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UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT
A Manual for the Preparers and Users of
New York and Geneva, 2004
NOTES UNCTAD serves as the focal point within the United Nations Secretariat for all matters related to foreign direct investment and transnational corporations. In the past, the Programme on Transnational Corporations was carried out by the United Nations Centre on Transnational Corporations (1975–1992) and the Transnational Corporations and Management Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Development (1992–1993). In 1993, the Programme was transferred to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. UNCTAD seeks to further the understanding of the nature of transnational corporations and their contribution to development and to create an enabling environment for international investment and enterprise development. UNCTAD’s work is carried out through intergovernmental deliberations, technical assistance activities, seminars, workshops and conferences. Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters combined with figures. Mention of such a symbol indicates a reference to a United Nations document. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Material in this publication may be freely quoted or reprinted, but acknowledgement is requested, together with a reference to the document symbol. A copy of the publication containing the quotation or reprint should be sent to the UNCTAD secretariat and Ellipson.
UNCTAD/ITE/IPC/2003/7 UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION Sales No. E.04.II.D.13 ISBN 92-1-112620-7
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This publication is the third contribution of UNCTAD and the Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR) to the field of environmental accounting. The manual was prepared under the overall direction of Lorraine Ruffing and Con Bartel. The UNCTAD secretariat would like to thank the World Bank for its funding and the authors, Dr. Andreas Sturm, Kaspar Müller (Ellipson Ltd, Basel, Switzerland) and Suji Upasena (Arrow Consult, Kandy, Sri Lanka). This manual was vetted by a number of experts from the ISAR steering group, including Christophe Butz (Pictet & Cie), Claude Fussler (WBCSD), Ndung'u Gathinji (ECSAFA), Dr. Udo Hartmann (DaimlerChrysler Ltd), Charles Peter Naish (Ciba Specialty Chemicals Inc), David J. Moore (CICA), Dr. Suphamit Techamontrikul (Chulalongkorn University Bangkok), R. Child Villiers (Nestlé) and Christopher Wells (ABN AMRO).
their suppliers and the community. ISAR issued its first recommendations for environmental disclosure in financial statements in 1991. In particular. In 1989 ISAR took up the topic of corporate environmental accounting. their customers. iv . as well as information on its corporate governance structures and procedures. It found that the financial information provided by transnational corporations was not reliable. Its objective in issuing a new guideline – Accounting and Financial Reporting for Environmental Costs and Liabilities – was to ensure that different standard-setters did not adopt different solutions for the same problems. The Group soon discovered in its first survey that there were no national accounting standards specific to environmental information disclosure. However. sustainable value or sustainable business. it is obvious that in the post-Enron era. In 1998 ISAR revisited the issue of environmental disclosure and expanded its recommendations based on emerging best practices. On the other hand. some CEOs believed that environmental information was not necessary for a true and fair view of the enterprise's performance or that it was too difficult to obtain. including its environment. the financial community is concerned about how environmental performance affects the financial results of an enterprise. To meet this obvious need for guidance. various stakeholders are demanding that enterprises report on these improvements. transparent or comparable. This guidance was soon followed by intense study and analysis by national standard-setters. enterprise management must take into account the impact of their performance on their employees. the Economic and Social Council created the Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR). The environmental world summits in Rio (1992) and Johannesburg (2002) have shown that the business community has become committed to the concept of sustainable development and to improving its environmental performance. it is clear that the conventional accounting model is not able to assess an enterprise's environmental performance and its impact on financial performance to the degree desired by all stakeholders. This concern about sustainable development is now complemented in the postEnron era by corporate concern about "sustainable value" or "sustainable business".PREFACE The United Nations' work on transparency and accountability originated in 1975 when the former UN Commission on Transnational Corporations became concerned about the lack of meaningful disclosure by transnational corporations in their financial statements. In order to promote the harmonization of financial information and meaningful disclosure to all users of financial statements. Furthermore. This is because the conventional model was developed to provide information only on financial position and performance. To achieve sustainable development. stakeholders want non-financial information covering the enterprise's environmental and social performance. However.
The precise correlation between improved environmental performance of an enterprise and its bottom line is extremely difficult to prove because of the many factors that can affect profits. the concept of ecoefficiency. Rubens Ricupero Secretary-General of UNCTAD v . The manual provides detailed explanations and examples for the preparers and users of eco-efficiency indicators so that they can produce internally consistent environmental and financial information. demonstrates such a link. This manual presents a method by which environmental and financial performance indicators can be used together to measure an enterprise's progress in attaining eco-efficiency or sustainability. their construction and use are highly problematic. However. where increased profits are achieved under conditions of declining environmental impact. thus improving the quality of environmental reporting and stakeholder satisfaction. Despite the practical usefulness of eco-efficiency indicators.This manual presents the results of ISAR's work to extend the conventional accounting model and to link environmental performance with financial performance.
..................C............................A....... 1 I.............. xii I..... Duty of Users ............. Improve Decision-Making ................................... Introduction..3..2............................................................2............. 8 II...........B................C....................... Going Concern .1...3........................................... 8 II......Table of Contents Notes...............................11 II.................4.......................... Conceptual Accounting and Reporting Framework for Ecoefficiency Reporting ............. Consensus and Quality of Information ....................14 vi ............................................................4.. Users and Their Information Needs .......................................F................................ 7 II..........B........................................................13 II........ iii Preface.................... Objectives.........4............11 II. Complement Financial Statements.......... Reliability ..........B....... 4 II..................... 7 II........................ Provide Information.B........ iv Abbrevations ............2........1......C...................... Understandability .................................13 II..13 II........ Underlying Assumptions ...1............... 7 II...... 7 II.........E...F.. 8 II. 10 II........ 12 II............................3......F.. Overview ... Qualitative Characteristics...3..................... 3 I.......................................................................................... Rationale for an Accounting Framework for Eco-efficiency Reporting............................................... Introduction to the Framework .....2.......B....... The Accounting Framework for Eco-efficiency..............B.. 9 II. 4 I... Comparability ..............................A.......ii Acknowledgements....2.......... Reporting Scope ............................... Purpose and Status .............. Reporting Entity and the Principle of Congruity .......................F.. 3 I..10 II........... Accrual Basis .........F......C..................................11 II...............E..............E............................ 7 II.......................1...........................................E................ Elements and Items of an Eco-efficiency Statement .................... Scope ............. 1 I..........B.............................. 8 II.................... 3 I................................................. Relevance and Materiality.............1...........................................................D.......................................... Financial Accounting Framework as a Starting Point ....... Objectives of Eco-efficiency Indicators...........................................B...... 8 II..........E....................................................3..B.
............. Annex to Energy Use ....b.... 16 II........ Accounting Treatment of Energy Use ................29 III........... Water Received and its Source ....... Disclosure ......................................B....... Accounting Treatment of Water Use .... Annexes to Water Use ..15 II.................. 60 III.....3..................................... Definitions ........................C.......... Global Warming Contribution..b..........C............3............7.......c......................... Objective ...29 III.21 III.....................3.....27 III....................C..............29 III............3..50 III. Measurement..........................C.....7...... Recognition and Measurement of Items ... Objective ..................60 III...1.........D.26 III.... 20 III........... Energy Sources. Definitions ............ Units and Conversions .......61 vii ............. Global Warming Potential.............2.....c........G.......a. Forms and Sources of Energy ...................6.b......20 III....5......................................26 III................ Definitions ..60 III..............B......... 19 III..50 III...3... Releases of Water...........B..........C.....30 III.............16 II....D............3.......a............................. True and Fair View/Fair Presentation ......B..D....7..B... General ......27 III.........20 III.............B.....................B..C.........49 III..d................. Global Warming Gases..........C...20 III.................7.16 III...................................3.......C............D.....a...............................................2..................... Recognition .....D.........................1....3..a.......B.......7...........................................3......7..........5.26 III.....C.............G.... Scope ...............................D......................C.......................a...1............ Disclosure of Energy Use .................29 III........... Balancing Qualitative Characteristics ...................II.......B.C.....2.. Recognition16 II.....1......20 III................... Scope .6.....F..............B.49 III..............................A........5........ General Definition of Energy and Energy Use .B..C............. Accounting Treatment of Global Warming Contribution................. General Scope .............52 III........................... Measurement of Energy......b.......... Kinds of Water Use ...C...3.................60 III. Guidelines .....................D.3............20 III...2.............4...................... Example of Disclosure of Water Use . 19 III.........B..... Recognition of Energy ...............49 III......60 III....c...........................................25 III....C.....B........................................C...... Example of Disclosure of Energy Use .... Measurement of Water Use ....................3... Conversion Factors from Thermal Equivalents to Work...........................................d............................F......................... Objective ..29 III.. 29 III...............4...58 III..........c......................... Scope ...............50 III......... Purchase and Sale of Energy...................3..........3................................G....6.60 III......
.........62 III..... Production of ODS.j.......................61 III.......E.............................. III...............h..........7.....D... Emissions of ODS ...E......... Purchase of ODS .........4.7..........E.............65 III.................................i....................5..D.......................1...................E......77 III......... Forms of Existence of ODS ..75 III... Energy Supply .71 Disclosure of global warming gases .3...................83 III.................77 III. CO2-Emission Factors for Electricity ..........D..................63 III...... Calculating Global Warming Contribution ............62 III..........D. III..4...E..D.............................D.... III....b.....................7...... General Approach ........ Global Warming Gases Related to Other Industrial Processes ...........81 III......89 III....81 III.......................... CO2-Emission Factors for Fossil Fuels..E.82 III..61 Recognition of Global Warming Gases ........ Potentials and Contributions .................82 III....a............. 77 III................. Disclosure of Ozone-Depleting Substances. Global Warming Gases Related to Other Industrial Processes ...............................a.................k.......E....79 III. Objective ...................d...........5..E.E.....E.......c........3.................E.................... Scope ..........E.....3.........7... Recognition of Ozone-Depleting Substances....E...................a........E........84 III.....90 viii ...7.d..e..........D......................83 III...82 III.......3.........3........3..........D......................... Carbon Offset and Sequestration .........b...........................III..........a.............c..4......7..3..3..7..64 III.............. Main Sectors using Ozone-Depleting Substances ... Definitions ............ Products Containing Ozone-Depleting Substances .E. III.b....................d.b............77 III... Ozone-Depleting Substances........3............ Measurement of Ozone-Depleting Substances . Annex to Ozone-Depleting Substances ...... Destruction of ODS.................E.......... Stocks of ODS .....D..............................a......E....6.......3............. Types of ODS... Recovery. Dependency on ODS.....71 III...E.. Example of a Disclosure of Global Warming Contribution .......................5.....5........D... Energy.D..62 Measurement.5..............f.......7.............................E......... Sales of ODS..e........74 III...............80 III.....74 III....2.................and Transport-Related Global Warming Gases .................................. Controlled Substances and their Ozone Depletion Potential according to the Montreal Protocol .. Accounting Treatment of Ozone-Depleting Substances...81 III.................73 Annex to Global Warming Contribution ........81 III..........E...D......86 III...63 III....5....E..78 III...3............g..................79 III.c....84 III......3.....D.e.............D.. In General ..................6...........................b.................d.....E.................5...D.....3... Example of a Disclosure of Ozone-Depleting Substances ..4.....3.. Reclamation and Recycling of ODS...........77 III.E.
... 105 III.F.........d.........3..............F..... Primary Issues in Consolidating Environmental Items ...........3..........H......... VI..7..................... Scope of Guidance ........ Annex to Waste ............................F................95 III..3.......................... Measurement....................96 III..................................91 III..... Scope .......6.......7................................ 106 III......... 107 III.... Objective .......G.. Definition .................5.G.......... Annex III of the Basel Convention................ References ...............F.................H.....................G..............H............G............91 III...................................................... 108 III......... Definitions Based on the Classification of Waste ...................2.......96 III..........................................................G............................. Accounting Treatment of Waste .......7..............a........97 III.................F..............................F.................F... Definitions Referring to the Location of Waste Treatment ...95 III......... Measurement of Waste ...........b....F.4... 113 Authors.........F.............e........91 III..3.............5.....................6..............7......... Consolidation of Eco-efficiency Indicators ............. Recognition of Waste ................. 108 III..H.G.f...........................................................7....3...III......................... Accounting Treatment of the Financial Items ......F.......... 111 Steering Group......................F................................... Objective ..a...F......... 103 III....92 III............................ Proportionate Consolidation ......... 106 III..... 91 III...99 III......... Annex to Consolidation ........F...... V...... Definitions ....1.........H.....91 III........... General Definition of Waste ....................1................. 107 III......................H. Definitions Referring to Waste Treatment Technology .......F..2.......H................ Scope .......................3.............c..........5..a........ 105 III... 105 III................... Disclosure of Waste ..........H........ Disclosure .....93 III.. 109 IV.........c.........b..................................3.................3... 103 III......F....................................H......... 114 ix ..........4... Objective .c......3.................................. Definitions Referring to Waste Generated ..97 III....... Annex I of the Basel Convention ....7.. Definitions ...........................91 III.......96 III. 106 III....... Full Consolidation ...............................4.............. Disclosure .................. 108 III....b................. 106 III..... Definitions Based on the Quality of Waste .......F.......................G............1...... 109 III....................H..................... Equity Method ......7... 103 III....................................................H...... Recognition ......... Consolidation Procedure ..........6...... 103 III........... 101 III......7....F....................2. Example of Disclosure of Waste ......
........List of Figures Figure 1 Sub-Categories of Water Use .............................................65 Table 25 Electricity-derived CO 2-Emission Factors for Africa ...........28 Table 4 Road Transportation: Guidance Values for Fuel Consumption...................................22 List of Tables Table 1 Water Consumption and Return Flow ........................46 Table 19 Typical Net Caloric Values for Biomass Fuels.............................................................64 Table 24 Electricity-derived CO 2-Emission Factors for Non-OECD Asia............................. Coal and Coal Products......................41 Table 13 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries/Territories Lit-P .................................................................................................... Energy Policy..............................................51 Table 22 Accounting Policy........................27 Table 2 Water Received and its Use ............................................................66 Table 26 Electricity-derived CO 2-Emission Factors for Non-OECD Europe .......................................67 x .....................................................................43 Table 15 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries Sr-Ve ......................................................34 Table 6 Densities of Petroleum Products.....................45 Table 18 Gross and Net Caloric Values for Gas ................................. Targets and Measures ................................37 Table 9 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries A-B .........36 Table 8 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products OECD Countries K-U.38 Table 10 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries/Territories B-C.....52 Table 23 CO2 Emission Factors of Petroleum Products.........................47 Table 20 Energy Requirement ..............................39 Table 11 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries/Territories D-H ................................................................. other Africa and other Latin America ......44 Table 16 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries Vi-Z ..............................................................................................................35 Table 7 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products OECD Countries A-J ..........................................32 Table 5 Net Caloric Values for Petroleum Products ..........45 Table 17 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products other Asia............................42 Table 14 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries N-So ......................... Targets and Measures ........51 Table 21 Energy Flows and Stocks.............................................................................40 Table 12 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries I-Lib ..................................... Water Policy................................................................................ Gas and Biomass Fuels .28 Table 3 Accounting Policy........
...1-9 ............................................................67 Table 28 Electricity-derived CO 2-Emission Factors for Non-OECD Latin America ...87 Table 43 Controlled Substances and their Ozone Depletion Potential Copenhagen Amendment to the Montreal Protocol Part 1 ....................................85 Table 41 Controlled Substances and their Ozone Depletion Potential Montreal Protocol.... 100 Table 51 Annex III of the Basel Convention List of Hazardous Characteristics Class 1-4................................74 Table 37 Accounting Policy on Global Warming Gases........................... ODS Policy...........................87 Table 44 Controlled Substances and their Ozone Depletion Potential Copenhagen Amendment to the Montreal Protocol Part 2 ....84 Table 39 Total Emissions of ODS .........................70 Table 32 Electricity-derived CO 2-Emission Factors for OECD Asia-Pacific ... Targets and Measures ...................................................................................................88 Table 45 A list of products containing controlled substances specified in Annex A of the Protocol .....................69 Table 31 Electricity-derived CO 2-Emission Factors for North America ............90 Table 47 Waste Generated .... Waste Policy...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Targets and Measures .........73 Table 36 Global Warming Contribution............................................3 ......................................... 101 Table 52 Annex III of the Basel Convention List of Hazardous Characteristics Class 5.................89 Table 46 Main Sectors Using Ozone-Depleting Substances..............................................................................................72 Table 35 Global Warming Potentials Part II...................Table 27 Electricity-derived CO 2-Emission Factors for Non-OECD Former USSR........................................................................................86 Table 42 Controlled Substances and their Ozone Depletion Potential London Amendment to the Montreal Protocol ... 102 xi ...98 Table 48 Accounting Policy on Waste...............99 Table 50 Annex I of the Basel Convention Categories of Waste to be Controlled Y30-Y45 ..........................................................................98 Table 49 Annex I of the Basel Convention Categories of Waste to be Controlled Y1-Y29 ..... Global Warming Policy........................................70 Table 34 Global Warming Potentials Part I ......74 Table 38 Dependency on ODS....85 Table 40 Accounting Policy on ODS..............68 Table 29 Electricity-derived CO 2-Emission Factors for Middle East ...............................................................................69 Table 30 Electricity-derived CO 2-Emission Factors for OECD Europe. Targets and Measures ...70 Table 33 Electricity-derived CO 2-Emission Factors for World Regions ........
equivalent GWP global warming potential IAS International Accounting Standards IASB International Accounting Standards Board IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ISAR Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting ODS ozone-depleting potential OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development UN United Nations UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNEP United Nations Environment Programme WBCSD World Business Council for Sustainable Development xii .ABBREVATIONS eq.
The problem with constructing eco-efficiency indicators is that there are no agreed rules or standards for recognition. there are no rules for consolidating environmental information for an enterprise or for a group of enterprises so that it can be used together and in line with the enterprise’s financial items. The Concept of Eco-efficiency Investors increasingly require that companies pursue eco-efficient strategies that reduce the damage caused to the environment while increasing or at least not decreasing (shareholder) value. This manual complements two previous UN reports and should be seen as a series. Overview 1. Accounting and Financial Reporting for Environmental Costs and Liabilities (1999) and Integrating Environmental and Financial Performance at the Enterprise Level (2000). recognize. measurement and disclosure of environmental information either within the same industry or across industries. The purpose of the manual is threefold: (a) To give guidance on how to define. It was first described in a scientific publication back in 1989 (see Schaltegger/Sturm 1989). measure and disclose environmental and financial information as specified within the traditional accounting and reporting frameworks (Box 2). . The main objective is to describe the method that enterprises can use to provide information on environmental performance vis-à-vis financial performance in a systematic and consistent manner over periods of time. 2. The aim of environmentally sound management is to increase eco-efficiency by reducing the environmental impact while increasing the value of an enterprise (Schaltegger/Sturm 1989). This manual is a guide for users and preparers of eco-efficiency indicators1 (see Box 1). while progressively reducing ecological impacts and resource intensity…" The WBCSD includes a clear target level: An eco-efficient state is reached when economic activities are at a level "…at least in line with the earth’s estimated carrying capacity". (WBCSD 1996) An eco-efficiency indicator is the ratio between an environmental and a financial variable.I. To improve and harmonize the methods used so that enterprises are able to report eco-efficiency indicators in a standardized format so that they are meaningful to decision makers and can be compared across enterprises. 2 Box 1. INTRODUCTION I. The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) describes how eco-efficiency is achieved: "Eco-efficiency is reached by the delivery of competitively priced goods and services that satisfy human needs and bring quality of life. (b) 1 2 The term and concept of eco-efficiency was developed in the late 1980s. It measures the environmental performance of an enterprise with respect to its financial performance.A. Most importantly.
measurement and disclosure of information. 5. It covers issues of recognition. Hence they are generic rather than sector-specific indicators. As an attempt to harmonize the provision of eco-efficiency information across the globe. In addition to the above environmental issues. 7. It also suggests the issues to be reported and the format and structure of disclosure.g. the manual presents the accounting treatment of the financial item used for constructing eco- 6. Managers are encouraged to include additional eco-efficiency indicators in their disclosure as they become relevant and material to understanding and evaluating an enterprise's performance in its sector. the UN Sustainability Reporting Guidelines developed by the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)). income statement and cash flow statement). Global warming contribution. the structure and the format of the report. Waste. Furthermore they can be used by all enterprises across all sectors. Ozone depleting substances. They were chosen by ISAR because they address worldwide problems as reflected in international agreements or protocols. Box 2. This manual will enable enterprises to report their performance for the five generic environmental issues below: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Water use. Energy use. In particular the framework draws directly from the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) framework (IASB 2002) and is adapted to report environmental performance vis-à-vis financial performance of the reporting entity. 3. 2 . Accounting and Reporting Framework An accounting framework describes an interrelated system that consists of different financial statements (such as a balance sheet. This manual therefore covers the technical issues of recognition. measurement and disclosure of environmental transactions and variables. eco-efficiency 4. These indicators represent a basic set upon which an enterprise could or should report. the manual follows the logic of the widely accepted International Accounting Standards (IAS). A reporting framework — such as the Sustainability Reporting Guidelines of the Global Reporting initiative (GRI 2001) — provides additional guidance on the issues to be reported.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators (c) To complement and support existing reporting guidelines (e. The above list is basically open-ended and should be adapted whenever new environmental issues evolve and/or existing environmental problems are reassessed in the light of new scientific and/or social knowledge.
it must attain a certain level of quality. Users must also be able to compare the eco-efficiency statements of different enterprises. Benchmarking. paragraphs 12 and 14). The most essential aspect of a guideline is its acceptance by the main stakeholder groups involved. All involved parties should therefore agree on the degree of A standard. Users must be able to compare the eco-efficiency statements of an enterprise over time so that they can identify trends in its eco-efficiency position and performance. 3 3 . Disclosure of accounting policies is essential for comparability (IASB Framework.1. 11. This guidance can serve as a management tool for the following: (a) (b) (c) I. I. If these groups do not accept a guideline or standard. can also be mandated by the accounting standard-setting bodies or other regulators and would then have to be applied. the more costly it is. 8. Consensus and Quality of Information 13. Rationale for an Accounting Framework for Eco-efficiency Reporting This section aims to demonstrate the necessity and usefulness of a conceptual framework for eco-efficiency reporting by discussing some issues and frequently asked questions. If there is to be consensus on a framework. Objectives 10. It deals with issues of consolidation of financial and environmental data for the enterprise as a whole. The basic objective of financial accounting is to provide information that is useful to a wide range of users in making economic decisions. 14. it will not be applied. A secondary objective is to show the results of the stewardship of management or the accountability of management for the resources entrusted to it (IASB Framework. 12.B. I.3 Acceptance can be gained by integrating the views and values of all important target groups. 9.Introduction efficiency indicators. But quality has its price – the higher the quality of information. paragraphs 39-42). irrespective of agreement by the parties involved. The basic objective of ISAR in developing guidelines and manuals for ecoefficiency indicators is to provide information that is useful to a wide range of users in making decisions and for the accountability of management for resources entrusted to it.B.B. on the other hand. Assessing acquisitions and divestments. Assessing the impact of changes in the product line of an enterprise.2.
