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3jOsep GIBERT, 1 ' 3 S ilvi a ALBADALEJO 'Dept. Enginyeria Minera i Recursos Naturals, Uníversitat Politécnica de Catalunya. Escola Universitaria. Politécnica, Av. Bases de Manresa, 61-73, 08240 Manresa, Barcelona, Spain. 'Una. Estratigrafia, Dept. Geología, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain Fax: 935811263 'Institut de Paleontología M.Crusafont Carrer Escola Industrial 23, 08201 Sabadell, Spain Fax: 93727664.
A >100 m thick sedimentary succession comprising part of the Baza formation outcrops in the North East of the Guadix-Baza basin (South East Spain). New stratigraphical, biostratigraphical and palaeomagnetic data show that the sedimentation in this area was almost continuous between the Middle Pliocene and the Late Pleistocene. The Plio-Pleistocene sediments of this part of the Guadix-Baza basin forro a minimum of five unconformity-bounded depositional cycles. These cycles begin with fluvial sediments and finish with lacustrine rocks. The deposition of each sediment type depends on the position of the lake level, which in turns depends mainly on the prevailing climate. These depositional cycles could be related to the global glacio-eustatic cycles. Each cycle contains a different fossil mammal faunal group. The new chronostratigraphic framework indicates that the paleontological sites with evidence of hurnan presence can be placed on the Plio-Pleistocene boundary.
It is difficult to find large outcrops of continental sedimentary sequences in Europe which span Al the PlioPleistocene period.This is due in part to the glacial action during the Quaternary that has eroded and redeposited the Plio-Pleistocene deposits. The remaining deposits are mainly from the Late Pleistocene and are attributed to the last glacial and interglacial period. They mainly consist of fluviatile deposits, glacial lake sediments, loess deposits and moraines. The Guadix-Baza basin (South East of Spain) offers a large continental sedimentary succession of this period, that can help us to improve the knowledge about the Plio-Pleistocene geological history. One of the important facts of this region is the presence of about 50 paleontological sites with fossil manimals some of them with fossil human remains and lithic artefacts (Gibert et al. 1989 a, b, c, 1992, Tixier et al. 1995, Roe 1995). This article presents for the first time a detailed chronostratigraphical framework for the region using new stratigraphical data supported by paleontological and paleomagnetic data and provides evidence for Plio-Pleistocene palaeoclimate.
The studied area is situated in the SE of the Iberian Peninsula (fig.1), approximately at 120 km NE from Granada, between the villages of Orce, Galera and Cullar (fig. 2). This region is actually a large depression rised approximately 1000 ni aboye the sea level. It has a semiarid climate with an annual rainfall of 300-500 mm. The mountains of the Betic Chain that surround the depression reach 3000 m in height. These enviromental conditions allowed the dominance of erosion processes, which have formed deep ravines where it is easy to observe the sedimentary successions. This basin (cited as GBB from here on) is located in a nearly subtropical latitude. The climate during the glacial periods was temperate.
GIBERT, L., MAESTRO, E., GIBERT, J. Y ALBADALEJO,
The Betic Cordillera is situated in the western part of the Mediterranean Alpine System. It is comprises of two major structural domains (Internal and External Zones) which consist of Paleozoic to Middle Miocene rocks, strongly affected by tectonic processes. During the Late Miocene (Tortonian) it began a neotectonic stage, with a great volume of compressive and distensive structures (Estévez and Sanz de Galdeano, 1983). This tectonism created a great number of isolated sedimentary basins, marine or continental, depending on the age and the position in the Chain. Prior to this "isolated stage" (Lower-Middle Miocene), these basins formed part of the Northbetic Strait, which representa the marine communication between the Mediterranean sea and the Atlantic ocean, north of the emerged lands of the Internal and External Zones of the Betic Chain. The GBB is the biggest of the Neogene-Quaternary hinterland basins of the Betic Cordillera (fig.1). During the Late Miocene the GBB become isolated from the others Betic basins (Vera 1969; Rodriguez Fernandez 1982; Rodriguez Fernandez et al. 1984). From the terminal Miocene (Turolian) to recent the GBB becomes continental (Cuevas et al., 1984). The sediments that fill the GBB during the Plio-Pleistocene are mainly fluviatile in the SW and lacustrine in the NE. At the begining of the late Pleistocene (approximately 100.000 y.a) the last lacustrine deposits were deposited. Inmediately after the region was uplifted and the current fluvial systeni was establish (Vera et al 1994). The whole of the Neogene to Quaternary sediments in the central arcas of the GBB reaches >1000 m (Vera 1969, Santiesteban 1968). The studied area, in the Northeastern sector of the GBB, expones deposits of Pliocene and Pleistocene age. They consist of marginal lacustrine and fluviatile sediments. This part of the GBB was occupied by a shallow lake (Vera, 1969) during this time. The lake, with an approximate surface of 1000 km 2 (Anadón et al 1986), had its central area near Benamaurel village. The stratigraphical, sedimentological and petrographical data indicate that the lake was shallow, with a welldeveloped palustrine fringe. In this kind of lake, a small fall in the water-level table would produce the exposition of an extensive area (several km') covered by carbonate muds, and affected by the pedological processes. In the central arcas of the lake (Benamaurel zone), the depth that the lake reached was enough to permit a permanent water body, even during falls of base-level. The stratigraphic record in these arcas consists only of subaqueous lacustrine facies. The physical characteristics of the paleolake allow the study and precise correlation of the depositional cycles related to base-level fluctuations, especially in the marginal zones of the lake. The depositional cycles consist of a basal fluvio-alluvial unit, deposited in periods of low water-level, covered extensively, with lacustrine deposits, which reflect the high water-level periods.
