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Sensorless Speed Control of an Induction Motor

with No Influence of Resistance Variation

Toshiyuki Kanmachi Isao Takahashi

Smdai National College of Technology Nagaoka University of Technology
1, Kii:ahara, Aoba-ku, Sendai 989-3 1, JAPAN 1603-1, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, 940-21, JAPAN
Phone: +81-22-392-476 1 Phone: +81-258-47-95 15
Fax: +8 1-22-392-3359 Fax: +81-258-47-9500
E -mail: p E-mail:

Abstract - M m y speed sensorless vector control proposed.[6][7] In these methods based on the adaptive
systems of induction motors have been developed. However, identification system, the secondary resistance in the
the speed control characteristics are affected by machine controller can be converged to the correct value with long
temperature variations, because these methods use the time constant. We already had proposed a directly
primary and the secondary resistance value to estimate the identification method of the secondary resistance.[8][9] In
rotor speed. this method, the secondary resistance is calculated quickly
This paper describes method of the primary and the by only using the instantaneous terminal voltage and the
secondary resistance estimation for speed sensorless control line current without speed sensors.
systems. The primary resistance estimation uses the On the other hand, the sensorless vector control system
secondary flux which is calculated by the instantaneous with no influence of the primary resistance had been
reactive power. 011 the other hands, the secondary proposed.[ 101 In this system, the rotor speed is estimated
resistance is directly calculated by the line voltage and the by using the reactive power, and it is robust to the primary
current without speed sensors. This method makes possible resistance.
on the PWM inverter fed induction motor. By combining In this paper, the primary resistance identification
these two methods, the speed control characteristic is robust method using the reactive power is proposed.[ll] This
to the machine temperature variations. The feasibility of method can be applied to existing speed sensorless control
these methods was verified by some simulation and system. AdQtionally, by combining to the above
experimental results. In the tested system, the compensation secondary resistance calculation method, the sensorless
of the primary and the secondary resistance mismatching is speed control system will be free from the machine
achieved. temperature variations.


The speed sensorless vector control systems of an Fig.1 illustrates the equivalent circuit of an induction
induction motor have been developed and applied in the motor. Base on this circuit, the characteristics equations
industrial drives.[ 1 I [2][3] These systems, which have are expressed as (1).
economic advantage: and high performance, are required
in several applications. However, there are two problems
in the performance of the speed sensorless vector control
systems. First, the estimation of the primary and the
secondary flux are difficult in the low speed region.[4]
The performance of the torque and the speed are affected
by this problem. The second, the accuracy of speed control
is influenced by mismatched motor parameters, used in
the speed estimation, the primary and the secondary
Some identification methods of the secondary Fig.1. Equivalent circuit of induction motor
resistance without speed sensors have been

O-78O3-3823-5t9.7l~10.0001997 EEE 91 PCC-Nagaoka '97

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Since (6) does not involve R I , the accuracy is robust to RI
Fig.2 illustrates the adaptive identification algorithm of
where R I and R2 are the primary and the secondary E,, where (6) is the reference model and (3) is the
resistance; LI and Lz are the primary and the secondary adjustable model. The error between the secondary flux of
self-inductance; A4 is the mutual inductance; wm is the these model is used to drive the PI adaption mechanism
rotor speed; p represents d/dt; a is equal to M/Lz ; C is which generates RI for the adjustable model.
equal to L l - a M . The secondary flux a q h d , are Fig.3 s h e w the simulation results of the proposed
obtained to solve the first and the second lows of (1) as identification method. The nominal value of the primary
resistance is equal to 0.53(R), and the initial value of R^,
in the adjustable model is 50(%) of the nominal value.
The secondary flux of (3) converges to the value of (6)
within 2 (sec). The primary resistance adjustment from
the initial value to the correct one is verified from fig.3.
Fig.4 shows El identification errors of the proposed
method with the mismatching of the mutual inductance
These equations mean that the secondary flux can be aM. The accuracy of the secondary flux calculation of (6)
directly calculated from the primary voltage and the is affected directly by a M mismatching. Therefore, the
primary current with considering of the voltage drop at R, mismatch of a M will be a serious problem for this method.
and the leakage flux. The accuracy of these equations are
affected by RI variations. "Identification start

On the other hand, the reactive power q, which is

calculated by (4), means the energy on the mutual
inductance and the leakage inductance.

