Invention on Demand

A TRIZ Perspective

Dr. Andrei Cernasov

Definitions
• • Invention: Any new article, machine, composition, or process or new use developed by humans. Patent: Grant from a government that confers to the inventor exclusive rights to make, use, sell, or offer for sale the rights to an invention for a fixed period of time. Patentable Invention: A new, non-obvious and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof. Innovation: “The process of equipping in new improved capabilities, or increased utility”, Peter, F. Drucker. Innovation: “Invention + Capital”, Joseph Schumpeter.

• •

USPTO Building, Washington, DC

History of Patents
• 1449 - King Henry VI of England awards “John of Utynam” a patent for a method of manufacturing stained glass. 1787 - US Constitution, Article 1, Section 8, Clause 8, the “Intellectual Property Clause”. 1790 - The Patent Act of 1790, Thomas Jefferson. 1793 - The Patent Act of 1793, Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. 1836 - The Patent Act of 1836 establishes the Patent Office as part of Department of State. 1975 - The US Patent Office becomes the US Patent and Trademark Office under the Department of Commerce

• • •

King Henry VI

Famous Patents
Patent No 0000001: Locomotive steam engine for rail and other roads

Patent No 0821393: Flying Machine

Patent No 1102653: Rocket Apparatus

Patent No 0001582: Camera Apparatus

Patent No 0223898: Electric Bulb

Patent No 0644077: Aspirin

Patent No 2139296: Cathode Ray Tube

Smart Inventions? Dumb Inventions?
Patent No 6796396: Personal Transporter

Patent No 5071161: Air Bag Restraining System with Venting Means

Patent No 5071161: Air Bag Restraining System with Venting Means

Patent No 4773863: Amusement Device for a Toilet bowl or Urinal

Patent No 4773863: Amusement Device for a Toilet bowl or Urinal

Talking toilet orders men to sit down Latest Updated by 2004-05-27 11:42:35
A GERMAN inventor who developed a gadget that berates men if they try to use the toilet standing up has sold more than 1.6 million devices, his business manager said on Tuesday. German women fed up with a man with a poor aim can turn to the ghost-shaped gadget, which lurks under the toilet rim and, if the seat is lifted, declares in a stern female tone: "Hello, what are you up to? Put the seat back down right away, you are definitely not to pee standing up ... you will make a big mess..." Alex Benkhardt, 46, invented the "WC Ghost" and its creators are in negotiations to market it in Britain, Canada and Italy.

Patent No 5280371: Directional Diffuser for a Liquid Crystal Display

TMO Reports - Honeywell Sues Apple, 33 Others Over LCD Patent
by Brad Gibson
Brad Gibson, 7:10 PM EDT, October 6th, 2004

A spokesman for Honeywell told The Mac
Observer that the United States patent in question is number 5,280,371, filed in July of 1992 and granted in January of 1994. Defendants named in Honeywell's lawsuit besides Apple include Argus, Audiovox, Casio Computer, Casio, Concord Cameras, Dell, Eastman Kodak, Fuji Photo Film, Fuji Photo Film, Fujitsu, Fujitsu America, Fujitsu Computer Products, Kyocera Wireless, Matsushita Electrical, Matsushita Electrical Corp. of America, Navman NZ, Navman U.S.A., Nikon USA, Nikon Inc., Nokia, Nokia Americas, Olympus, Olympus America, Pentax, Pentax U.S.A., Sanyo Electric, Sanyo North America, Sony, Sony Corporation Of America, Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB, Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications (U.S.A.) Inc., Toshiba, and Toshiba America.

