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Smdai National College of Technology Nagaoka University of Technology

1, Kii:ahara, Aoba-ku, Sendai 989-3 1, JAPAN 1603-1, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, 940-21, JAPAN

Phone: +81-22-392-476 1 Phone: +81-258-47-95 15

Fax: +8 1-22-392-3359 Fax: +81-258-47-9500

E -mail: kanmachi@cc.sendai-ct.ac.j p E-mail: taki@voscc.nagaokaut.ac.jp

Abstract - M m y speed sensorless vector control proposed.[6][7] In these methods based on the adaptive

systems of induction motors have been developed. However, identification system, the secondary resistance in the

the speed control characteristics are affected by machine controller can be converged to the correct value with long

temperature variations, because these methods use the time constant. We already had proposed a directly

primary and the secondary resistance value to estimate the identification method of the secondary resistance.[8][9] In

rotor speed. this method, the secondary resistance is calculated quickly

This paper describes method of the primary and the by only using the instantaneous terminal voltage and the

secondary resistance estimation for speed sensorless control line current without speed sensors.

systems. The primary resistance estimation uses the On the other hand, the sensorless vector control system

secondary flux which is calculated by the instantaneous with no influence of the primary resistance had been

reactive power. 011 the other hands, the secondary proposed.[ 101 In this system, the rotor speed is estimated

resistance is directly calculated by the line voltage and the by using the reactive power, and it is robust to the primary

current without speed sensors. This method makes possible resistance.

on the PWM inverter fed induction motor. By combining In this paper, the primary resistance identification

these two methods, the speed control characteristic is robust method using the reactive power is proposed.[ll] This

to the machine temperature variations. The feasibility of method can be applied to existing speed sensorless control

these methods was verified by some simulation and system. AdQtionally, by combining to the above

experimental results. In the tested system, the compensation secondary resistance calculation method, the sensorless

of the primary and the secondary resistance mismatching is speed control system will be free from the machine

achieved. temperature variations.

The speed sensorless vector control systems of an Fig.1 illustrates the equivalent circuit of an induction

induction motor have been developed and applied in the motor. Base on this circuit, the characteristics equations

industrial drives.[ 1 I [2][3] These systems, which have are expressed as (1).

economic advantage: and high performance, are required

in several applications. However, there are two problems

in the performance of the speed sensorless vector control

systems. First, the estimation of the primary and the

secondary flux are difficult in the low speed region.[4]

The performance of the torque and the speed are affected

by this problem. The second, the accuracy of speed control

is influenced by mismatched motor parameters, used in

the speed estimation, the primary and the secondary

"

resistance.[5]

Some identification methods of the secondary Fig.1. Equivalent circuit of induction motor

resistance without speed sensors have been

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Since (6) does not involve R I , the accuracy is robust to RI

variation.

Fig.2 illustrates the adaptive identification algorithm of

where R I and R2 are the primary and the secondary E,, where (6) is the reference model and (3) is the

resistance; LI and Lz are the primary and the secondary adjustable model. The error between the secondary flux of

self-inductance; A4 is the mutual inductance; wm is the these model is used to drive the PI adaption mechanism

rotor speed; p represents d/dt; a is equal to M/Lz ; C is which generates RI for the adjustable model.

equal to L l - a M . The secondary flux a q h d , are Fig.3 s h e w the simulation results of the proposed

obtained to solve the first and the second lows of (1) as identification method. The nominal value of the primary

resistance is equal to 0.53(R), and the initial value of R^,

in the adjustable model is 50(%) of the nominal value.

The secondary flux of (3) converges to the value of (6)

within 2 (sec). The primary resistance adjustment from

the initial value to the correct one is verified from fig.3.

Fig.4 shows El identification errors of the proposed

method with the mismatching of the mutual inductance

These equations mean that the secondary flux can be aM. The accuracy of the secondary flux calculation of (6)

directly calculated from the primary voltage and the is affected directly by a M mismatching. Therefore, the

primary current with considering of the voltage drop at R, mismatch of a M will be a serious problem for this method.

and the leakage flux. The accuracy of these equations are

affected by RI variations. "Identification start

7

calculated by (4), means the energy on the mutual

inductance and the leakage inductance.

