Submitted for partial fulfillment of the award of




Under the guidance of:Mrs. Mona Sharma Mr. Gulshan Dubey


(U.P. Technical University, Lucknow (U.P.)

We hereby declare that the work being presented in this report entitled “Energy Scavenging from Vibrations” is an authentic record of our own work carried out under the supervision of Mrs. Mona Sharma. The matter embodied in this report has not been submitted by us for the award of any other degree.



This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidates is correct to the best my knowledge

Mrs. Annu Govind (H.O.D.) Date-

Mrs. Mona Sharma (SUPERVISOR) Asst. Professor (Electrical & Electronics) Date-


The successful completion of any project and also the report is the endeavor of all the people who support, help and faster doer of the process, without which the project remains a daunting player whose might is difficult to comprehend. I would like to thank the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engg. providing a path to explore my knowledge. We would like to express my deep sense of gratitude to Mrs. Annu Govind, HOD EN Department for giving me full support and guidance in completing the project. Moreover we wish to take this opportunity to express our sincere thanks and gratitude to Mrs. Mona Sharma (Asst. professor) from The department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and Mr. Gulshan Dubey(Asst. Professor) from the Electronics and Communication Engineering Dept., who is so generous in sharing his ideas and time, with extend beyond the duty of his department.


4 ABSTRACT The process of acquiring the energy surrounding a system and converting it into usable electrical energy is termed as power harvesting . large high frequency vibration may be present. The project targets the transformation of mechanical vibration into electrical energy using piezoelectric material . ex: water jet drilling. In some mining application. If successfully harvested this energy could be used to eliminate batteries in wireless sensors .it is possible to harvest from vibrating system . . the simulation of the model and prototype of power scavenging circuit.With piezoelectric materials .It has been proven that micro to mill watts of power can be generated from vibrating systems .This project presents a model of a piezoelectric transducer. The work is motivated by the need for pervasive and limitless power for wireless sensor nodes. a mechanical Vibration spectrum.The modeling and design of MEMS –scale piezoelectric based vibration energy harvester are presented.

1 Background 2.3 Battery Charging Circuitry 3. Introduction 1.3 Piezoelectric 3.1 Distributed Wireless Sensor Network 1.5 Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Model .2 Electromagnetic 3.2 Vibration Powered Generator 3.1 Vibration Energy Harvesting 3.4 Improving Power output 3.1 Electrostatic 3.2 Power generation Sources 2.3 Piezoelectric Generator Power 3. Methodology 3.2.5 Contents 1.2 Mechanical Vibrating System Design and Construction 2. Objective 2.2.2.

2 Polymer 4.2 Man made 4.3 HAR Silicon Micro mining 4.3 Application .3.6 The Piezoelectric Effect 3.1 Naturally Occurring 3.2 Principle Of operation 4.10.1 Materials for MEMS manufacturing 4.1.1 Bulk Micro mining 4.6 3.1 Background 4.2.9 Hooke’s Law 3.3 Metals Discovery of Piezoelectric Effect 3.1.10 Materials Surface Micro mining 4.2.1. Details of project work 4.3.2 MEMS manufacturing Tech.3 Micro Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS) 4.8 Mathematical Description 3.2.1 Silicon 4.

4.10 Micro Power Module 5.9 Charging Circuit 4.3 Sensor Design 4.1 The Future of Power Harvesting 5. Result and discussion 5.2 Current Scenario 5.6 Super Capacitor 4.8 Full Wave Rectifier 4.1 Contribution from Project 6.7 Zener Diode 4.2 Recommendation 7.4.2 Electrical Properties 4.5 Piezoelectric Buzzer 4.4 Sensing Material 4. Conclusion 6.4. References .7 4.3 Scope 5.4.4 Piezo-Electric Sensors 4.4 Energy Harvesting Application 6.1 Principle of Operation 4.

8 .

Schematic symbol and electronic model of piezo sensor 10. Piezo electric effect 7. Types of vibration power generation………………………………. Frequency response of piezo electric sensor 11.18 4. Spectrum of piezo device 12. Typical configuration of EDLC cell 16. EDLC charge storage mechanism 15.15 2. Basic construction of vibration scavenger ………………………….9 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. Schematic of electromagnetic scavenger ……………………………18 5.17 3. Construction of different types of capacitor 14. Zener diode 22 23 33 35 36 38 39 40 41 42 43 ... Schematic of an electrostatic scavenger with electrets…………….Basic capacitor construction 13.. Inverse piezo electric effect 8. Schematic of piezoelectric scavenger…………………………… 6. Piezoelectricity 9.

voltage curve 44 45 46 46 47 48 48 . Micro power module 23. Full wave register 19. Charging circuit 22. Time vs.10 17. Transfer characteristics of zener 18. Energy harvesting circuit 21. Working of diode bridge 20.