B. I. the financial accounting (b) (c) 4 . The quality of decision-making (by enterprise directors. Qualitative characteristics clearly stipulate the duty of users to understand and to undertake efforts to understand information even if it might be complex.3. the applied conceptual frameworks for ecological and financial accounting have to be comparable if environmental and financial data are to be combined to produce eco-efficiency indicators. The four main qualitative characteristics are understandability.5). Thus. and eco-efficiency indicators thus use data from both environmental and financial accounting systems. reliability and comparability (see II. Where appropriate. Accordingly. Since a conceptual framework and standards have been developed on an international level for financial accounting. There are several reasons for this: (a) Eco-efficiency indicators link environmental and financial items. Often it is argued that information about special issues should be suppressed. some disclose such information. industry. it is proposed to use these as a starting point for eco-efficiency accounting.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators quality the required information should have. Financial Accounting Framework as a Starting Point 18. The description and definition of the degree of quality is an integral part of the conceptual accounting framework. qualitative characteristics balance the requirements of users and preparers in such a way as to be cost effective (see II. More explicitly. I. This issue will be discussed further in the consolidation section. 17.F). relevance. Consequently. A general framework improves the quality and consistency of ecoefficiency statements considerably. Since the main objective of financial accounting is to improve the quality of decision making. either because no user would be able to understand it correctly or because it would be too voluminous to describe. energy requirement per unit of value added provides a good indication of the impact of an energy tax on an enterprise. investors and financial analysts) can be improved by linking environmental and financial items. Duty of Users 16.B. 15. The characteristics that make information useful to users are termed qualitative characteristics. The general framework also provides guidance when periodically reviewing existing and newly developed guidelines.4.F. the data have to be derived from the same reporting entity and not different subsets of that entity. while others do not.and region-specific environmental aspects and issues need to be considered. Accounting for eco-efficiency should benefit from the experience of financial accounting and not reinvent the wheel. For instance. Qualitative characteristics are important because they also address the requirements of users.
Introduction framework can serve as a valuable starting point in formulating the respective systems for environmental elements and items. 5 .
. The definition. measurement and disclosure of eco-efficiency information related to events and activities of an enterprise with a view to promoting comparability between reporting organizations.B.1.2.II. This conceptual framework also provides guidance in the development of future eco-efficiency indicators (e. Introduction to the Framework 19. Purpose and Status 20. The Accounting Framework for Eco-efficiency II. II. This section introduces a conceptual accounting and reporting framework (framework) for eco-efficiency reporting. This framework does not provide standards for eco-performance. II. This framework will follow a similar approach in reporting financial information as specified by International Accounting Standards. CONCEPTUAL ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING FRAMEWORK FOR ECOEFFICIENCY REPORTING II.g. Elements and items of an eco-efficiency statement. additional industry. Scope 23.or region-specific indicators) and in the review of existing guidelines on eco-efficiency indicators. 22. The objectives of eco-efficiency indicators. However eco-efficiency indicators will provide a useful basis for benchmarking. recognition and measurement of environmental and financial items used in eco-efficiency accounting and reporting. The purpose of this conceptual framework for eco-efficiency reporting is to improve and harmonize the methods used for definition. Qualitative characteristics that determine the usefulness of ecoefficiency indicators. recognition. paragraph 6). The framework is concerned with environmental and related financial information on the eco-efficiency of an enterprise.A.B. 21. Such information is prepared and presented annually and directed towards the common information needs of a wide range of users (see IASB Framework. The framework deals with: (a) (b) (c) (d) 24.B.
employees. Improve Decision-Making 29.2. financial statements do not provide all the information that users may need to make economic decisions since they largely portray the financial effects of past events and do not necessarily provide non-financial information" (IASB Framework. Governments and their agencies. II. other trade creditors. Eco-efficiency information complements financial statements in order to enhance the quality of decision-making. Provide Information 28. Users and Their Information Needs 26. Such information is also necessary for the accountability of management for the use of natural resources entrusted to it (see IASB Framework. II. standard-setters are well aware that financial statements are not sufficient. 8 . This framework was developed primarily for business organizations to provide information on the eco-efficiency of their enterprises. paragraph 6). the public sector and non-profit organizations can also use the framework. However. The users of eco-efficiency indicators include present and potential investors. Most users have to rely on environmental and financial items as their major source of environmental information. II.3.. Eco-efficiency data can also be used to forecast the impact of current and upcoming environmental issues on future financial performance. lenders. 4 Although financial statements support the quality of decision-making. paragraph 9). and such information should therefore be prepared and presented with their needs in view (see IASB Framework.3.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators 25. Two main shortcomings are mentioned in the 1983 version of the framework of the International Accounting Standards Committee (the predecessor of the International Accounting Standards Board IASB): "..C. paragraphs 12 and 14). II.1. paragraph 13). 4 The information is useful to a wide range of users in making economically and environmentally sound decisions and in evaluating the impact of their decisions. suppliers' customers.C.B. The objective of eco-efficiency reporting is to provide information on the environmental performance of an enterprise with respect to its financial performance (financial performance/environmental performance). and the general public (see IASB Framework. II. Empirical evidence suggests that there is a strong link between eco-efficiency and future cash generation.C. Complement Financial Statements 30. Objectives of Eco-efficiency Indicators 27.C.
6 Indicator An indicator is a specific measurement of an individual element that is used to track and demonstrate performance related to the element via recognition and measurement of items.g.5 Item An item or a group of items is information that is related to a specific element (e. cost of goods and services purchased). A given element may have several indicators based on different items. indicators are ratios composed of an environmental item divided by a financial item. As we do not see any reason to change accepted terminology. II. a type of waste.Conceptual Accounting and Reporting Framework for Eco-efficiency Reporting 31. 9 . As per definition. indicators use a reference item to exclude effects of quantitative changes in activities and to make them comparable. Eco-efficiency statements portray environmental and financial effects of transactions and activities by grouping these effects into broader classes according to their environmental and financial characteristics. "per unit of net value added" or "per unit of sales". A given element may have several items or a group of items. The following definitions refer to the hierarchy of information within an ecoefficiency statement: (a) Element Elements are the broad areas or groupings of financial and/or environmental issues of concern to stakeholders (e. liabilities. eco-efficiency indicators are set in relation to a financial item.e. 33. Elements and Items of an Eco-efficiency Statement 32. i. assets. To normalize a dynamic development over time. etc. we prefer to stick to the terms and concepts already in use in international accounting standards.g. equity. (b) (c) 5 6 Note: The Global Reporting Imitative (GRI 2001) uses the term "category". energy requirement. we prefer to stick to the terms and concepts already in use in international accounting standards. waste. Note: The Global Reporting Imitative (GRI 2001) uses the term "aspect". examples include "per tonne".). As we do not see any reason to change accepted terminology. global warming contribution. an energy source used. a specific greenhouse gas. income and expense.D. sales. Information about environmental performance vis-à-vis financial performance is useful in determining the ability of an enterprise to adapt to changes in the environment in which it operates.
Reporting Entity and the Principle of Congruity 37. This framework and the accompanying guidance recommend 7 that all enterprises report their eco-efficiency at least with respect to the following environmental elements: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Energy use. the same concepts and criteria used in financial accounting and reporting will be applied when defining the reporting entity for the recognition and measurement of environmental elements and items and the disclosure of such information. (3) the environmental indicator must link an environmental problem at the macro level to activities of an enterprise at the micro level. 10 . environmental information means any data on an item that relates to one of the above environmental elements. For the purpose of this manual. the definition of the reporting entity for both these items must be congruent. in other words they must represent the same activities of the same entity.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators 34. Enterprises are encouraged to define industry. activities and legal entities are included or excluded and how and to what extent this is done. while financial information means any data on an item that relates to assets. Global warming contribution.or region-specific environmental elements and associated guidance. II. Waste. The criteria for the selection were: (1) the environmental indicator must address a worldwide environmental problem.g. For the purpose of eco-efficiency statements. as a starting point for the development of any additional guidance. Env ironmental information is measured in physical units. liabilities. See also Sturm/Müller 2001. (2) the environmental indicator must be applicable to all industries across all sectors. As eco-efficiency indicators set an environmental item (e. Underlying Assumptions 36. Water use. net value added). 7 This recommendation is based on the identified environmental problems presented in the UNCTAD conceptual paper (UNCTAD 2001). 38. energy use) in relation to a financial item (e.g. 35. An eco-efficiency statement will clearly define the reporting entity in terms of which sites.1.E.E. When doing so. II. it is recommended to use this framework. and (4) the environmental problem measured by the indicator must have an impact on the financial performance of an enterprise. Contribution to ozone depletion. including the guidance for the above elements. income and/or expenses. equity. while financial information is measured in monetary units. 39.
Hence they provide information that is useful to users to make informed economic and environmental decisions. An eco-efficiency statement will make clear the scope of activities reported and provide explanations for any restrictions in reporting scope.or downstream in the value chain. the eco-efficiency data may have to be prepared on a different basis and. 43. Reportable resource uses.E.2. paragraph 23). emissions. Going Concern 44. the basis used should be disclosed (see IASB Framework. Ideally. Eco-efficiency indicators prepared on an accrual basis inform users not only of past environmental performance vis-à-vis financial performance but also of the potential impact that a change in environmental legislation has on an enterprise's future cash flows. If the enterprise either intends or needs to liquidate or curtail materially the scale of its operations. It is up to the reporting entity to include additional information. which expands the definition of the reporting entity up. II. events and activities will be recognized when they occur and will be recorded and reported in the periods to which they relate (see IASB Framework. II.Conceptual Accounting and Reporting Framework for Eco-efficiency Reporting 40.E. 45. Accrual Basis 42. if so. paragraph 22).E. The published data should reflect the assumption that the reporting entity is expected to continue operations into the foreseeable future. 11 .3.4. Reporting Scope 41. The published report should also include the management’s assessment of the consequences of moving towards modes of production and/or service delivery compatible with sustainability (GRI 2001). II. environmental impacts. 46. If this is done the enterprise will expand the boundaries in terms of environmental data and in terms of financial data to maintain congruity (see Box 3). a reporting entity will cover the impacts of its activities on at least the five environmental elements set out in paragraph 34.
Relevance. it must be aware that its own sales also include part of the sales of its suppliers. This framework and guidance clearly takes a different stand on this aspect. it must make sure that. Otherwise the two items are not congruent .and downstream in the value chain (e. It follows the approach used in financial accounting. if an enterprise chooses sales as a reference figure. 48. it means that the expansion has to be done for all the company’s activities. products and services on a regular basis. that is they must match the transactions of the same entities included in a consolidated financial statement. That way the financial figure represents economic activities of the reporting entity only. Life-cycle approaches provide highly valuable information but are too costly and impractical to use on larger entities with many activities.and therefore the eco-efficiency figure is inconsistent and the information worthless. meaning that the reporting entity should include processes up. if the environmental item includes activities up. paragraph 24). Especially in the case of an annual company report. The scope and the objective of life-cycle approaches are to analyse specific products and to optimize these products throughout the value chain. Qualitative Characteristics Qualitative characteristics are attributes that make the information provided in eco-efficiency statements useful to users. which describes the eco-efficiency of an enterprise. On the other hand.and/or downstream.F. To avoid these problems with sales as a reference figure and to arrive at a consistent eco-efficiency indicator. since environmental and financial data must be consistent. 47. the financial item used as a reference figure also covers these activities.they do not cover the same activities . and Comparability (see IAS framework. II. emissions or waste production. This in turn makes it possible to restrict the environmental data to the reporting entities’ own resource consumption. The four principal qualitative characteristics are (a) (b) (c) (d) Understandability. then the relevant environmental information of the suppliers linked to the reporting entities’ purchases must also be included. Principle of Congruity and the Life-Cycle Approach Most environmental accounting and reporting guidelines developed by environmentalists and economists take a so-called life-cycle approach.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators Box 3. Consequently if sales are used as a reference item and the environmental item should cover the same activities.and downstream information is highly impractical. 12 . This is clearly not the intent of an annual report. a company must deduct the cost of goods and services purchased from its sales figures.g. what the company calls purchase cost is sales from the supplier’s perspective. the Guideline on Sustainability Reporting published by the Global Reporting Initiative). products and services and therefore for all of its suppliers and customers as well. These approaches illustrate that including up. If an enterprise expands its eco-efficiency reporting to include the life cycle of its products and services. Reliability.
information about complex environmental matters which is relevant to the decision-making needs of users should be included and not excluded merely on the grounds that it may be too difficult for certain users to understand (see IASB Framework paragraph 25). Thus. Eco-efficiency information has the quality of reliability when it is free from material error and bias and can be depended upon by users to represent faithfully what it either purports to represent or could reasonably be expected to represent (see IASB Framework.F.3.Conceptual Accounting and Reporting Framework for Eco-efficiency Reporting 49.2. for example. Reliability 55. paragraph 29). users are assumed to have reasonable knowledge of business environmental issues and accounting and a willingness to study the information with reasonable diligence. The application of these four qualitative characteristics normally results in eco-efficiency information that conveys a true and fair view of the ecoefficiency performance of an enterprise (see IASB Framework.F. paragraph 26). By helping them evaluate past. 13 . The relevance of eco-efficiency information is affected by its nature and materiality (see IAS framework. However. For this purpose. present or future events (see IASB Framework. II. For example.F. Relevance and Materiality 52. paragraph 26). II. The predictive and confirmatory roles of eco-efficiency information are interrelated. information about the current level and structure of environmental performance has value to users when they endeavour to predict the ability of an enterprise to take advantage of opportunities and its ability to react in adverse situations. Information is material if its omission or misstatement could influence the decisions of users taken on the basis of eco-efficiency statements. Information must be understandable to users. materiality provides a threshold or cut-off point rather than being a primary qualitative characteristic that information must have if it is to be useful (see IASB Framework. paragraph 30).1. Eco-efficiency information is relevant when it influences the decisions of users in the following manner: (a) (b) 53. paragraph 46). The same information plays a confirmatory role in respect of past predictions about. 51. Materiality depends on the size of the item or error judged in the particular circumstances of its omission or misstatement. Or by confirming or correcting their past evaluations (see IASB Framework. environmental objectives and targets (see IASB Framework. paragraph 27). II. Understandability 50. paragraph 31). 54.
Hence. . paragraph 39 and 42). II. 60. Such uncertainties are recognized by disclosing their nature and extent and by exercising prudence in the preparation of the ecoefficiency information (see IASB Framework. paragraph 33).A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators 56. Eco-efficiency information must be neutral. paragraph 37). Because users wish to compare the eco-efficiency information over time. The preparers of eco-efficiency information do. it influences a decision or judgement in order to achieve a predetermined result or outcome (see IASB Framework. an enterprise may report very low global warming emissions based on the substances listed under the Kyoto protocol but emit major amounts of other non-listed global warming gases. for example. The eco-efficiency information must be complete within the bounds of materiality and cost. any changes in these policies/methodologies. This is known as the "substance over form" principle. that is free from bias. Thus. 58. Comparability 61. Ecoefficiency information is not neutral if. however. the aggregated emissions of global warming gases should represent faithfully the contribution of the reported activities/transactions of an enterprise to the problem of global warming (see IASB Framework. the measurement and display of the environmental effect of like activities and other events must be carried out in a consistent way throughout an enterprise and over time for that enterprise and in a consistent way for different enterprises. Users must also be able to compare the eco-efficiency information of different enterprises in order to evaluate their relative ecoefficiency performance (benchmarking). these emissions have to be accounted for (see IASB Framework. it is important that the eco-efficiency information show consistent information for the preceding periods (see IASB Framework.F. it is necessary that activities and other events are accounted for and presented in accordance with their substance and environmental reality and not according to their legal form. 14 62. paragraph 35).4. For eco-efficiency information to be reliable. Comparability implies that users must be informed of the policies and methodologies employed in the preparation of eco-efficiency information. paragraph 36). and the effects of such changes. 57. eco-efficiency information must represent faithfully the activities and other events of the reporting entity. For example. For eco-efficiency information to be reliable. 59. An omission can cause information to be false or misleading and thus unreliable and deficient in terms of its relevance (see IASB Framework. Users must be able to compare the eco-efficiency information of an enterprise over time in order to identify trends in its eco-efficiency performance. To be reliable. have to contend with the uncertainties that inevitably surround many events and circumstances. by the selection or presentation of information. The substance of activities or other events is not always consistent with what is apparent from their legal or contrived form. paragraph 38).
from which data is recalculated. the year used for comparison (which is normally the last year) should be recalculated. Furthermore.F. 15 . As a minimum. the overriding consideration is how best to satisfy the decision-making needs of users (see IASB Framework. 64. It is inappropriate for an enterprise to continue reporting in the same manner on a transaction or other event if the policy adopted is not in keeping with the qualitative characteristics of relevance and reliability. the aim is to achieve an appropriate balance among the characteristics in order to meet the objectives of eco-efficiency reporting. however. this should lead to a re-evaluation and recalculation of ecoefficiency information disclosed in the past (assuming that past values are available). The relative importance of the characteristics in different cases is a matter of professional judgement (see IASB. Conversely. In achieving a balance between relevance and reliability. paragraph 40). Thus. substantially a judgemental process.5. the need for comparability should not be confused with absolute uniformity (see IASB Framework. paragraph 43). 66. 63. the information may be highly reliable but of little use to users who have to make decisions in the interim. Framework paragraph 44).Conceptual Accounting and Reporting Framework for Eco-efficiency Reporting Users need to be able to identify differences between the policies and methodologies for like activities and other events used by the same enterprise from period to period and by different enterprises (see IASB Framework. thus impairing reliability. But it could also be any defined base year. The benefits derived from information should exceed the cost of providing it. II. The evaluation of benefits and costs is. It is also inappropriate for an enterprise to leave its reporting policies unchanged when more relevant and reliable alternatives exist. As there are trade-offs between different qualitative characteristics it is often necessary to balance the four qualitative characteristics. to balance benefit and cost. in the interest of both users and the enterprise. if reporting is delayed until all aspects are known. when new scientific knowledge is developed which leads to a change in methodology applied to environmental information. Framework paragraph 45). Preparers may need to balance the relative merits of timely reporting and the provision of reliable information. for example. the costs do not necessarily fall on those users who enjoy the benefits (see IASB. An enterprise has. Balancing Qualitative Characteristics 65. paragraph 41). Generally. Comparability implies that. 67. To provide information on a timely basis it may often be necessary to report before all aspects of a transaction or other event are known.
Recognition is the process of incorporating an environmental or financial item that satisfies the criteria for recognition set out in paragraph 70. This is appropriate when knowledge of the item is considered to be relevant to the evaluation of the eco-efficiency position. such information.F. performance and changes in position of an enterprise by the users of eco-efficiency statements (see IASB Framework. this should be disclosed. where an average level of technology is assumed. II.2. paragraph 88). (b) 16 . paragraph 82). 73. A number of different measurements. It involves the depiction of the item in words and by an amount in physical or monetary units (see IASB Framework. II. the use of reasonable estimates is an essential part of the preparation of eco-efficiency information and does not undermine their reliability. In many cases. Measurement 72.G. Measurement is the process of determining the physical or monetary value at which an item is to be recognized. paragraph 86). II. or as presenting fairly. calculations and estimations are employed to different degrees and in varying combinations: (a) Metered value A metered (or gauged) value is a value that is scaled by means of a balance or other instrument. True and Fair View/Fair Presentation 68. When. the item is not recognized. If other levels of technology are used for the estimate. Recognition and Measurement of Items 70.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators II.1. a value must be estimated. however. a reasonable estimate cannot be made.G. The application of the principal qualitative characteristics and of appropriate guidelines normally results in eco-efficiency statements that convey what is generally understood as a true and fair view of. 71.6. An item can be incorporated if the item has a value that can be measured in physical or monetary units with reliability. performance and changes in the eco-efficiency position of an enterprise.G. Where relevant it should be disclosed (see IASB Framework. Estimated value An estimated value is a value based on common practice and applied technology. Recognition 69. Eco-efficiency statements can be seen as presenting fairly the eco-efficiency position.
the normalized eco-efficiency figure for both years is equal.Conceptual Accounting and Reporting Framework for Eco-efficiency Reporting (c) Calculated value A calculated value is based on (user-) defined algorithms. concepts or models.000 m3 water. we need to divide the water use by a figure that represents the level of activity.8 Conversion factor A conversion factor is a consensus value based on generally accepted scientific standards. metered. Through normalization. (d) (e) (f) 8 Example: In the year 2000 company A used 1. One possibility is sales. estimated) and/or defined conversion factors.100 m3. Assuming sales were 100 in the year 2000 and 110 in 2001. results for different entities with different levels of activities and dynamics are transformed into the same unit. Empirical value An empirical value is a value based on empirical studies/research and scientific evidence. another value added. The inputs into the calculation are values of different quality levels (e. To judge the eco-efficiency of that company. 17 . and in 2001 it used 1. so they become comparable. Reference value A reference value is a value used to normalize a dynamic development.g.
III. .F). The list can also be expanded to cover the particular industry sector.E).g. Global warming contribution per unit of net value added. Energy use (III. GUIDELINES III. measuring and disclosing the following five indicators: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Water consumption per net value added. The manual describes the following financial items and issues relevant for eco-efficiency indicators: (a) (b) Value added and net value-added.A.C). purchased goods and services (III. recognizing.G) Consolidation (I.D). Water use (I. Global warming contribution (III. Waste generated per unit of net value added. Ozone-depleting substances (III. General Scope 74. The above list is basically open-ended and should be adapted whenever new environmental issues evolve and/or existing environmental problems are reassessed by new scientific and/or social knowledge. The manual contains a methodology for calculating.A). siteor company-specific) using the framework and the included guidelines as guidance.A) 76. Dependency on ozone-depleting substances per unit of net value added. 77. Energy requirement per unit of net value added. It would be more appropriate for industry associations to specify sector-specific indicators because they are best positioned to obtain industry consensus. region-. Waste (III. This manual assesses the impacts of the following environmental variables: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 75. Companies are encouraged to develop additional indicators (e. 78. revenue. All figures refer to a calendar year.
B.b.1. This guidance is not intended for companies in the public water supply sector. paragraph 81) this category covers water that is withdrawn by the reporting entity itself but does not cover withdrawal by public water suppliers.EMAwebsite. and other cost information for both conventional and environmental decision-making within an organization (Source: www.3. 20 . analysis.B.3. deliveries or conveyance gains. Objective The objective of this manual is to describe a methodology for the accounting 9 treatment of water use.B. Water received is any input of freshwater into the reporting entity.a. 82.3. Accounting Treatment of Water Use III.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators III. III. which is linked with ordinary and extraordinary activities of the reporting entity: (a) Withdrawal Withdrawal is the quantity of water (i) removed from a ground water source or (ii) diverted from a surface water source for the reporting entities’ use. be it withdrawals. 81. Environmental Management Accounting (EMA) can be defined as the identification. internal reporting. 9 Traditionally "accounting" has a financial connotation. collection. This methodology should be applied by all enterprises in accounting for all types of water used by them as defined in section III. III. General 83.3. The following terms are used in this methodology. Scope III. Figure 1 provides an overview of the categories and subcategories of water use. environmental cost information.B. According to the US EPA Environmental Accounting Project. Public water supply refers to water withdrawn by public and private water suppliers.B. According to the scope of this guidance (see III. In recent years the term "accounting" has also been applied to non-financial environmental aspects of management. Water Received and its Source 84.B. 79.2. Definitions III. 80. An enterprise is a water supplier when the rationale for the activities of the company is to distribute water to users. estimation.org).2. and use of materials and energy flow information.B.B.
water used for irrigation. 21 . mining and power generation (see III. (c) III. hydroelectric power generation.3. biodiversity.c. Water use is divided into off-stream use and in-stream use. freshwater dilution of saline estuaries. (b) ecological needs include fish and wildlife preservation.(ii).3.d.B. Conveyance gains may occur through infiltration and inflow (conveyance losses may occur through evaporation from an open system or seepage. its treatment. 10 Commercial in-stream water use activities include.3. Conveyance gains Conveyance is the systematic and intentional movement or transfer of water from one point to another.B. Off-stream water use covers the following: domestic. transportation. commercial and industrial use. (a) Off-stream water use Off-stream use involves the withdrawal or diversion of water from a source. fish and shrimp farming. from a surfaceor ground water source. see III. deliveries. but not withdrawn. for example. current knowledge does not allow for a quantitative inclusion of these flows into an eco-efficiency statement.(vii)) In-stream water use In-stream use is water that is used. transportation.B. enterprises are advised to disclose qualitative information on in-stream water use for the time being. fish and shrimp farming. and maintenance of the riparian zone.c. treatment and release of wastewater and return flow.B. aesthetics. (b) 10 In-stream uses can be broadly characterized as streamflows to meet human needs and streamflows to meet ecological needs: (a) human needs include recreation.(i) – III. Although in-stream water use is an important aspect of water preservation. and cultural resource preservation.c. waste assimilation. wetlands preservation. distribution and use.Guidelines (b) Delivery Deliveries are the quantity of water delivered to the reporting entity by a public water supplier. With the exception of in-stream water use for hydroelectric power generation (turbine water.3. hydroelectric power generation. livestock and other animals.(vii).3. and the collection. paragraph 106(b)). Withdrawals. see III. releases and return flows are the endpoints of conveyances.B. paragraph 100). Kinds of Water Use 85.c.