In this sector of the GBB it is possible to distinguish different sedimentary facies associations related to fluvio-lacustrine depositional systems.These facies characterise different sedimentary environments and are distributed in function of the paleogeographical evolution of this arca during the Plio-Pleistocene. 3.1 Fluvio-Alluvial Facies:
Flood plain: this type of facies has an important presence in all the Northeast margin of the basin and especially towards the Northeast and the South of the studied zone (Orce, Fuentenueva and Cullar sector). These facies have a typically red colour and comprise lutites. On occasion diagenetic gypsum is present in these deposits. Fluvial Channel facies: it is possible to identify two types of channels, which are geographically separated. In the South of this sector of the basin, flood-dominated braided channels that have Betic a source and flow into the paleolake toward the West-Northwest are developed. In the Northeast (Orce-Venta Micena sector) meandering channels that come from the Northeast and continue towards the East are present. Alluvial Fans: These consist of conglomerate layers, deposited mainly by debris flows in periods of flooding. These facies are located in the most marginal zone and deposited by stationary channels. Towards the lake these facies interfinger with lacustrine rocks. Deltaic facies: the fluvial channels can form deltas when they reach the lake. These deposits are mainly formed by wide layers of sand, which show thickening and coarsening up cycles. Occasionally the alluvial fans form small fan deltas (often Gilbert type) when they reach the lake shoreline.
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3.2 Lacustrine Facies:
Palustrine area: These facies always appear in the most marginal zone of the basin. They are characterised by the presence of dark beds which contain lignite. These levels have different sizes of grains (clay to medium sand). It is very common to find root remains, gastropods and mammal fossils in all of them. The majority of the sites which contain micromammal fossils are in this type of deposit. These beds are very useful for local correlation. Carbonate lacustrine fringe: These facies are characterised by the presence of pedogenically modified limestone. These are situated in the littoral zone of the paleolake, where there were frequent oscillations of the water level. The materials that constitute these facies are lacustrine limestones which frequently contains gastropod and ostracod remains and evidente of subaerial exposure (edaphica structures, desiccation tracks, brecciation, collapse brecciation and others). Central lacustrine zone: we attribute these facies to the large deposits formed by alternating fine detrital materials and chemical sediments (mainly gypsun) which consist of continuous thin layers. These deposits are situated in the SW of the studied area (towards Benamauruel).
4. CHRONOLOGY The dating of the deposits has been made by paleomagnetic and biostratigraphic criteria. Four paleomagnetic sections have been made. The longest section (>100 ni.) was studied by Garces near Galera village (Garces 1993, 1994, Agustí et al 1997). He found Tour clear normal events, which he identified as Gauss (three) and Olduvai. Semáh (1985) and Agustí ct al (1997) found one normal event in the Orce ravine (near Orce village) which is interpreted by the Olduvai normal period (Agustí et al. 1987, Gibert et al. 1993, Agustí et al. 1997). Finally Oms et al (1995) found a probable normal event in the Fuentenueva section which is attributed to the Olduvai period (Gibert et al 1993, Oms et al 1995). This last paleomagnetic section has not been considered in our study because the data are unclear due to low magnetic susceptibility of the materials (Oms com pers.). The beds with mammal fossils are very frequent in this sector of the GGB. After studying the stratigraphic situation of the sites, it is possible to establish five levels with different mammal fossils between the middle Pliocene and the late Pleistocene. This supposes five large faunal breaks. Agustí (1986) and Agustí et al (1987) made a proposition for the Lower Pleistocene biozonation without stratigraphical location of the sites. Today it is possible to say that this proposition is no longer valid, because there are important contradictions with the stratigraphical data (Gibert, J. et al 1993, Gibert, J. et al 1995).
5. PLIO-PLEISTOCENE DEPOSITIONAL CYCLES
5.1 Introduction Our analysis of the deposits is based on their cyclicity.The basic data are correlation fences, biostratigraphical and paleomagnetic data. The basin of this work is the measurement of 35 detailed stratigraphic sections (fig.3). The basin was filled by lacustrine sediments during periods of expansion of the lacustrine system and fluvioalluvial sediments in periods of paleolake regression. These alternating sedimentary environments correspond to the cycles of the paleolake base level. The cycles are bounded by unconformities near the borders of the basin, and tend to be conformable in the centre. These unconformity-bounded units are depositional sequences (sensu Vail ct al. 1977, 1987,Vail et al. 1991,Van Wagoner et al. 1990). The cycles boundaries have a chronostratigraphical sense. Until now five depositional cycles have been recognised within the Plio-Pleistocene of this region. Each cycle comprises fluvial sediments in the base and lacustrine deposits at the top.This new sequential interpretation is substantially different from other mainly lithostratigraphic interpretations, made during the last fourteen years (Vera ct al. 1984, Anadon et al. 1986, Soria ct al. 1987 and Garces 1993) (fig.4). These five major cycles are formed by minor-order cycles that are made during high-frequency base-level oscillations. These minor cycles are represented in the margin of the basin as a succession of paleosols.