0.8 r I

The exciting current of the secondary flux lois calculated

using q as

q / ( w o a A , f ) - P I f l(aA4) (5) Time (s)

Fig.3. Simulation result of primary resistance identification.

where w0is the angular speed of the secondary flux vector.

On the steady state, woapproximates to the angular speed
of the primary current col,therefore the amplitude of the
secondary flux is estimated as follows;

Load torque (Yo 100

Fig.4. Primary resistance identification error

for mutual inductance mismatching.
Fig.2. Adaptive identification system of primary resistance


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As can be seen in Fig.4, the minimum R, identification p(laty,l') by iz q z .

error at the rated load is k 17(%) with k lo(%) When the secondary flux is represented by the
mismatching of aM. amplitude and the phase angle 8, as (9), the
Fig.5. shows the: identification errors of 2,with differential vector of the secondary flux pry, is calculated
mismatched the leakage inductance &. The leakage flux is as (10).
enough smaller than the secondary flux. Then, the
influence of the leakage inductance mismatching to the
proposed method can be ignored. The maximum
identification error ai: rated load is f1.4(%) for ?z lo(%)
mismatching of&. If the secondary flus has no ripples, the second term of
(10) is equal to zero, and the phase angle between the
111. SECONDARY RESISTANCE ESTIMATION vectors 9, and pq, becomes to d 2 . Therefore, the
numerator of (8) goes to zero. Additionally, the
Solving respectively the third and the fourth low of (l), denominator of (8) which is expressed by the differential
the secondary resistaiice is obtained as (7). value of the secondary flux amplitude is equal to zero.
Then, it is impossible to calculate the secondary resistance.
However, the PWM inverter makes the flux ripples and
assures the possibility of the 3, calculation.
Fig.6 shows the simulation results of the secondary
resistance estimation. The induction motor, R, is equal to
l(Q), is fed by the PWM inverter and the rotor speed is
These equations demand the value of the rotor speed w, kept at 1500(rpni) under rated load. It illustrates that the
which is not able to detect on the speed sensorless drives. numerator and the denominator are not always equal to
Therefore. we cari not calculate these equations zero and the Rr estimation is possible. However, there are
independently. By considering (7) are sirnultaiieous momentary zero cross points in the denominator and the
equations, the secontiary resistance can be calculated as iiumerator which makes impossible to divide. Therefore,
(8) to eliminate CO,,,; the estimation of RZmust be avoided near these zero cross
Fig.7 illustrated the R,estimation block diagram. It can
calculate R, directly and instantly from the instantaneous
primary voltage and current. However, when the value of
denominator is small at neighboring the zero cross points,
there is possibility that the calculation error of division
become increase. The calculated R2 is averaged by a LPF
to suppress the calculation error at neighboring zero cross
This equation means that the secondary resistance is
calculated by the inlier product of aty,. i, and dividing

(a.) Numerator of@)

5 0.3
A& - S(Yo)

Load torque (Yo) 100 ru (b.) Denoniinator of (8)


A& 1O(%)
Fig.5. Primary resistancc ideatlficatlon s17'01'
0 " " '
(c.) Estimated secondary resistance.
" '

for leakaiy inductancz mismatching.

Fig.6. Sirnulation results of secondary resistance estimation.


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points. The time constant of the LPF, which removes the applying the proposed El
and E, identification methods.
ripple frequency components, is enough shorter than the On the steady state, assuming coo is equal to the inverter
time constant of R2 variation. Therefore, the influence of frequency reference wl*, the rotor speed &,is estimated as
the LPF to R", estimation's dynamics is small, and the
rotor speed estimation is almost not affected.
Fig.8 shows the & estimation errors with the
mismatching of uM. The mismatching of uM makes where T is the generated torque, which can be calculated
error in the secondary current calculation of (8). However, bY
the numerator of (8) is not affected by a M mismatching,

then the R, estimation error is small. The maximum error

is equal to -4(%) at lo(%) mismatching in aM.
Fig.9 shows the E2 estimation errors of (8) with The estimated speed is fed back and compared with the
mismatching of L? The secondary flux ripples, which are speed reference U,,,*. The error between these value is
used in the secondary resistance estimation, depends on used to drive the PI controller which generate the inverter
greatly the leakage inductance. Therefore, R2estimation is frequency reference col*. The sign of col* gives direction
highly sensitive to the mismatching of 1 As shown in of the rotation (FB), and the amplitude makes RudStop
Fig.9, the maximum R2 estimation error is f14O(%) with (FUS) command which decides the voltage and the
k lo(%) mismatching in e.
A&(?- dl c
150 1

Fig. 10 illustrates the sensorless speed control system of

c Aa-lo(%)

an induction motor based on DSP(TMS32OC25)

"Id 7s
I 1



+ 1 1 -
d.: denominator
, n . : numerator

- 150
t Load torque (Yo)
A P - 5(%)

A h - lo(%)
Fig.9. Secondary resistance estimation eil-or

for leakage inductance mismatching.