Domestic Water Use Water use is considered to be domestic under the following circumstances: (a) (b) The use takes place in and on property owned by the reporting entity. food preparation.g.(ii)).c.3. but also through washing and cooking. car washing. water use by customers is considered commercial water use (see III. usually through septic systems. student accommodation on campus.(i) 86.B. 11 (c) 87. In the case of the tourism industry. usually during outdoor use. and watering lawns and gardens. washing dishes and clothes. consumptive use in the form of evaporation. bathing. ground water or soil surface water ground water water received water delivered offstream industrial water consumption power generation turbine water for hydroelectric power generation return flow III.B.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators Figure 1 Sub-Categories of Water Use source of water kind of use kind of release without treatment water withdrawal domestic release of wastewater commercial without treatment conveyance loss irrigation livestock & other animals mining conveyance gain instream water power generation incorporated into products and crops consumption by humans and livestock evaporation (and transpiration) cooling water released to a small water body cooling water released to a significant water body return flow with on-site treatment public wastewater collection system surface water.c. The water is used for purposes such as drinking. flushing toilets. deliveries from public water suppliers. 22 . etc.3. ground water or wastewater-collection systems. 11 Domestic water-use activities include withdrawals from ground and surface water. releases into surface water. The water is used by employees/members of the organization or their families during non-working hours (e. company-owned restaurant or housing).
12 13 14 Commercial water-use activities include withdrawals from ground or surface water. cooling. including ores.3. 13 Industrial water use does not include water used for power generation for sale to third parties. Mining water use includes water used for the extraction and on-site processing of minerals. wastewater treatment. slurry conveyance. Water Use for Mining 91. and drying. and steam generation for internal use. sanitation. as well as water used in refining petroleum and metals. deliveries of reclaimed wastewater. toilet flushing. washing floors and other surfaces. motels. releases to ground water and surface water.(vii)). fountains and watering lawns. coal. usually during outdoor use. recycling. 93. office buildings. hospitals and educational institutions. for example. consumptive use as evaporation and product incorporation during dust control. Industrial water use includes water used to manufacture products such as steel. air-conditioning.c.Guidelines III. and releases to ground and surface water. Industrial water use includes.such as hotels. or the extraction of crude petroleum and gases.c. washing. ground water or surface water.c. and natural gas. 12 Water used for off-stream fish and shrimp farming is considered commercial water use. 14 Water used in smelting and refining of minerals is considered as industrial use.B.(ii) 88. pools and laundries.3. petroleum. and dewatering. water used as process and production water and boiler feed and for air conditioning.B. releases to wastewater collection systems. for example. retail stores.3. Industrial Water Use 89. consumptive use in the form of evaporation.B. release into wastewater-collection systems. III. 23 .(iv) 92. deliveries from public water suppliers. leisure parks and ski resorts and for transportation .(iv). chemical and paper. snow and ice making. deliveries from water suppliers. Water use activities in mining include: withdrawals from ground and surface water. which are included in separate categories (see III.(iii) 90. consumptive use through evaporation and product incorporation (as in a bottling plant).3. mining of minerals. III.3. deliveries from water suppliers. Industrial water-use activities include water withdrawal from ground and surface water. restaurants. tailings disposal. transport of materials. water for food preparation. III.as well as by non-commercial entities such as government and military facilities. cooling.B. but also from wash water and food preparation. It includes.B.c. Commercial Water Use Commercial water use includes water used by commercial facilities .c. Off-stream fish hatcheries engaged in hatching fish for release to public lakes and streams for fishing are also classified as commercial use. water and wastewater treatment.
cleaning and waste-disposal systems. cooling of an animal or a product and processing animal products are included. The thermoelectric power generation category includes water used in the generation of electric power when the following fuel types are used: fossil. III.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators III. horses in captivity and others. nuclear. which is considered commercial offstream water use (see paragraph 89). sheep.3. It is not considered consumptive use if the release is discharged into a significant water body such as an ocean. deliveries from public water suppliers. and releases of wastewater. hogs. Water-use activities in the livestock and animal specialties categories include withdrawals from ground or surface water. The water used for hydroelectric power generation which drives the turbine generators and is returned to the stream or is recycled is considered return flow and not consumptive use.B. In general the release of cooling water is considered consumptive use (see III. poultry. 101.(vi) 96.3. waste. goats. Water use for livestock and other animals includes water used to raise cattle. biomass. It excludes water used for fish and shrimp farming.B.(ii).c. 16 Under this category.3. water used by the animals for drinking. It also includes evaporation from stock ponds and incidental water losses.d. The hydroelectric power generation category includes water used in the generation of electric power by utilising either cascading water or water pressure. 100.B.3. 15 Watering of lawns and gardens is considered domestic or commercial water use. Cooling water used for thermoelectric power generation in the condenser to cool the steam back into water is discharged as return flow or is recycled through cooling ponds or towers.B.(vii) Generation 98. consumptive use through evaporation and product incorporation (in plants and releases to ground and surface water). 24 .d).3. 95. llamas. 99. such as milk. Water Use for Thermoelectric and Hydroelectric Power 97. paragraph 105). 15 16 Water-use activities in irrigation include: water withdrawal from ground and surface water. or geothermal energy.c.c. Water Use for Livestock and other Animals III. dairy sanitation. a major river or a lake at a temperature not significantly higher than the water body (see III. deliveries from water suppliers. Water Use for Irrigation Water use for irrigation includes water used in agricultural activities for irrigation purposes. consumptive use in the form of evaporation and incorporation into the animal and animal products.(v) 94.B.
104.B.B. blowdown (purging) of boilers. It also includes waste water that is released to the public waste water collection system. Make up water to replace the water lost as steam.3. Water consumed is that amount of water received that is not available for immediate reuse/consumption. water and wastewater treatment. Water consumption is the difference between water received and off-stream return flow (see Figure 1). to keep the nuclear fuel from overheating and melting is considered consumptive use.g. ground water or soil so that it becomes available for immediate 17 reuse. Return flow is the quantity of water that is discharged after use to surface water.(ii) 105. is consumed by humans or livestock.d.(i) Return flow 103. which draws a questionable line between consumption and return flow. Water that is returned to the soil to percolate downwards to a deep water table with the intention of making it available again is considered consumptive use.3. III. It includes water that evaporates. ground water or soil after use by the reporting entity. Return flow is either (a) (b) Off-stream cooling water released to a significant surface/ground water body or In-stream use of water to drive a turbine to produce hydroelectricity. 25 . transpires.B.d.Guidelines 102. although it is available for future (but not for immediate) consumption. washing of stacks.3. and in nuclear plants. It includes: (a) Release of waste water This is the quantity of water released after use or treatment by the reporting entity. Water Consumption III. (iii) Release of wastewater to surface water.d. Releases of Water III. 17 18 The criterion used here is "immediate" to differentiate between consumption and return flow. This category includes: (i) Release of wastewater into public wastewater collection systems after use by the reporting entity. As all water released becomes available for reuse sooner or later immediate is the only criterion. (ii) Release of wastewater into public wastewater collection systems after use and on-site treatment by the reporting entity. or otherwise removed from the immediate water environment. water is degraded in quality). is incorporated into products or crops. 106. plant and employee sanitation. to surface or ground water bodies or to the soil18 and that is not available for immediate consumption (e.
If water is temporarily stored on-site the stock should be recognized at the beginning and at the end of the reporting period.B. Water consumed by humans and livestock (drinking).3. Recognition 108.B. Water use as defined by III. An enterprise should disclose: (a) (b) (c) The eco-efficiency indicator "water consumption per net value added".B. III. Conveyance losses (see III. Water use should be reported according to volume (litres. The total amount of water received. which are not used as reserves (e. the amount per source and use category as recognized during the accounting period and the respective amounts of the previous year.c. cubic metres). the total return flow and the respective amount per category as defined and recognized during the accounting period and the respective amounts of the previous year. water in tubes. This excludes water in closed systems.5. Water incorporated into products and crops.). 111.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (iv) Release of wastewater to surface water. small boilers used to catch an overshoot of water. The item "water consumption" is used for the calculation of the eco-efficiency indicator "water consumption per net value added" (see paragraph 76(a)).3 should be recognized in the period in which the flow occurs.b. Total water consumption. 107.B. ground water or soil after use and on-site treatment by the reporting entity. 112. If an amount of water used is estimated or calculated the range of uncertainty should be recorded.B. paragraph 101). III. Measurement of Water Use 110.(vii).g. etc.6. III. Qualitative information on the wastewater treatment technology applied on-site and in the public wastewater system. 109.4. Water use should be measured in litres or cubic metres. Cooling water that is not released to a significant water body (see III. Water evaporated and transpired. (d) (e) 26 . Disclosure 114. The accounting policies adopted on water use. 113.3.B. paragraph 84(c)). Water use should be metered.
°Total Water Consumption + Return Flow = Water Received 100 100 150 150 2000 1 000 1 000 1 000 1 000 100 20 500 280 0 4 900 10 000 0.7. Example of Disclosure of Water Use 115.B. III. water policy. III. An example of a disclosure of water use is given in the annex. Table 1 Water Consumption and Return Flow Water consumption (m3) Release of wastewater to public wastewater collection systems .7.a. Enterprises are advised to only include the line items that actually show a flow.B.B.with on-site treatment* . Annexes to Water Use III.486 27 .without treatment Conveyance losses Consumption by humans and livestock Evaporation Cooling water Change in water storage Total water consumption° Net value added (€) Eco-efficiency indicator "water consumption/net value added" (m3/€) Return flow (m3) Cooling water Total return flow° Notes: *Average treatment technology applied.Guidelines (f) The management's stance on the water use policy. targets and measures (Table 3).without treatment Release of wastewater to surface water. ground water or soil . A disclosure on water use consists of three parts: (a) (b) (c) Total water consumption and return flow (Table 1).7.a. Water received and its use (Table 2). 116.490 2001 1 100 1 000 1 000 1 100 200 50 600 300 0 5 350 11 000 0. ^Best available technology applied. the objectives and targets regarding water use and the measures taken to achieve the targets.with on-site treatment^ . Accounting policy on water use. The following tables show an example of a disclosure on water use.
A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators Table 2 Water Received and its Use Water Received [m3 ] Water withdrawal from a ground water source Water diverted from a surface water source Water delivered Conveyance gains Total water received Use Domestic Commercial Industrial 2000 4'000 500 500 5'000 100 900 4'000 2001 4'100 600 800 5'500 150 950 4'400 Table 3 Accounting Policy. Water Policy. Targets and Measures Accounting policy Water policy Targets Measures 28 .
products and/or services.2. For the energy-producing industry this guidance on energy should be used with care.3. III. III.a.C.3. This guidance should be applied by all enterprises in accounting for all types of energy used by them as defined in III.Guidelines III.C. The objective of this manual is to describe a method for the accounting treatment of energy use.C.3. Definitions 121. An enterprise is an energy producer when the rationale for the activities of the company is to sell energy in whatever form. Energy use is defined as all inp uts into the reporting entity whose purpose it is to use its productive capacity for doing work and/or for providing heat for the reporting entities’ activities.C. Purchase and Sale of Energy 124.3.C.C.C. This guidance is not intended for energy-producing 19 enterprises. The impacts of energy use or issues concerning the supply of energy. Nevertheless. General Definition of Energy and Energy Use 122. Objective 117. Accounting Treatment of Energy Use III. III. The focus of this guidance is therefore on entropy and energy conservation. 123.1. Scope 118. Any form of energy from any source as defined by III. This manual treats energy flows from a thermodynamic perspective. products and/or services shall be considered a purchase of energy regardless of 19 Energy is not produced but rather transformed from one form to another. In the future specific guidance on energy use by energy-producing companies needs to be developed by the industry itself. in everyday language the term "produced" is used. the quality in terms of renewable/non-renewable energy and energy-linked emissions of greenhouse gases are not covered by this manual but by the accounting guidance on energy supply and greenhouse gases.b. 119. 29 . The terms used for the accounting treatment of energy use are defined as follows: III.3. the technology and the source used.c that a company receives from third parties and is used for the company's activities. Energy is the capacity for doing work and/or the capacity for providing heat.C. 120.
mineral oils and other non-energy petroleum products are not considered energy use. products and/or services shall be considered a sale of energy regardless of whether the underlying financial transaction has a negative or positive value for the reporting entity. gas/diesel fuel.c. including shallow ground and ambient air heat pumps). petroleum coke. bituminous coal and anthracite (hard coal). Any form of energy from any source as defined by III. 127. solar process heat. sub-bituminous coal. paraffin waxes. solar hot water systems.C. coke oven coke. (iv) The combustion of biomass Including: direct combustion of biomass. 30 .C. solar space heating and cooling). passive solar heating. lignite and brown coal. lubricating oils and grease. heavy fuel oil.3. III.c that a company transfers to third parties and is being used for the third parties’ activities. 20 Non-energy refined petroleum products used such as white spirit. motor gasoline. (v) The combustion (incineration) of waste (vi) Steam Including: district heating systems and other steam generated outside the reporting entity (vii) The surrounding natural systems Including: geothermal heat (deep heat mining.C. ocean thermal heat. gas works gas and substitute gas. aviation gasoline. Different forms and sources of energy are defined in the appendix III. jet fuels.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators whether the underlying financial transaction has a negative or positive value for the reporting entity. peat. coke oven gas. (iii) The combustion of coal and coal products Including: coking coal (hard coal). bitumen (asphalt). kerosene. direct solar heat (concentrating solar systems.3.20 (ii) The combustion of gas Including: natural gas. Forms and Sources of Energy 126. industrial spirit.7.b. 125. naphtha. biofuels and biochemicals. blast furnace gas. gas coke. patent fuel and brown coal/peat briquettes (BKB). The different forms and sources of energy relevant for companies covered by this manual (non-energy sector only) are: (a) Heat from (i) The combustion of petroleum Including: liquefied petroleum gases and methane.
estimation values based on the technology of the vehicle should be used. batteries) (ii) Pressure-volume work (e. Assumptions made should be disclosed. estimation values based on the technology and/or model year of the vehicle should be used. a water wheel in a mill. it is regarded as excess heat. Table 4 provides guidance. When the purpose of the process from which the heat originates is not heat generation. Transport-related energy use includes all transports carried out as part of the company’s business activities (transportation of goods and personnel) either by the company itself or by a subcontractor23 in charge of a company's transports. including air freight. 130.Guidelines (b) Work21 (i) Electricity (i. inland shipping. If no fuel data are available. compressed air) (iii) Mechanical work (e. for example rented personnel transports. is not accounted for. steam. including geothermal heat. 129. transport services supplied by third parties other than subcontractors (see next paragraph) are not accounted for. Heat from the surrounding natural system. train freight.C. ocean thermal heat and direct solar heat. 31 . 131. These services can nevertheless be disclosed separately (see III. (b) 21 22 23 Work involves the net directed movement of matter from one location to another.6). For the purpose of this guideline. A subcontractor works in the name and on behalf of the company. Assumptions made should be disclosed. company owned or rented business jets. nuclear power station.e. marine shipping. Non-road transportation.g. Petrochemical feedstock use is not considered energy use. rotation produced by a combustion engine.g. (a) Vehicle transport by road shall be accounted for using the actual fuel consumption of the vehicles used.22 132. The use of excess heat from third parties is not accounted for. from hydropower. If no fuel data are available. passenger flights and passenger trai n rides shall be accounted for using actual fuel or electricity consumption of the mode of transport used. a wind rotor) 128.
3 Model Year l / 100 km Gasoline passenger car Low-emission vehicle technology Three-way catalyst control Early three-way catalyst control Oxidation catalyst Non-catalyst control Early non-catalyst controls Uncontrolled Light duty gasoline trucks Moderate control Low-emission vehicle technology Three-way catalyst control Early three-way catalyst control Oxidation catalyst Non-catalyst control Uncontrolled Heavy duty gasoline vehicle Three-way catalyst control Non-catalyst control Uncontrolled Diesel passenger car and light trucks Advanced control Moderate control Uncontrolled Light duty diesel truck Advanced control Moderate control Uncontrolled Heavy duty diesel vehicle Advanced control Moderate control Uncontrolled Motorcycles (4 stroke) Non-catalyst controls Uncontrolled Source: IPCC (1996(b)).1 22.4 11.2 – 22.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators Table 4 Road Transportation: Guidance Values for Fuel Consumption Transport Model Year US Europe l / 100 km 11.9 29.4 43.9 – 5.5 9.3 9.4 13.0 24.7 41.5 41.3 11.3 – 10.7 16.2 13.7 45.2 21.0 10.0 12.9 17.8 12.5 55.8 20.6 10.3 13. >1996 1996 1983 1978 1973 1964 1989-95 1988-91 1980-90 1971-79 pre-1970 – 8.5 – 7.9 13.8 25.5 8.5 43.5 16.1 8.6 >1996 1996 1983 1978 1973 1964 1996 1983 1968 1996 1983 1978 1996 1983 1978 1996 1983 1968 1996 1973 16.1 32 .7 20.
c.C.i. (OECD/IEA 2001a).C.C for gas and III.3. coal. NCV is 5 per cent less than gross values. aviation gasoline. 135.i.A.Guidelines III. jet gasoline. To make them comparable they are converted into thermal equivalents using their respective net caloric content 24 (see III. III.3.C. LPG.C. heavy fuel oil and petroleum coke. Petroleum Products 134.B for coal and coal products. Petroleum products include ethane. while for most gases the difference is between 9 and 10 per cent. III.i.c.3.i. 136.3. Different energy commodities such as petroleum products.A for petroleum products. 33 . coal products and biomass fuels all have a different caloric content.C. Petroleum products are converted into heat equivalents using the net caloric content of the energy commodity. motor gasoline.(i) Conversion Factors from Energy Source to Thermal Equivalents for Fossil Fuel and Biomass Fuels 133.c. naphtha.3.C. jet kerosene. Otherwise the default value should be applied (Table 5). other kerosene.i.c.D for biomass fuels). gas/diesel fuel. III.c.c. In the case of coal and oil.3. gas. 24 The difference between net caloric value (NCV) and gross caloric value is the latent heat of vaporization of the water produced during combustion of the fuel. If the energy commodity is used in a country for which specific values are listed then these values should be used.
00 40.12 42.88 43.96 Nicaragua 47.64 43.99 44.50 44.59 Nepal 49.88 43.50 41.19 46.12 Tunisia Venezuela 46.43 43.02 44.91 42.57 46.58 43.12 43.13 36.94 South Africa 46.54 43.57 43.96 41.93 45.98 47.31 47.43 45.85 46.96 43.40 46.24 43.50 41.27 46.89 45.99 43.29 43.03 39.12 43.31 44.43 46.16 46.91 42. 34 .12 42.54 43.27 Malaysia 45.12 43.75 43.74 44.33 43.03 43.14 Namibia 49.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators Table 5 Net Caloric Values for Petroleum Products Net caloric values Product Ethane LPG Motor gasoline Aviation gasoline Jet gasoline Jet kerosene other kerosene Gas/diesel fuel Heavy fuel oil Naphtha Petroleum coke Product Ethane LPG Motor gasoline Aviation gasoline Jet gasoline Jet kerosene other kerosene Gas/diesel fuel Heavy fuel oil Naphtha Petroleum coke Product Ethane LPG Motor gasoline Aviation gasoline Jet gasoline Jet kerosene other kerosene Gas/diesel fuel Heavy fuel oil Naphtha Petroleum coke Default value 47.31 43.75 43.38 Sri Lanka 44.80 44. 2001b.21 45.77 44.88 43.87 43.01 45.80 44.29 47.74 41.32 40.71 41.19 50.29 42.66 40.64 47.29 44.54 43. see Table 6 for a conversion from volume to mass.53 44.84 Viet Nam Paraguay 45.54 43.21 42.05 43.01 30.49 44.83 44.96 43.09 40.45 42.86 44.07 43.87 41.71 41. PR Colombia Jordan 49.94 47.13 Source: OECD/IEA (2001a.92 Thailand 46.38 42.21 42.05 45.55 40.64 45.33 43.89 51.25 42.59 43.10 41.12 43.25 43.09 45.60 46.09 28.19 45.64 45.33 40.33 30.55 43.64 46.60 46. 2001c).53 42.13 Pakistan 45.21 43.54 43.43 41.21 43.11 47.12 43.67 43.96 43.27 46.01 44.39 35.19 47.03 45.16 43.91 41.38 45.56 43.89 50.37 42.10 43.24 43.21 49.98 Lebanon Default and country specific values [GJ per tonne] Algeria Argentina Brazil China.75 41.80 44.
35 . lignite and brown coal.i. Coal and coal products are converted into heat equivalents using the net caloric content of the energy commodity (see Table 7 and Table 8 for OECD countries. 138.C. these values should be used.B. 2001c). gas coke.3. patent fuel and brown coal/peat briquettes (BKB). peat. (litre per tonne) OECD Europe Default 2 678 1 843 1 351 1 414 1 356 1 260 1 260 1 230 1 185 1 058 874 OECD 1 414 1 343 1 311 1 252 1 252 1 025 III. coke oven coke. 2001b. and Table 9 to Table 17 for non-OECD countries). Coal and coal products include coking coal (hard coal).c. 139. bituminous coal and anthracite (hard coal).Guidelines Table 6 Densities of Petroleum Products Density Product Ethane LPG Naphtha Aviation gasoline Motor gasoline Jet gasoline Jet kerosene other kerosene Gas/diesel fuel Heavy fuel oil Petroleum coke Source: OECD/IEA (2001a. If the actual net caloric value is known. sub-bituminous coal. Coal and Coal Products 137. Otherwise country-specific or region-specific values should be applied.
