# Experiment: 2 INTRODUCTION TO MEASUREMENT INSTRUMETS AND THEIR USE Objectives: (1) To become familiar with high precision measuring instruments

. (2) To practice determining the dimensions of different objects with different measuring instruments. Vernier Caliper: The ability to use high precision scales is limited by the spacing between the marks. Thus it is easy to have a least count of 1 mm, more difficult to have a least count of 0.2 mm, and virtually impossible to have a least count of 0.002 mm (a human hair has a diameter of about 0.050 mm.) In order to increase precision we need an auxiliary scale called a vernier scale. The vernier scale subdivides the least count from the main scale into 10, 50 or 100 subdivisions. Vernier scales are found on a wide range of instruments. Any instrument that uses a vernier will have two scales, a main scale and a vernier scale as is seen in Figure 1. A measurement is made by combining the readings from the two scales.

Fig.1 Vernier caliper

Parts of a vernier caliper:
1. External jaws: used to measure external diameter or width of an object 2. Internal jaws: used to measure internal diameter of an object 3. Depth measuring Blade: used to measure depths pf an object or a hole

4. Main scale
5. Vernier scale 6. Locking screw: used to block movable part to allow the easy transferring a measurement

The smallest subdivision marked on an instrument scale is called the least count. Least count of the Vernier caliper Scale: LC = Value of one division on main scale / total vernier scale division How to read a measurement from the scales?

Fig. 2 Example to read a measurement from vernier caliper EXAMPLE: A. The main metric scale is read first and this shows that there are 13 whole divisions before the 0 on the hundredths scale. Therefore, the first number is 13. B. The’ hundredths of mm’ scale is then read. Only one division on the main metric scale lines up with a division on the hundredths scale below it, whilst others do not. In the example below, the 41st division on the hundredths scale lines up exactly with a division on the metric scale above. C. This 41 is multiplied by 0.02(Least count) giving 0.82 as the answer (each division on the hundredths scale is equivalent to 0.02mm). D. The 13 and the 0.82 are added together to give the final measurement of 13.82mm (the diameter of the piece of round section steel).

Final Reading = Main scale reading + (LC* Vernier scale reading) Activity: Students have to measure the dimensions of different parts of the given object with the help of vernier caliper and prepare an observation table as given below: Table 1 Observations on Vernier caliper Part of the Object Main scale reading in mm A Vernier scale reading in mm (LC* Vernier scale reading) B Final measurement in mm C=A+B

The Micrometer (Screw gauge):

The micrometer is a precision measuring instrument, used by engineers. Each revolution of the rachet moves the spindle face 0.5mm towards the anvil face which is known as lead. The object to be measured is placed between the anvil face and the spindle face. The rachet is turned clockwise until the object is ‘trapped’ between these two surfaces and the rachet makes a ‘clicking’ noise. This means that the rachet cannot be tightened any more and the measurement can be read.

Fig. 3 Micrometer Least count of the Micrometer screw gauge: LC = Lead* / No of total division on the round scale * Lead = value axial movement of the thimble while it rotates by 360º. How to read a measurement from the scales?

Fig. 4 Example to read a measurement from micrometer Using the first example seen above (Fig. 4):

1. Read the scale on the sleeve. The example clearly shows12 mm divisions. 2. Still reading the scale on the sleeve, a further ½ mm (0.5) measurement can be seen on the bottom half of the scale. The measurement now reads 12.5mm. 3. Finally, the thimble scale shows 16 full divisions (these are hundredths of a mm). The final measurement is 12.5mm + 0.16mm = 12.66

Activity: Students have to measure the dimensions of different parts of the given object with the help of micrometer screw gauge and prepare an observation table as given below: Table 2 Observations on Micrometer screw gauge Part of the Object Main scale reading in mm A Full division on thimble scale * LC B Final measurement in mm C=A+B