Chemistry Chapter 14 (Metals) (Finalized Notes



Chapter 14.1: Metals Introduction.
How are the properties of metals related to their structure?
1. Heat conductivity: Atoms in a metal are packed tightly into layers and held together by metallic bonds. Therefore, metals have high densities, melting points and boiling points. 2. Physical Properties: In a pure metal, atoms are arranged in order and are in the same size. This makes it easy for layers of atoms to slide over each other when a force is applied. This makes metals a. Soft, b. Ductile (drawn into fine wires without breaking) c. Malleable (beaten into thin sheets) 3. Heat and Electrical Conductivity: The outermost electrons of the atoms can be easily broken away, thus the structure of metals is a positive metal ions surrounded by a sea of mobile electrons. a. These electrons can move and conduct electricity when they are connected to an electric source. b. Heat energy can also be transferred easily by the mobile electrons. c. Therefore this makes metals good conductors of heat and electricity.

element have a different size than that of the pure metal, breaking the regular arrangement of atoms and preventing them to slide over easily. b. They improve the appearance of metals. c. They are more resistant to corrosion. d. They are used to lower the melting point of metals, where the second metal acts as an impurity.

Comment [MSOffice1]: Include Teachers Notes and Syllabus for metals.

Chapter 14.3: The Reactivity Series
How is the order of reactivity determined?
1. Metals can undergo many reactions, e.g. a. Form positive ions by loss of electrons through oxidation, (Chp 13) b. Form ionic compounds like metal chlorides/oxides, (Chp 6) c. React with acid to give hydrogen and a salt (Chp 11) d. React with oxygen to form basic oxides or amphoteric oxides (Chp 11) 2. Reaction of metals with water/steam: a. Some metals react with cold water to form the metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas. b. Other less reactive metals react with steam to form metal oxide and hydrogen gas. (Note: Metal oxide is formed as the metal hydroxides thermally decompose (split up on heating) to give the oxide and water) Metal Reaction with water/steam Potassium Explodes with cold water Sodium Reacts very fast with cold water, often explodes Calcium Reacts quickly with cold water, producing lots of bubbles Magnesium Reacts very slowly with cold water, producing a few bubbles of gas after a few days.

Comment [MSOffice2]: Include diagram of reactivity series

Chapter 14.2: Alloys
What are alloys and why are they used?
1. An alloy is a mixture of a metal with one or a few other elements. a. Bronze Alloy of Copper + Tin b. Brass Alloy of Copper + Zinc c. Stainless Steel Alloy of iron, chromium, nickel, carbon. d. Steel Alloy of Iron + Carbon 2. Metals are widely used in the form of alloys as: a. Metals are made harder and stronger. Atoms of the added

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Calcium. Reduction of Metal Oxides with Hydrogen a. 5. Equation: 2Ag 2O (g) 4Ag (s) + O2 (g) Metals below carbon (zinc. All Rights Reserved. Zinc Iron. Displacement Reactions of Metals (Sulfates/Nitrates) a. Silver Reacts violently with steam to produce magnesium oxide and hydrogen gas. When a mixture of metal oxide and carbon is heated. No reaction. Adapted from Chemistry Matters and Complete Guide to O Level Chemistry (Longman). Note: PbCl2 (Lead Chloride) is an insoluble salt. Metals higher up in the reactivity series will displace metals lower than them) b. the more reactive metal exists as atoms whereas the less reactive metals exist as metal sulfates/nitrates/ d. The ionic equation is: M (s) + Cu2+ (aq) Fe2+ (aq) + Cu (s) c. d. Copper.docx Copyright © 2010. These reactions are also redox reactions as the more reactive metal is oxidized (from 0 to +2) whereas the less reactive metal is reduced (from +2 to 0) C:\Users\Chiamdj\Documents\Secondary 3 Documents\Chemistry (Science)\Chemistry Chapter 14 (Metals)\Chemistry Chapter 14 Metals Notes. Hot iron reacts slowly with steam. Metal Potassium Sodium Calcium Magnesium Zinc Iron Lead. Iron. the metal oxide is reduced to pure metal and carbon is oxidized to carbon dioxide. iron«) are extracted from their ores by reduction with carbon. b. Equation: Metal Oxide + Hydrogen Metal + Steam Metal Potassium. Reacts violently Reacts rapidly Reacts quickly Reacts slowly No reaction occurs. the reaction will stop halfway. c. Heated metal oxides are reduced. Sodium Reaction Oxides are not reduced by carbon. Before the reaction. a. As an insoluble layer of salt will form outside the metal. Equation: 2MO (metal oxide) (s) + C (s) 2M (s) + CO2 (g) Metal Potassium. Lead. Hydrogen can also be used for reducing metal oxides to metals. Oxides are reduced by carbon. Atoms of the more reactive metal become ions and form compounds whereas ions of the less reactive metal change back to metals. More reactive metals can displace less reactive metals from their solutions. No reaction with water. Reaction of metals with dilute hydrochloric acid: Many metals react with dilute acids to form a salt and hydrogen. Copper Silver Reaction Heated metal oxides are not reduced 3. Reduction of Metal Oxides with Carbon a. . Copper. e. Sodium Calcium. the more difficult it is to decompose it oxides ± reduce the oxide to the metal.Chemistry Chapter 14 (Metals) (Finalized Notes) (6/3/2010) Zinc Iron Lead. but reacts readily with steam. Magnesium Zinc. Lead. Copper Silver Oxides are too stable to be reduced. Silver Reaction with dilute HCl Explosive reaction. b. 4. Oxides reduced by heating Silver oxide can decompose simply by heating without carbon. The more reactive a metal is. The reactivity of metals can be compared by studying how easily metal oxides decompose.e. (i. 6. Magnesium. When hydrochloric acid is used. a metal chloride and hydrogen gas is formed.