50 28.57 8.03 22.86 8.00 Denmark 25.55 30.00 28.50 8.21 15.38 14.00 25.29 16.40 18.39 27.31 28.27 25.72 Austria 28.37 16.83 8.30 28.23 24.10 Germany 29.29 16.58 14.00 8.75 16.91 32.65 21.08 18.00 20.00 28.31 28.11 24.31 29.12 8.37 17.67 28.31 26.31 25.05 21.17 17.98 26.30 29.31 29.10 Iceland 28.40 28.00 28.67 30.37 27.37 29.59 8.39 20.37 29.00 10.05 20.50 8.78 8.43 23.30 29.37 29.55 28.05 28.10 Belgium 29.10 27.31 24.29 8.31 27.37 32.00 8.05 20.10 Ireland 29.37 28.37 31.37 10.37 29.64 28.37 29.62 Greece 29.37 8.65 25.00 5.14 12.12 25.89 18.75 8.30 25.05 28.23 Italy 30.40 28.31 29.05 27.37 29.20 29.61 8.68 8.03 17.64 21.80 18.56 8.06 29.65 18.05 18.56 29.05 20.00 8.05 16.31 26.31 15.31 29.48 9.64 19.48 Source: OECD/IEA (2001b).30 Hungary 31.11 19.35 26.00 18.65 28.28 16.25 8.68 8.61 14.66 28.30 Finland 29.00 Czech Republic 29.75 19.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators Table 7 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products OECD Countries A-J Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Australia 28.05 20.55 Canada 27.28 Japan 30.37 29.31 28.10 France 30.30 28.68 11.65 20. 36 .37 8.
05 20.10 Mexico 23.40 28.76 18.48 23.75 8.57 8.37 29.30 25.31 20.06 20.04 28.10 8.04 14.10 Poland 29.37 8. of Korea 27.68 27.12 28.51 20.30 28.04 8.10 Sweden 3 26.31 26.04 20.37 29.52 20.05 21.31 18.37 8.37 8.93 25.93 Netherlands New Zealand 28.10 Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Luxembourg 29.10 Source: OECD/IEA (2001b).06 8.45 28.31 29.31 29.25 Switzerland 28.37 8.05 28.22 United States 29.20 12. 37 .16 8.31 20.45 19.33 7.93 20.05 20.52 26.10 2 8.22 12.50 28.31 27.05 28.Guidelines Table 8 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products OECD Countries K-U Rep.00 23.05 20.37 27.10 30.33 8.50 28.10 Spain 3 21.00 10.10 8.31 28.43 United Kingdom 29.37 29.84 23.31 26.30 29.05 20.37 24.31 28.37 29.37 8.54 14.47 28.50 29.28 28.55 24.50 28.49 8.94 13.31 28.37 31.17 35.05 20.10 8.17 27.50 2 Slovak Republic 28.37 8.96 20.31 28.37 8.84 8.37 12.05 20.93 20.38 8.30 20.10 8.68 28.37 29.82 17.37 29.10 28.67 24.16 22.02 28.37 29.10 Turkey 31.48 18.37 29.10 29.30 30.10 Norway 28.03 8.37 28.37 29.37 29.62 21.73 25.48 8.10 20.05 20.35 28.10 Portugal 29.05 28.31 28.03 29.18 8.
70 8.75 25.75 25.05 25.75 25.31 27. 38 .37 27.76 8.37 25.37 29.75 8.05 8.37 27.37 27.31 25.37 24.10 20.95 13.37 29.93 20.10 Bolivia 25.58 18.21 8.65 8.37 25.75 8.37 27.58 18.34 20.37 29.10 Bahrain 25.10 Benin Source: OECD/IEA (2001c).10 20.75 8.91 32.10 Bosnia and Herzegovina 25.75 Argentina 24.21 Bangladesh 20.75 25.21 Bulgaria 27.93 8.75 25.75 8.37 31.83 8.93 8.58 14.37 Angola 25.65 14.95 25.37 8.21 Algeria 25.05 13.75 8.31 26.40 15.91 8.37 29.65 18.12 11.37 29.37 27.12 Albania 27.31 25.21 6.54 14.10 20.37 8.37 28.46 20.37 8.80 8.37 8.84 9.21 20.84 27.14 Azerbaijan 18.10 Belarus 25.65 8.65 14.10 18.84 8.37 8.37 8.21 9.31 25.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators Table 9 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries A-B Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke BKB/Peat Briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke BKB/Peat Briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes 20.37 8.75 8.58 14.37 20.31 30.37 Armenia 18.70 24.37 27.90 20.65 25.21 27.54 14.37 8.95 13.37 8.37 25.75 25.37 8.12 20.30 6.37 8.12 8.75 8.10 Brazil 26.58 14.37 25.37 Brunei 25.75 8.37 8.66 25.58 14.65 14.70 8.37 8.65 8.21 9.54 25.65 18.37 29.37 8.21 20.
37 Bulgaria 27.76 20.37 31.34 Colombia 27.75 8.80 20.43 17.37 8.21 27.23 8.83 8.37 8.37 29.10 20.31 26.37 27.75 8.80 8.40 15. DR 25.37 Cameroon 25.37 25.60 14.21 8.75 25.93 8.37 8.37 8.75 Chile 28.66 25.21 20.10 20.75 26.37 29.12 11.97 14.21 20.75 25.80 8.37 20.37 27.37 8.37 17.37 8.21 29.17 8.91 8.37 29.37 8.37 Cuba 25.37 28.21 27.10 Brazil 26.80 26.37 8.21 20.75 25.21 6.75 8.37 8.75 8.37 25.10 Taiwan POC 26.31 30.00 14.30 6.14 18.21 27.37 26.37 8.37 25.43 28.37 Congo 8.37 8.37 25.43 20.35 8.31 27.75 25.75 25. 39 .80 8.37 8.37 26.05 Costa Rica 25.75 Brunei 25.31 27.75 25.10 China 21.37 25.75 8.37 8.21 27.37 8.60 29.37 8.23 25.10 Côte d'Ivoire 25.17 17.23 8.75 8.Guidelines Table 10 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries/Territories B-C Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes 20.91 32.80 28.31 27.75 25.21 8.60 8.47 18.37 8.75 8.10 Cyprus 25.37 8.75 8.17 28.10 20.75 Source: OECD/IEA (2001c).37 8.43 17.37 27.10 Croatia 28.10 Congo.37 8.10 20.37 25.37 8.
37 8.37 25.37 25.37 25.75 8.37 8.37 27.75 8.79 24.75 8.75 8.10 20.37 27.37 25.37 29.21 8.37 8.75 25.10 Haiti 25.37 25.37 29.37 8.21 Egypt 25.75 8.21 Hong Kong.37 8.37 29.37 8.75 8.37 8.75 8.75 El Salvador 25.10 20.37 25.75 25.75 8.37 25.37 29.37 25.10 20.37 27.31 27.37 29.37 8.21 8.75 8.10 Ethiopia Dominican Republic 25.21 8.10 Honduras 25.58 14.10 Gabon 25.37 8.75 25.75 8.65 14.10 20.37 8.37 8.31 27.45 24.31 27.37 27.37 8.75 25.37 25.31 25.12 20.37 8.37 29.65 18.21 8.75 8.37 8.21 Ecuador 25.75 8.21 27.75 8. 40 .05 20.37 Eritrea Source: OECD/IEA (2001c).65 8.31 29.21 20.37 20.75 25.58 14.37 8.45 8.75 25. China 25.75 25.75 8.75 Ghana 25.75 25.37 8.37 Guatemala 27.37 8.10 Georgia 18.75 8.37 8.75 8.75 Gibraltar 25.31 16.75 25.37 8.75 8.21 28.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators Table 11 Net Calo ric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries/Territories D-H Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes 20.75 8.31 27.75 25.10 Estonia 24.37 25.37 20.58 18.45 8.37 8.
75 25.21 Israel 26.37 27.37 8.98 19.10 27.37 8.67 8.37 8.37 27.75 8.21 Iran.67 8.37 8.95 14.10 20.12 20.10 8.58 25.37 25.65 25.22 8.21 Indonesia 25.75 25.58 14.86 8.95 25.58 18.10 Korea.21 27.10 20.37 29.37 29.21 Source: OECD/IEA (2001c).75 25.75 8.75 8.37 8.19 26.37 29.37 27.21 Iraq 25.37 25.37 27.Guidelines Table 12 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries I-Lib Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net Caloric Values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net Caloric Values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes 20.75 8.10 Kazakhstan 18.37 25.75 25.75 8.75 17.75 8.37 8.75 25.37 25.37 8.37 India 19.37 27.37 8.47 20.75 8.10 Lebanon 27.37 8.65 14.37 8. 25.22 4.37 27.21 20.12 27.75 17.65 8.65 8.65 14.21 27.65 8.80 14.37 8.37 20.37 27. 41 .75 8.12 28.10 Jordan 25.37 8.37 8.75 25.37 8.58 18.37 25.37 25.21 20.58 17.37 27.31 25.37 20. DPR 25.75 25.37 25.98 9.80 19.10 Libyan AJ 25.65 14.75 25.37 8.75 27.10 Kyrgyzstan 18.21 20.37 25.75 8.37 8.75 8.22 26.75 8.21 20.65 18.37 4.10 Latvia 25.98 9.65 18.58 14.75 8.21 20.31 25.75 8.75 25.37 8.75 8.75 8.37 25.95 14.10 Kenya 25.37 8.37 20.58 8.58 14.10 Kuwait 25. Islamic Rep.58 14.19 8.10 Jamaica 25.75 8.31 25.37 20.
21 20.10 14.37 25.37 20.31 27.37 8.10 Oman 25.70 8.65 14.37 8.37 25.21 20.31 29.37 29.68 29.10 Pakistan 18.75 25.37 25.10 Myanmar 25.75 8.65 11.37 8.30 Macedonia.30 29.21 20.21 Moldova.37 8.37 24.75 8.31 11.10 Nepal 25.37 25.75 8.05 13.73 8.38 Malta 25.37 8.37 27.21 20.10 27.37 8. 42 .21 27.65 14.10 Nicaragua 25.75 25.26 8.37 Lithuania 25.10 27.21 20.75 8.37 26.37 29.37 8.65 Morocco 24.37 27.37 25.75 25. Republic of 18.75 8.31 27.37 18.37 8.21 20.12 25.21 20.37 20.69 8.37 8.37 8.31 11.37 8.90 Malaysia 29.37 8.12 25.95 25.75 8.65 25.75 25.05 25.37 20.37 29.95 13.12 14.37 27.58 14.37 27.69 8.00 8.12 8.37 8.10 Namibia 22.75 8.75 8.70 8.12 8.75 8.31 26.65 18.37 8.31 25.37 25.10 Mozambique 25.05 8.37 8.21 20.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators Table 13 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries/Territories Lit-P Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes 27.31 29.21 20.73 18.75 25.95 13.75 25.30 11.73 8.10 Netherlands Antilles 25.37 8.10 27.37 25.37 8.65 8.37 8.37 8.10 Nigeria 25.37 25. FYR 25.37 8.37 8.37 29.37 27.75 8.58 14.37 8.12 Source: OECD/IEA (2001c).58 18.12 14.75 8.21 20.75 25.37 25.75 8.75 22.70 24.00 8.
37 8.21 8.33 8.00 8.37 25.75 8.83 15.37 8.79 14.37 27.75 25.21 8.10 Saudi Arabia 25.37 8.37 8.10 20.91 22.75 25.91 15.10 20.65 Slovenia 17.37 27.31 29.99 25.73 8.75 8.10 Senegal 25.37 Pakistan 18.21 20.75 25.75 8.71 7.21 8.37 8.37 25.43 25.21 Nigeria 25.37 27.37 8.37 8.95 25.37 27.90 Paraguay 25.37 8.10 Russian Federation 22.37 8.21 20.10 Singapore Panama 25.00 30.37 20.21 20.37 18.37 8.50 Source: OECD/IEA (2001c).95 17.31 26.95 27.75 8.21 20.99 27.10 24.37 27.21 20.37 25.91 9.75 8.37 27.01 17.75 25.75 8.75 25.75 8.37 27.75 8.21 20.83 15.73 8.37 8.37 8.25 18. 43 .37 8.75 25.37 25.37 25.37 8.10 Qatar 25.10 20.37 8.82 9.37 27.10 Romania 25.37 25.65 26.75 8.75 8.31 Oman 25.95 8.83 22.37 27.37 8.73 18.37 8.75 8.37 25.37 29.99 8.75 8.57 7.58 South Africa 27.37 27.10 Peru 29.37 26.37 27.75 8.76 9.75 25.37 8.37 8.37 8.41 14.31 29.21 20.33 8.Guidelines Table 14 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries N-So Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net Caloric Values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes 20.75 8.37 8.96 29.10 Philippines 24.
21 20.75 25.31 8.31 25.37 29.10 United Arab Emirates 25.37 8.75 8.37 8.37 29.56 30.21 20.14 8.75 8.75 8.37 29. United Rep.37 27.75 25.58 14.65 18.65 18.58 14.37 27.37 25.21 20.10 Thailand 26.37 25.37 8.37 8.75 8.75 8.10 Uzbekistan 18.21 27.31 8.75 8.10 8.37 25.31 25.21 20.65 14.14 27.37 27.65 21.21 20.21 20.14 12.38 27.58 18.58 14.10 Sudan Syrian AR 25.65 14.56 8.21 Togo 25.21 20.75 25.10 Source: OECD/IEA (2001c).21 20.56 8.31 25.65 8.59 21.10 Turkmenistan 18.75 25.38 12.37 8.37 25.65 14.38 12.10 8.37 25.75 25.75 8.37 27.75 8.37 26.75 25.75 25.12 20.75 25.37 8.37 8.59 14.30 20.75 8.58 14.37 27.12 20.37 27.65 8.37 25.37 8.65 8.75 8.58 18.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators Table 15 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries Sr-Ve Tanzania.65 8.58 14.37 8.37 25.31 25.37 27.75 8.58 18.37 30.37 8.37 8.37 29.65 18.37 8.75 Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net Caloric Values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Net Caloric Values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Sri Lanka 29.37 8.37 8.59 14.10 Uruguay 25. of 25.75 8.37 27.37 27.12 20.37 8.75 29.37 Tajikistan 18.10 Tunisia 25.12 20.21 8.10 Trinidad & Tobago 25.65 14. 44 .10 Ukraine 21.37 29.58 14.10 Venezuela 30.63 26.
Gas 140.37 29.31 27.37 25.12 Source: OECD/IEA (2001c).05 8.21 20.95 13.71 24. Gas is converted into heat equivalents using the net caloric content of the energy commodity.37 8.21 20.37 29.10 20.75 8.37 25.3.00 8.75 8.31 27.37 25.37 29.37 23.21 20.45 8. 141. FR 25.c.10 20.21 Zimbabwe 27.75 25. III.37 8.95 25.37 8.37 8.75 8.75 25.37 29.31 27. 45 .C.75 8.37 8.10 Other Latin America 25.37 8.21 Yemen 25.90 Zambia 24.75 25.10 Viet Nam 23.31 27.75 25.37 27.10 Source: OECD/IEA (2001c). coke oven gas and blast furnace gas.37 8.71 8.37 27.37 25.75 8.37 27.31 26.00 8. gas works gas (including substitute gas). the value as declared by the supplier should be used.05 25.37 8.37 8.C. As the net caloric content varies considerably.Guidelines Table 16 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products Non-OECD Countries Vi-Z Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes 20. 142.37 25.00 27.37 8.37 29.75 8.10 20.37 24.37 8.37 8. Table 17 Net Caloric Values for Coal and Coal Products other Asia.i.21 Yugoslavia. Gas includes natural gas.10 Other Asia 25.75 8.05 13.95 13.37 8.45 8. other Africa and other Latin America Net caloric values [GJ per tonne] Hard coal Lignite/brown coal/sub-bituminous ~ Coking coal Other bituminous coal/anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite/brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke and lignite coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Other Africa 25.45 23.75 8.10 20.71 8.37 8.
9 0.000 37.9 0.9 0. 46 .b.20 MJ/m3 should be applied. If no specific value is provided standard values listed in Table 19 should be applied.32 29. 2001c).889 38.(v)) 144. Biomass fuels 143.C.9 0.9 0.9 0. biofuels and biomass (see annex.460 0. Biomass fuels include biochemicals.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators (a) (b) If the actual net caloric value is not known but the country of origin is known these specific values from Table 18 should be applied.518 40. Biomass fuels are converted into heat equivalents using the net caloric content of the energy commodity.50 please use specific values III. (MJ per m3) Gross caloric Factor to convert gross value caloric content to net 38. 145.20 36.C. If no country-specific value is provided in Table 18. By default the value as declared by the supplier of the energy commodity should be used.220 39.80 34.90 35.57 36.41 > 33.9 0.10 34. III.9 0.579 38.600 42.c.416 38.54 37.000 37.130 33.i.82 34.9 0.9 0.D. the default value of 34.57 18.104.22.168 0.000 40.20 33. Table 18 Gross and Net Caloric Values for Gas Caloric values Product Natural gas (default value) Natural gas originating from: Russian Federation United States Canada Netherlands United Kingdom Indonesia Algeria Uzbekistan Saudi Arabia Norway Gas works gas and substitute gas Coke oven gas Blast furnace gas Source: OECD/IEA (2001b.9 0.9 1 Net caloric value 34. Net caloric values of biomass fuels vary considerably even among the same fuel type.
0 40.1 12.2 16.0 30.Guidelines Table 19 Typical Net Caloric Values for Biomass Fuels Biomass fuel Fuelwood (c) Wood wet. are converted into thermal equivalents using the specific net caloric content of the combusted material as indicated by the supplier. including waste. freshly cut Wood air-dry.0 20.0 4. (c) Assuming air-dry wood.2 14.0 12.0 50.0 0.4 15. humid zone Wood air-dry.0 12.2 15.0 13.3.0 5.0 12.0 9.c.0 8. III.0 11.0 29.0 12. (b) Typical values to be considered as rough approximations.4 11.5 16.9 16.8 17. an estimate has to be made. Moisture content (% mcwb) (a) 20.0 Typical net calorific value (b) (MJ/kg) 15. 47 .C.4 9.6 20.0 12.0 12. If no specific value is available. Other energy sources.0 16.0 11.0 40.0 10.7 15. dry zone Wood oven-dry Wood charcoal Charcoal Dung Bagasse Wet Air-dry Agricultural waste Other waste Dung cakes (dried) Coffee husks Rice hulls (air-dry) Wheat straw Maize (stalk) Maize (cobs) Cotton gin trash Cotton stalk Coconut husks Coconut shells (a) mcwb: moisture content weight basis.0 15.0 24. The reporting entity shall disclose the specific values chosen and the underlying assumptions.0 13.9 Source: IPCC (1996b).(ii) Conversion Factors from Energy Source to Thermal Equivalents for other Energy Sources 146.0 50.0 8.9 15.
while company B is highly efficient with an efficiency of 0.000 kWh electricity. Technically both need 4. Obviously this does not reflect the reality. Company A Conversion efficiency Energy source Electricity Gas 54 000 thermal work 3 600 10 800 MJ MJ 1 000 3 000 4 000 10 000 0.4 kWh/€.28 kWh/€. the one that converts fossil fuels (= heat) to electricity (= work). is 0.35 kWh/MJ Company A uses 5. Assuming they have the same net value added of €10. see the following example in the table below.000 kWh work equivalent of energy for their processes.2 kWh/MJ thermal work 3 600 10 800 MJ MJ 1 000 3 000 4 000 10 000 0.000 kWh work equivalent. As company B is more efficient.35 is not very suitable as conversion processes within a specific company will in almost any case be different from the default value.250 kWh work equivalent of gas while company B uses 1 .000.810 kWh work equivalent of gas. So why not use the company-specific efficiency for the conversion of heat equivalent to work equivalent? To see the effect of using a default value. while company B has a much higher eco-efficiency of 0.28 kWh kWh € kWh/€ Energy requirement Net value added Eco-efficiency MJ 1 000 kWh kWh/MJ thermal work 3 600 MJ 1 000 kWh Company B 0. This perfectly reflects the real situation.4 kWh kWh KWh € kWh/€ 18 621 0.58 kWh/MJ. they will have the same eco-efficiency.35 (OECD/IEA 1997).000 kWh of electricity (= work) in addition to gas.810 kWh work equivalent. Company A has an average efficiency of 0.35 kWh/MJ we get a more adequate result: Company A Conversion efficiency Energy source thermal Electricity Gas 54 000 0.000 MJ thermal for company A.58 kWh/MJ Energy requirement Net value added Eco-efficiency If we start with the amount of energy purchased and then convert thermal energy to work equivalents using the proposed default factor of 0.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators Box 4. company B 2 . less gas needs to be purchased: 18. Both purchase 1. namely 0. The eco-efficiency of company A is 0.63 kWh KWh € kWh/€ 18 621 6 517 MJ 1 810 2 810 10 000 0.250 kWh work equivalent.2 kWh/MJ converting natural gas (= heat) into work. Assume that two different companies both use gas as a major energy source. The result using the default factor then would be: company A 6 . 48 .35 work 3 600 18 900 MJ 5 250 6 250 10 000 0. If the actual efficiency is taken to convert the amount of gas purchased to work equivalents both will end up having used 3. Both use 1.4 kWh kWh kWh € kWh/€ Company B 0.621 MJ thermal for company B compared with 54. which is converted into steam to propel a turbine (= work). But why the 0. for example 0.63 kWh/€.35 as the default value? B ecause the average efficiency of one of the most important and widely used conversion processes. Conversion Factor One could argue that using a default conversion factor of.
d. energy should be valued by its capacity to provide work. Steam tables come as voluminous books and/or software packages. Conversion Factors from Thermal Equivalents to Work 147. for a complete conversion table of different energy units). American Society of Mechanical Engineers 2000).C.4.fr/enus/3_SI] 49 .5.g. "ASME International Steam Tables for Industrial Use". The organization in charge. electricity). the "Bureau International des Poids et Mesures". The amount of energy purchased and sold should be weighed or metered. provides a list of all SI units [http://www. thermal energy needs to be converted so that it is of a quality comparable to that of energy supplied to the reporting entity in the form of work (e. The factor to convert MJ into GWh is 0. And when it is probable that the amount or value can be measured. kg etc.C. international abbreviation SI) for the recommended practical system of units of measurement. For the purpose of eco-efficiency reporting within this framework. 152. Recognition of Energy 151. Measurement of Energy 153. For that reason they are not listed in the guidelines.C.(ii). m3. Energy as defined by paragraph III. 149.C. GWh work equivalent = 0. MJ.).7. Steam from whatever external source is accounted for using standard steam tables.c.3 should be recognized at the beginning and at the end of an accounting period.bipm.35 (see Box 4 for the rationale).Guidelines III. thermal equivalents should be expressed in MJ.3 should be recognized in the period in which it is: (a) (b) Purchased or sold.3.26 25 26 Steam tables are published by various national engineering associations (e.2778 150.C. Energy purchased or sold should be measured in an adequate SI unit (kWh. 25 III. Stocks of energy commodities as defined in III. Within this framework two different categories of energy are accounted for: heat and work.2778 (see annex III.C. Work equivalents should be expressed in GWh.35 x MJ thermal equivalent x 0. 154. The 11th Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (1960) adopted the French name Système International d'Unités (International System of Units. III. 148.g. The conversion factor for thermal energy to work equivalents will be 0. Therefore.