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5.2 Depositional cycles
5.2.1 Galera Cycle Lacustrine member: the studied area exposes only the top lacustrine sediments of this cycle. They correspond to highstand deposits (sensu Uliana and Legarreta 1988). This member is the lowest stratigraphic unit that outcrops in the studied area. The beds consist of limestones, calcareous mudstones, marls, and clay with peat towards the top. These sediments are slightly deformed probably by diapirism. One of these beds contains Ruscinian midromammal fossils, that outcrops in the site Galera-1 (Agustí 1986) or Nuca-1 (Ruiz Bustos 1991a). These materials outcrop mainly in the bottom of the valley of the Orce river between the villages of Orce and Galera. 5.2.2 Fuentenueva Cycle Fluvial member: a unit of red fluvial materials, that consists of sand, lutites and conglomerates, was unconformally deposited aboye the Middle Pliocene lacustrine member (Vera ct al 1984, Soria 1987). These beds are thicker than 10 ni. Those deposits come from the Eastern part of the basin and develop the fluvial facies towards the West supplying the sediments to the lake restricted to the central area of the basin. This fluvial member is very useful in regional correlations because it continues for more than 14 km in an E-W direction. No paleontological sites have been found in these sediments. The paleomagnetic data of this member (Garces 1993, 1994, Agustí et al 1997) occurs in the top of the Gauss normal event. Lacustrine member: this unit is developed over the precedeing fluvial member. It comprises white limestones, marls and calcilutites. This member is no thicker than 10 m. in the most marginal zone (Fuentenueva), but increases in thickness towards the West (Galera village).Within these sediments the Villafranchian paleontological site Fuente-nueva-1 (Moya-Soló et al 1987) is located. 5.2.3 Venta Micena Cycle This cycle starts with the record of a smaller fall in the water level than the second cycle. At the beginning of the second cycle the shoreline moved back farther than Galera village (more than 14 kni to the W). In this cycle the shoreline retreated no more than 10 kni to the W. Because of this the facies exposed m the Orce sector (East) are different from the Galera sector (West) where the subaqueous conditions persist, and the fluvial sediments became deltaic. Anadon ct al., 1986 studied the palaeosalinity of the lake in this member using faunal changes (ostracods, mollusca and foraminifera) and indicate an alternation of slightly salive and bicarbonato-rich water with a salive NaCl-dominant water. Fluvial member: this member (fig.5) is formed by red lutites, with sand and conglomerate intercalations. This red unit representa flood plain facies in the South of the Orce region (near Sierra de Orce) and meandering channel facies towards the North. The paleoflows indicators show that the meandering fluvial system carne from the NE. Occasionally diagenetic gypsum crystals appear inside this unit. The conglomerates are componed of Jurassic cobbles, flint and quartz. Lacustrine member: comprise the units which were described by Gibert et al 1993. Green unit: this unit is made of green marl sediment, which has root traces. The mineralogical composition for it is 20% quartz and 60% carbonates. The thickness is no more than 5m and we interpret it as a transitional environment between lacustrine and fluviatile. First carbonate unít: aboye the green member a lacustrine limestone unit rich in micritic calcite (CaCO3>95%) is developed. This unit is affected by edaphic structures produced during the frequent oscillations in the water level of the lake. Black detrital unís: It has a variable thickness between 3 m and 0.4 rn. It is formed of dark beds that are rich in organic matter and gastropods. Inside this member a large amount of mammal fossils sites (B. León, B. Paso, C. Alfonso, B. Conejos, Fuentenueva-2, Venta Micena-1) are present associated with the botton of the Olduvai paleomagnetic event (Semáh 1984, Agustí 1987, Gibert et al 1993, Agustí et al 1997). Three of these palaeontological sites (B. León, B. Paso and C. Alfonso) are rich in stone artefacts (fig.6) which indicated human activity in this depression during the Plio-Pleistocene boundary (fig.7), (Gibert et al. 1992, Tixier et al 1995, Zihlman and Lowenstein 1996, Gore 1997). We attribute this member to sediments deposited in a marsh environment. The size of the grains is often lutite (<1/16 mm) indicating a lower energy environment. To the
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center of the lake these deposits evolve to mud flats with less organic matter and increasing carbonate content. The general trend is a flat and shallow lake with more detrital supply. In the most marginal outcrops grain size increases to sand. We attribute this to the filter effect produced by the marsh environment. Second carbonate unit: This carbonate member is thicker and more complex than the first. It implies a transgression of the lake. The composition of this unit is mainly carbonate (>95% CaCO 3). At the base of this member the Venta Micena Level occcurs which contains a large accumulation of mammal fossils including human remains (Gibert et al. 1989a, 1989b, 1989c, 1992, 1995, 1998, Campillo 1989, Campillo and Gibert 1996, Borja et al 1992, Borja 1995, Lowestein 1995, Zihlman and Lowenstein 1996) and the site Fuentenueva-3 where more than 100 stone artefacts have been found in association with a large collection of mammal fossils (Tixier et al. 1995, Gibert et al 1992, 1998). Part of this unit is placed incide the Olduvai event (Agusti et al 1997) (fig. 3, fig. 8). The paleomagnetic and biostratigraphyc data are in disagreement with those published by Torres et al (1997) who chronologically situate the base of this unit (Venta Micena bed) around a million years (983 ± 58 Ky) using amino acid racemization analysis. The facies of this unit are similar to the first carbonate unit. In the marginal areas of the basin (B. León) some flood-dominated lacustrine deltas are developed, and interfinger with lacustrine limestones (Fig.7). Between the Venta Micena Level and the top of the second carbonate unit coarsening upward lacustrine sequences occurs which could indicate a tectonic pulsation. This member ends with a limestone bed, about one metre thick which is rich in gastropod remains and forms a large structural surface. 5.2.4 Cullar-1 Cycle At the end of the Lower Pleistocene a displacement of the lake depocenter towards the South began. As a consequence of this desplacement and a reduction of the subsidence rate in the NE of the studied area, the thickness of this cycle decreases towards the NE. This complete cycle outcrops in the South of the studied area (Cullar sector) while in the North (Orce-Galera) only the lowstand materials (fluvial) appear. Between the Venta Micena and Cullar-1 cycles there is a change in the paleoflow indicators in the North of the studied area (Orce-Galera). While in cycle Venta Micena the fluvial systems carne from the NE, in cycle Cullar-1 the fluvial systems carne from to South. This is reflected by a change in the source area of the detrital sediments, which change their carbonate composition (cycle Venta Micena, Subbetic source) to a metamorphic composition in cycle Cullar-1 (Betic source). Fluvial member: this member is situated at the top of the sections in the Orce-Galera sector. It is represented as a detrital body that consists of metamorphic sands and cobbles. This unit is formed mainly by channel deposits. The paleoflow indicators show that the fluvial systems carne from the South. Towards the North they develop to sands with wave ripples associated with a deltaic enviroment. In the NE of the studied area (Fuentenueva sector) this member is formed by the deposits of small alluvial fans and fan deltas coming from Subbetic source area (Sierra de Orce). Towards the South (Cullar sector) this unit reaches its thickest part and the colour becomes a deeper red. Lacustrine member: this member outcrops extensively at the South of the studied area (Cullar). In the North it has only been recognized in the West of the Orce Village. It becomes thicker towards the South. It consists of fine carbonatic detrital sediments. Cullar Baza-1 site is located within this unit. This site contains Middle Pleistocene mammals in association with stone artefacts (Ruiz Bustos, 1984). 5.2.5 Cycle Cullar-2 This cycle has been recognized in the South of the studied area. Due to posterior erosion this cycle is poorly exposed. Fluvial member: Aboye the Middle Pleistocene lacustrine unit a fluvial member was deposited. The source area is the same as the preceding fluvial member (Sierra de las Estancias, Betic source) and consequently is composed of metamorphic grains. The thickness of this member is about 8 ni. Lacustrine member: aboye the final fluvial deposits, a white member is exposed. This last unit consists of fine detrital lacustrine limestones with some intercalations of sands with grains of metamorphic composition. This member is situated at the top of the sedimentary succession and has been mainly eroded out. Inside these materials the paleontological site Cullar-2 is located (Alberdi and Ruiz Bustos 1989) which has an Upper Pleistocene horse (Equus caballus sp). Probably this member could be correlated with the Late Pleistocene site (Vera 1984) called "Solana del Zamborino" that is situated out of the study area and within similar sediments. 131
L., MAESTRO, E., GIBERT, J. Y ALBADALEJO, S.
