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2G1316 Data Communications and Computer Networks 2E1623 Data Links and Local Area Networks
Illustrations in this material are collected from Behrouz A Forouzan, Data Communications and Networking, 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill.
• The terms protocol and system architecture, as well as service and application • The ideas behind layered model for communication systems • Principles behind
Internet model (TCP/IP protocol suite) ISO’s OSI model
Communicating Systems • Interoperability between different vendors. etc Solution: Standards Two systems that follow the same rules should function together o Independent of vendor and realisation method 4 . products.
.. criticize.Standards • Defined by public organizations (de juro) or by widespread use (de facto) Open standards o o Avaliable to everyone (but not necessarily for free) Everyone has the possibility to propose. and influence • Standards organizations ISO: International Organization for Standardization IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ANSI: American National Standards Institute ETSI: European Telecommunications Standard Institute ITU: International Telecommunication Union o ITU-T: International Telecommunication Union—Telecommunication Standards Sector EIA: Electronic Industries Association . 5 .
System Model • Standardisation requires a model of the system What functions should be performed o In what order But the model should not limit how the system can be realized o Standardize “what”. not “how”! 6 .
Layered Communication Models • Communication systems are complex Many different functions that interact with each other • Layering: divide the functions into different layers • A layer uses the services of another layer to perform its tasks 7 .
A Layered Model: Sending a Letter • Layers are independent Modify one without affecting the other 8 .
..Protocols • Rules for exchange of information o o Format (syntax) Meaning (semantics) • Communications functions o o Coding Control algorithms — Error control. o o o Security functions Timing Generally: distributed algorithms • Examples of protocols: IEEE 802. . IP. .11 (WLAN).. 9 .. flow control. congestion control. TCP. HTTP.
Services and Applications • Service What a network operator offers to customers (subscribers) • Application What the customer uses the service for • Examples Telephone connection o o Service: voice transmission Application: conversation between two parties Computer communication via modem o o Service: same as above plus Internet connectivity Application: Web browsing. file transfer. chat. e-mail. användning och applikation används synonymt 10 . etc • Svenskt språkbruk: Tillämpning.
Common Layered Network Models The Internet and model OSI model 11 .
Network Models • System structure o o o o o o Protocol functions Interfaces between protocols Separation of functions into layers Technology Application areas Security and charging systems • Examples o o o Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Internet protocols. TCP/IP suite Global system for mobile communications (GSM) 12 .
ISO’s OSI Model • Open Systems Interconnection • Seven layer model • Three key concepts Service Interface Protocol • Originates from early 80’s Protocol stack was never fully implemented and deployed 13 .
Internet Model • Also known as TCP/IP protocol suite 14 .
Communication Between Layers • Peer-to-peer processes Betwen protocols at the same layer in different devices Logical connection • Interfaces between layers Between adjacent layers in the same device Data is transfered by passing data and network information through layers o down (sending) or up (receiving) Communication takes place over well-defined interfaces 15 .
Communication Between Layers • Two types of communication between layers Peer-to-peer communication—same layer. different devices Communication over interfaces between layers—different layers. same device 16 .
Interfaces Between Layers • The interface of a layer defines how the layer above it can access it • Each layer has its own format for the Protocol Data Unit (PDU) • A layer in the sending device may add more protocol information to the data unit from the layer above Headers and trailers • A layer in the receiving device may strip off protocol information 17 .
Data Exchange • • A layer in the sender adds protocol information to the data Headers and trailers A layer in the receiver strips off protocol information 18 .
Function of Layers • Physical Layer • Data Link Layer • Network Layer • Transport Layer • Application Layer 19 .
ITU-T SDH (ANSI SONET) 20 . voltage levels o Transmission and reception of signals — digital modulation. for example EIA RS-232. line coding o Bit synchronization — Synchronous and asynchronous transmission • Standards.Physical Layer • Transmission of bits between nodes Wave guides (cables) for electrical and optical signals Unguided medium (free space) for radio and optical signals • Protocols Physical connection between device and medium o Mechanical and electrical interfaces — Connectors. cables.
Data Link Layer—Hop-to-Hop 21 .
including control information • Flow control Prevent receiver from being overrun • Error control Detect and (perhaps) retransmit damaged frames • Access control Which device may send on a shared link • Addressing 22 .Data Link Layer • Transmission of frames between nodes • Framing Divides bit stream into larger data units. frames o Ethernet frame up to 12.144 bits (1518 bytes).
Data Link Layer Frame Example 8-bit flag Header— address and control Data Trailer— error control 8-bit flag • Flags Bit sequence for frame synchronization • Addresses Source and destination • Control Sequence number o Transmitted and expected Link connect and disconnect acknowledgements • Trailer Bit sequence for detecting bit errors 23 .
SDLC 24 .11 Wireless LAN • IETF: Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) • IETF: Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) • ISO: High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) o o Link Access Procedure Balanced (LAP-B). ”Fast Ethernet” (100 Mb/s).Data Link Layer Standards • Ethernet Family of protocols ”Ethernet” (10 Mb/s). ”Gigabit Ethernet” (1 Gb/s) • IEEE 802.25 Normal Response Mode (NRM). ITU-T X.
Network Layer—Source-to-Destination 25 .
Network Layer • Delivery of packets from source to destination possibly across multiple links • Addressing ”Logical” addresses Unique within the network • Routing Calculation of paths between pairs of nodes • IETF: Internet Protocol (IP) 26 .
Transport Layer—Process-to-Process 27 .
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) • ISO: Transport Protocol Class 0 – 4 28 .Transport Layer • Delivery between end users (processes) Addressed by ports Reliable (connections) or non-reliable (datagrams) Flow control Reactive traffic control (prevent congestion) Error handling Connection set-up and tear-down • Segmentation and reassembly • IETF: Transport Control Protocol (TCP).
Application Layer • Provides services to the end user 29 .
OSI Model Session and Presentation Layer • Session layer Dialogs Multiplexing of data streams • Presentation layer Application-independent data representation (syntax) • Integrated into application/transport layers in Internet model 30 .
Summary • Concepts Protocol and network model Services and applications • Why layered models • Internet (TCP/IP) model • OSI model 31 .
” third edition. McGraw-Hill.3 32 .Reading Instructions • Behrouz A. 1 Introduction o 1. ”Data Communications and Networking.1-2.4 Standards 2 Network Models o 2. Forouzan.
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