Famous Inventors

Innovation Targets Post-Industrial Age
Business structure • • Alliances Capital formation Customer service • • • Service process Communication Financial tools

Administration • • • Information flow Automation Insourcing/outsourcing services Supply chain • • • Distribution system Manufacturing Communication

Organization • • • • • • • • Structure type Facilities infrastructure IT infrastructure Employee/contractor mix Employee experience Decision making processes Facilities effectiveness Process improvements

Product • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Product offering Product availability Technology (invisible) Technology (visible) Manufacturing R&D User interface Packaging Functionality Life cycle model Sales model Sustainability After-sale service Distribution

Customer experience • • • • • Communication Customer relationship management Brand/image Advertising Feedback

Classic Invention Methods
Specific Design Problem Classic Invention Methods Specific Design Solution

Brainstorming • • • • • • Analogy • • • Specific problem reduced to abstract Similar problems in nature or other industries are studied and analogies are drawn Analogous solutions are developed Multidisciplinary idea generation team All ideas recorded No criticism or sanity checks during session All ideas ranked by a separate analysis team Selected ideas presented for second stage brainstorming Process continued from problem stage to manufacturing stage

Matrix Search Methods • • • Identify desired function Identify relevant variables Apply all possible combinations of variables until acceptable solution is found

Analysis and Synthesis • • • • Specific problem reduced to abstract Find desired transfer function Use system type synthesis tools to find abstract solution Reduce abstract solution to specific design

Darwinian Evolution • • • • Current system exposed to new conditions Small changes are made to each variable (perturbations) Is output function moving in the right direction? If yes keep the change and continue to next variable. If not discard.

Empathy • • • Become the problem object Apply local laws Solve problem from the object point of view

TRIZ
The Theory of Inventive Problems Solving
• • • • • Method of inventing based on the analysis of over 200,000 mechanically oriented Russian patents. Describes problems in terms of 39 interrelated physical or operational “features”. The uniqueness of each problem is embodies in contradictions among different features. The uniqueness of each inventive solution is identified as a subset of 40 TRIZ “inventive principles”. A 39X39 TRIZ “Contradiction Matrix” summarizes the solution space of the 200,000 patents studied and offers the most effective subset of TRIZ inventive principles to be used by the would be inventor. Leverages the knowledge of thousands of inventors. Convergent. Addresses known problems (Not a Blue-Sky method). The “Nostradamus Effect”

Genrich Altshuller

• • • •

TRIZ Method

Thousands of Problems

Thousands of Inventors

Thousands of Problems

General TRIZ Problem Problem Translation

TRIZ Method

General TRIZ Solution Problem Translation

Specific Design Problem Classic Invention Methods

Specific Design Solution

TRIZ Ideal Machine

• • • • • • • • • •

Products and systems that repair themselves instantly Products and services that market themselves to customers Products and systems that do not require energy Products that take no space Zero pollution products Infinite or zero bandwidth communication links Instantaneous auto insurance rating changes, based on speed and location of a car Prescription drugs that automatically adjust their effectiveness based on body chemistry encountered after ingestion Medical insurance claims paid when service is provided Inventory that replenishes itself

TRIZ Problem Features
Substance • • • • Weight of moving object Weight of stationary object Loss of substance Quantity of substance • • • • • Time • • • • • Speed Duration of action of moving object Duration of action of stationary object Loss of time Productivity Area of moving object Area of stationary object Volume of moving object Volume of stationary object Shape

Structure • • • • Space • • Length of moving object Length of stationary object Stability of composition Manufacturing precision Ease of manufacture Device complexity

Energy • • • • • • • Force (intensity) Stress or pressure Strength Temperature Illumination intensity Use of energy by moving object

TRIZ Problem Features
• • • Use of energy by stationary object Power Loss of energy

Information • • • • • • • • • • Loss of information Reliability Measurement accuracy Object-affected harmful factors Object-generated harmful factors Adaptability or versatility Difficulty of detecting and measuring Extent of automation Ease of operation Ease of repair

TRIZ 40 Inventive Principles
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Segmentation Taking out Local quality Asymmetry Merging Universality Nested dolls (Matrioshka) Anti-weight Preliminary anti-action Preliminary action Beforehand cushioning Equipontentiality The other way around Spheroidality - Curvature Dynamics