Palaeosols are very common in the lacustrine marginal deposits.They are proof of the continuous fluctuations of the lake level, and represent the lowstand of high-frequency cycles. These paleosols are hypercalcimorphs (9099% CaCo 3), and show different pedological features (brecciation, root traces, root tubules, microkarst, pseudomicrokarst, laminar trust, planar and curved voids, calcareous nodules and desiccation tracks) (fig.9). The degree of soil development is not the sane in all of them. The well-developed paleosols have a large lateral continuity, and are useful in local correlations around the lake margin. On occasion a great concentration of mammal fossil, bones appear aboye the surface of these paleosols. This can be recognized in the cite Venta Micena where more than 15000 fossil bones have been found in 200 ni2.
7. PALEOCLIMATIC IMPLICATIONS 7.1 Geological indicators:
Every depositional cycle described begins with a important fall in the base level. This could be caused by consequence of intense tectonic activity or paleoclimatic changes, or both. In the studied area we have recognized tectonic activity after Galera cycle where a clear unconformity occurs and at the top ofVenta Micena cycle where minor fluvial beds and others lacustrine showing important increase of grain size appear. This last event coincides with a change in the source areas and with a migration of the sedimentation areas. The following tectonic event appear during the Upper Pleistocene where all the depresion is uplifted and the basin comes exorheic. We concluded that only in two of the five cycles described tectonic could be caused a fall in the lake level, althought if paleontological, isotopical and global climate evolution is consider (see below) it is possible to say that the big falls in water level could be related mainly to climatic changes, although tectonic activity produces small oscilations of the relativo base level. The large fluvial members described could correspond to dry periods and the lacustrine sediments to warmer with higher humidity periods. 7.2 Palaeontological indicators: Every depositional cycle coincides with an important mammal break (fig.10). Inside the fluvial sediments that correspond to lowstands in the lake and we attribute to dry and cold weather, no paleontological sites have been recognized. In the materials that correspond to highstand (lacustrine members) all the paleontological sites with mammal fossils appear, and each group of fossils is different for each cycle. It has been concluded that fluvial periods is a propicious period for mammals renovation (extinctions, migrations and species evolution) that could be related to dry and cold enviroments. The oxygen isotopic studies using horse tooth and bone fossil phosphates (Sanchez Chillon et al 1994) indicate a warm climate for the lacustrine members of Fuentenueva,Venta Micena, Cullar-1 and Cullar-2 cycles. These data are in agreement with our hypothesis. On the other hand, Ruiz Bustos (1991b and 1993) have correlated, using micromammal analysis, the deposits of the GBB with the Northern Europe Quaternary deposits (Alpine sequence), interpreting each lacustrine member of the GBB as an interglacial period. 7.3 Relationships with the eustatic curve: Haq et al. 1988 established four third-order eustatic cycles from 3 to 0.5 m.y. The speed and intensity by which these cycles have been made and their correlation with paleoclimatic data indicate that these eustatic oscilations are related to global paleoclimate changes (glaciations), which also affected the continental depositional environments. The cycles TB3.7, TB3.8, TB3.9 began respectively at 3, 2.4, 1.6. Considering the palaeomagnetic data (Agustí et al 1997) these ages correspond to the fluvial members found in the studied area for cycles 2, 3, 4. This would imply that the global falls in the sea level were in phase with fans in the lake level. This hypothesis strengthens the idea that in general, the fluvial sediments of the studied area, are related to dry and cold climate during periods of low base level. The marginal lacustrine carbonates, correspond to warmer climate time in moments of ascending or high base level. 132
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8. DISCUSSION The sector Galera-Venta Micena is not dificult to correlate. hecause the Orce river which fiows parallel at Sierra de Orce (marginal zone) cuts the stratigraphic succession along ah the way. The different geomorphology of the Galera-Cullar sector presents more difficulries for its correlation. In chis part of the marginal zone the top of the section has been mainly eroded and there are no outcroops of the complete sedimentary succession. With this situation it is difacult to be sure if the last lacustrine member defined in Galera sector (Marchal), corresponda with the midle Pleistocene lacustrine member of Cullar. It is possible that this member would corespond with the lowest lacustrine member defined in R. Nlaciacerrea. If this other interpretation could be confirmed from new paleontological sites discovered and carry out more stratigraphical and paleomagnetic sections, it would imply that another, not defined depositional cycle would exist in this area between the lower Pleistocene and the midle Pleistocene.
