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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Programming

Associate Professor of Civil Engineering

Virginia Tech

Recall the Standard LP Form

n

Maximize ∑ cj xj

j=1

n

subject to: ∑ aij xj ≤ bi for i = 1, 2, …, m

j=1

x j ≥ 0 for j = 1, 2, …, n

Minimization problems:

Minimization Problem

Formulation

n

Minimize z=

∑c x j j

j=1

Reformulate as:

n

Maximize –z = –

∑c x j j

j=1

Airline Scheduling Problem (ASP-1)

A small airline would like to use mathematical

programming to schedule its flights to maximize profit.

The following map shows the city pairs to be operated.

1 3

New York

Cincinnati

λ23 = 450 pax/day

λ32 = 500 pax/day

λ21 = 600 pax/day d23 = 375 nm

λ12 = 450 pax/day

2 Roanoke

d12 = 260 nm λ24 = 760 pax/day

λ42 = 700 pax/day

4 d24 = 310 nm

λij = Demand from Atlanta

i to j

Airline Scheduling Problem

The airline has decided to purchase two types of aircraft

to satisfy its needs: 1) the Embraer 145, a 45-seat

regional jet, and 2) the Avro RJ-100, a four-engine 100

seater aircraft (see the following figure).

EMB-145

Avro RJ-100

Aircraft Characteristics

Operating cost ($/hr) - ck 1,850 3,800

Maximum aircraft utili- 13.0 12.0

zation (hr/day)a - Uk

a. The aircraft utilization represents the maximum number of hours an aircraft is in actual use with the engines

running (in airline parlance this is the sum of all daily block times). Turnaround times at the airport are not

part of the utilization variable as defined here.

Nomenclature

Define the following sets of decision variables:

No. of aircraft of type k in fleet = Ak

Based on expected load factors, the tentative fares

between origin and destination pairs are indicated in the

following table.

Average one-

Origin-

City pair designator way fare

Destination ($/seat)

ROA-CVG Roanoke to 175.00

Cincinnati

ROA-LGA Roanoke to La 230.00

Guardia

ROA-ATL Roanoke to 200.00

Atlanta

Problem # 1 ASP-1 Formulation

1) Write a mathematical programming formulation to

solve the ASP-1 Problem with the following constraints:

Maximize Profit

subject to:

• aircraft availability constraint

• demand fulfillment constraint

• minimum frequency constraint

Problem # 2 ASP-1 Solution

1) Solve problem ASP-1 under the following numerical

assumptions:

a) Maximize profit solving for the fleet size and frequency

assignment without a minimum frequency constraint. Find

the number of aircraft of each type and the number of flights

between each origin-destination pair to satisfy the two basic

constraints (demand and supply constraints).

b) Repeat part (a) if the minimum number of flights in the

arc ROA-ATL is 8 per day (8 more from ATL-ROA) to

establish a shuttle system between these city pairs.

c) Suppose the demand function λ ij varies according

to the number of flights scheduled between city pairs (see

the following illustration). Reformulate the problem and

explain (do not solve) the best way to reach an optimal

solution.

(λij) min

Nij

Vehicle Scheduling Problem

Formulation of the problem.

Maximize Profit

subject to: (possible types of constraints)

a) aircraft availability constraint

b) demand fulfillment constraint

c) Minimum frequency constraint

d) Landing restriction constraint

Vehicle Scheduling Problem

Profit Function

P = Revenue - Cost

Revenue Function

Revenue = ∑λ f ij ij

(i j)

Vehicle Scheduling Problem

Cost function

let N be the flight frequency from i to j using aircraft

ijk

type k

let C be the total cost per flight from i to j using

ijk

aircraft k

(i j) k

Profit = ∑ λ f –∑ ∑ N

i, j

ij ij

i, j k

ijk C ijk

Vehicle Scheduling Problem

Demand fulfillment constraint

Supply of seats offered > Demand for service

k

k

Note: airlines actually overbook flights so they usually

factor a target load factor in their schedules to account

for some slack

Vehicle Scheduling Problem

Aircraft availability constraint

(block time) (no. of flights) < (utilization)(no. of

aircraft)

∑t ijk N ijk ≤ U k A k

(i j)

Vehicle Scheduling Problem

Minimum frequency constraint

No. of flights between i and j > Minimum number of

desired flights

k

Note: Airlines use this strategy to gain market share in

highly traveled markets

Vehicle Scheduling Problem

Maximize Profit = ∑ λ f –∑ ∑ N

i, j

ij ij

i, j k

ijk C ijk

subject to

k

(i j)

k

Demo with Excel

Crew Scheduling Problem

A small airline uses LP to allocate crew resources to

minimize cost. The following map shows the city pairs

to be operated.