TRIZ 40 Inventive Principles
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Partial or excessive actions Another dimension Mechanical Vibration Periodic action Continuity of useful sction Skipping Blessing in disguise Feedback Intermediary Self-service Copying Cheap short-living objects Mechanics substitution Pneumatics and hydraulics Flexible shells and thin films

TRIZ 40 Inventive Principles
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Porous materials Color changes Homogeneity Discarding and recovering Parameter changes Phase transitions Thermal expansion Strong oxidants Inert atmosphere Composite materials

The Contradiction Matrix
Improving Feature
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Worsening Feature

Weight of moving object

Weight of stationary object

Length of moving object

Length of stationary object

Area of moving object

Area of stationary object

Volume of moving object

Volume of stationar y object 8

1 Weight of moving object +

2

3 15, 8, 29,34

4

5 29, 17, 38, 34

6

7 29, 2, 40, 28

Weight of stationary object 8, 15, 29, 34

+

10, 1, 29, 35 + 15, 17, 4

35, 30, 13, 2 7, 17, 4, 35 17, 7, 10, 40 7, 14, 17, 4 +

5, 35, 14, 2

Length of moving object

Length of stationary object

35, 28, 40, 29 2, 17, 29, 4 30, 2, 14, 18 2, 26, 29, 40 35, 10, 19, 14 1, 7, 4, 35 14, 15, 18, 4

+

35, 8, 2,14

Area of moving object

+ 26, 7, 9, 39 1, 7, 4, 17 35, 8, 2, 14

Area of stationary object

Volume of moving object

+

Volume of stationary object

19, 14

+

Example 1
Standard sanders generate excessive amounts of dust

Problem: Relevant Features

Improving: 26 - Quantity of substance Worsening: 36 – Device complexity TRIZ Principles: 3 – Local quality 13 – The other way around 27 – Cheap short living objects 10 – Preliminary action

Example 1

Example 2
Problem: Relevant Features Improving: 32 – Ease of manufacture Worsening: 35 – Adaptability or versatility TRIZ Principles: 2 – Taking out 13 – The other way around 15 - Dynamics Rain sensors are integrated in or on the glass of the windshield

Example 2

Example 3
Problem: Relevant Features Improving: 10 – Force (intensity) Worsening: 3 – Length of moving object TRIZ Principles: 17 – Another dimension 19 – Periodic action 9 – Universality 36 – Phase transitions Luggage with built-in rollers topple over on uneven terrain

Example 3

TRIZ Levels of Inventiveness
Degree of Inventiveness Apparent Solution Minor Improvement Major Improvement New Concept Discovery % of solutions 32% 45% 18% 4% 1% Source of Knowledge Personal Knowledge Knowledge within Company Knowledge within the Industry Knowledge Outside the Industry All that is Knowable Approximate Number of Solutions to Consider 10 100 1000 100,000 1,000,000

Level 1 2 3 4 5

ARIZ - Algorithm of Inventive Problems Solving
(Алгоритм решения изобретательских задач)

ARIZ
Choosing the Problem 1. Determine the Desired Outcome a. What is the technical goal? b. What parameters are fixed? c. What are the business goals? d. What is the cost bracket of the solution? e. What is the main technical/business parameter that needs improvement? 2. 3. Is a more general by-pass solution available, desirable or possible? Select which problem to solve (original or by-pass) a. Compare the original problem with trends within the given industry b. Compare the original problem with trends within a leading industry c. Compare the by-pass problem with trends within the given industry d. Compare the by-pass problem with trends within a leading industry e. Compare the original problem with the by-pass problem and select

ARIZ
4. 5. 6. Define the quantitative characteristics of the solution Apply time-correction to the quantitative characteristics Define the environment of the solution a. Manufacturing b. Future scale Breaking Down the Problem 1. Use patent information a. How are similar problems solved by other inventors? b. How are similar problems solved in leading industries? c. How are opposite problems solved? 2. Use Operator STC (Size, Time, Cost) a. Let Size go to zero. Does it solve the problem? How? b. Let Size go to infinity. Does it solve the problem? How? c. Let Time (Speed) go to zero. Does it solve the problem? How?