III. An enterprise should disclose: (a) (b) (c) (d) The eco-efficiency indicator "energy requirement per unit of net value added". Raw data on the above flows and stocks (Table 21).C. The accounting policies adopted for energy use. Annex to Energy Use (e) III. all energy purchased. energy sold and stocks of energy.C.7. 157. If an amount is estimated or calculated the range of uncertainty should be recorded. covering energy purchased.a. Total energy requirement is defined as purchased work equivalents minus sales of work equivalents plus/minus a decrease/increase in stocks of energy commodities expressed in work equivalents. (b) (c) 50 . The management's stance on energy use. The amounts of each energy source recognized during the accounting period and the respective amounts of the previous year. including the respective conversion factors used.a. Accounting policy. Example of Disclosure of Energy Use 159. The total energy requirement recognized during the accounting period and the respective amounts of the previous year expressed in work equivalents. For the purpose of eco-efficiency reporting.7. sold or in stock shall be converted in a first step into heat equivalents (this step is obsolete when the company purchases energy in the form of work) and in a second step into work equivalents. targets and measures (Table 20). energy sold and stocks of energy converted into heat and work equivalents. energy policy. III.7. the objectives and targets regarding energy use and the measures taken to achieve the targets. The item energy requirement is used for the calculation of the eco-efficiency indicator "energy requirement per net value added" (see paragraph 76(b)). Disclosure of energy use consists of three parts: (a) Total energy requirements (Table 20).C.6. 156.C. An example of a disclosure of energy use is given in the annex.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators 155. covering energy purchased. Disclosure of Energy Use 158. III.
g.774 Energy purchased Electricity Natural gas Bituminous coal (Argentina) Bituminous coal (Brazil) Total energy purchased Energy sold Steam Total energy sold Stocks Bituminous coal (Argentina) Bituminous coal (Brazil) Stocks Total energy requirement Net value added (€) 10 000 10 500 Eco-efficiency indicator "energy requirement/n et value added" (MWh/€) * Note: e.)* 2001 2002 Work (MWh work) 2001 2002 10 000 17 100 247 020 0 264 120 50 000 50 000 -12 351 0 -12 351 201 769 18 810 222 318 79 130 320 258 60 000 60 000 24 702 -79 130 -54 428 205 830 10 000 10 500 10 500 Total (MWh work eq. = equivalent Table 21 Energy Flows and Stocks Energy flows and stocks (raw data) Energy purchased Electricity Natural gas Bituminous coal (Argentina) Bituminous coal (Brazil) Energy sold Steam Stocks Bituminous coal (Argentina) Bituminous coal (Brazil) 31.962 10 500 6 829 21 616 7 694 41 639 5 834 5 834 2 402 -7 694 -5 292 30 513 11 000 2.12.12.02 1 000 5 000 kWh m3 t t MJ t t 24 702 15 826 MJ/t MJ/t 34.00 1 500 0 Amount 2001 10 000 500 000 10 000 0 50 000 31.Guidelines Table 20 Energy Requirement Energy requirement Heat (GJ heat eq.)* 2001 2002 10 000 1 663 24 018 0 35 680 4 862 4 862 -1 201 0 -1 201 29 618 10 000 2.01 2 000 0 2002 10 500 550 000 9 000 5 000 60 000 31.12.2 24 702 15 826 MJ/m3 MJ/t MJ/t Conversion 51 .
164. Motor gasoline exists as regular. Energy Policy. It consists of a mixture of light hydrocarbons distilling at between 35oC and 215oC. It is used as a fuel for land-based spark ignition engines. Motor gasoline may include additives. natural gas and coal. This category includes field or lease condensate recovered from associated and nonassociated gas where it is commingled with the commercial crude oil stream. III.http://www. 162.org/stats/files/queoil.b. oxygenates and octane enhancers.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators Table 22 Accounting Policy.C. A fossil fuel is any naturally occurring fuel of an organic nature formed by the decomposition of plants or animals. Crude oil is unrefined petroleum that reaches the surface of the ground in a liquid state. They consist mainly of propane (C3H8) and butane (C4Hl0) or a combination of the two. 52 .iea.htm) 160.(i) Petroleum 161. Its physical characteristics (density. Energy Sources (Note: The following definitions are based on the definitions used by the International Energy Agency for its statistics .7. 163. Ethane is a naturally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon (C2H6) extracted from natural gas and refinery gas streams. Petroleum products are obtained from the processing of crude oil (including lease condensate) and other hydrocarbon compounds. It is a mineral oil of natural origin comprising a mixture of hydrocarbons and associated impurities. Targets and Measures Accounting policy Energy policy Targets Measures III. such as sulphur.) are highly variable. etc. crude oil stabilization and natural gas processing plants. midgrade and premium quality depending on the octane value.7.b. including lead compounds such as TEL (tetraethyl lead) and TML (tetramethyl lead). They are normally liquefied under pressure for transportation and storage. viscosity. this includes petroleum.C. Liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) are light saturated paraffinic hydrocarbons derived from the refinery processes.
light heating oil. a freezing point of -60oC and a distillation range within the limits of 30oC and 180oC. which are established by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). 169. Kerosene comprises refined petroleum distillate and is used in sectors other than aircraft transport. 167. 171. 170. marine diesel and diesel used in rail traffic. it has particular specifications. Petroleum coke is a black solid residue. It may contain traces of organic lead. with an octane number suited to the engine. 166. They are obtained by blending kerosene and gasoline or naphtha in such a way that the aromatic content does not exceed 25 per cent in volume.).6kPa. ethylene manufacture or aromatics production) or for gasoline production by reforming or isomerization within the refinery. Naphtha comprises material in the 30oC and 2l0oC distillation range or part of this range. etc. Aviation gasoline is motor spirit prepared especially for aviation piston engines. Naphtha is a feedstock destined for the petrochemical industry (e. There are two qualities: (a) (b) Low sulphur content: sulphur content lower than 1 per cent.g. Several grades are available depending on uses: diesel oil for diesel compression ignition (cars. 172.7kPa and 20. 53 . trucks. It is used as a feedstock in coke ovens for the steel industry. The flash point is always above 50oC and density is always more than 0. obtained mainly by cracking and carbonizing residue feedstock. marine. It has the same distillation characteristics between 150oC and 300oC and flash point as kerosene.90 kg/l. tar and pitches in processes such as delayed coking or fluid coking. It consists mainly of carbon (90 to 95 per cent) and has a low ash content. High sulphur content: sulphur content of 1 per cent or higher.Guidelines (a) (b) Unleaded: motor gasoline where lead compounds have not been added to enhance octane rating. In addition. This category also includes "catalyst coke" deposited on the catalyst during refining processes. The two most important qualities are "green coke" and "calcinated coke". for electrode manufacture and for production of chemicals. 168. Gas/diesel fuel is primarily a medium distillate distilling at between 180oC and 380oC. Naphtha-type jet fuel includes all light hydrocarbon oils for use in aviation turbine power units. Leaded: motor gasoline with TEL (tetraethyl lead) and/or TML (tetramethyl lead) added to enhance octane rating. Heavy fuel oil covers all residual fuel oils (including those obtained by blending). Kerosene-type jet fuel is a distillate used for aviation turbine power units. 165. for heating purposes. distilling at between 100oC and 250oC. It distils at between 150oC and 300oC. this coke is not recoverable and is usually burned as refinery fuel. and the vapour pressure is between 13.
Anthracite is the hardest coal and gives off the greatest amount of heat when it burns. occurring naturally in the earth. dry carbon substance produced by coal at a very high temperature in the absence of air.5 MJ/m3) and by its high methane content (above 85 per cent). which are not connected with gasworks and municipal gas plants. Substitute natural gas is distinguished from other manufactured gases by its high heat value (above 33. composed primarily of methane (CH4). residual fuel oil. (b) (c) 178. Sub-bituminous coal is a dull black coal.435 kJ/kg and 23. by total gasification with or without enrichment with oil products (LPG. manufactured by chemical conversion of a hydrocarbon fossil fuel. Used for steam raising and space heating purposes. whose main purpose is manufacture.(ii) Gases 173. 176. Hard coal refers to coal of gross calorific value greater than 23. it is recovered on leaving the furnaces and used partly within the plant and partly in other steel industry processes or in power stations equipped to burn it. It gives off a little more energy (heat) than lignite when it burns. Hard coal comprises coking coal and other bituminous coal/anthracite: (a) Coking coal is a hard.b. III. Coking coal has a quality that allows the production of a coke suitable to support a blast furnace charge.(iii) Coal 177.C. transport and distribution of gas. It is therefore used in the manufacture of iron and steel.). and by reforming and simple mixing of gases and/or air. Coke oven gas is a by-product of solid fuel carbonization and gasification operations carried out by coke producers and iron and steel plants.865 kJ/kg on an ash-free but moist basis and with a mean random reflectance of vitrinite of at least 0. Other bituminous coal not included under coking coal. Non-agglomerating coals with a gross calorific value of between 17. Blast furnace gas is obtained as a by-product in operating blast furnaces. It includes gas produced by carbonization (including gas produced by coke ovens and transferred to gas works gas).C. Natural gas is a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons.7.865 kJ/kg contains more than 31 per cent volatile matter on a dry mineral matter-free basis.6. by cracking of natural gas. This category includes substitute natural gas that is a high-calorific-value gas. 175. 54 .b. Gas works gas covers all types of gases. It is chemically and physically interchangeable with natural gas and is usually distributed through the natural gas grid. 174. It is used for steam raising and space heating purposes. including substitute natural gas produced in a public utility or private plants.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators III. that is used as a fuel.7. etc.
Peat is a combustible soft. Patent fuel is a composition fuel manufactured from hard coal fires by shaping with the addition of a binding agent (pitch). 183.nrel. 180. http://www. 184. foundry coke and semicoke (the solid product obtained from carbonization of coal at low temperature) are included in this category. easily cut. 182.html) III. porous or compressed. Lignite and brown coal are non-agglomerating coals with a gross calorific value of less than 17.Guidelines 179. Coke oven coke also includes coke and semi-coke made from lignite/brown coal. Lignite dust is included in this category. fossil sedimentary deposit of plant origin with high water content (up to 90 per cent in the raw state). of light to dark brown colour.C. The largest portion of the world's coal reserves is made up of lignite/brown coal. (Note: The following definitions are based on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US) definitions. The lignite/brown coal is crushed. Coke oven coke is used mainly in the iron and steel industry acting as an energy source and chemical agent. it is low in moisture and volatile matter. Gas coke is the by-product of hard coal used for production of town gas in gas works. Solar space heating and cooling. 181. Solar process heat for industrial and commercial uses.435 kJ/kg and greater than 31 per cent volatile matter on a dry mineral matter-free basis. Concentrating solar systems that use the sun's heat to produce steam and convert it to electricity. Passive solar heating and day lighting systems that use solar energy to heat and light buildings. at high temperature.gov/clean_energy/whatisRE. Gas coke is used for heating purposes. Coke oven coke is the solid product obtained from carbonization of coal. for example coffee bean drying. Solar hot water systems that heat water for other purposes than heating.7. Coke breeze. Direct solar energy includes the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Photovoltaic (solar cell) systems which produce electricity directly from sunlight. Brown coal/peat briquettes (BKB) is a composition fuel manufactured from lignite/brown coal or peat.b. brownish-black coal that forms the lowest quality level of the coal family. dried and moulded under high pressure into an even-shaped briquette without the addition of binders. 55 . principally coking coal.(iv) Direct Solar Energy 185. a soft.
Biomass fuels includes: (a) Biochemicals Heat is used to chemically convert biomass into a fuel oil.(viii) 189. Geothermal energy refers to: (a) (b) (c) Production from the earth's heat.7. Methanol.(v) Biomass Fuels (Biomass-Based Solar Energy) 186. to generate heat.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators III. Water released from the reservoir flows through a turbine.b. After pyrolysis.b. The chemical conversion process is called pyrolysis.(vii) 188. including electricity generation.7. River plants Hydropower river plants use not a reservoir.g.C. and it occurs when biomass is heated in the absence of oxygen.C. Other biofuels include methanol and reformulated gasoline components.b. electricity or any other form of energy. Hydropower includes: (a) Dams Most large-scale hydropower plants use a dam on a river to store water in a reservoir. After gasification.b. but a canal to channel the river water through a turbine.7.(vi) 187. Geothermal Energy (b) III. methane). Biomass Biomass is burned directly.C. spinning it. Hydropower (b) (c) III. biomass turns into a liquid – called pyrolysis oil – which can be burned like petroleum. Ocean energy conversion includes: (a) Ocean thermal energy. Production of heat directly from hot water within the earth. or is converted into a gaseous fuel (e. Using the shallow ground to heat and cool buildings. the resulting hot gas is sent through a tube and then converted into liquid methane. which in turn activates a generator to produce electricity.C. Biofuels Biomass is converted into liquid fuels for transportation needs. is produced through the gasification of biomass. The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol (an alcohol) and biodiesel (an ester).7. Ocean Energy III. which is used for many applications. commonly called wood alcohol. There are three types of electricity conversion 56 .
Hybrid systems combine both closed-cycle and open-cycle systems. such as ammonia. (i) Wave Energy For wave energy conversion. or air. which then drives a turbine/generator. and waves are driven primarily by the winds. Closed-cycle systems use the ocean's warm surface water to vaporize a working fluid. As a result. there are three basic systems: channel systems that funnel the waves into reservoirs. and oscillating water column systems that use the waves to compress air within a container. The mechanical power created from these systems either directly activates a generator or transfers to a working fluid. float systems that drive hydraulic pumps. unlike in the case of thermal energy. The turbine then activates a generator to produce electricity. 57 . (ii) Tidal Energy A barrage (dam) is typically used to convert tidal energy into electricity by forcing the water through turbines. tides are driven primarily by the gravitational pull of the moon. tides and waves a intermittent re sources of energy.Guidelines (b) systems: closed-cycle. the electricity conversion of both tidal and wave energy usually involves mechanical devices. water. The vapour expands and turns a turbine. which is quite different from ocean thermal energy. open-cycle and hybrid. Ocean mechanical energy conversion includes: Ocean mechanical energy. Open-cycle systems actually boil the seawater by operating at low pressures. while ocean thermal energy is fairly constant. Also. This produces steam that passes through a turbine/generator. activating a generator. Even though the sun affects all ocean activity. which has a low-boiling point.
6 x 10-5 MBtu 947.000.000.001 0.02381 0.546 159 28.0063 6.8327 1 34.000.000.000.8 3.000.000.(ii) (2) to: (1) from: TJ Gcal Mtoe MBtu GWh General Conversion Factors for Energy TJ (3) multiply by: 1 4.220 220 bbl 0.000.000 1.289 ft3 0.7.000.000 1.3 1 1000 m3 0.7.000 1.000.000.2 0.0551 x 10-3 3.c.3147 l 3.159 0.000 1.c.000.000 1.000.001 0.785 4.001 0.C.000.C.931 x 10-4 1 III.000.1868 x 10-3 4.6 Gcal 238.000.52 x 10-8 8.163 x 10-3 11630 2.000.(i) Prefix exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto deca deci centi mili micro nano pico femto atto Decimal Prefixes Symbol E P T G M kg h da d c m µ n p f a Factor 1018 1015 1012 109 106 103 102 101 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 10-15 10-18 1.001 III.1337 0.001 0.000.C.615 1 0.02859 1 0.0045 0.000.000.(iii) (2) to: (1) from: gal US gal UK bbl ft3 l m3 General Conversion Factors for Volume gal US gal UK (3) multiply by: 1 1.1 0.0038 0.7.229 0.968 x 107 1 3412 GWh 0.2778 1.000.1868 x 104 1.000.000.0353 35.1781 0.000.c.000.001 0.c.C.388 x 10-5 10-7 1 2.252 860 Mtoe 2.968 3.001 1 58 .1605 5.7.000.000.201 42 7.2642 264.000.8 1 107 0. Units and Conversions III.000.000.97 6.283 0.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators III.01 0.000 100 10 0.48 0.
102 x 10-3 1.1023 1.984 1 0.2046 2204.(iv) 2) to: 1) from: kg t lt st lb General Conversion Factors for Mass kg 3) multiply by: 1 1000 1016 907.2 0.016 0.001 1 1.120 1 5 x 10-4 lb 2.c.54 x 10-4 lt 9.Guidelines III.7.84 x 10-4 0.9072 4.6 240 2000 1 59 .C.46 x 10-4 st 1.893 4.454 t 0.
Methane (CH4). 195. The objective of this manual is to provide guidance regarding the accounting treatment of the global warming contribution of an enterprise. The values are listed in Table 34. A specific guideline on the global warming contribution by energy-producing companies.D. If a enterprise produces. agricultural activities and forestry.3. Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and.D. This guidance should be applied in accounting for substances that contribute to global warming and which are listed under the Kyoto Protocol/Convention. Definitions III.3. they should be included. 192. Accounting Treatment of Global Warming Contribution Objective 190.3. III. III.D. Global warming potential is the assumed impact of a substance on global warming. This manual does not deal with specific aspects of energy-producing enterprises (see the definition in the guideline for energy use in III. III.2. These industries should use this manual on global warming contribution with care. Global warming gases are all gases that are listed under the Kyoto Protocol/Convention (the protocol): (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Carbon dioxide (CO2).D. Nitrous oxide (N2O).A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators III. 194. The contribution of a gas is considered significant when its share of the total global warming contribution of the company exceeds 1 per cent. 60 .2).D. III.a.b.1. Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Global Warming Potential 196.D. Hydrofluorocarbons HFCs. the agricultural sector and forestry needs to be developed. Global warming potentials are based on current scientific knowledge and are expressed in kg carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents per kg of the substance. Scope 191. Global Warming Gases 193.C. uses or emits other substances that contribute to global warming other than the ones listed in the protocol and these gases make a significant contribution to the total global warming contribution of the reporting entity.
Guidelines 197. Values are derived from data provided by the International Energy Agency.g. For practical reasons. methane) are not considered.C). ashes).D.D. 204.3. 27 We are well aware that . the longer a substance is potentially able to contribute to global warming. A list of different fuels and the respective CO2 emissions is provided in Table 23.3. 203. Process-related and other global warming gases are all global warming gases caused by non-energy and non-transport processes.and transport-related global warming impacts are reduced to CO2 emissions caused by the use of non-renewable energy sources. including electricity suppliers.and Transport-Related Global Warming Gases 200.c.3. Agricultural activities such as rice farming and cattle breeding also fall into this category. It is assumed that all carbon is oxidized to CO2 and no carbon is stored in residuals (e. 61 . Global warming potentials are dependent on the time frame: the longer the period. Renewable energy is assumed to have no global warming contribution. The amount of non-renewable energy and electricity used is based on the energy requirement as recognized using the guideline on energy use (III. Global Warming Contribution 198. waste incineration and others. Global warming contribution is the amount of global warming gases (kg per year) multiplied by their respective global warming potential (kg CO2/kg and year). other global warming gases stemming from the use of energy and transport services (e.D. A country list is provided in Table 25. energy. However. Energy. The total global warming contribution of an enterprise is used as an indicator for the effect the enterprise has on an increase in global temperature.d.e. It is expressed in kg carbon dioxide (CO 2) equivalents per year. CO2 emissions stemming from the use of fossil fuels are derived from the carbon content of the fuel. For the time being. 27 201.g. Global Warming Gases Related to Other Industrial Processes 205.when taking the whole product life cycle of renewable energy sources/systems into account – renewable energy sources are not 100 per cent free of global warming gas emissions. Examples include cement production. III. III. 202. 199. Electricity derived CO 2 emissions are based on the technology and fuels used in a specific country – the so-called electricity-mix. III. For the purpose of this manual the values for the 100-year time frame are used. these are not dealt with specifically in this manual (see paragraph 192). Global warming potentials can be expressed in a 500-year time frame.
Energy. 210. market incentives which lead to an increase in emissions elsewhere. methane.g.D. Carbon Offset and Sequestration 211. capacity building etc. outsourcing activities which w ere once done on-site. In General 206. For the purpose of eco-efficiency reporting. III. based either on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Global warming gases relating to other industrial processes are only recognized when these gases contribute significantly to the total global warming contribution of the reporting entity.D. The contribution of a gas is considered significant when its share of the total contribution of the company exceeds 1 per cent. chemical usage. while other energy-linked global warming gases (e. on Activities Jointly Implemented (AJI) or on similar initiatives. Carbon offset/sequestration programmes undertaken by the reporting entity.D. 29 The programme is supplied with sufficient financial and managerial capacity and has the appropriate infrastruc ture and technological support.a. Recognition of Global Warming Gases III.4. hydrology.and transport-related global warming gases are recognised when the underlying energy is recognized (see the guideline on energy use.28 209.3.4. The programme is an additional component and not business as usual (= baseline). economic priorities and regulations of the country of the participating party. 208.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators III.b.C. Examples of non-global-warming-related externalities include: negative impacts on biodiversity. III. Besides a clear statement of intent to reduce global warming contribution. Examples of global warming-related externalities include: activities simply shifting to other areas. waste disposal. The programme does not cause negative externalities. non-methane volatile organic compounds) depend on the technology used.or downstream processes leading to higher emissions. the additional component should be demonstrated by using historical data. Global warming gases should be recognized in the period in which they are emitted.d). gender issues. (c) (d) 28 29 CO2 emissions are related to the carbon content of the fuel. are recognized when the following conditions are met: (a) (b) The programme does not violate the development objectives. programme-induced changes in up.4. only the amount of CO2 linked to the use of energy is recognized. future trends and financial aspects (usually the aspect of carbon offset adds additional costs to a project compared with the baseline). 207. economic development. 62 .
Second step: The amount of energy expressed in heat equivalents is converted to CO2 emissions (the amount of CO2 linked to the use of nonrenewable energy sources is listed in Table 23). (c) (d) (e) 63 .5. It consists of the following steps: (a) (b) First step: The total energy requirement as defined by the guideline on energy use is determined (see III. Fourth step: Significant global warming gases relating to other industrial processes are included.D. Fifth step: The amounts of the different global warming gases are multiplied by their respective global warming potential to arrive at the global warming contribution of the reporting entity.C).5. 212. Measurement III. General Approach 213.a. An independent body reviews the above criteria and a recognized national or international certification body certifies the effect. III.D.Guidelines (e) (f) The programme is monitored continuously and data on its carbon effect are collected on a yearly basis within an acceptable level of certainty. Third step: The amount of electricity expressed in work equivalents is converted to CO 2 emissions (the amount of CO2 linked to the use of electricity for different countries is listed in Table 25). If the above conditions are met the offset or sequestrated amount of global warming gases can be deducted. The measurement of global warming contribution is mainly a matter of calculations.
87 74.60 108.30 71. 64 .20 27.20 27.5.67 242. coal and coal products.60 63.80 25. the carbon emission factor is based on the assumption that 50 per cent of the carbon in the biomass is converted to methane and 50 per cent is emitted as CO2. Gas and Biomass Fuels Carbon content (t C/TJ) 16.80 26.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators Table 23 CO2 Emission Factors of Petroleum Products.83 94.60 98.50 25.90 19.80 29.b. CO2-emission factors of petroleum products.50 29.50 25. Coal and Coal Products.50 71. 50 per cent of the carbon content should be included as methane. CO2-Emission Factors for Fossil Fuels 214.00 18.00 Fuel carbon emission Petroleum products Ethane Lpg Naphtha Aviation gasoline Motor gasoline Jet gasoline Jet kerosene Other kerosene Gas/diesel fuel Heavy fuel oil/residual fuel oil Petroleum coke Coal and coal products Coking coal Other bituminous coal Anthracite Sub-bituminous coal Lignite / brown coal Peat Patent fuel Coke oven coke Gas coke Bkb/peat briquettes Gas Natural gas (dry) Gas works gas Coke oven gas Blast furnace gas (a) (a) (a) Note: The carbon ("C") content is multiplied with the molecular weight ratio of CO2 to C.07 73.17 94. If biogas is released and not combusted.20 21.00 Carbon emission factor (t CO2/TJ) 61.30 13.80 26.80 15.20 20.00 66.60 56. gas and biomass fuels (Table 23) are based on data provided by IPCC and are used for national greenhouse gas inventories (IPCC 1996b).73 100.27 96.07 77. It is assumed that all carbon is oxidized. a) This value is a default value until a fuel-specific CEF is determined.20 105. III. (44/12).50 19.60 20.17 108.90 25.07 101.D.10 47.80 17. For gas biomass.60 28.97 94.33 69.60 94.