1 New York

Denver 3

Morning

2 Dallas Afternoon

Night

DFW = Dallas Mexico JFK = New York

Crew Scheduling Problem

100 DEN-DFW Morning

200 DFW-DEN Afternoon

300 DFW-MEX Afternoon

400 MEX-DFW Night

500 DFW-JFK Morning

600 JFK-DFW Night

700 DEN-JFK Afternoon

800 JFK-DEN Afternoon

Crew Scheduling Problem

Definition of terms:

a) Rotations consists of 1 to 2 flights (to make the

problem simple)

b) Rotations cost $2,500 if terminates in the originating

city

c) Rotations cost $3,500 if terminating elsewhere

Example of a feasible rotations are (100, 200),

(500,800),(500), etc.

Crew Scheduling Problem

Single

Ri Ri Two-flight

Flight Cost ($) Cost ($)

Rotations

Rotations

1 100 3,500 9 100,200 2,500

2 200 3,500 10 100,300 3,500

3 300 3,500 11 500,800 3,500

4 400 3,500 12 500,600 2,500

5 500 3,500 13 300,400 2,500

6 600 3,500 14 200,100 3,500

7 700 3,500 15 600,300 3,500

Single

Ri Ri Two-flight

Flight Cost ($) Cost ($)

Rotations

Rotations

8 800 3,500 16 600,200 3,500

17 600,500 3,500

18 800,100 3,500

19 700,600 3,500

20 700,800 3,500

Decision variables:

⎛ 1 if i rotation is used

Ri = ⎜

⎝ 0 if i rotation is not used

Crew Scheduling Problem

Min Cost

subject to: (possible types of constraints)

a) each flight belongs to a rotation (to a crew)

Min

z = 3500 R1 + 3500 R2 + 3500 R3 + 3500 R4 + 3500

R +

5

3500 R 11 + 2500 R 12 + 2500 R 13 + 3500 R 14 +

3500 R 15

R 20

(Flt. 200) R2 + R9 + R 14 + R 16 =1

(Flt. 300) R3 + R 10 + R 13 + R 15 =1

(Flt. 400) R4 + R 13 =1

(Flt. 500) R5 + R 11 + R 12 + R 17 =1

(Flt. 600) R6 + R 12 + R 15 + R 16 + R 17 +

R =1

19

(Flt. 700) R7 + R 19 + R 20 =1

(Flt. 800) R8 + R 11 + R 18 + R 20 =1

Crew Scheduling Problem

Problem statistics:

a) 20 decision variables (rotations)

b) 8 functional constraints (one for each

flight)

c) All constraints have equality signs

Crew Scheduling Problem

(Solver)

Demo in Excel

Human Resource Assignment

Problem (ATC Application)

Linear programming problems are quite useful for solving

staffing problems where human resources are typically

scheduled over periods of varying activities. Consider the

case of the staffing requirements of a busy Air Route Traffic

Control Center (ARTCC) where Air Traffic Control (ATC)

personnel monitor and direct flights over large regions of

airspace in the Continental U.S.

Given that traffic demands vary over the time of day ATC

controller staffing requirements vary as well. Take for

example Jacksonville ARTCC comprised of 35 sector

boundaries (see the Figure below). Each sector is

managed by one or more controllers depending on the

traffic load.

ATC Resource Allocation

Jacksonville ARTCC Sectorization at 40,000 ft.

Sectors at FL400

36

35 Washington

Atlanta Enroute Center

34 113

Enroute Center 91

131

Latitude (deg.)

33

126

32 129

93 51

31

61

87 Jacksonville

86

115

121

30 62

Enroute

89

Center49

119

Sector

23 77 143

40

24 55

29

84 75

28

Miami

27 Enroute Center

26

Longitude (deg.)

Relevant Questions

A task analysis study estimates the staffing requirements for

this ARTCC (see Table 1). Let x be the number of ATC

i

( x , …, x).

2

problem to find the least number of controllers to satisfy

the staffing constraints based on traffic demands expected at

this FAA facility. Assume controllers work shifts of 8 hours

(no overtime is allowed for now).

b) Find the minimum number of controllers needed

to satisfy the staffing requirements using Excel or Matlab.

Comment on the solution obtained.

c) Human factors studies suggest ATC controllers take one

hour of rest during their 8-hour work period to avoid

excessive stress. The ATC manager at this facility instructs

all personnel to take the one-hour rest period after working

four consecutive hours. Reformulate the problem and find

the new optimal solution.

d) The average salary for ATC personnel is $100,000 for

normal operation hours (5:00 -19:00 hours) with a 15%

higher compensation for those working the night shift

(19:00 until 5:00 hours). Reformulate the problem to

allocate ATC controllers to minimize the cost of the

operation. Assume the one-hour break rule applies.

(Jacksonville, FL).

Time of Day (EST) Staff Needs Remarks

0:00 - 2:00 30 Light traffic

2:00 - 5:00 25 Light traffic - few air-

line flights

5:00 - 7:00 35 Moderate traffic

7:00 - 10:00 48 Heavy traffic (morning

“push”)

10:00 - 13:00 35 Moderate traffic

13:00 - 17:00 31 Moderate traffic

17:00 - 21:00 42 Heavy evening traffic

21:00 - 24:00 34 Moderate traffic

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