k. Copper ilver q p . namely: a. enerally. agnesium. : Metals In the blast furnace. eduction using Copper. CO2 (g) his is highly ”“ ’ ‘  ŽŒ ‹Š ‰ ˆˆ‡ †…„ ƒ‚ Œ• | | | ‡ ˆ ˆ s s † 0% 0 ‰ † t 9. the more reactive the metal (the higher up it is in the Reactivity Series). hereas unreactive metals tend to stay uncombined. Iron. Compounds hich are higher up in the eactivity eries are more difficult to decompose by heat compared to other compounds as they are more stable. x t z | v w s y r u t { cti f eat naffected by heat. £     ¨ §¦   £ ¤ 9 ¢¡   ) P i e3 Ins a a Iron . eaction et een a etal and the xide of another etal a. y ‚  y r „ … ƒ ƒ y ƒ‚ ‚€ €  €y t x x Metal Potassium odium Calcium. b. Aluminum inc. sing electricity to decompose the molten metal compound (ore) to the metal (a. he ore contains the metal as an uncombined element/compound known as a mineral. iron ore. ll ights eser ed. Copyright © € 6  # 6 5 ' &% 4 # ~ f Overview: Met Extracti g Metal . c. here are main methods for extracting metal from ores. Metal Method of extraction Potassium. the more difficult it is to decompose its compounds. the carbon in coke Carbon burns in a blast of hot air Oxygen to produce carbon dioxide. he more reactive the metal is.docx . Predicting the position of an familiar metal in the reactivity series from a given set of experimental results. chlorides or car onates) mixed ith large amounts of earth and rock. o m n g cXY X h Y Y feX XW p qp XW dY cY Y ba XW`YW V i R S U w Q 8. ction of eat on etal Carbonates a.g. the more readily it forms compounds. . Carbon ioxide he hot air supplies C (s) O2 (g) oxygen for combustion. t e ore st le t e car onate. a. ere is how Iron is extracted from aematite. t e less likely t e car onate ill ecompose. Conclusion: T or r ctive t e et l. aematite contains Iron (III) oxide mixed with impurities like sand and clay. ead. . dapted from Chemistry atters and Complete uide to evel Chemistry ( ongman). ilver carbon old ound naturally uncombined as metals . educing the metal compound (ore) to the metal using carbon b.Comme Furna &% C:\ r \Chiamdj\ ment \ econdar ocument \Chemistr ( cience)\Chemistr Chapter ( etals)Chemistr Chapter \ etals otes. he more reactive the metal is ( t r t t R t t S r ). coke (carbon) and hot air (oxygen) is added.a. the harder it is to extract the metal from its ore. ead. . aematite contains the mineral Iron (III) O ide. sing the eactivity eries: he eactivity eries is useful for: a. electrol sis) k j i f g d . limestone. h e ™ ˜ I A H G F 9 @ 8 y  y ED 9 C 8 B v u s s 7 7. Hematite is the ore of iron. T l h l . irstly. agnesium inc. lectrolysis odium Calcium. Predicting the behavi r f a metal from its position in the reactivity series b. Iron. ecomposes into silver and carbon dioxide upon heating. sulfides. b.g. very stable ecompose into metal oxide and carbon dioxide upon heating. : Extracti g Case St " #  1 $  # " 2  2 1 !  – —“ • ) ( '     ~ } ' 3 • ” ’ ”“’‘ Chapter tracti . metal ill displace a less reactive metal from its oxide. xtracting Iron from aematite a. uation: n (s) CuO (s) nO (s) Cu (s) © @ ¥ Chemi t Chapter ( e tal )( i a li ed tes) ( / / Iron n ore is a compound of the metal (usually t e oxides.