9. CONCLUSIONS —In the studied area it is possible to establish high resolution time fines using stratigraphic sequential criteria. It permits correlation between distant points with a high degree of precision. — Five depositional cycles have been recognised inside the studied area. Each cycle begins with fluvial sediments and fmish with lacustrine. —These cycles are a consequence of falls in the basinal base level produced mainly by the alternation of dry weather periods and others with more humid. —The physical characteristics of the depositional environment that existed in this area during the PlioPleistocene have permitted the formation of an extraordinary number of sites with mammal fossil deposits. — The large continuity in the sedimentation of the Guadix-Baza basin during the Plio-Pleistocene is an exceptional fact. It may be possible, in the near future to establish a new mammal biozonation for this period of time in Europe. —If the data of Agustí et. al. 1997 are correct, the paleoanthropological sites The paleoanthropological sites placed inside the Black Detrital Unit (B. León, B. Paso and C. Alfonso) are chronologically situated near the base of the Olduvai event, this means that this sites have an age of near two millions years, being the oldest sites with evidences of human presence outside Africa.
The discussions with A. Ruiz-Bustos about the biostratigraphy and geology are gratefully acknowledged. Thanks to Dr. E Plana who made the mineralogical analisis and to K. Kupczik for helping with the translation. This paper has been supported by the project D.G.I.C.Y.T PB94-1222-0O2-01 of the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science.
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ANADON, P.; DECKKER, P. and JULIA, R. (1986). The Pleistocene lake deposits of the NE Baza Basin (Spain): salinity variation and ostracod succession. Hydrobiologia, 143: 199-208. ANADON, R; JULIA, R.; DECKKER, P.; DE ROSSO, J.C. y SOLULIE-MARSCHE, I. (1987). Contribución a la Paleolimnologia del pleistoceno inferior de la cuenca de Baza (Sector Orce-Venta Micena). Paleont. i Evol.,1: 35-72. 133
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ALBERDI, M.T.; RUIZ BUSTOS, A. (1989). Taxonomia y biostratigrafia de Equidae (Mammalia, Perisodactyla) en la Cuenca de Guadix Baxa, (Granada). Geología y paleontología de la Cuenca de Guadix-Baza (Alberdi M.T. and Bonadonna EP. eds), Trabajos sobre el Neogeno-Cuaternario, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. BOER, P.L. and SMITH, D.G. Editors, (1994). Orbital Forcing and Cyclic Sequences. Inter. Ass. Sedim. Spec. Publications, n. 19. Blackwell Scientific Publications. CAMPILLO D. (1989). Estudio del Hombre de Orce. In: J. Gibert, D. Campillo and E. Garcia Olivares (eds.) Los restos Humanos de Orce y Cueva Victoria. pp.:187-220. Institut Paleontologic M. Crusafont, Diputació de Barcelona. CAMPILLO, D. and GIBERT, J. (1996). El Hombre de Orce. Investigación y Ciencia, Marzo 1996.pp.: 64-69. CUEVAS, E; MARTIN-PENELA, A.; RODRIGUEZ-FERNANDEZ, J.; SANZ DE GALDEANO, C. and VERA, J.A. (1984). Premiere datation du Turolien á la base de la Formation de Guadix. Geobios 17: 355361. ESTÉVEZ, A. and SANZ DE GALDEANO, C. (1983). Néotectonique du secteur central des Cháines Bétiques (Basins de Guadix-Baza et de Grenade). Rey. Géol. Dyn. Geógr. Phys., 24: 23-24. GARCES, M. (1993). Magnetoestratigrafía de los sedimentos lacustres Pliocenos de la sección de Galera. Tesis de licenciatura, Universidad de Barcelona, Spain. GARCES, M. (1994). Magnetoestratigrafia de los sedimentos lacustres Pliocenos de la sección de Galera (Cuenca de Guadix-Baza, Cordilleras Béticas). Acta Geológica Hispánica, Vol. 29: 191-194. GIBERT, J.; RIBOT, E; FERRANDEZ, C.; MARTINEZ, B; RUZ, C. (1989a). Anatomical study: comparison of the cranial fragment from Venta Micena (Orce, Spain) with fossil and extant mammals. Human Evolution, 4: 283-305. GIBERT, J.: RIBOT, E; FERRANDEZ, F.; MARTINEZ, B.; CAPORICCI, R. (1989b). Características diferenciales entre el fragmento de craneo de Horno sp. de Venta Micena (Orce, Granada) y los équidos. Estudios Geológicos, 45: 121-138. GIBERT, J.; CAMPILLO, D.; GARCÍA-OLIVARES, E. (eds), (1989c). Los Restos Humanos de Orce y Cueva Victoria, Institut Paleontologic M. Crusafont. GIBERT, J. (Coordinador) (1992). Presencia Humana en el Pleistoceno inferior de Granada y Murcia. Museo de Preistoria Josep Gibert, Orce, Granada. GIBERT, J.; ARRIBAS, A.; MARTÍNEZ, B.; ALBALADEJO, S.; GAETE, R.; GIBERT, L.; OMS, O.; PEÑAS C.; TORRICO, R. (1993). Biostratigraphie et magnetostratigraphie des gisements á presence humaine et action anthropique du Pleistocene inferieur de la