• Cb is the capicatance of piezoelectric bimorph. • W is the frequency of driving vibrations. • D is the electrical charge density displacement. • ε is permittivity . • S is strain. • tc is the thickness of one layer of of the piezo electric ceramic. • K2 is a geometric constant that relates average piezo electric material strain. • E is the electric field strength. • V is the voltage across load resistance. • K31 is the piezo electric coupling coefficient.11 LIST OF SYMBOLS • Cp is the elastic constant of the piezo electric cermic. • Wn the resonance frequency of generator. . • € is dielectric constant of piezo electric material. • R is the load resistance. s is stiffness and T is stress.

Such as rechargeable batteries or super capacitors can be a potential and promising alternative solution. Power consumption of tens to hundreds of Micro watts is predicted. This lowered power requirement has made self powered sensors nodes a possibility.1 Distributed Wireless Sensor Network Distributed wireless micro sensor network have been described as a system of ubiquitous. 1. automotive sensors and biomedical sensors require a miniaturized integrated distributed power supply to reduce potential problems. low cost. the rapid development of micro sensors for various applications including remote environmental monitoring.12 Chapter-1 Introduction Vibration powered electronic devices have been applied in several commercial project. In many of these micro sensors. Power solution envisioned . The electrical energy stored in the storage device can be readily used for low-power ICs or integrated distributed micro sensors. To solve this power supply problem. and supporting electronics. In recent years. the conversion of electrical energy from a vibrating source to a renewable storage device. A node can be defined as “A single physical device consisting of as sensor. Advances in low power DSP’s (Digital Signal Processors) and trends in VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) have reduced power requirement for the individual nodes. smart tennis racquet and smart sport shoes. and which is connected to a larger wireless network. Such as kinetic wristwatches. self organizing agent (or nodes) that work in a collaborative manner to solve complex problem. a transceiver. power supplies from chemical energy sources are undesirable due to limited shelf life and replacement accessibility.

1. an automobile or aircraft).2 μW/cm2 is generated for Temperature difference = 5 K and 8. Non-resonant Energy Harvester 2.13 for these self powered nodes will convert ambient energy into usable electrical energy. the axial-flow micro-turbine generator. and the focus of the current research. their conversion mechanism are clean (there is no pollution associated with the conversion process). and mechanical vibration energy harvesting. These sources have the advantages that they are essentially free. thermoelectric. Resonant Energy harvester .. Source types and harvesting technologies include solar.2 Power Generation Sources Ambient energy can be defined as energy that is not stored explicitly. acoustic energy harvesting. The final mechanism of energy harvesting to be discussed.6 μW/cm2 for Temperature difference = 10 K. and are discussed in following section.These devices can be divided into two groups : 1.g. is mechanical vibration energy harvesting. and the source has a potentially infinite lifespan. However. but is available in the device surroundings. 000 μW/cm2 indirect sunlight. Various sources of ambient energy have been explored. Low-level mechanical vibrations occur pervasively in the environment and high levels occur on machinery and vehicles (e. Thermoelectric energy harvesting devices generate electricity when placed in a temperature gradient. This is the same principle (the Seebeck effect) upon which a thermocouple works. Solar panels consist of photovoltaic cells and can generate up to 15. Some published results include: 2. their performance rapidly reduces to 150 μW/Cm2 on a cloudy day. Solar energy harvesting is the most common mechanism of energy harvesting.

. Regular vibrations are continuous with stable and well defined vibration spectra. such as vibrations generated by an unbalanced machine.14 These devices are most effective in different vibration regimes and are thus not competing. The non-resonant energy harvester is more efficient where the input contains very low frequency (< 10 Hz). irregular vibrations with amplitudes larger than the device critical dimensions. On the other hand. frequencies are higher (> 100 Hz). the resonant energy harvester finds application where the input vibrations are regular. Irregular vibrations are defined as inconsistent or discontinuous motions (such as the movements of a body). This configuration finds application in human movement energy harvesters (for example with wearable computing applications). Resonant energy harvesters are the focus of the current Project. and the input vibration amplitude is smaller than the device critical dimensions. but rather complimentary configurations.

vibrations generated by the traffic through bridges. e. The design of the prototype can be broke into following steps:1. The experimental measurements. e. For applications such as the ones found in many embedded systems the power requirements are often small (less than 100 mW). the use of watermills in ancient Greece. i.g. circa 4000 B. energy scavenging. or the motions of people as they walk.15 Chapter-2 Objective 2.1 Background: Energy harvesting or the process of acquiring energy from the surrounding environment has been a continuous human endeavor throughout history.C. The project objective is to design a prototype of energy harvesting system using piezoelectric effect.e. and of sailboats by Phoenicians and Egyptians. The design and construction of a mechanical vibrating system 2. Piezoelectric materials become electrically polarized when subjected to mechanical strain and the degree of polarization is proportional to the applied strain. data acquisition and analysis . These days there is an increasing interest to harvest energy at a much smaller scale. Piezoelectric materials are great candidates for energy scavenging using vibrations from the surrounding environment.g.