0

0.8 r I

using q as

Fig.3. Simulation result of primary resistance identification.

On the steady state, woapproximates to the angular speed

of the primary current col,therefore the amplitude of the

secondary flux is estimated as follows;

for mutual inductance mismatching.

Fig.2. Adaptive identification system of primary resistance

92

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h

error at the rated load is k 17(%) with k lo(%) When the secondary flux is represented by the

mismatching of aM. amplitude and the phase angle 8, as (9), the

Fig.5. shows the: identification errors of 2,with differential vector of the secondary flux pry, is calculated

mismatched the leakage inductance &. The leakage flux is as (10).

enough smaller than the secondary flux. Then, the

influence of the leakage inductance mismatching to the

proposed method can be ignored. The maximum

identification error ai: rated load is f1.4(%) for ?z lo(%)

mismatching of&. If the secondary flus has no ripples, the second term of

(10) is equal to zero, and the phase angle between the

111. SECONDARY RESISTANCE ESTIMATION vectors 9, and pq, becomes to d 2 . Therefore, the

numerator of (8) goes to zero. Additionally, the

Solving respectively the third and the fourth low of (l), denominator of (8) which is expressed by the differential

the secondary resistaiice is obtained as (7). value of the secondary flux amplitude is equal to zero.

Then, it is impossible to calculate the secondary resistance.

However, the PWM inverter makes the flux ripples and

assures the possibility of the 3, calculation.

Fig.6 shows the simulation results of the secondary

resistance estimation. The induction motor, R, is equal to

l(Q), is fed by the PWM inverter and the rotor speed is

These equations demand the value of the rotor speed w, kept at 1500(rpni) under rated load. It illustrates that the

which is not able to detect on the speed sensorless drives. numerator and the denominator are not always equal to

Therefore. we cari not calculate these equations zero and the Rr estimation is possible. However, there are

independently. By considering (7) are sirnultaiieous momentary zero cross points in the denominator and the

equations, the secontiary resistance can be calculated as iiumerator which makes impossible to divide. Therefore,

(8) to eliminate CO,,,; the estimation of RZmust be avoided near these zero cross

points.

Fig.7 illustrated the R,estimation block diagram. It can

calculate R, directly and instantly from the instantaneous

primary voltage and current. However, when the value of

denominator is small at neighboring the zero cross points,

there is possibility that the calculation error of division

become increase. The calculated R2 is averaged by a LPF

to suppress the calculation error at neighboring zero cross

This equation means that the secondary resistance is

calculated by the inlier product of aty,. i, and dividing

5 0.3

A& - S(Yo)

Y

A& 1O(%)

t/

Fig.5. Primary resistancc ideatlficatlon s17'01'

4

8

m

0 " " '

Time(iiic)

(c.) Estimated secondary resistance.

" '

20

Fig.6. Sirnulation results of secondary resistance estimation.

93

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points. The time constant of the LPF, which removes the applying the proposed El

and E, identification methods.

ripple frequency components, is enough shorter than the On the steady state, assuming coo is equal to the inverter

time constant of R2 variation. Therefore, the influence of frequency reference wl*, the rotor speed &,is estimated as

the LPF to R", estimation's dynamics is small, and the

rotor speed estimation is almost not affected.

Fig.8 shows the & estimation errors with the

mismatching of uM. The mismatching of uM makes where T is the generated torque, which can be calculated

error in the secondary current calculation of (8). However, bY

the numerator of (8) is not affected by a M mismatching,

)r

is equal to -4(%) at lo(%) mismatching in aM.

Fig.9 shows the E2 estimation errors of (8) with The estimated speed is fed back and compared with the

mismatching of L? The secondary flux ripples, which are speed reference U,,,*. The error between these value is

used in the secondary resistance estimation, depends on used to drive the PI controller which generate the inverter

greatly the leakage inductance. Therefore, R2estimation is frequency reference col*. The sign of col* gives direction

highly sensitive to the mismatching of 1 As shown in of the rotation (FB), and the amplitude makes RudStop

h

Fig.9, the maximum R2 estimation error is f14O(%) with (FUS) command which decides the voltage and the

k lo(%) mismatching in e.