ARIZ
d. Let Time (Speed) go to infinity. Does it solve the problem? How? e. Let Cost go to zero. Does it solve the problem? How? f. Let Cost go to infinity. Does it solve the problem? How? 3. Translate the problem into a series of statements with the following format: a. “Given a system consisting of… (list of elements)…” b. “…element (state element), under conditions…(state conditions), produces the following undesirable effect…(state effect)” 4. Reorganize the system elements into two groups: a. Elements that can be changed, redesigned or retuned b. Elements difficult to change 5. Choose the elements to modify in the order of their ease of change. a. Choose fixed elements over the mobile ones b. Choose unlinked elements over the linked ones c. Include the outside environment as a changeable element

ARIZ
Analyzing the Problem 1. Formulate the Ideal Final Result a. Select an appropriate element b. State its action c. State how it performs this action d. State when it perform this action e. State under what conditions it performs this action (limitations, requirements, etc.) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Visualize the “Initial” and “Ideal” solutions (drawings, block diagrams, flowcharts…) Mark the elements that cannot perform the required function Why can’t this element (by itself) perform the function? What element parameters should be changed (be wild)? How can these parameters be changed (effectively)?

ARIZ
7. Formulate practical concepts that support the required parameter changes 8. Select the most promising concept and reduce it to design Analyzing the Emerging Concept 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is better and what got worse (list)? Is there a first-order fix for the “worse” part? What is the new “worse”? Compare gains and losses If Gains > Losses proceed to Synthesis. If not select the next element. If all elements have been analyzed then continue to the Using TRIZ Tools

Using TRIZ Tools 1. From the Vertical Column of the Contradiction Matrix choose the feature that must be improved.

ARIZ
2. Find the dominant Improving vs. Worsening feature contradiction a. Improve the feature by known means b. Which feature becomes unacceptable? 3. 4. 5. 6. On the Horizontal Row of the Contradiction Matrix find the Worsening feature of the dominant contradiction Using the Matrix find the TRIZ Principles for solving the dominant contradiction Using known techniques (brainstorming, analogy…) apply the Principles to remove the dominant feature contradiction Repeat the process and remove the next feature contradiction

Generalizing the Solution 1. 2. 3. Adapt the environment to the new system Search for new modes of operation Use equivalent principles to solve other problems.

TRIZ Feature Balance

Area of Invention: Avionic Boxes The Environment

ARIZ

Avionic boxes are expensive, complex, high reliability, low run electronic systems Avionic boxes are multilevel integrated systems a. Functions integrated on ICs (FPGA firmware, software…) b. ICs integrated into PC boards c. PC boards integrated into box systems d. Communication through connectors, harnesses and the backplane e. Shared infrastructure (mechanical arrangement, power distribution, Relevant Features: Cost, Complexity, heat management, noise…) Reliability, Functionality, Speed, Size (Weight), Avionic boxes are subjected to stresses Heat (Temperature), Noise, Power…)

ARIZ
Choosing the Problem 1. Determine the Desired Outcome a. What is the technical goal? Reduce the operating temperature b. What parameters are fixed? Speed, Size, Power c. What are the business goals? d. What is the cost bracket of the solution? e. What is the main technical/business parameter that needs improvement? Temperature Is a more general by-pass solution available, desirable or possible? Higher temperature rating electronics, displays, etc. Select which problem to solve (original or by-pass) a. Compare the original problem with trends within the given industry b. Compare the original problem with trends within a leading industry c. Compare the by-pass problem with trends within the given industry d. Compare the by-pass problem with trends within a leading industry e. Compare the original problem with the by-pass problem and select

2. 3.

ARIZ
4. 5. 6. Define the quantitative characteristics of the solution Reduce the operating temperature by at least 10 degrees C Apply time-correction to the quantitative characteristics NA Steady state solution Define the environment of the solution Little or no change in manufacturing process, scalable, reusable

Breaking Down the Problem 1. Use patent information a. How are similar problems solved by other inventors?