région d'Orce (Grenade,Espagne). Comptes Rendus Académie des Sciences de Paris, t. 318. París. GIBERT, J.; GIBERT, L.; ALBALADEJO, S. (1995). Biostratigrafia de la región de Orce. Nuevos datos. Resumenes I Congreso Internacional de Paleontología Humana, Orce 1995. GIBERT, L.; MAESTRO, E.; GIBERT, J.; ALBALADEJO, S. (1997). Depositional cycles in the Orce region (Guadix-Baza SE Spain) and their relation with Plio-Pleistocene climatic changes. Colloque HispanoFranÇais: Milieux Carbonates Continentaux. Etudes de Géographie Phisique, supplément au n° XXVI: 1516. GIBERT, J.; GIBERT, LL.; IGLESIAS, A.; MAESTRO, E. (1998). Two Oldowan asemblages in the PlioPleistocenc deposits of the Guadix-Baza basin (SE Spain), Antiquity, vol 72. GIBERT, J.; CAMPILLO, D.; ARQUES, J.M.; GARCIA OLIVARES, E.; BORJA, C. and LOWENSTEIN J. (1998). Hominid status of the Orce cranial fragment reasserted. Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 32: 203217. GORE, R. (1997). The first Europeans. National Geographic. vol. 192, no. 1, July 1997. HAQ, B.U.; HARDEBOL, J. and VAIL, P. (1988). Mesozoic and Cenozoic Chonostratigraphy and Eustatic Cycles. In: Sea-Level changes an integrare aproach. C.K. Wilgus, B.S Hastings, C.G. Wagoner (eds.) Soc. Econ. Paleont. Mineral., Spec. Pub. 42: 71-108. MOYA SOLA, S.; AGUSTÍ, J.; MARIN, M. (1987). Fuentenueva-1: nueva localidad con mamíferos del Plioceno superior de Guadix-Baza (Granada,Spain). Paleont. i Evol. Mem. sp. 1: 287-295. OMS, O.; PARES, J.M.; AGUSTÍ, J. (1995). Resúmenes Congreso Internacional de Paleontología Humana. Orce, Granada (Spain). OMS, O.; DINARES, J. y PARES, J.M. (1996). Resultados paleomagnéticos iniciales de la sección PlioPleistocena de Fuente Nueva (Cuenca de Guadix-Baza, Cordilleras Béticas). Rey. Soc. Geol. España, 9:
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(SE SPAIN): GEOLOGY AND AGE
ROE, D.A. (1995). The Orce basin (Andalucía, Spain) and the initial Palaeolithic of Europe, Oxford Journal Archaeology 14: 1-12. RODRIGUEZ-FERNANDEZ, J. (1982). El Mioceno del sector central de la Cordillera Bética. Tesis Doctoral, Universidad de Granada. RODRIGUEZ-FERNANDEZ, J.; MARTINEZ DEL OLMO, W.; GARRIDO MEGIAS, A.; VERA J.A. (1984). Paralelismo entre algunas formaciones que colmatan el Mediterraneo Español y la depresión de GuadixBaza (Cordilleras Béticas). Primer Congreso Español de Geología, Segovia, 3: 173-182. RUIZ BUSTOS, A. & MICHAIUX, J. (1976). Le cite prehistorique nouveau de Cullar Baza 1 (province de Grenade, Espagne) d'áge pleístocene moyen. Etude preliminaire et analyses de la faune des rongeurs. Geologie Medíterranée, 3: 173-182. RUIZ BUSTOS, A. (1984). El yacimiento paleontológico de Cullar Baza-1. Investigación y ciencia, 91. RUIZ BUSTOS, A. (1991a). Biostratigrafia de los sedimentos neógenos del sector de Galera. I Congreso Grupo Español del Terciario. Vic, pp.: 301-304. RUIZ BUSTOS, A.(1991b). Biostratigraphy of the continental Neogene in the Betic Cordilleras. Terra ahstracts, vol. 3, n. 1. VI meeting European Union of Geosciences. RUIZ BUSTOS, A. (1993)11e Quaternary framework in the Betic Cordillera and its correlation with the Northerm Hemisphere. Resurnenes III Reunión del Quaternario Iberíco, Coimbra. SÁNCHEZ CHILLÓN, B.; ALBERDI, M.T.; LEONE, G.; BONADONNA, E P.; STENNI, B.; LONGINELLI A. (1994). Oxigen isotopic compositión of fossil equid tooth. and bone phosphate: and archive of difficult interpretation. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology, n° 107: 317-328. SANZ DE GALDEANO, C. and VERA, J.A. (1992). Stratigraphic record and paleogeographical contex of the Neogene basins in the Betic Cordillera, Spain. Basin Research, n° 4, pags: 21-26. SANTIESTEBAN, E. (1968). Investigaciones hidrogeológicas por el método eléctrico en Baza (Granada), Bol. Geol. Min. t. 79, fase. 2: 75-81. SÉMAH, F. (1985). Analyses paléomagnétiques dans la depressíon de Guadix-Baza (Grenade, Espagne). Unpublished. Inst. Paleontologia "M.Crusafont". SESÉ, C, (1989). Micromamíferos del Mioceno, Plioceno y Pleistoceno de la cuenca de Guadix-Baza (Granada). Geología y paleontología de la Cuenca de Guadix-Baza (Alberdi M.T and Bonadonna EP. eds) Trabajos sobre el Neogeno-Cuaternario, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. Madrid. SORIA, F.J. (1984). Evolución sedimentaria de la cuenca de Baza. Caracterización Tectosedimentaria en el borde NE (Sector de Orce). Los restos humanos de Orce y Cueva Victoria, Ins. Pal. M. Crusafont, Sabadell. SORIA, EJ.; LOPEZ GARRIDO, A.C. and VERA, J.A. (1987). Análisis estratigráfico y sedimentológico de los depósitos Neógeno-Cuaternarios en el sector de Orce (Depresión de Guadix-Baza). Paleont. Evol., 1: 