A&(?- dl c

150 1

Iv. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

c Aa-lo(%)

"Id 7s

I 1

(v,,-R,i,,)dt

.I

I

nllr

"ey2d

+ 1 1 -

d.: denominator

, n . : numerator

- 150

t Load torque (Yo)

__._____.___.--._.__

A P - 5(%)

A h - lo(%)

Fig.9. Secondary resistance estimation eil-or

100

?i3

-4 A a M - 1 O(Yo)

for mutual inductancc mismatching.

I

- DSP(TMS320C25)

- A

94

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frequency of the PWTVI inverter. The PWM inverter drives converges to the nominal value within 3(s), and the speed

the induction motor with hexagonal primary flux locus to control error is reduced to l(rpm). The identification error

produce large flux ripples. The secondary resistance of R", is -2(%). The dynamics of convergence which

calculation will be assured by these flux ripples. depends on the PI adaptation mechanism is enough to

To estimate 3,, R"., and the rotor speed d.the primary compensate the machine temperature variations.

voltage and the primary current must be detected. In this Fig. 13 shows the secondary estimation result. The

system, the primary flux in (2) and the reactive power in speed reference is 200(rpm) and the load torque is rated

(4) are calculated by some analogue circuits. value. The primary resistance is fixed at nominal value.

Fig. 11 illustrated the calculation circuits of the primary The estimated converges from initial value, which is

flux and the readve power q. The primary flux is 30(%) of the nominal value, to the correct one. The

calculated by the integration circuits using the ultra-low converging time which is caused by the LPF is about

offset voltage amplifiers, and in (2) can be varied to 1.5(s). It is enough shorter than the time constant of the

estimated value in Ijig.2 by the 8bits multiplying D/A machine temperature variations. The speed control error

converters. The reactive power is calculated by the is reduced from 74(rpm) to 4(rpm). The calculation error

analogue multipliers and averaged by LPF. By using the of r?, is about 5(%).

analogue circuits, the error due to the sampling cycles and Figure 14 shows the speed control characteristics with

the quantization is reduced. both compensations of the primary and the secondary

The calculated VI. q and the primary current are resistance. The initial values of each resistance are 50(%)

detected by 12bits A/D converters, and used to estimate El of the nominal values. When the induction motor is

and in Fig.2 and Fig.7. By using these estimated values controlled without and estimation on the rated

of zl and R",. the rotor speed estimation in (11) is not torque, the speed control error is 63(rpm). After

affected by the variations of RI and Rr. The speed beginning the estimation of El and E2, each values

estimation and control with the compensation of RI and R, converge to the suitable value within 3(s). It reduces the

are carried out on IXP. The calculation time is about speed control error from 63(rpm) to l(rpm). The

105(ps), and the sampling frequency is fixed at estimation errors of each resistance are under 3(%). This

4.88(kHz). result shows that the simultaneous estimations of RI, E,

and &,, are possible on the speed sensorless drive system.

v. EXPERIMENTAL

RESULTS

VI. CONCLUSIONS

Table 1 shows the rating and motor parameters of the

induction motor using in the experiments. The tested In this paper, the primary and the secondary resistance

machine is coupled to a 2(kW) dc machine estimation methods of an induction motor are described.

Fig. 12 shows the primary resistance identification They can use for speed sensorless control and compensate

result which is indelpendent of the secondary resistance the machine temperature variation. The conclusions are

calculation. The induction motor is driven under the rated summarized as follows:

load torque and the speed reference is 200(rpm). The 1)By using the reactive power, the primly resistance is

initial value of the eistimated AI is 50(%) of the nominal estimated on the adaptive identification system within

value, and the speed control error which is caused by the 2(%) error.

mismatching of E, is 24(rpni). The estimated AI 2)By using the flux ripples, the secondary resistance

v,2 .