000956 0.000603 0. Maldives. Whenever country-specific factors are known these should be used. China India Indonesia Korea. DPR Malaysia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Singapore Sri Lanka Thailand Viet Nam Other Asia (Afghanistan. Electricity-derived CO 2-emission factors are based on IEA data.000690 0. People's Republic of Taiwan (POC) Hong Kong. New Caledonia.D. Table 24 Electricity-derived CO2-Emission Factors for Non-OECD Asia Asia (Non-OECD) Bangladesh Brunei China. Fiji. Papua New Guinea. Solomon Islands and Vanuatu) t CO2/kWh 0.000797 0.000486 0. CO2-Emission Factors for Electricity 215. The factors in Table 24 to Table 33 have been calculated by taking CO2 emissions from public electricity and heat production (OECD/IEA 2001a) which incorporate emissions from public electricity generation.Guidelines III.000533 0.c. Samoa. Bhutan. 216.000593 0.000325 0. which are assumed to have zero CO2 emissions.000440 0. French Polynesia.000232 65 .000033 0. to arrive at an emission factor of tonnes of CO2 per kWh of electricity produced.000410 0.000556 0.000989 0. public combined heat and power generation and public heat plants.5.000210 0.000621 0.001007 0. Total emissions are then divided by the total electricity production (OECD/IEA 2001b) including electricity from nuclear power and renewables. Kiribati.000836 0.
A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Table 25 Electricity-derived CO2-Emission Factors for Africa
Africa Algeria Angola Benin Cameroon Congo, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of the Côte d'Ivoire Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Ghana Kenya Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nigeria Senegal South Africa Sudan Tanzania, United Republic of Togo Tunisia Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Other Africa (Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Niger, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Swaziland and Uganda) t CO2/kWh 0.000687 0.000328 0.000938 0.000952 0.000000 0.000004 0.000674 0.000480 0.000683 0.000024 0.000256 0.000189 0.000250 0.000632 0.000739 0.000001 0.000017 0.000365 0.000920 0.000862 0.000447 0.000035 0.001154 0.000564 0.000558 0.000000 0.000779 0.000629
Table 26 Electricity-derived CO2-Emission Factors for Non-OECD Europe
Europe (Non-OECD) Albania Bosnia-Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Gibraltar Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Malta Romania Slovenia Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of t CO2/kWh 0.000021 0.001572 0.000685 0.000418 0.000860 0.001613 0.000908 0.000971 0.001120 0.000640 0.001689
Table 27 Electricity-derived CO2-Emission Factors for Non-OECD Former USSR
Former USSR (Non-OECD) Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Estonia Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lithuania Moldova, Republic of Russian Federation Tajikistan Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan t CO2/kWh 0.000442 0.009216 0.001677 0.001476 0.000140 0.009002 0.000136 0.000976 0.011594 0.000992 0.001760 0.000045 1.744000 0.001317 0.001296
A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Table 28 Electricity-derived CO2-Emission Factors for Non-OECD Latin America
Latin America (non-OECD) Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Netherlands Antilles Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Trinidad and Tobago Uruguay Venezuela Other Latin America (Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Dominica, French Guiana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guyana, Martinique, Saint Kitts and Nevis and Anguilla, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Suriname) t CO2/kWh 0.000343 0.000482 0.000057 0.000461 0.000104 0.000024 0.000863 0.000655 0.000231 0.000269 0.000214 0.000415 0.000260 0.000676 0.000746 0.000585 0.000262 0.000000 0.000131 0.000696 0.000187 0.000191 0.000455
000004 0.000745 0.000476 0.001082 0.000372 0. Islamic Republic of Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Syrian Arab Republic United Arab Emirates t CO2/kWh 0.000000 0.000672 0.000815 0.000259 0.000639 0.000375 0.000737 0.000045 0.000373 0.000808 0.000002 0.001104 0.000394 0.000157 0.000851 0.000580 0.000705 0.000002 0.000544 0.Guidelines Table 29 Electricity-derived CO2-Emission Factors for Middle East Middle East Bahrain Iran.000762 Table 30 Electricity-derived CO2-Emission Factors for OECD Europe Europe (OECD) Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Portugal Spain Sweden United Kingdom Czech Republic Hungary Iceland Norway Poland Slovak Republic Switzerland Turkey t CO2/kWh 0.000565 0.000254 0.000048 0.000497 0.000823 0.000487 69 .000699 0.000498 0.000841 0.000540 0.
000663 0.001653 0.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators Table 31 Electricity-derived CO2-Emission Factors for North America North America Mexico Canada United States t CO2/kWh 0.000420 0.000527 0.000362 0.000356 0.000792 0.000476 0.000124 Table 33 Electricity-derived CO2-Emission Factors for World Regions World Regions World Africa Latin America Asia excluding China China Former USSR Middle East OECD total OECD North America OECD Pacific OECD Europe Non-OECD Europe Non-OECD total European Union t CO2/kWh 0.001007 0.000616 0.000371 0.000169 0.000349 70 .000196 0.000819 0.000514 Table 32 Electricity-derived CO2-Emission Factors for OECD Asia-Pacific Asia-Pacific (OECD) Japan Republic of Korea Australia New Zealand t CO2/kWh 0.000912 0.000540 0.000683 0.000297 0.
222. If an amount is estimated or calculated the range of uncertainty should be recorded.5. Calculating Global Warming Contribution 219.5. The item "global warming contribution" is used for the calculation of the ecoefficiency indicator "global warming contribution per unit of net value added" (see paragraph 76(c)).D. 218. The amount of global warming gases related to other industrial processes should be metered.e.d. III.Guidelines III. 221. 71 . To arrive at the global warming contribution pertaining to the activities of the enterprise. Table 34 and Table 35 provide values for the main global warming gases and groups of global warming gases. the amounts of global warming gases are multiplied by their respective global warming potentials.D. 220. Where the actual substance is not known but the substance group is known the highest value of that group should be applied. Global Warming Gases Related to Other Industrial Processes 217.
9 890 15.0 9 400 5.6 1 100 13.4 330 52.0 12 000 5.6 97 29.2 950 9.0 4 300 0.8 1 300 3.9 640 7.0 1 500 (kg CO2-equivalent per kg sulphur hexafluoride) 3 200 22 600 50 000 5 700 10 000 11 900 2 600 8 600 2 600 8 600 3 200 10 000 4 100 8 900 3 200 9 000 Fully fluorinated species SF6 CF4 C2 F6 C3 F8 C4F10 c-C4F8 C5F12 C6F14 Source: IPCC (2001).0 23 (kg CO2-equivalent per kg nitrous oxide) 114 296 (kg CO2-equivalent per kg hydrofluorocarbons) 260.0 3 500 13. 72 .4 120 0.2 1 300 10.0 1 200 220.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators Table 34 Global Warming Potentials Part I Global warming gas Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide Methane Methane Nitrous oxide Nitrous oxide Hydrofluorocarbons HFC-23 HFC-32 HFC-41 HFC-125 HFC-134 HFC-134a HFC-143 HFC-143a HFC-152 HFC-152a HFC-161 HFC-227ea HFC-236cb HFC-236ea HFC-236fa HFC-245ca HFC-245fa HFC-365mfc HFC-43-10mee CO2 CH 4 N2O CHF3 CH2F2 CH3F CHF2CF3 CHF2CHF2 CH 2FCF3 CHF2CH2F CF3CH3 CH2FCH2F CH 3CHF2 CH3CH2F CF3CHFCF3 CH 2FCF2CF3 CHF2CHFCF3 CF3CH2CF3 CH 2FCF2CHF2 CHF2CH2CF3 CF3CH2CF2CH3 CF3CHFCHFCF2CF3 Lifetime Global Warming Potential (years) (100 years) (kg CO2-equivalent per kg carbon dioxide) 1 (kg CO2-equivalent per kg methane) 12.0 3 400 9.0 550 2.5 43 1.3 12 33.
The amount of each category of global warming gas recognized during the accounting period and the respective amounts of the previous year.a. III.D. The management's stance on energy use.6.2 1500 III. An enterprise should disclose: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) The eco-efficiency indicator "global warming contribution per unit of net value added".77 55 6.6 340 4. 73 .7. The accounting policies adopted for global warming gases.0 390 0.3 1800 12.Guidelines Table 35 Global Warming Potentials Part II Global warming gas Ethers and halogenated ethers CH3OCH3 HFE-125 CF3OCHF2 HFE-134 CHF2OCHF2 HFE-143a CH 3OCF3 HCFE-235da2 CF3CHClOCHF2 HFE-245fa2 CF3CH2OCHF2 HFE-254cb2 CHF2CF2OCH 3 HFE-7100 C4F9OCH3 HFE-7200 C4F9OC2H 5 H-Galden 1040x CHF2OCF2OC2F4OCHF2 HG-10 CHF2OCF2OCHF2 HG-01 CHF2OCF2CF2OCHF2 Source: IPCC (2001). Disclosure of global warming gases 223. The total global warming contribution during the accounting period and the respective amounts of the previous year.2 6100 4.22 30 5.015 1 150 14900 26.D. An example of a disclosure of global warming contribution is given in the annex.4 570 0.4 750 2. Lifetime Global warming potential (years) (100 years) (kg CO2-equivalent per kg per fluorocarbons) 0. the objectives and targets regarding global warming and the measures taken to achieve the targets.1 2700 6.
A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators III.204 63 280 000 (t CO2-eq) 63 280 000 (t CO2-eq) 430 708 000 (t CO2-eq) 11 000 000 (€) 39.7. Table 36 Global Warming Contribution CO2 emissions related to energy use Energy requirement 2001 2002 Electricity (Germany) 10 000 000 11 000 000 Electricity (Switzerland) 20 000 000 25 000 000 Natural gas (dry) 1 700 2 000 Bituminous coal 2 000 2 200 Motor gasoline 500 600 Energy derived global warming contribution Other industrial Processes Other global warming gases Sulphur hexafluoride (t) Other global warming gases Total global warming contribution Net value added Eco-efficiency indicator "global warming contribution/net value added" 2001 3'000 2002 Global warming contribution 2001 2002 4 980 000 5 478 000 40 000 50 000 95 370 000 112 200 000 189 200 000 208 120 000 34 650 000 41 580 000 324 240 000 367 428 000 (100 y) (t CO2) (t CO2) (t CO2) (t CO2) (t CO2) (t CO2) (b) MWh MWh GJ GJ GJ Global Warming Potential (GWP) kg CO2-eq. A disclosure on global warming contribution consists of two parts: (a) Global warming contributions (Table 36) caused by CO2-emissons related to energy use and other global warming gases caused by other industrial energy processes. global warming policy.a. Example of a Disclosure of Global Warming Contribution 224. Annex to Global Warming Contribution III. Targets and Measures Accounting policy Energy policy Targets Measures 74 ./kg 67 800 000 67 800 000 392 040 000 10 000 000 39.155 (t CO2-eq/€) 2'800 22'600 Table 37 Accounting Policy on Global Warming Gases.7.D. Global Warming Policy. Accounting policy on global warming gases.D. targets and measures (Table 37).
(b) 30 Non-energy refined petroleum products used such as white spirit. 229.b.C.D.b): (a) Petroleum Including: liquefied petroleum gases and ethane.C. Non-renewable energy is divided into the following sub-categories according to its source (for a more detailed description see III.(v)).(i) Renewable Energy 226. coke oven gas.b. energy supply that is based on renewable energy sources and energy supply based on non-renewable energy sources. petroleum coke.7. motor gasoline.7.C.b.D. For the purpose of accounting for global warming gases.b.7. naphtha.C.7.b): (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Direct solar energy (see III. jet fuels. Non-Renewable Energy III.(v)). gas/diesel fuel. Hydropower (see III.C.(ii) 228.Guidelines III.7. mineral oils and other non-energy petroleum products are not considered energy use. heavy fuel oil. Wind energy (see III.b. 227.b.D. energy supply is divided into two broad categories.b.b.7. Ocean thermal and mechanical energy (see III. Renewable energy is divided into the following sub-categories according to its source (for a more detailed description see III.(vi)).7. bitumen (asphalt). All other energy sources (including waste) are considered to be nonrenewable. paraffin waxes. Geothermal energy (see III.30 Gas Including: natural gas. Non-renewable energy refers to any energy resource that is either not replaced or is replaced very slowly by natural processes. aviation gasoline. Renewable energy refers to any energy resource that is naturally regenerated over a short time scale and derived directly or indirectly from the sun. lubricating oils and grease. industrial spirit. kerosene. 75 . III. or from other natural movements and mechanisms of the environment. Energy Supply 225.C. Biomass energy (see III.b.C.(vii)).7.7.7.C. blast furnace gas.7. gas works gas and substitute gas.(viii)).(v)).
lignite and brown coal.3.C. patent fuel and brown coal/peat briquettes (BKB). 76 . bituminous coal and anthracite (hard coal). III. (d) 230. Nuclear fuels Within the scope of this guideline (energy sector is excluded) nuclear fuels are not considered an energy source and therefore not taken into account as a source of global warming gases (see also the guideline on energy use.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators (c) Coal and coal products Including: coking coal (hard coal). gas coke. peat.c). sub-bituminous coal. coke oven coke. All other energy sources not listed in the above paragraph and not defined as renewable are considered "other non-renewable energy".
7.3. Ozone-Depleting Substances. III.3. III. For illustrative purposes a list is provided in III. that is. as compared with the same mass of CFC-11 (CFCl3).E. The result indicates the contribution of the amount of that substance to the depletion of the ozone layer expressed in CFC-11 equivalents.E.31 III.2.E. Ozone-depleting potential (ODP) is an assigned value indicating a substance's impact on the stratospheric ozone layer per unit mass of a gas. This guidance should be applied by enterprises in accounting for all ozonedepleting substances which are: (a) (b) III.7. C or E of the Protocol. Defined in this manual. B. The terms used in this manual are defined as follows. they are listed in Annex A.Guidelines III. Ozone-depleting substances (ODS) are all bulk chemicals/substances – existing either as a pure substance or as a mixture – that are controlled under the Montreal Protocol.a. B. Potentials and Contributions 234.a.1.E. The objective of this manual is to provide guidance regarding the accounting treatment of ozone-depleting substances. Ozone-depleting contribution (ODC) is calculated by multiplying the amount of an ozone-depleting substance by the ozone-depleting potential of that substance (see Box 5).a. Definitions 233.E. For illustrative purposes a list is provided in III. 31 Also see UNEP 1999.E. C or E of the Protocol. 77 . and Can be influenced by an enterprise through specific measures and programmes.E. 235. Ozone-depleting potential values are listed in Annex A. Accounting Treatment of Ozone-Depleting Substances Objective 231. Scope 232. 236.
a refrigerator or a fire extinguisher are examples of a use system. Ozone-depleting substances can exist in two forms: (a) Ozone-depleting substances which exist as part of a "use system".g. III. In the Annex of the Montreal Protocol every substance controlled is listed together with a value expressing the ozone depletion potential. Containers are not considered products. ozone depletion potential values are expressed in kg CFC11 equivalents per kg of the respective substance.3. III. Ozone-depleting substances that are part of a use system can be separated from the product by a special purpose recovery process (e. A limited number of ozone-depleting substances are not yet controlled under the Protocol because they have not been produced or consumed in significant quantities. refrigerator). The reference substance normally taken is CFC-11 with an ozone depletion potential of 1. (b) 78 .7. Example: The ozone-depleting substance Halon-1211 is listed with an ozone depletion potential of 3.g. This means that 100 kg of halon-1211 has the same impact on the depletion of the ozone layer as 300 kg CFC-11. Ozone-depleting substances which exist as a substance Ozone-depleting substances are sold as pure substances or as mixtures (blends). Ozonedepleting substances are considered part of a use system when the product is applied directly to realize its intended use and is not contained in a container used for storage or transport of the substance. Mixtures are chemicals which contain two or more ozonedepleting substances or one or more ozone-depleting substances mixed with other non-ozone-depleting chemicals (see Box 6).A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators Box 5. An ozone depletion potential value indicates how much impact a certain substance has on the depletion of the ozone layer relative to a reference substance. therefore. be it liquid or gaseous (for examples see annex. A pure controlled substance contains only one ozone-depleting substance.c). Such substances are considered to be embodied in goods or equipment.E. Assume a company uses 100 kg of halon-1211 during a reporting period.E. How much is the ozone-depleting contribution of this specific halon use? The answer is quite simple: multiply the amount of halon-1211 (100 kg) by the ozone depletion potential value of 3 (kg CFC-11 equivalent/kg halon-1211) to come to the ozone depletion contribution (ODC) of 300 kg CFC-11 equivalent. The most important ozone-depleting substances are controlled under the Montreal Protocol.b. These are generally chemicals containing chlorine and/or bromine. A variety of goods and equipment contain ozone-depleting substances. ozonedepleting substances. Forms of Existence of ODS 237. How to Calculate the Ozone-Depleting Contribution All substances having an ozone-depleting potential above zero are. in principle. foam) or by a release valve (e.
239. Production of ozone-depleting substances means literally the amount of virgin ozone-depleting substances added by the reporting entity.3. when they are manufactured using ODS which are not recovered.55) and 0. III. a large number of ODS mixtures used as refrigerants and solvents exist. Production of ODS 240. 241. without being consumed.E. Process agents Ozone-depleting substances are considered process agents. For example.Guidelines Box 6. for example as a catalyst or an inhibitor of a chemical reaction.3.41). when they are used in the production of other chemicals. Source: UNEP (1999). this would add 0. In particular. reclamation and recycling of ozone-depleting substances Feedstock use of ozone-depleting substances Ozone-depleting substances that are used in the manufacture of other chemicals and are completely transformed in the process are defined as feedstock. 41 per cent HCFC-142b and 4 per cent HC-600a. Hydrocarbon 600a is not an ODS and does not need to be reported.E. reclaimed or recycled prior to use is a new substance.5 multiplied by 0.5 multiplied by 0. Ozone-depleting substances are considered new (virgin.E. Types of ODS 238.5 tons of R-406A. unused). For example.h. 32 (c) 32 Consumption equals production plus imports minus exports of controlled substances. In other words. R-406A contains 55 per cent HCFC-22. III. Ozone-depleting substances are considered reused if they have been recovered. any ozone-depleting substance that has not been recovered.3.615 tons to the HCFC-142b figure (1. reclaimed and/or recycled as defined in III.d.c. 79 . The following operations of the reporting entity cannot be considered as producing ozone-depleting substances: (a) (b) Recovery. carbon tetrachloride is commonly used in the production of CFCs. If the company purchases 1. Mixtures A number of mixtures containing different ODS have been introduced as replacements for pure ODS.825 tons to the HCFC-22 figure (1. reclaimed or recycled.
A). equipment and energy with the purpose of selling the product to a third party. Ozone-depleting substances embodied in traded goods Any ozone-depleting substance embodied as defined in paragraph 237(a) in traded goods and used to deliver a certain feature either for the reporting entity or for third parties.A). Goods are considered supplied when they are purchased by the reporting entity from third parties.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators III. 80 (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) . Ozone-depleting substances embodied in equipment for own use Any ozone-depleting substances embodied in the reporting entity's equipment as defined in paragraph 237(a) that a company receives from third parties and is used to deliver a certain feature for the reporting entity's own equipment. ODS are purchased in many different forms: (a) Ozone-depleting substances embodied in supplied goods Any ozone-depleting substances embodied in a use system as defined in paragraph 237(a) and used to deliver a certain feature for a product that is sold. Ozone-depleting substances as substances for goods manufactured Any ozone-depleting substance existing either as a pure substance or a mixture (as defined in paragraph 237(b)) that a company receives from third parties and which is used to deliver a certain feature for the reporting entity's manufactured goods. A process is considered to be a company's own when the entity that operates the process is part of the same legal entity or is consolidated in the financial statement of the group (for consolidation issues see I.3. Ozone-depleting substances as substances for own equipment Any ozone-depleting substance as defined in paragraph 237(b) that a enterprise receives from third parties and is used to deliver a certain feature for the reporting entity's own equipment. Repackaging is not considered a change of product.A). Ozone-depleting substances as substances for own production process Any ozone-depleting substance as defined in paragraph 237(b) that a company receives from third parties and which is used to deliver a certain feature for the reporting entity's own production process. A good is considered to be manufactured when the reporting entity processes raw materials. Equipment is considered to be a enterprise's own when the entity that operates the equipment is part of the same legal entity or is consolidated in the financial statement of the group (for consolidation issues see I. Equipment is considered to be a company's own when the entity that operates the equipment is part of the same legal entity or is consolidated in the financial statement of the group (for consolidation issues see I.e. be it purchased or manufactured. Goods are considered traded when the reporting entity sells supplied goods leaving them unchanged. other manufactured and semi-manufactured goods into a finished product using technical know-how. Purchase of ODS 242.E.
Stocks of ODS 243. Substances are considered traded when the reporting entity sells supplied substances leaving them unchanged. reclaimed and recycled: (a) Recovery Recovery means the collection and storage of ozone-depleting substances from machinery. and so forth. (b) (c) III. III. equipment. 81 . recovery. when applied to ozonedepleting substances. Dependency on ODS 245. III.3. distillation and chemical treatment in order to restore the substance to a specified standard of performance. Ozone-depleting substances can be recovered. containment vessels. 244. results in the permanent transformation or decomposition of all or a significant portion of such substances. in goods. Reclamation and Recycling of ODS 247. Destruction of ODS refers to any process which. 246. Reclamation Reclamation means the reprocessing and upgrading of a recovered ozone-depleting substance through such methods as filtering. in own equipment and in use as process agents. III.E. reclaim.h.3. drying. Recovery.g. recycling or destruction in the future.f.3. Destruction of ODS 248. Stocks include ozone-depleting substances in containers. The item "dependency on ozone-depleting substances" is used for the calculation of the eco-efficiency indicator "dependency on ODS per net value added" (see paragraph 76(d)).E. The dependency of an enterprise on ozone-depleting substances is defined as production plus purchases and stocks. during servicing or prior to disposal.E. Recycling Recycling means the reuse of a recovered ozone-depleting substance following a basic cleaning process such as filtering and drying.3.i.Guidelines (g) Ozone-depleting substances as substance for trade Any ozone-depleting substances as defined in paragraph 237(b) and used to deliver a certain feature either for the reporting entity or for third parties. Repackaging is not considered a change of a substance.E. Stocks are defined as any ozone-depleting substance stored or accumulated on the reporting entity’s premises for use.
recycled. Sales of ODS 249. 253.k. recovered. refer to the database reference tool known as the OAIC-DV MKV.C.3. reused.shall be considered sales regardless of whether the underlying financial transaction has a negative or positive value for the reporting entity. from it.org/ozonaction. 255. III. circulated by UNEP Industry and Environment OzonAction Programme.C. An emission of an ozone-depleting substance occurs when the substance leaves the reporting entity during ordinary and extraordinary activities of an enterprise in such a way that it is technically impossible to regain control over the relevant ODS.3 should be recognized at the beginning and at the end of an accounting period. Ozone-depleting substances handed over to third parties . Recognition of Ozone-Depleting Substances 254.E. destroyed. The item "emissions of ozone-depleting substances" can be used for the calculation of a secondary eco-efficiency indicator "emissions of ODS per net value added". Emissions of ozone-depleting substances can be derived by calculating the total dependency on ODS and subtracting the amount recovered. ODS in equipment. Sales of ODS shall be divided into the following four sub-categories: (a) (b) (c) (d) ODS in manufactured goods. ODS in containers. 250. Stocks of ozone-depleting substances as defined by III.unepie. A mixture containing ozone-depleting substances shall be recognized according to their respective components.3. sold and in stock. used as feedstock. III. Emissions of ODS 251.for purposes other than recovery.html. recycling. and When it is probable that the amount or value can be measured. sold or emitted. reclaimed. reclaimed. ODS in traded goods. 33 33 For information about the composition of mixtures.E. recycled. 256. 82 . destroyed. 252. reclamation or destruction . Ozone-depleting substances as defined in III.j.4.E.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators III. or refer to the OzonAction website at http://www. purchased.3 should be recognized in the period in which they are (a) (b) Produced.