1134. SORIA, J.M. (1994). Sedimentación y tectónica durante el Mioceno en la región de Sierra Arana-Mencal y su relación con la evolución geodinámica de la Cordillera Bética. Rev. Soc. Geol. de España. Vol. 7: 3-4. TORRES, T.; LLAMAS, J.F.; CANOIRA, L.; GARCÍA-ALONSO, P.; GARCIA-CORTÉS and MANSILLA H. (1997). Amino acid chronology of the Lower Pleistocene deposits of Venta Micena (Orce, Granada, Andalusia, Spain). Org. Geochem. Vol. 26, No 1/2: 85-97. TIXIER, J.; ROE, D.; TURQ, A.; GIBERT, J.; MARTINEZ, B.; ARRIBAS, A.; GIBERT, L.; MAILLO, A.; IGLESIAS, A. (1995). Présence d'industries lithiques dans le Pléistocene inférieur de la región d'Orce (Grenade, Espagne): Quel est l'etat de la question?. C. R. Acad. Scí. Paris, t 321, serie II, pp: 71-78. ULIANA, L. and LEGARRETA, M.A. (1988). Introducción a la estratigrafia secuencia'. Analisis de discontinuidades estratigráficas. In: Introducción a la estratigrafía secuencia) y discordancias interregionales. (G.Gonzalez, C. Gulisiano, L. Legarreta, A. Ricardi y M.A. Uliana) Assoc. Geol. Argentina. Ins. Argentino del Petroleo. VAIL, PR.; MITCHUM, RM.; TOMPSON, JR. (1977). Seismic stratigraphy and gloval changes of the sea level. Part 3. relatives changes of the sea levels. In: Seismic Stratígraphy. C.D. Payton (ed), Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., Mem., 26: 83-97. VAIL, P.R. (1987). Seismic stratigraphy interpretation procedure. In: Atlas of Seismic Stratigraphy. A.W. Bally (Ed), Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol.; Stud. Geol., 27: 1-11. VAIL, P.R.; AUDERMARD, E; BOWMAN, S.A.; EISNER, P.N. and PEREZ-CRUZ, C. (1991). The Stratigraphic Signatures of Tectonics, Eustacy and Sedimentology an Overview. In: Cycles and evcnts in Stratygraphy. G. Einsele, G. Ricken and A. Seilacher (eds), Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp.: 617-659. VAN WAGONER,J.C.; MITCHUM, R.M.; CHAMPION, K.M. and RAHMANIANN, U.D. (1990). Siliciclastic sequence stratigraphic in well logs. Cores and autcrops: AAPG. Meth. in Explorer Ser.7: 75. 135
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VERA, J.A. (1969). Características estratigráficas de la Serie de Baza. Acta Geológica Hispánica. IV: 14-17. VERA, J.A. (1970). Estudio estratigráfico de la Depresión de Guadix-Baza. Bol. Geol. Min., 81: 429-462. VERA, J.A; FERNÁNDEZ; LÓPEZ GARRIDO, A.C. y RODRÍGUEZ-FERNÁNDEZ, J. (1984). Geología y Estratigrafia de los materiales plio-pleistocenos del sector Orce-Venta Micena (Prov.Grenada). Paleont. i Evol.: 18-11. VERA, J.A.; RODRÍGUEZ-FERNÁNDEZ, J.; GUERRA MERCHÁN, A.; VISERAS, C. (1994). La Cuenca de Guadix-Baza. Doc. et Trav. IGAL n°14. VISERAS, C. (1991). Estratigrafia y sedimentologia del relleno aluvial de la cuenca de Guadix (Cordilleras Bélicas). Tesis doctoral, Universidad de Granada. WHEELER (1964). Base Level Transit Cycle. Kansas Geol. Survey Bull, 169: 623-630. ZIHLMAN, A.L. and LOWENSTEIN, M. (1996). A Spanish Olduvai?. Current Antbropology, Vol. 37, N. 4: 695697.
PLIO–PLEISTOCENE DEPOSITS OF THE ORCE REGION (SE SPAIN): GEOLOGY AND AGE
Mediterranean Hercinian External
• Betic Neogene Basins
Figure 1: Geological map of the SE of the Iberia Peninsula, which show the geological location of the GuadixBaza basin
Neogene-Quaternary Metamorphic Mesozoic o
Sierra de la Sagra
Sierra de la
............... "..-' -141911.17-1.11111.,
Figure 2: View of the NE sector of the Guadix-Baza basin showing the studied area and the location of some paleontological cites: Venta Micena, Fuentenueva (FN), Barranco del Paso (BP), Barranco León (BL), Barranco de Orce (BO), Galeral(G1), Molino (MO), Cullar Baza 1 (CB1) and Cullar Baza 2 (CB2).
GIBERT, L., MAESTRO, E., GIBERT, J. Y ALBADALEJO,
o o o
Figure 3: Correlation fence showing the cyclicity of the deposits, the paleomagnetic sections published (Agustí et al 1997) and the location of paleontological sites in the Orce region. The cycle's boundaries reflect high resolution time limes which permit correlate with precision the palaeomagnetic data between distant points of the basin. 138
PI 10-PLEISTOCENE DEPOSITS OF TI IE ORCE REGION (SE SPAIN): GEOLOGY AND AGE
Soria et al. 1987
Vera et al. 1984
Anadon et al. 1986
miembro limoso-calizo su
unidad lacustre superior
Venta Micena Cycle
E D c B
miembro calizo LACUSTRINE
Figure 4: Correlation of the depositional cycles described for the Orce and Galera sector with previous lithostratigrafic units.
Figure 5: View of the lacustrine member of Fuentenueva cycle (A) and the fluvial (B) and lacustrine (C) members of Venta Micena cycle in the Fuentenueva section. The arrow shows the location of the Fuentenueva 1 palaeontological cite.
GIBERT, L., MAESTRO, E., GIBERT, J. Y ALBADALEJO, S.