b. Rust Prevention 1. 2. Thus. At the same time. Rusting is the corrosion of iron and steel by air and water. the limestone is decomposed by heat to produce carbon dioxide and calcium oxide. Type of Steel Compositi on Uses Special Properti es C:\Users\Chiamdj\Documents\Secondary 3 Documents\Chemistry (Science)\Chemistry Chapter 14 (Metals)\Chemistry Chapter 14 Metals Notes. Sacrificial Protection: A more reactive metal will coorde in place of the metal. Air and water must be present. There are certain conditions for rust to occur. Cutting and boring tools (cut hard objects) Car bodies. a. There are 3 main methods of rust prevention: Using a protective layer. most iron is converted to steel to make it tougher and stronger than iron. (NaCl gives of ions and thus accelerates electron transfer) c. Adapted from Chemistry Matters and Complete Guide to O Level Chemistry (Longman). strong and malleable Strong but brittle Resistant to corrosion Chapter 14. a. Iron from the blast furnace is weak and brittle. It is the slow oxidation of iron to form hydrated iron (III) oxide (rust) b. Hydrated Iron (III) oxide. It reacts with silicon (IV) oxide and other impurities to form a molten slag which floats on the iron. the carbon monoxide reduces the Iron (III) Oxide in Haematite (+3) to iron (0). the calcium oxide formed when limestone is decomposed is added to the molten iron. This is also a redox reaction.Chemistry Chapter 14 (Metals) (Finalized Notes) (6/3/2010) exothermic. using a sacrificial metal and alloys. Using a Protective Layer: The layer of substance stops air/water from reaching the metal. It must not be too reactive else it will explode. Different types of steel with different physical properties are made by varying the amount of carbon and by adding different metals. Acidic substances like sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide also speed up the rusting process. ships Equipme nt in chemical plants. a. the carbon dioxide rises up the furnace and react with excess coke to form carbon monoxide. is reddish ± brown. Carbon + Large amounts of chromium and nickel Stainle ss Steel Thirdly. b. cutlery and surgery instrumen ts Hard.docx Copyright © 2010.6: Rusting Overview: What is Rustin .5: Uses of Iron and Steel Overview: teel as an alloy of iron 1. Secondly. a. — – . Chapter 14. Steel ± making involves oxidation and alloying. Steel is an alloy of iron with carbon and other metals. machiner y. b. 3. Calcium Carbonate Calcium Oxide + Carbon Dioxide CaCO3 (s) CaO (s) + CO2 (g) Carbon + Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide C (s) + CO2 (g) 2CO (g) Carbon Monoxide + Iron (III) Oxide Molten Iron + Carbon Dioxide Fe2O3 (s) + 3CO (g) 2Fe (l) + 3CO2 (g) Calcium Oxide + Silicon (IV) oxide Calcium Silicate CaO (s) + SiO2 (s) CaSiO3 (l) High carbon steel Large amounts of carbon Mild Steel Small amounts of carbon Iron. 2. Rust. The presence of sodium chloride increases the speed of rusting. Lastly. All Rights Reserved.

Examples of recycling: a. Aluminum recycled mainly from drink cans/food containers Chapter 14. Disadvantages of Recycling: It can cause pollution in the environment. Substitutes are used to replace metals c. The amounts of metal on Earth are limited. Painting blocks of clean metal which is then used to make objects. kettles Gives a bright plating shiny finish as well Using a Sacrificial Metal Metal block Underground Magnesium/zinc of zinc/ pipes. All Rights Reserved. old metal objects are collected and melted down to produce C:\Users\Chiamdj\Documents\Secondary 3 Documents\Chemistry (Science)\Chemistry Chapter 14 (Metals)\Chemistry Chapter 14 Metals Notes. In recycling. ˜ ˜ . a. Using Alloys Stainless Surgical Contain steel instruments chromium/nickel which doesn¶t rust. 2. Adapted from Chemistry Matters and Complete Guide to O Level Chemistry (Longman). machineries must be renewed Plastic Kitchenware Rust occurs if coating plastic tears Galvanising Kitchen Metal doesn¶t rust (zinc sinks. Gathers dust.7: Recycling Metals Overview: Importance/Advanta es of Recyclin 1. c. saves the cost of extracting new metals from ores. The world¶s reserves of raw metals may last longer if: a. New ore deposits are found b. like metal fumes from recycling process. Recycling can be used to make metals last longer. b. Metals are recycled. land can be free for other uses. Using alloys: A hard coating of chronomium oxide is formed on stainless steel preventing it from further corrosion. Rust occurs when bridges paint disappears Oil/Grease Tools. 3. even if zinc is plating) dustbins damaged as it is more reactive than iron Tin ± Food cans Rust occurs if tin plating disappears Chrome taps. b. Lead is recovered from car batteries. ships corrode as they Magnesium are more reactive. Using a Protective Layer cars. ships. Advantages of Recycling: It saves the limited amounts of metals on Earth.Chemistry Chapter 14 (Metals) (Finalized Notes) (6/3/2010) c. Iron and Steel recycled from scrap metal.docx Copyright © 2010. 4. and it may be expensive due to transportation costs and costs for sorting and cleaning the metal.

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