F. Ozone-depleting substances shall be reported (a) (b) III.5.E. If an amount is estimated or calculated the range of uncertainty should be recorded. Ozone-depleting substances should be measured in kilograms.3. litres and cubic metres. The total amount of ozone-depleting substances recognized during the accounting period and the respective amounts of the previous year. III.g. metric t) of the respective substance. 83 . According to weight (kg. The total ozone depletion contribution as recognized during the accounting period and the respective amounts of the previous year. Disclosure of Ozone-Depleting Substances 262. The management's stance on ozone-depleting substances and the Montreal Protocol. An example of a disclosure of ozone-depleting substances is given in the annex. The ozone depletion potential of a substance shall be recognized according to the latest ozone depletion potential values listed in the Montreal Protocol. and According to the respective ozone depletion potential (kg or metric t CFC-11 equivalent. 261.Guidelines 257.E. the objectives and targets regarding ozone-depleting substances and the measures taken to achieve the targets. Special attention should be drawn to replacement technology and replacement substances and their respective environmental impact (e. global warming potential). An enterprise should disclose: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) The eco-efficiency indicator "dependency on ODS per net value added". 259. III.6. Ozone-depleting substances should be weighed or metered.E. metric tons.a). The targets shall be compared with the targets set out in the Montreal Protocol. The accounting policies adopted for ozone-depleting substances. see Box 5 in III. 260. Measurement of Ozone-Depleting Substances 258.
08 4.04 1 1 200 10 1 211 1 1 300 20 1 321 0 0 48 0.E.own equipment . covering recovery.traded goods purchased ODS for .663 Eco-efficiency indicator "dependency on ODS/value added" (t/€) * The difference between the total amount and the amount listed as new ODS (virgin) is used ODS (recycled). Table 38 Dependency on ODS Total (t substance) 2000 2001 1 000 1 000 500 500 New ODS * (t substance) 2000 2001 10 10 50 50 Total ODC (t CFC-11 eq. 84 .7. recycling. reclamation.4 48.04 CFC-112 1 100 4 0 Halon-1301 10 2 102 1 1 0 0 0.04 0.E. covering production.) 2000 2001 40 40 20 20 Purpose and form Production produced ODS Production of ODS Purchase purchased ODS embodied in .supplied equipment . An ODS disclosure consists of three parts: (a) (b) (c) Total dependency on ODS (Table 38).52 52 0.88 10 000 11 000 0. ODS policy.supplied goods .84 72. Example of a Disclosure of Ozone-Depleting Substances 263.own production processes .8 52.7. feedstock use.for trade Substance HCFC-21 ODP 0.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators III. Accounting policy on ODS.925 0. purchase and stocks. targets and measures (Table 40). destruction. Total emissions of ODS (Table 39).44 92.a.04 Purchase of ODS Stocks ODS in goods ODS as substance in containers ODS in equipment halon-1301 ODS in use as process agent HCFC-124 Stocks of ODS Total dependency on ODS Net value added (€) 10 0.08 0. Annex to Ozone-Depleting Substances III. stocks and sales.goods manufactured .
) 2000 2001 92.44 21.04 1.0848 0. reclaimed. Targets and Measures Accounting policy on ODS ODS policy Targets Measures 85 . reclaimed.Guidelines Table 39 Total Emissions of ODS Purpose and form Substance ODP Total (t substance) 2000 2001 Total ODC (t CFC-11 eq.12 0. recycled ODS Destruction of ODS and feedstock use feedstock use of ODS ODS destroyed halon-1301 Destruction of ODS and feedstock use Sales ODS in manufactured goods ODS in traded goods ODS as substance in containers ODS in equipment sold halon-1301 Sales Stocks of ODS (from Table 38) Total ODS emissions (derived) Net value added (€) Secondary eco-efficiency indicator "emissions of ODS/value added" (kg/€) 0.04048 0.0848 10 0.04 10 000 2.5 8 8 18 18 10 1.5 0 15 15 48. ODS Policy.96 11 000 1.52 72.88 Total dependency on ODS (from Table 38) Recovered.84 1.104 0 0 52.781 Table 40 Accounting Policy on ODS. recycled ODS Recovered Reclaimed Recycled HCFC-124 Recovered.8 2.04048 0.012 2.
0 6.b. 268. 267. Where a range of ozone-depleting potentials is indicated.E. Ozone-depleting potentials are based on existing knowledge and will be reviewed and updated periodically. The texts of the adjustments and amendments to the Protocol as agreed by the Parties to the Protocol are available at the Ozone Secretariat in UNEP or the Treaties Sections of the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of various Governments. Table 41 lists controlled substances and their respective ozone-depleting potential according to the Montreal Protocol.7.0 10.0 34 As adjusted and/or amended in London (1990). Controlled Substances and their Ozone Depletion Potential according to the Montreal Protocol 264.0 1. Copenhagen (1992). the highest value in that range shall be used for the purposes of this guideline. Table 41 Controlled Substances and their Ozone Depletion Potential Montreal Protocol Annex A Group Group I CFCl3 CF2Cl2 C2F3Cl3 C2F4Cl2 C2F5Cl Group II CF2BrCl CF3Br C2F4Br2 (Montreal Protocol) Substance (CFC-11) (CFC-12) (CFC-113) (CFC-114) (CFC-115) (halon-1211) (halon-1301) (halon-2402) Ozone-Depleting Potential 1. 86 .6 3. 34 265.0 0.8 1.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators III. Ozone-depleting potentials are expressed in kg CFC-11 (CFCl3) equivalent per kg of the respective substance 266. Montreal (1997) and Beijing (1999).0 0. Vienna (1995).
02–0.1.1-trichloromethane chloroform) 35 Ozone-depleting potential 1.07 (HCFC-22) (HCFC-31) (HCFC-121) (HCFC-122) (HCFC-123) (HCFC-123)** (HCFC-124) (HCFC-124)** (HCFC-131) (HCFC-132) (HCFC-133) (HCFC-141) 35 ** This formula does not refer to 1.2-trichloromethane.0 1.0 1.1.05 0.02–0.0 1.08 0.04 0.04 0.008–0.1 (methyl 0.0 1.Guidelines Table 42 Controlled Substances and their Ozone Depletion Potential London Amendment to the Montreal Protocol Annex B Group Group I CF3Cl C2FCl5 C2F2Cl4 C3FCl7 C3F2Cl6 C3F3Cl5 C3F4Cl4 C3F5Cl3 C3F6Cl2 C3F7Cl Group II CCl4 Group III C2H 3Cl3 (London Amendment to the Montreal Protocol) Substance (CFC-13) (CFC-111) (CFC-112) (CFC-211) (CFC-212) (CFC-213) (CFC-214) (CFC-215) (CFC-216) (CFC-217) Carbon tetrachloride 1. 87 .0 1.06 0.0 1.04 0.055 0.0 1.007–0.0 1.02 0.005–0.022 0. Identifies the most commercially viable substances with ODP values listed against them to be used for the purposes of the Protocol.05 0.0 1.06 0.02–0.1 Table 43 Controlled Substances and their Ozone Depletion Potential Copenhagen Amendment to the Montreal Protocol Part 1 Annex C Group Group I CHFCl2 CHF2Cl CH2FCl C2HFCl4 C2HF2Cl3 C2HF3Cl2 CHCl2CF3 C2HF4Cl CHFClCF3 C2H 2FCl3 C2H 2F2Cl2 C2H 2F3Cl C2H 3FCl2 (Copenhagen Amendment to the Montreal Protocol) Substance (HCFC-21) ** ** Number of isomers 1 1 1 2 3 3 – 2 – 3 4 3 3 Ozone-depleting potential 0.02 0.01–0.0 1.02–0.
005–0.025 0.09 0.23 0.04 0.07 0.08 0.005–0. Therefore.03 0.03 Note: HBFCs (hydrobromofluorocarbons) have already been phased out by all Parties.09 0.015–0. CH3CFCl2 C2H 3F2Cl CH3CF2Cl C2H 4FCl C3HFCl6 C3HF2Cl5 C3HF3Cl4 C3HF4Cl3 C3HF5Cl2 CF3CF2CHCl2 CF2ClCF2CHClF C3HF6Cl C3H 2FCl5 C3H 2F2Cl4 C3H 2F3Cl3 C3H 2F4Cl2 C3H 2F5Cl C3H 3FCl4 C3H 3F2Cl3 C3H 3F3Cl2 C3H 3F4Cl C3H 4FCl3 C3H 4F2Cl2 C3H 4F3Cl C3H 5FCl2 C3H 5F2Cl C3H 6FCl Group II (Copenhagen Amendment to the Montreal Protocol) Substance (HCFC-141b)** (HCFC-142) (HCFC-142b)** (HCFC-151) (HCFC-221) (HCFC-222) (HCFC-223) (HCFC-224) (HCFC-225) (HCFC-225ca)** (HCFC-225cb)** (HCFC-226) (HCFC-231) (HCFC-232) (HCFC-233) (HCFC-234) (HCFC-235) (HCFC-241) (HCFC-242) (HCFC-243) (HCFC-244) (HCFC-251) (HCFC-252) (HCFC-253) (HCFC-261) (HCFC-262) (HCFC-271) Number of isomers – 3 – 2 5 9 12 12 9 – – 5 9 16 18 16 9 12 18 18 12 12 16 12 9 9 5 Ozone-depleting potential 0.065 0.003–0.02 0.001–0.033 0.09 0.001–0. Bromochloromethane 1 0.28 0.007–0.03–0.09 0.01–0.14 0.11 0.01–0.005 0.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators Table 44 Controlled Substances and their Ozone Depletion Potential Copenhagen Amendment to the Montreal Protocol Part 2 Annex C Group Group I cont.05–0.07 0.13 0.002–0.12 0.003–0.01–0. we do not list them in this guideline.004–0.008–0.02 0.10 0.52 0.07 0.002–0.12 Group III CH2BrCl Annex E Group Group I CH3Br Substance Methyl bromide Ozone-depleting potential 0.02–0. Consult the Copenhagen Amendment to the Montreal Protocol for the original list.007–0.01 0.009–0.008–0.02–0.6 88 .01–0.10 0.
Guidelines III.c.E. 89 .7.: • • • • • • Refrigerators Freezers Dehumidifiers Water coolers Ice machines Air conditioning and heat pump units Aerosol products Portable fire extinguishers Insulation boards. Products Containing Ozone-Depleting Substances 269. e. panels and pipe covers Pre-polymers Source: UNEP (1999). Table 45 lists products which contain ozone-depleting substances as specified in Annex A of the Protocol.g. Table 45 A list of products containing controlled substances specified in Annex A of the Protocol Products Automobile and truck air conditioning units (whether incorporated in vehicles or not) Domestic and commercial refrigeration and air conditioning/heat pump equipment.
other fully halogenated CFCs (CFC 13. Table 46 Main Sectors Using Ozone-Depleting Substances Sector Aerosols and sterilants Foams Sub-sector Substance mainly used CFCs 11. Table 46 lists products which contain controlled substances as specified in Annex A of the Protocol. commercial. 123. heat pumps.g. 114. metal applications cleaning. cushions/bedding) Fire extinguishing Domestic. packaging. Main Sectors using Ozone-Depleting Substances 270.7. 141b Methyl Bromide Fire fighting Refrigeration Solvent Fumigation etc. tobacco fluffing Halons 1211. 114. Source: UNEP (1999). Carbon Tetrachloride. 1301. 142b. 2402. 113. and structures and transportation e. 225ca. industrial. 115. 123. polyolefin foams. coatings and inks. 124 CFCs 12. Other CFC-11 Note: The following substances are not included in the list: B I substances (other fully halogenated CFCs) are rarely used and C II substances (HBFCs) are not used. CFCs 11. dry cleaning. 12. 124.1-trichloromethane). air conditioning Electronics.d. 114 Polyurmethane foam. 11.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators III. food processing and storage. HCFCs 22. 113. 113. 141b.E. 90 . precision cleaning. HCFCs 225. perishables.1. 124. 142b (in particular for various kinds of insulation. transport refrigeration. HCFCs 22. phenolic foams. Methyl Chloroform (1. extruded polystyrene HCFCs 22. 123. 225cb. 112) CFC-113. 123. 12. aerosols Fumigation of soil. durables.
a.F.F.F. III. liquid or have a paste-like consistency.F. agricultural waste and most industrial waste.2. All waste containing carbon that can be oxidized is non-mineral waste. It can be discharged without requiring special landfill technology and/or long-term landfill management. for example all carbon is oxidized through an incineration process.36 Mineral quality waste is safe by nature. is soluble and/or 37 decomposable. essentially insoluble and not decomposable. 274. Scope 272. Waste is defined as a non-product output with a negative or zero market value.F. III. General Definition of Waste 273. Non-mineral waste can be mineralized through waste treatment technology. Objective 271. Water and air-polluting emissions – although they are non-product output – are not regarded as waste.3. Discharge requires special landfill technology and/or long-term landfill management.F. III. This guidance should be applied by all enterprises in accounting for all types of waste generated by them as defined in III. Waste can be solid.3. brick and glass. Mineralized waste is non-mineral waste treated in a manner that the result is of mineral quality. The objective of this manual is to provide guidance regarding the accounting treatment of waste. (b) 36 37 Examples of mineral waste include rock. If the value of the waste fluctuates according to market conditions. Waste is divided into the following sub-categories according to its quality: (a) Mineral Waste that is categorized as mineral or mineralized is inert (see Box 7).F. 91 . Definitions Based on the Quality of Waste 275.Guidelines III. Accounting Treatment of Waste III. Non-mineral Waste that is categorized as non-mineral has the potential to be chemically and/or biologically reactive.3. Examples include household waste. Definitions III.3. accumulated net costs/revenues during the reporting period are used to determine the market value.b.1.
c. by washing it out with a solvent. 92 . consisting of dissolved matter and the solvent used.7. Definitions Based on the Classification of Waste 277. 38 39 Based on the definition by the Swiss Agency for the Environment. The eluate is the liquid left after the process of elution. If no specific information is available on the quality of the waste it is assumed to be non-mineral. Waste is further classified according to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Basel Convention). 95 per cent) relative to the dry substance consists of material similar to stone such as silicates. 278. 1996 Elution is the process of removing one substance from another.g. III. Waste that is not covered under paragraphs (a) and (b) but is defined as. The concentration of heavy metals is limited. Defined limits of different substances are not exceeded in the eluate 39 of the waste. hazardous waste by the domestic legislation in the country where the waste is generated by the reporting enterprise.3. When a crushed sample of waste is extracted with distilled water no more than a certain limit of waste per kg of dry substance is dissolved.a) and possessing any of the characteristics contained in Annex III of the Basel Convention. Inert material38 Waste is deemed to be inert if chemical analysis reveals the following: A high percentage of waste by weight (e. or considered to be.F. (b) (c) (d) 279. Waste which. Wastes which are not covered by any of the above paragraphs (a). (b).F. usually an absorbed material from an absorbent material. is subject to other national or international control systems. as a result of being radioactive. carbonates or aluminates. Forest and Landscape. Waste that possesses any of the characteristics contained in Annex III of the Basel Convention. 276.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators Box 7. Technical Ordinance on Waste. (c) or (d) shall be regarded as "other waste". Waste is classified as hazardous when one or more of the following conditions are met: (a) Waste belonging to any category contained in Annex I of the Basel Convention (see III.
Waste is considered temporarily stored when it will later undergo a waste treatment process. that is air emissions. Waste treatment technologies are processes applied to waste to permanently alter their condition through chemical. or product after it has been removed from a clearly defined service cycle in a new manufacturing process that goes beyond cleaning.d. which renders it harmless.3. repair or refurbishing may be done between uses. it is returned to the market. re-manufacturing. and intend to reduce or eliminate their danger to people and the environment. heat etc. that are supposed to be treated adequately (for treatment schemes that convert waste to energy see Box 8). cleaning. reused or remanufactured material is returned to the processes of the reporting entity. part. 282. reporting companies shall further distinguish between open. Waste treatment technology is divided into the following sub-categories: (a) Reuse. (iii) Recycling is recovery and reuse of materials from scrap or other waste materials for the production of new goods. Reuse does not include a manufacturing process. however. 283. Definitions Referring to Waste Treatment Technology 280. Energy recovery (called "thermal recycling") is not regarded as recycling but as incineration. recycling (i) Reuse is the additional use of a component. mineralizes it and reduces the volume of solid residuals. Waste treatment includes temporary storage but not collection and transportation of waste.Guidelines III. (iv) Open-loop The recycled. 281. (b) Waste incineration Incineration of waste. reused or re-manufactured material is not returned to the processes of the reporting entity. for final disposal.and closed-loop reuse.F. instead. For the purpose of eco-efficiency. part or product after it has been removed from a clearly defined service cycle. Types of controlled incineration processes include: 93 . In-process recycling is the shortest possible closed-loop. biological or physical means. (v) Closed-loop The recycled. Treatment of waste means recovery of waste. ash. (ii) Re-manufacturing is the additional use of a component. Pre-treatment processes that condition the waste for recycling are regarded as part of the recycling path. slag.. re-manufacturing and recycling. It results in the output of "other" waste streams. repair or refurbishing.
A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
(i) Low-temperature (municipal) waste incinerators; (ii) High-temperature waste incinerators; (iii) Cement kilns.
Box 8. Waste to Energy Schemes
Waste can be directly combusted in waste-to-energy incinerators or it can be processed as refuse-derived fuel before incineration (or combustion e.g. in power plants), and it can be gasified using pyrolysis or thermal gasification techniques. Another waste-to-energy process is the recovery of landfill gas or the gas produced by anaerobic fermentation (digestion) of municipal sewage sludge. For the purpose of this guideline we suggest that incineration not be distinguished by the type of energy recovery scheme attached to the incineration process but rather that incineration schemes be distinguished by the technology used to mineralize waste. The fact that energy is recovered should be disclosed.
Sanitary landfill Sanitary landfills provide outlets for the ultimate disposal of waste generated. A sanitary landfill is a controlled area of land on which waste is disposed of, in accordance with standards, rules or orders established by a regulatory body. Waste material is placed in trenches or on land, compacted by mechanical equipment and covered with earth and a final cover. Within the category of sanitary landfill three technologies can be distinguished: (i) Bioactive sanitary landfills The material is of non-mineral quality (see III.F.3.b). It is reactive and therefore needs extensive control systems covering the operational, closure and post-closure phase.40 The chemical composition of the residues is not known.
(ii) Sanitary landfills for stabilized residues Similar to (i) but for materials that will not form either gases or water soluble substances when in contact with water, air or other stabilized residues. The chemical composition of the residues is well known. (iii) Sanitary landfills for inert materials The material is inert (mineral quality, see III.F.3.b). Therefore the landfill needs no control systems during the operation phase, closure and post-closure phase.
For example, ground water is monitored, corrective action requirements are in place, closure and post-closure criteria are defined, an operation and maintenance manual and a leachate management plan exists, and so on.
Open dumpsite An open dumpsite is an uncontrolled area of land on which waste is disposed, either legally or illegally. Special cases: Pre-treatment and temporary on-site storage of waste (i) Pre-treatment Pre-treatment processes prepare waste for incineration or landfill. For the purpose of this guideline, pre-treatment does not constitute a separate category of waste treatment technology. Waste that undergoes external pre-treatment is dealt with under waste incineration and landfill. If the path is not known and documented, landfill is assumed. (ii) Temporary on-site storage Waste that is temporary stored on-site and for which the treatment technology is not yet known constitutes a separate category of waste treatment technology. The reporting entity shall give special attention to include adequate information on the technology used and the processes involved in the on-site storage.
284. If no company-specific information on the treatment technology is available, landfill is assumed as the default treatment technology. 285. Companies shall disclose information on the quality of treatment technology applied to waste. The classification should at least cover the following categories (world-wide or country specific): (a) (b) (c) Best available technology; Average technology; Worst available technology.
286. If no information is disclosed on the type of technology used it is assumed to be the worst available technology. III.F.3.e. Definitions Referring to the Location of Waste Treatment 287. On-site refers to all processes and activities that take place on premises under the control of the reporting entity. 288. Off-site refers to all processes and activities that take place on premises out of the control of the reporting entity. 289. Control is the power to govern the financial and operating policies of an enterprise so as to obtain benefits from its activities (IAS 27, paragraph 6). III.F.3.f. Definitions Referring to Waste Generated 290. Total waste generated during a reporting period is defined as the total amount of all mineral, non-mineral and/or hazardous waste as defined by
A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
III.F.3.c and treated by any waste treatment technology as defined by III.F.3.d This excludes the amount that is treated either on-site or off-site (see III.F.3.e) through closed-loop recycling, reuse or remanufacturing processes (see paragraph 283(a)(v)). 291. The item "waste generated" is used for the calculation of the eco-efficiency indicator "waste generated per unit of value added" (see paragraph 76(e)). III.F.4. Recognition of Waste
292. Waste as defined by III.F.3.a should be recognized in the period in which it is generated. If generated waste is temporarily stored on-site the stockpile should be recognized at the beginning and the end of the reporting period. 293. The quality of waste as defined by III.F.3.b should be recognized in the period in which it is generated. 294. The class of waste as defined by III.F.3.c should be recognized prior to being treated. 295. Waste treatment technology as defined by III.F.3.d should be recognized when the waste is treated (on-site treatment) and/or when it gets out of the control of the reporting enterprise (off-site treatment). III.F.5. Measurement of Waste
296. Waste should be weighed or metered. 297. Waste should be measured in kilograms and metric tons, litres or cubic metres. 298. If an amount of waste is estimated or calculated the range of uncertainty should be recorded. 299. Waste shall be reported according to weight (kg, t) and not volume (litres, m3). III.F.6. Disclosure of Waste
300. An enterprise should disclose: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) The eco-efficiency indicator "waste generated per unit of net value added"; The accounting policies adopted on waste; Total amount of waste recognized during the accounting period and the respective amounts of the previous year; The quality of the waste as recognized; The classification of the waste as recognized;
The management's stance on waste management policy.F.a.G. targets and measures (Table 48). III. Annex to Waste III.Guidelines (f) (g) (h) The treatment technology as recognized.7.7. the objectives and targets regarding waste and the measures taken to achieve the targets.F. Example of Disclosure of Waste 301. Energy recovery in waste-to-energy schemes. Accounting policy on waste. 97 . A disclosure on waste generated consists of three parts: (a) (b) Total waste generated according to the quality and classification of the waste and the treatment technology applied. III. waste policy. An example of a disclosure of waste is given in the annex.