-4 A a M - 1 O(Yo)

Fig.8. Secondary resistance estimation error

for mutual inductancc mismatching.
- DSP(TMS320C25)
- A

Fig. 10. Configuration of speed control system


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frequency of the PWTVI inverter. The PWM inverter drives converges to the nominal value within 3(s), and the speed
the induction motor with hexagonal primary flux locus to control error is reduced to l(rpm). The identification error
produce large flux ripples. The secondary resistance of R", is -2(%). The dynamics of convergence which
calculation will be assured by these flux ripples. depends on the PI adaptation mechanism is enough to
To estimate 3,, R"., and the rotor speed d.the primary compensate the machine temperature variations.
voltage and the primary current must be detected. In this Fig. 13 shows the secondary estimation result. The
system, the primary flux in (2) and the reactive power in speed reference is 200(rpm) and the load torque is rated
(4) are calculated by some analogue circuits. value. The primary resistance is fixed at nominal value.
Fig. 11 illustrated the calculation circuits of the primary The estimated converges from initial value, which is
flux and the readve power q. The primary flux is 30(%) of the nominal value, to the correct one. The
calculated by the integration circuits using the ultra-low converging time which is caused by the LPF is about
offset voltage amplifiers, and in (2) can be varied to 1.5(s). It is enough shorter than the time constant of the
estimated value in Ijig.2 by the 8bits multiplying D/A machine temperature variations. The speed control error
converters. The reactive power is calculated by the is reduced from 74(rpm) to 4(rpm). The calculation error
analogue multipliers and averaged by LPF. By using the of r?, is about 5(%).
analogue circuits, the error due to the sampling cycles and Figure 14 shows the speed control characteristics with
the quantization is reduced. both compensations of the primary and the secondary
The calculated VI. q and the primary current are resistance. The initial values of each resistance are 50(%)
detected by 12bits A/D converters, and used to estimate El of the nominal values. When the induction motor is
and in Fig.2 and Fig.7. By using these estimated values controlled without and estimation on the rated
of zl and R",. the rotor speed estimation in (11) is not torque, the speed control error is 63(rpm). After
affected by the variations of RI and Rr. The speed beginning the estimation of El and E2, each values
estimation and control with the compensation of RI and R, converge to the suitable value within 3(s). It reduces the
are carried out on IXP. The calculation time is about speed control error from 63(rpm) to l(rpm). The
105(ps), and the sampling frequency is fixed at estimation errors of each resistance are under 3(%). This
4.88(kHz). result shows that the simultaneous estimations of RI, E,
and &,, are possible on the speed sensorless drive system.
Table 1 shows the rating and motor parameters of the
induction motor using in the experiments. The tested In this paper, the primary and the secondary resistance
machine is coupled to a 2(kW) dc machine estimation methods of an induction motor are described.
Fig. 12 shows the primary resistance identification They can use for speed sensorless control and compensate
result which is indelpendent of the secondary resistance the machine temperature variation. The conclusions are
calculation. The induction motor is driven under the rated summarized as follows:
load torque and the speed reference is 200(rpm). The 1)By using the reactive power, the primly resistance is
initial value of the eistimated AI is 50(%) of the nominal estimated on the adaptive identification system within
value, and the speed control error which is caused by the 2(%) error.
mismatching of E, is 24(rpni). The estimated AI 2)By using the flux ripples, the secondary resistance
v,2 .
. WId estimation without speed sensors is possible. The accuracy

Table. 1. Parameters of induction motor.

I 1.5kW Induction motor

200V, 55Hz, 4poles

Primary resistance R I 0 53 Q
Secondary resistance R2 0 51 LZ
Mutual inductance aM 54 3 nlH
Leakage inductance I' 3 19 mH

Fig. 1 1. Block diagram of analog circuit.


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h Identification start
‘Z 0.4

$ 5 0 Time(s) IO

9 100
Time(s) IO
Fig. 14. Primary and secondary resistance compensation.

Fig. 12. Experimental result of primary resistance compensation. REFERENCES

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