. WId estimation without speed sensors is possible. The accuracy

Primary resistance R I 0 53 Q

Secondary resistance R2 0 51 LZ

Mutual inductance aM 54 3 nlH

Leakage inductance I' 3 19 mH

95

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h Identification start

9,0.8

1

‘Z 0.4

9

E

.*

$ 5 0 Time(s) IO

h

g

v

200

-2

9 100

8

r

Time(s) IO

Fig. 14. Primary and secondary resistance compensation.

h

[ 11 C.Schauder, “Adaptive Speed Identification For Vector Control Of

Induction Motors Without Rotational Transducers,” in Con$ Rec. of

the IEEEIASAnnualMeeting, 1989, pp. 493-499.

[Z] U.Baader, M.Depenbrock, “Direct Self Control of Inverter-Fed

Induction Machine, A Basis for Speed Control without Speed

Measurement,” in Con5 Rec. of the IEEE IASAnnualMeeting, 1989,

pp. 486-492.

[3] Y.R.Kim, S.K.Su1, M.H.Park, “Speed Sensorless Vector Control of an

Induction Motor Using an Extended Kalman Filter,” in Conf Rec. of

the IEEEIASAnnualMeeting, 1992, pp. 594-598.

[4] P.L.Jansen, R.D.Lorenze, “Transducerless Position and Velocity

Time(s) 10

Estimation in Induction and Salient AC Machines,” in Con$ Rec. of

the IEEEIASAnnuulMeeting, 1994, pp. 488-495.

Fig. 13. Experimental result of secondary resistance compensation

[5] T.Ohtani, “A New Method of Torque Control Free From Motor

of the secondary resistance calculation is obtained within Parameter Variation in Induction Motor Drives,” in Conf Rec. of the

5(%). IEEElASAnnualMeeting, 1986, pp.203-209.

A

3)In this paper, proposed estimation methods of R, and R“, [6] I.Miyashita, H.Fujikawa, Y.Ohmori, “Speed Sensor less Instantaneous

are combined and applied to the simple speed sensorless Vector Control with Identification of Secondary Resistance,” in Conf

drive. The mismatching of R”, and & are compensated by Rec. ofthe IEEJapan IASAnnualMeeting, 1991, pp.130-135.

these methods, and the speed control error caused by the [7] H.Kubota, K.Matsuse, “Speed Sensorless Field Oriented Control of

mismatching is reduced from 63(rpm) to l(rpm). Induction Motor with Rotor Resistance Adaption,” in Conf Rec. of the

4)The accuracy of the proposed primary resistance lEEEIASAnnualMeeting, 1993, pp.414-418.

estimation method is affected by the mismatching of the [8] T.Kanmachi, I.Takahashi, “Sensor-less Speed Control of Induction

mutual inductance, and the secondary resistance Motor with No Influence of Secondary Resistance Variation,” in Conf

estimation is highly sensitive to the leakage inductance. Rec. of the IEEE IASAnnualMeeting, 1993, pp.408-413.

5)By using the analogue circuits to calculate the primary [9] T.Kanmachi, LTakahashi, “A Secondary Resistance Calculation

flux and the reactive power, the detection error caused by Method for Sensor-less Speed Control of an Induction Motor,” in

the sampling cycles is reduced. Proceedings of the IPEC-Yokohama, 1995, pp. 1671 - 1676.

[lo] F.Z.Peng, T.Fukao, J.S.Lai, “Low-Speed Performance of Robust

ACKNOWLEDGMENT Identification Using Instantaneous Reactive Power for Tacholess

Vector Control of Induction Motor,” in Con$ Rec. of the IEEE IAS

The authors would like to express their appreciation to AnnualMeeting, 1994, pp.509-5 14.

Mr. I. Miyashita of Toyo Electric Co. Ltd. and Power [ 111T.Kanmachi, LTakahashi, “Primary Resistance Compensation for

Electronics Laboratory members of Nagaoka University of Sensorless Speed Control of an Induction Motor,” in National

Technology. Convention RecordIEEJapan-IAS, 1996, Vo1.3, pp.213-214.

96

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