5 22.2 8.4 2. Waste Policy.3 56.2 -0.9 -0.1 321.9 34.0 0.0 -2.0 1.5 8.1 0.9 67. remanufacturing.9 5.2 12.3 18.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators Table 47 Waste Generated Waste generated Treatment technology Open-loop reuse.4 16.2 -2.1 -1.7 Total* 2000 2001 189. Table 48 Accounting Policy on Waste.2 -12.8 10.656 0.8 126.8 15.2 12.9 208.3 14.2 1.6 6.0 331.1 78.4 55.6 12.0 1.5 130.9 0.3 68. °To store waste temporary on-site best technologies are used.8 60 80. recycling • Reuse • Remanufacturing • Recycling Incineration • Low-temperature • High-temperature • Cement kilns Sanitary landfills • Landfills for bioactive materials • Landfills for stabilized materials • Landfills for inert materials Open dumpsite Temporary stored on-site° Total Closed-loop reuse.0 222.5 39.8 32.4 35.2 87.9 19.6 61.0 -1.7 10.3 21.3 5.6 -3.0 30.0 7.7 5.6 99 51.6 36.4 107.9 340.0 -12.2 7.0 -12.9 335.7 58.1 1.0 68.8 105.0 -1.2 104.8 74.3 671.438 *The columns "non-mineral" and "mineral" add up to 100%.4 52.3 12.5 82.0 21.3 9.6 125.6 41.7 33. recycling • Reuse • Remanufacturing • Recycling Total waste generated Net value added (€) Eco-efficiency indicator "waste generated/net value added" (m3/€) Notes: Quality and classification Mineral Non-mineral Non-hazardous Hazardous 2000 2001 2000 2001 2000 2001 83.9 16.5 -10.7 13.8 3. Targets and Measures Accounting policy Waste policy Targets Measures 98 .2 0.3 1 000 1 100 0.2 10.5 -1.0 0.3 55.3 22.4 74.2 0.4 24.8 39.4 9.6 230.4 16.7 58.7 90.3 0.0 -10.9 132.4 45.8 23.1 3.4 656.3 28.3 9.0 -5.0 0.0 26.0 46.0 -0.5 14.1 0.4 1.5 26.3 5.6 453.1 72.5 97.5 5.4 438.6 21.4 8.2 5.3 97.3 19. while the column "hazardous" lists that amount of non-mineral waste that is classified as hazardous.1 44.2 79.9 51.1 -1.4 107.5 -1.4 3.3 75. remanufacturing.8 73.1 71.6 -15.1 -0.8 7.2 38.4 94.3 -15.0 0.6 42.3 20.4 227.0 3.0 -14.0 210.6 10.
tellurium compounds Mercury. formulation and use of wood preserving chemicals Wastes from the production.7.Guidelines III. categories Y1-45) the categories of waste in Table 49 have to be controlled. formulation and use of resins. mercury compounds Y11 Y12 Y13 Y14 Y15 Y16 Y17 Y18 Y19 Y20 Y21 Y22 Y23 Y24 Y25 Y26 Y27 Y28 Y29 99 . drugs and medicines Wastes from the production. selenium compounds Cadmium. antimony compounds Tellurium. dyes. latex. beryllium compounds Hexavalent chromium compounds Copper compounds Zinc compounds Arsenic. paints.b. formulation and use of photographic chemicals and processing materials Wastes resulting from surface treatment of metals and plastics Residues arising from industrial waste disposal operations Metal carbonyls Beryllium. cadmium compounds Antimony. pigments. plasticizers. lacquers. emulsions Waste substances and articles containing or contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and/or polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) and/or polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) Waste tarry residues arising from refining. distillation and any pyrolytic treatment Wastes from production. formulation and use of biocides and phytopharmaceuticals Wastes from the manufacture.F. Under the Basel Convention (Annex I. arsenic compounds Selenium. formulation and use of inks. Annex I of the Basel Convention 302. hydrocarbons/water mixtures. glues/adhesives Waste chemical substances arising from research and development or teaching activities which are not identified and/or are new and whose effects on man and/or the environment are not known Wastes of an explosive nature not subject to other legislation Wastes from production. Table 49 Annex I of the Basel Convention Categories of Waste to be Controlled Y1-Y29 Category Definition Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7 Y8 Y9 Y10 Clinical wastes from medical care in hospitals. medical centres and clinics Wastes from the production and preparation of pharmaceutical products Waste pharmaceuticals. varnish Wastes from production. formulation and use of organic solvents Wastes from heat treatment and tempering operations containing cyanides Waste mineral oils unfit for their originally intended use Waste oils/water.
Y42. Y39.g. phenol compounds including chlorophenols Ethers Halogenated organic solvents Organic solvents excluding halogenated solvents Any congenor of polychlorinated dibenzo-furan Any congenor of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin Organohalogen compounds other than substances referred to in this Annex (e. thallium compounds Lead. lead compounds Inorganic fluorine compounds excluding calcium fluoride Inorganic cyanides Acidic solutions or acids in solid form Basic solutions or bases in solid form Asbestos (dust and fibres) Organic phosphorous compounds Organic cyanides Phenols.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators Table 50 Annex I of the Basel Convention Categories of Waste to be Controlled Y30-Y45 Category Definition Y30 Y31 Y32 Y33 Y34 Y35 Y36 Y37 Y38 Y39 Y40 Y41 Y42 Y43 Y44 Y45 Thallium. Y43. Y41. Y44). 100 .
1988). Substances or wastes which. but not including substances or wastes otherwise classified on account of their dangerous characteristics) which give off a flammable vapour at temperatures of not more than 60.F. Flammable liquids The word "flammable" has the same meaning as "inflammable.10/1Rev. or to heating up on contact with air. by interaction with water. emit flammable gases Substances or wastes which. closed-cup test. or mixtures of liquids. or may cause or contribute to fire through friction. United Nations. regulations varying from the above figures to make allowance for such differences would be within the spirit of this definition. and being then liable to catch fire. or liquids containing solids in solution or suspension (for example.3 H4. lacquers.1 4.. 3 H3 4.Guidelines III. categories H1-H13) hazardous waste possesses the characteristics listed in Table 51 and Table 52. or not more than 65.6EC. other than those classed as explosives. 101 . Table 51 Annex III of the Basel Convention List of Hazardous Characteristics Class 1-4. open-cup test. New York.5.3 UN Class1 1 41 Code Characteristics H1 Explosive An explosive substance or waste is a solid or liquid substance or waste (or mixture of substances or wastes) which is in itself capable by chemical reaction of producing gas at such a temperature and pressure and at such speed as to cause damage to the surroundings. are liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable gases in dangerous quantities.1 H4.c. which under conditions encountered in transport are readily combustible. varnishes. According to the Basel Convention (Annex III.7. Substances or wastes liable to spontaneous combustion Substances or wastes which are liable to spontaneous heating under normal conditions encountered in transport. or waste solids. in contact with water." Flammable liquids are liquids. etc.) Flammable solids Solids. paints. Annex III of the Basel Convention 303.3 41 Corresponds to the hazard classification system included in the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (ST/SG/AC.2 H4.2 4.5E C. (Since the results of open-cup tests and of closed-cup tests are not strictly comparable and even individual results by the same test are often variable.
by interaction with air or water. Liberation of toxic gases in contact with air or water Substances or wastes which. they may also cause other hazards. leachate.2 6. if they are inhaled or ingested or if they penetrate the skin. are liable to give off toxic gases in dangerous quantities.) H5. will materially damage.1 Oxidising Substances or wastes which. Toxic (Delayed or chronic) Substances or wastes which. which possesses any of the characteristics listed above. after disposal. of yielding another material. generally by yielding oxygen. including carcinogenicity.2 H6. tests to define quantitatively these hazards do not exist. may involve delayed or chronic effects.2 8 H8 9 H10 9 H11 9 H12 9 H13 102 . cause. Infectious substances Substances or wastes containing viable micro-organisms or their toxins which are known or suspected to cause disease in animals or humans. the combustion of other materials. in order to decide if these materials exhibit any of the characteristics listed in this Annex. Corrosives Substances or wastes which..1 H6. Many countries have developed national tests. or.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators Table 52 Annex III of the Basel Convention List of Hazardous Characteristics Class 5.2 H5. other goods or the means of transport. Poisonous (Acute) Substances or wastes liable either to cause death or serious injury or to harm health if swallowed or inhaled or by skin contact.1 6.1 Code Characteristics (cont. Ecotoxic Substances or wastes which if released present or may present immediate or delayed adverse impacts to the environment by means of bioaccumulation and/or toxic effects upon biotic systems. Organic Peroxides Organic substances or wastes which contain the bivalent-OO-structure are thermally unstable substances which may undergo exothermic selfaccelerating decomposition. which can be applied to materials listed in Annex I. e. will cause severe damage when in contact with living tissue. Tests The potential hazards posed by certain types of wastes are not yet fully documented. Standardised tests have been derived with respect to pure substances and materials. by any means. Further research is necessary in order to develop means to characterise potential hazards posed to man and/or the environment by these wastes. while in themselves not necessarily combustible. may. or even destroy. by chemical action. or contribute to.g. Capable. 5.1-9 UN Class1 5. in the case of leakage.
III.G. Accounting Treatment of the Financial Items III.G.1. Objective
304. The objective of this manual is to provide guidance on the accounting treatment of the financial items used as reference figures for normalization in eco-efficiency accounting and reporting. III.G.2. Scope
305. This guidance should be applied by all enterprises in accounting for all reference figures used as normalization values for eco-efficiency indicators. III.G.3. Definitions
306. All financial items are defined in line with the International Accounting Standards (IAS). 307. For the purpose of eco-efficiency accounting and reporting, the following items are of importance and are defined as follows: (a) (b) (c) Value Added (see Box 9) Value Added = Revenue – Purchase of Goods and Services Net Value Added = Value Added - Depreciation on tangible assets Revenue is defined as the gross inflow of economic benefits during a period arising in the course of the ordinary activities of an enterprise when those inflows result in an increase in equity, excluding increases relating to contributions from equity participants (see IAS 18). Revenue includes only gross inflows of economic benefits received and receivable by the enterprise on its own account. It does not include taxes collected on behalf of third parties, nor does it include the amounts collected on behalf of the principle as in an agency relation. Revenue is generated from the following transactions as defined by IAS 18: (i) Sales of goods; (ii) Rendering of services; (iii) Interest, royalties and dividends Purchase of goods and services is the gross outflow of economic benefit to the supplier of the goods and services during a period arising in the course of the ordinary activities of an enterprise when those outflows would qualify as revenue according to IAS 18 with the supplier.
A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators
Box 9. Value Added/Net Value Added
Value added is a widely used but often poorly understood concept in accounting. It is widely used in the sense that value added is the aggregate that gets taxed by a value added tax scheme. A value added tax is levied on the value which is added to the goods or services in question at each stage in the production and distribution process. This is achieved by levying a tax at each point en route, as ownership passes from one person to another. At every stage, "output" tax is charged on the current sales value, but the "input" tax which has been charged by those at an earlier stage of the game can be offset or recovered. Thus the tax liability at each stage is based on the difference between the value of the outputs and the value of the inputs (hence "added value"). Most countries have implemented a VAT. For social reporting it is used to show how the value created is distributed amongst different stakeholders (employees, lenders, authorities, shareholders). Value added is used as a normalization figure in environmental reports especially with multi-product companies, where for example tonnes of production is meaningless. There are two alternative ways to calculate value added, one method asks how value added is generated (source or tax approach), while the other asks how value added is distributed (distribution approach): • • Source or tax approach: Value added = Revenue – Cost of goods and services purchased Distribution approach: Value added = Salaries + Depreciation + Amortisation + Interest Paid + Taxes + Dividends + Retained Profit
Both approaches yield the same answer. 42 For the purpose of eco-efficiency accounting we need to go one step further (Lahti-Nuuttila 2002). Investment goods are not accounted for as goods and services purchased but rather as depreciation, although both are purchased from outside the enterprise. For the purpose of eco-efficiency accounting, investment goods (tangible assets to be precise) and goods purchased should not be treated differently. Their value has been created outside the enterprise and the energy, water etc. used and the waste produced for the production of the asset are accounted for within the accounts of the enterprise that produced the respective asset. Therefore, depreciation on tangible assets is deducted from value added. The resulting figure is defined as follows: Net value added = Revenue – Cost of goods and services purchased – Depreciation on tangible assets Net value added = Salaries + Amortization on intangible assets + Interest paid + Taxes + Dividends + Retained Profit
On the assumption that tangible assets are purchased from outside the enterprise. In turn, only amortisation of intangible assets is included in value added under the distribution approach.
308. The financial items shall be recognized according to applicable IAS standards. III.G.5. Measurement
309. The financial items shall be measured according to applicable IAS standards. III.G.6. Disclosure
310. The financial items shall be disclosed according to applicable IAS standards.
the methods of consolidation must be known and it must be clear that all entities consolidated have applied uniform accounting policies for like transactions and other events in similar circumstances. A joint venture is a contractual arrangement whereby two or more parties undertake an economic activity. more than half of the voting power of an enterprise (IAS 27. Definition 314.H. Consolidation of Eco-efficiency Indicators III.1. The scope and the methods of consolidation applied can influence the consolidated financial and environmental figures materially. The objective of this manual is to provide guidance on the accounting treatment for eco-efficiency indicators and their environmental and financial items respectively. 106 (b) (c) . certain data may or may not appear in the consolidated group accounts. (ii) A group is a parent and all its subsidiaries (IAS 27. paragraph 6). paragraph 2). An associate is an enterprise in which the investor has significant influence and which is neither a subsidiary nor a joint venture of the investor (IAS 28. The primary issues in consolidating environmental items are: (a) The scope of consolidation The scope of consolidation indicates which enterprises are and which are not integrated into the consolidated figures. which is subject to joint control (IAS 31. According to the consolidation method applied. The following terms are used in this guideline with the meanings specified: (a) A subsidiary is an enterprise that is controlled by another enterprise (known as a parent) (IAS 27.H. (b) 312. Control is presumed to exist when the parent owns. (iii) Control is the power to govern the financial and operating policies of an enterprise so as to obtain benefits from its activities (IAS 27. directly or indirectly through subsidiaries.H.3.2. Primary Issues in Consolidating Environmental Items 311. The method of consolidation For a useful analysis of consolidated data. III. paragraph 6). Objective 313. paragraph 6). paragraph 12). paragraph 3). (i) A parent is an enterprise that has one or more subsidiaries (IAS 27. paragraph 6). III. its investments in associates and/or joint ventures.H.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators III. for a parent and its subsidiaries.
In the case of associates where equity consolidation is applied the consolidated eco-efficiency data do not include environmental and financial items of the associates. its interests in associates and joint ventures presented as those of a single enterprise. 28. 316. an enterprise shall look at the same set of activities and events as when recognizing the financial information (see II. for a description of these methods see I. 107 . purchase of goods and services) are (a) (b) (c) Fully consolidated. proportional consolidation. 318.A. Consolidation Procedure 317. Therefore the consolidation method used for the consolidated financial report (equity.5.Guidelines (d) Consolidated eco-efficiency information is the eco-efficiency data of a parent and its subsidiaries.are activities and events of the reporting entity.E. When recognizing environmental information. The implications are as follows: (a) (b) The consolidated eco-efficiency data fully include the environmental and financial items of subsidiaries that are controlled by the parent. The starting point for the recognition and measurement of eco-efficiency information . then the environmental items shall also be fully consolidated. Consolidated using the equity method. If the financial items or group of financial items used for a consolidated eco-efficiency statement (net value added. 315.4.H. 320. This implies that uniform accounting policies must be applied when consolidating financial and environmental items (see paragraph above). then the environmental items shall also be consolidated on the basis of equity consolidation.regardless of whether it is environmental or financial . 31 and other standards apply accordingly.1) shall also be applied to the consolidation of the environmental items used for the eco-efficiency indicators. 319. Proportionally consolidated then the environmental items shall also be proportionally consolidated.H. Accounting policies for consolidation as defined by IAS 27. III. full. revenue. This guidance should be applied by all enterprises in the preparation and presentation of consolidated eco-efficiency data for subsidiaries (IAS 27). paragraph 21).1 of the framework on the principle of congruity). Consolidated eco-efficiency statements should be prepared using uniform accounting policies for both the environmental and the financial items for like transactions and other events in similar circumstances (IAS 27. investments in associates (IAS 28) and investments in joint ventures (IAS 31). Scope of Guidance III.
a. equity consolidation or proportional consolidation. The consolidation method used in the financial statements. A management discussion on the financial and environmental aspects of the consolidation methodology and procedure applied. the financial statements of the enterprises in the group are combined on a line-by-line basis by adding together like items of assets.g.27. Under full consolidation. in practice. acquisitions or divesting activities in the reporting period. proportionately. A management discussion on the financial and environmental aspects of mergers.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators (c) In the case of joint ventures where proportionate consolidation is applied the consolidated eco-efficiency data include environmental and financial items of the joint venture. or by using the equity method.7. regardless of whether they are consolidated fully. Annex to Consolidation (e) (f) III. investments in associates and joint ventures. In that case. 324. The enterprise under the parent’s control is referred to as a subsidiary. the percentage of voting share). 321.31): III. 108 . directly or indirectly. The standard procedures are (IAS 22. Full Consolidation 323. investments in associates and joint ventures including (a) (b) (c) (d) The names and descriptions of all subsidiaries.7. 50 per cent or more of voting rights. income and expenses. those of the parent enterprise) and the related portion of the equity of each of the group enterprises are eliminated.6. equity. The eco-efficiency information of all consolidated entities.H. and any unrealized losses would also be eliminated unless costs cannot be recovered. the parent enterprise owns or controls. The carrying amounts of any inter-enterprise investments (in particular. environmental and financial items of the joint venture are included in the consolidated ecoefficiency data in line with the percentage used in financial consolidation. The magnitude of control (e. Full consolidation is normally applied to all enterprises that are controlled by a parent enterprise. liabilities. Disclosure III. Inter-enterprise balances and inter-enterprise transactions are totally eliminated.H. In a consolidated eco-efficiency statement an enterprise should disclose a listing of all subsidiaries. 322. This means that. Any unrealized profits resulting from inter-enterprise transactions are eliminated.H. IAS and other standards require three different methods of consolidation depending on the stake of the investor: full consolidation.
Under proportionate consolidation.Guidelines III. paragraph 3). An "associate" is an enterprise which is neither a subsidiary nor a joint venture and in which the investor has a significant influence (normally. 329. Proportionate Consolidation 328.H.c. "Significant influence" is described by the IASB as the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investee but not control over those policies (IAS 28. the investor’s investment in an investee enterprise is initially recorded at cost and is adjusted thereafter for changes in the net assets of that enterprise (IAS 28. The Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR) has indicated that "under the equity method. liabilities. 109 . inter-enterprise balances and inter-enterprise transactions are eliminated. Even in this situation. The consolidated income statements reflect the transnational corporation’s share of the operating results of the other enterprise" (UNCTAD 1994. Under the equity method. arising after the investment has been made. between 20 per cent and 49 per cent). the parent’s/investor’s share of each of the assets. The income statement reflects income from the investment only to the extent that the investor receives a share of the accumulated net profits of the investee.H. inter-enterprise balances and inter-enterprise transactions are eliminated. together with any unrealized profits and losses relating thereto. an initial investment by a transnational corporation in another enterprise is so adjusted in the consolidated financial statements of the transnational corporation as to reflect its share of the net assets of the other enterprise. paragraph 2). III. 43 Under the cost method. paragraph 3). Again. Equity Method 325. 327. the method is not permitted in some jurisdictions. Standards issued by the IASB indicate that "an investment in an associate should be accounted for in consolidated financial statements under the equity method except when the investment is acquired and held exclusively with a view to its disposal in the near future in which case it should be accounted for under the cost method" 43 (IAS 28. Proportionate consolidation is normally only used in accounting for the interests in a joint venture (which has been defined by the IASB as "a contractual arrangement whereby two or more parties undertake an economic activity so as to obtain benefits from it" (IAS 31.7.7. As is the case in full consolidation. 326. income and expenses of the other group’s enterprises is combined on a line-by-line basis with similar items in the parent’s/investor’s financial statements. paragraph 50). together with any unrealized profits and losses relating thereto.b. the investment is recorded at its initial cost. paragraph 8). The equity method is normally applied for investments in "associates".
Copenhagen 1992. Kyoto Protocol (1997): Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. OECD/IEA (1997): Indicators of Energy Use and Efficiency. Beijing 1999. IASB (2002): International Accounting Standards 2002. OECD/IEA (2001c): Energy Balances and Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries 1998-1999. IASB Framework. 111 . Reference Manual. Forest and Landscape (1996): Technical Ordinance on Waste. Lahti-Nuuttila.IV. REFERENCES Basel Convention (1992): Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal. Vienna 1995. Montreal 1997. OECD/IEA (2001a): CO2-Emissions from Fuel Combustion 1971-1999. IAS #. Schaltegger/Sturm (1989): Ökologieinduzierte Entscheidungsinstrumente des Managements. in: IASB: International Accounting Standards 2002. UNEP: 2000. Paris: OECD. IPCC (1996a): Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change.ellipson. Paris: OECD. Swiss Agency for the Environment. Paris: OECD. in: IASB: International Accounting Standards 2002. IPCC (2001): Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. October/November 2002. IPCC (1996b): Revised 1996 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Workbook and Reporting Instructions.com/projects/eco_efficiency_indicators. Sturm/Müller (2001): Standardized Eco-Efficiency Indicators 2001 (http://www. Montreal Protocol (2000): The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer as adjusted and/or amended in London 1990. Kimmo (2002): Personal e-mail correspondence. OECD/IEA (2001b): Energy Balances and Energy Statistics of OECD Countries 19981999.html). GRI (2001): The Global Reporting Initiative Sustainability Reporting Guidelines.
UNCTAD (2001): Integrating Environmental and Financial Performance at the Enterprise Level: A Methodology for Standardizing Eco-efficiency Indicators. UNEP (1999): Handbook on Data Reporting under the Montreal Protocol. al. UNEP (2000): The GHG Indicator: UNEP Guidelines for Calculating Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Businesses and Non-Commercial Organizations. The Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting. with the World Business Council for Sustainable Development. 112 .. by Stefan Schmidheiny et. WBCSD (1996): Changing Course.A Manual for the Prepareres and Users of Eco-efficiency Indicators UNCTAD (1994): Conclusions on Accounting and Reporting by Transnational Corporations.
A. Chief Executive Officer DaimlerChrysler Ltd. Suphamit Techamontrikul R. Group Service Environment. Head EcoEfficiency Projects Eastern Central and Southern African Federation of Accountants (ECSAFA). (Switzerland) ABN AMRO (Brazil). (Germany). Lecturer for Accounting Nestlé S. (Switzerland) Founder of concepts for carbon (c4c) Claude Fussler World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). (Switzerland). Nairobi/Kenya. Child Villiers Christopher Wells 113 . Senior Manager Environmental Protection Ciba Specialty Chemicals Inc. Quantitative Team c4c ltd. Health and Safety Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants (CICA). Sustainability Expert. SRI Manager Ndung'u Gathinji Dr. Udo Hartmann Charles Peter Naish David J.V. The members of the steering group are: Christoph Butz Pictet & Cie. STEERING GROUP 330. Research Studies Director Chulalongkorn University Bangkok (Thailand). Moore Dr. (Switzerland).
ellipson. 5601 Fax + 41-22-907-0122 E-mail: isar@unctad. Kaspar Müller Ellipson Ltd Leonhardsgraben 52 CH-4051 Basel Switzerland Ms.com For information.ellipson.VI. AUTHORS e-mail: sturm@ellipson. Sri Dharmapala Mawatha Asgiriya. or.lk Phone: +94-8-232 318 Dr. Suji Upasena Arrow Consult 14/2. Mr.com Web: www. Andreas Sturm (Project Leader) Mr. 5495. Constantine Bartel Phone +41-22-917-5802.unctad. Kandy Sri Lanka The most recent version is always available at http://www.com Phone: +41-61-261 93 20 Fax: +41-61-261 93 13 e-mail: email@example.com Mail: UNCTAD-ISAR DITE-UNCTAD Palais des Nations 1211-Geneva 10 Switzerland 114 .org/isar or at http://www.com e-mail: mueller@ellipson.