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CALGARY

NURBS

Who’s afraid of NURBS, Anyway? Overhead of a bus at SIGGRAPH ‘98

Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati

UNIVERSITY OF

CALGARY

The most important modeling technique in CAD

Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati

UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Another professional software: Rhinoceros NURBS modeling for windows Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati .

UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati .

UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati .

UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Design sketch Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati .

UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Wireframe Model Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Rendered Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati .

UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Final Physical Product Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Motivation It is hard to produce exact circle with B-splines It is important for rotational objects We need more control over the curve Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati .

0 Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Weighted B-spline Candidate: Is not a valid affine operation Need to be normalized in homogenous coordinate Normalization factor Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati . w3=3.UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Motivation Different weights of Pi .4. to have different attraction factors w1=0.

UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Perspective Projection The situation is exactly as the perspective projection Points in world space Projection plane Viewer Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Derivation of a Perspective Projection P: the given 3D point View plane: positioned at d distance O: (0.0.0) is the center of perspective P’: the designed projected point P P’ z Q Q’ z P P’ x z Q Q’ yp P’ y y P x Q xp Q’ d O y Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati x .

x.z.w) w=0: vector w=1: point Other values? (wx.wy.y.y.w)=(x.wz.UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Closed form of Perspective Transformation Nonlinear formula?! Matrix form?! Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Modifying Homogenous Coordinates (x.1) Perspective matrix X Y Z 1 Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati .

UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY NURBS Non-Uniform Rational B-spline Denominator is a normalization factor Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Lifting and projection concept 3D homogenous coordinate 3D B-spline curve 2D control points with weights 2D NURBS curve Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati .

UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Lifting and projection concept 3D NURBS 4D B-spline curve 4D homogenous coordinate 3D control points with weights 3D NURBS curve Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY NURBS Denominator is a normalization factor If the weights are set to 1 the fraction become B-spline Higher weights => more attraction It has local effect Very useful for representing the conic section exactly Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati .

UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Rational Basis Functions are Rational basis functions Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Properties of Rational Basis Functions With the standard knot sequence: Non negativity: Unit summation: Local support: How about ? Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati .

0. it effects only that portion of the curve on the interval Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY NURBS Flexibility Control points (same as non-rational) Knot movement (same as non-rational) P2 Multiple knot (same as non-rational) P1 P0= P8 Weight control (a new option) Conic sections are produced exactly by NURBS (a good reason for CAD K=3 industry!) U={0.1/4.3/4.1/2. then R(u) lies within the convex hull of the control points Local control: if the control point Pi is moved.1/2.1.1.1/4.3/4.0.1} Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati . or the weight wi is changed.UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY The Characteristic of NURBS Curves Affine invariance NURBS curves are also invariant under perspective projections Strong convex hull property if .

NURBS and their derivatives u is a given and fixed parameter value :the given real numbers (such as ) Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati .UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY NURBS and Linear Combination Expanded version We need 4 times of : Advanced Geometric Modeling Faramarz Samavati UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Computing sums of B-splines It appears in curve. surface.

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