Figure 6:View of the Barranco León site (arrow). This site has been excaved in summer of 1995, and more than 100 stone artifacts were found surrounding an hippopotamus remains (fig. 7). The thickness of the sedimenta exposed are 60 m
PLIO—PLEISTOCENE DEPOSITS OF THE ORCE REGION (SE SPAIN): GEOLOGY AND AGE
B. León sedimentary sequence
Detailed section of the Black Detrital Unit
Very fine sand writh rippin Sal anal rwylt and sorna mamad remains Sa Ion some kdraclasis and gastrops Wwy firo sand with organic masar showing 'éery fine sand with traction carpet lamination
a) o o a) CL
Underwater high 7density gravity flows
Shale with root traces. gastrops, lignit, fosal] mammals and big mammal 1 ootprints at the top Fine sand carbonate cementad. with gastrops and small root traces Brown very fine sand with gastrops, root traces Sin with ostracods and roca traces Very fine sand with ostracods, gastrops and Cerastoderma Carbonatic trust with load casi Silt with lignit, fossil mammals, gastrops and root traces
Silt with gastrops and root traces at the top CL,
Dark silt with very fine a parta grains, lignit, iron oxide, root traces and fossil mammals Carhonatic sin with root traces Very fine sand with intraclastes and root traces
Palustrine sedimenta (Black Detrital Unit
vilineve mw p g
■11 : • ••
Barranco León 5 excavation plan
a) a) o o-
Shallow Ilacustrine limestones, with hipercalcimorphic paleosols :II
• Flirt artefacts @ Hippopotamus remains O DoloMitiC artefacts.-----> Hurnan remain •
• ,,• '•• •
1, , • •
e * •
e e ,
vf f rn c vc mw pg
Figure 7: Barranco León sedimentary sequence, showing the different facies that occur, the location of the B. León-5 site and the palaeomagnetic data associate infered from the correlation with Barranco de Orce palaeomagnetic section (fig,8). The figure shows too the excavation plan of B. León-5 made in summer of 1995 indicating the distribution of lithic artefacts and of hippopotamus remains and the location of human remains.
GIBEILT, L., MAESTRO, E., G1BERT, J. Y ALBADALEJO, S.
Figure 8: Detailed stratigraphyc correlation between Orce Ravine paleomagnetic section and Barranco León section which are separated 450 m. This figure shows as BL-5 site, Cortijo de Don Alfonso bed and Barranco del Paso bed (Gibert et al. 1989, 1992) are located inside the Black Detrital Unit. The base of Olduvai event (Agustí et al. 1997) are also placed in this lithostratrigraphyc unit, which indicated that this cites are very old. Probably Barranco del Paso and Cortijo de Don Alfonso beds are below the Olduvai event and could be related with the site Orce-6 in Orce ravine section.
PLIO—PLEISTOCENE DEPOSITS OF THE ORCE REGION
(SE SPAIN): GEOLOGY AND A.J.E
Figure 9:View of hipercalcim orphic palaeosols inside lacustrine materials of Venta Micena cycle.
FOSSIL LOCALITIES Cullar Baza 2
1 z,.7s.,7,, >, o ....4;
<-■ 1 1 -,_ —
Equus caballus sp. ? Arvicolida cantean,Ailicrotus breciensis, Allocricetus b. duracensis. Apodemus ah'. sylvaticus, Eliomys quercinus, Mamuthus trogontherii. Equus süssenbornensis, Equus sp., Dicerorhinus etruscos brachycephalus, capra sp., Hippopotamus major, Dolichodoryceros savint
Cullar Baza 1
C5 , 1
21 / o
r ___._,_, ,..sis - ¿ -,•.
Allophaiomis sp., Mimomys sp., Volees praeglacialis, Mamuthus meridionales, Equus granatensis, Stephanorhinus etruscus. Hippopotamusamphibiusantiguos, Praemegaceros solihacus, canióae indet, bovini indet, Praeovivos se., Soergelia menor. Allophaiornis pliocaenicus, Desmana sp., Apodemos aft. mystacinus, Apodemos aff. sylvaticus, Castillomys msafonti, Eliomys intermedios. Histryx major, Prolagus calpensis, Orictolagus cf. latoso, Ursus etruscos, Canes etruscos, Canes talconreri, Vulpes praeglacialis, Homoterium latidens, Meganthereon whitei, Lynx sp., Pachycrocuta brevirostris, Cf. Males sp., Mamut/7os meridionales, Equus granatensis, Stephanorhinus etruscus, Hippopotamus amphibius antiquus, Praemegaceros solihacus, canidae indet, bovini indet, Praeovivos sp., Soergelia minar, Capra alba, Horno sp.
Mimornys sp. Allophaiomis se., Marnuthus meridionales, Equus granatensis, Stephanorhinus etruscos, Hippopotamus amphibius Barranco de Paso antiquus, Bovini indet, Soergelia menor.
,T kA U
Mimoys pusillus, Mimomys reidi, Equus stenonis viren, Gacella borbonica
1 c e o i,(i■ 9 r, 11 7, 11
JC cc .
Mimomys accitanus, Apodemus aff. dominaos, Stephanomys cf. minor, Rhagapodemus sp. Dolomys adroyely, Occitanomys brailloni, Castillomys crusafonti crusafonti, Eliomys intermedius, Pliopetaurista bressana.
Figure 10: Orce sedimentary sequence correlate with the palaeoclimatic results of the Orce oxigen isotopic composition of equid tooth (Sanchéz Chillon et al 1994) (1) and the eustatic curve (2) from Had et al 1988. 143
GIBERT, L., MAESTRO, E., GIBERT, J. Y ALBADALEJO, S.
Orce sedimentary sequence
Sequen bounda ryce age
Orce isotopic analisis (1) Warm Warm
EUSTATIC CURVES (2) Om. -50 1 --...
AGE -100 Om.y.
1.6 Warm 2.4 3 Warm li —2
2.6 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3
Figure 11: Orce sedimentary succession and the different groups of fauna associated for each depositional cycle.
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