsidiary nor a joint venture and in which the investor has a significant influence (normally. 329. paragraph 3). Under the equity method. together with any unrealized profits and losses relating thereto. paragraph 2). Under proportionate consolidation. The Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR) has indicated that "under the equity method. paragraph 50). Proportionate consolidation is normally only used in accounting for the interests in a joint venture (which has been defined by the IASB as "a contractual arrangement whereby two or more parties undertake an economic activity so as to obtain benefits from it" (IAS 31.
.b. income and expenses of the other group’s enterprises is combined on a line-by-line basis with similar items in the parent’s/investor’s financial statements. arising after the investment has been made. Proportionate Consolidation 328. Standards issued by the IASB indicate that "an investment in an associate should be accounted for in consolidated financial statements under the equity method except when the investment is acquired and held exclusively with a view to its disposal in the near future in which case it should be accounted for under the cost method" 43 (IAS 28.c. together with any unrealized profits and losses relating thereto. 327. The income statement reflects income from the investment only to the extent that the investor receives a share of the accumulated net profits of the investee. the parent’s/investor’s share of each of the assets. an initial investment by a transnational corporation in another enterprise is so adjusted in the consolidated financial statements of the transnational corporation as to reflect its share of the net assets of the other enterprise. between 20 per cent and 49 per cent).7. Again. the investor’s investment in an investee enterprise is initially recorded at cost and is adjusted thereafter for changes in the net assets of that enterprise (IAS 28. 326.Guidelines
IASB Framework. UNEP: 2000. Copenhagen 1992. IPCC (2001): Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. in: IASB: International Accounting Standards 2002. IAS #. Beijing 1999. Montreal Protocol (2000): The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer as adjusted and/or amended in London 1990. OECD/IEA (1997): Indicators of Energy Use and Efficiency. Paris: OECD. October/November 2002. OECD/IEA (2001a): CO2-Emissions from Fuel Combustion 1971-1999. IPCC (1996b): Revised 1996 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Kyoto Protocol (1997): Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.com/projects/eco_efficiency_indicators. Montreal 1997. Vienna 1995. OECD/IEA (2001c): Energy Balances and Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries 1998-1999. Lahti-Nuuttila. Kimmo (2002): Personal e-mail correspondence. IPCC (1996a): Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. Swiss Agency for the Environment.ellipson. GRI (2001): The Global Reporting Initiative Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. OECD/IEA (2001b): Energy Balances and Energy Statistics of OECD Countries 19981999.
Basel Convention (1992): Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal. Workbook and Reporting Instructions. Paris: OECD.html).
. Reference Manual. Paris: OECD. IASB (2002): International Accounting Standards 2002. Schaltegger/Sturm (1989): Ökologieinduzierte Entscheidungsinstrumente des Managements. Forest and Landscape (1996): Technical Ordinance on Waste. in: IASB: International Accounting Standards 2002.IV. Sturm/Müller (2001): Standardized Eco-Efficiency Indicators 2001 (http://www.
. The Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting. WBCSD (1996): Changing Course. UNEP (1999): Handbook on Data Reporting under the Montreal Protocol. by Stefan Schmidheiny et. UNEP (2000): The GHG Indicator: UNEP Guidelines for Calculating Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Businesses and Non-Commercial Organizations. UNCTAD (2001): Integrating Environmental and Financial Performance at the Enterprise Level: A Methodology for Standardizing Eco-efficiency Indicators.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
UNCTAD (1994): Conclusions on Accounting and Reporting by Transnational Corporations.
. with the World Business Council for Sustainable Development. al.
(Switzerland) Founder of concepts for carbon (c4c) Claude Fussler World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). Child Villiers Christopher Wells
. (Germany). Lecturer for Accounting Nestlé S. Quantitative Team c4c ltd. SRI Manager
Dr. The members of the steering group are: Christoph Butz Pictet & Cie. Suphamit Techamontrikul R. Moore
Dr. Research Studies Director Chulalongkorn University Bangkok (Thailand).V.A. Senior Manager Environmental Protection Ciba Specialty Chemicals Inc.
330. Sustainability Expert. (Switzerland) ABN AMRO (Brazil). (Switzerland). Chief Executive Officer DaimlerChrysler Ltd. Head EcoEfficiency Projects Eastern Central and Southern African Federation of Accountants (ECSAFA). Health and Safety Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants (CICA). (Switzerland). Nairobi/Kenya. Udo Hartmann Charles Peter Naish
David J. Group Service Environment.
VI. Kaspar Müller Ellipson Ltd Leonhardsgraben 52 CH-4051 Basel Switzerland Ms.org/isar or at http://www. Kandy Sri Lanka
The most recent version is always available at http://www. Constantine Bartel Phone +41-22-917-5802.com For information. 5495.org Mail: UNCTAD-ISAR DITE-UNCTAD Palais des Nations 1211-Geneva 10 Switzerland
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AUTHORS e-mail: sturm@ellipson. Mr.com Web: www. Sri Dharmapala Mawatha Asgiriya.ellipson.ellipson.