ARIZ

ARIZ
b. How are similar problems solved in leading industries? Solid state cooling, forced air, ionic wind, liquid cooling c. How are opposite problems solved? Heaters Use Operator STC (Size, Time, Cost) Translate the problem into a series of statements with the following format: a. “Given a system consisting of… (list of elements)…” b. “…element (state element), under conditions…(state conditions), produces the following undesirable effect…(state effect)” Given a system consisting of: …PC board, PC board, PC board…IC, IC, IC…, T,T,T,…heat sink, heat sink…enclosure, …. Element heat sink…produces the following undesirable effect: insufficient removal of heat…Element heat sink…produces the following undesirable effect: insufficient removal of heat…Element heat sink…produces the following undesirable effect: insufficient removal of heat…

2. 3.

ARIZ
4. Reorganize the system elements into two groups: a. Elements that can be changed, redesigned or retuned Heat sinks, PC boards, enclosure b. Elements difficult to change ICs, Ts Choose the elements to modify in the order of their ease of change.

5.

Heat sinks, PC boards, enclosure
Analyzing the Problem 1. Formulate the Ideal Final Result a. Select an appropriate element Heat sink, Heat sink system (global) b. State its action Energy transferred from T,IC to Cold Reservoir (enclosure) c. State how it performs this action Energy (heat) is transferred through conduction from T, IC to Sink (input port) then through conduction from Sink to Air (output port), Air motion transports the Energy through convection from Sink to Cold Reservoir

ARIZ

ARIZ
d. State when it perform this action e. State under what conditions it performs this action (limitations, requirements, etc.) 2. Visualize the “Initial” and “Ideal” solutions (drawings, block diagrams, flowcharts…)

ARIZ
• • 3. 4. Mark the elements that cannot perform the required function Heat Sinks Why can’t this element (by itself) perform the function? Does not generate flow (passive), large contact area requires intricate shape that impedes Air flow, cannot direct energy flows along controlled paths What element parameters should be changed (be wild)? Generate flow (become active), do not impede Air flow, guide heat How can these parameters be changed Laminar Flow Formulate practical concepts that support the required parameter changes Shape the system of Heat Sinks and Cold Reservoir to favor laminar flow Select the most promising concept and reduce it to design

5.

• •

6. 7.

8.

ARIZ
Analyzing the Emerging Concept 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is better and what got worse (list)? Is there a first-order fix for the “worse” part? What is the new “worse”? Compare gains and losses If Gains > Losses proceed to Synthesis. If not select the next element. If all elements have been analyzed then continue to the Using TRIZ Tools

Using TRIZ Tools 1. From the Vertical Column of the Contradiction Matrix choose the feature that must be improved. Loss of Energy, Temperature

ARIZ
2. Find the dominant Improving vs. Worsening feature contradiction a. Improve the feature by known means Bigger, more complex heat sink b. Which feature becomes unacceptable? Volume, device complexity, ease of manufacture On the Horizontal Row of the Contradiction Matrix find the Worsening feature of the dominant contradiction Volume Using the Matrix find the TRIZ Principles for solving the dominant contradiction

3. 4.

[7- nested and pass-through object solutions], [4- asymmetry, 6- universality, 35 – parameter changes, flexibility (shape), change operating temperature ]
5. Using known techniques (brainstorming, analogy…) apply the Principles to remove the dominant feature contradiction 7- Embed the heat sink into the PCB (separate plane with output ports where space allows) 4- Shape the heat sinks for better performance 6- Can the heat sinks be also electrical shields (connectors)? 35- Use long flexible metal strips to connect Ts to Cold Reservoir

EUREKA !!!!!!

Patent Searches
Web Resources: The US Patent and Trademark Office (http://www.uspto.gov/) FreePatentsOnline.com (http://www.freepatentsonline.com/)

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Communicating Your Idea

“Obviously, your invention works in practice, but there’s one insurmountable problem: It will never work in theory.”