The use of an energy harvesting circuitry to charge a battery. 2.16 3.3 Battery charging circuitry Chapter-3 .2 Mechanical vibrating system design and construction The design component of this project is the construction of a vibrating system that will be used with experiments on energy harvesting using a piezo buzzer. 2. Design a test station that generates vibrations of different amplitudes and frequencies. A gear train needs to be designed to for the vibrating system to match as closely as possible the given resonant frequency of a piezo buzzer.

The generated power will be delivered to an external load. The most common approach to couple the mechanical movement to the generator is to an inertial system. having a spring connected to the Vibrating frame and a mass suspended by the spring (Fig 1). Electrostatic 2. The vibrations consist of travelling waves and it is often not possible to find a relative movement within the reach of a small generator. Electromagnetic 3.17 Methodology 3.1 Vibration Energy harvesting In order to able to convert Vibration energy into electrical energy there has to be a movement between the mechanical parts of the generator. There are three different kinds of generators that can be used: 1. This way. the motion of the mass with respect to the frame can be converted to power by the electromechanical generator. Piezoelectric .

2 Vibration Powered generators 1.18 Fig 1: Basic construction of a vibration scavenger Below is an explanation of how the different generators work. 3. Electrostatic .

. The electrets provides a polarization voltage. Electromagnetic 3. The fins of one side of the capacitor are attached to a suspended proof mass and move with vibrations while the other side of the capacitor is fixed to the glass wafer. Electrostatic An electrostatic generator (Fig 3) consists of a variable capacitor with fin type plates and an electret1.1. Piezoelectric Fig 2: Types of Vibration power generator 3.2. which is needed to initially Charge the electrodes.19 2.

causing an increase in current. However.2. the total electrical energy Stored in the capacitor increases. Electromagnetic The electromagnetic working principle is based on the relative motion of a magnetic mass and a coil. stored. high voltages can be generated which may harm the switches or the microelectronics.20 Fig 3: schematic of an electrostatic scavenger with electrets The capacitor has a value that changes as a function of displacement as the device resonates with the vibration. and as the plates contract again. This is harvested. This redistribution of charge makes a current flow through the load. given by: I = dQ/dt = d(C(z)V)/dt As the plates move further apart. capacitance increases. the cycle is repeated.2. the Generators need an advanced control system in order to regulate the power switches. One of the main advantages of electrostatic energy converters is that their technology is compatible with CMOS technology. Also. . 3.

21 Fig 4 : Schematic Of electromagnetic scavenger An electro-motive force (e.f.Piezoelectric This type of scavenger makes use of the fact that a piezoelectric material generates an electric field when it is stressed mechanically.This electric field is related to stress by the materials “g” coefficients.3. on the other hand.m.m.f. are that its fabrication techniques are not compatible with CMOS technology and the converters generate relatively low e. and the displacement of the mass depends on the design of the system. The e.f.3. nor does it need controlling or sensing electronics to manage the power switches. The only thing needed to regulate the e. Its disadvantages. is a diode bridge.) is induced across a coil if the magnetic flux coupled to the inductor changes as a function of time.m.f.m. g = Open circuit electric field/ applied mechanical stress . Electromagnetic conversion has some advantages and disadvantages compared to electrostatic conversion. The relationship between the e. 3.m. the magnetic field density and the velocity of the motion. Its advantages are that it doesn’t need an external voltage source or electret.f. is proportional to the coil’s total number of turns. whose units are [V/m]/[ N/m2].

That’s why the generator is often mounted on a long thin cantilever beam: as the beam/mass structure oscillates. It is necessary to polarize both sides at once since heating one side will result in heating of the other side.-des after heating it up to 150°C.22 Output voltage is calculated by multiplying the electric field by the thickness of ceramic between electrodes. the relationship for power output as a function of input vibration amplitude and frequency is: .3 Piezoelectric Generator Power When a resistor is connected across the device electrodes. The piezoelectric layer is polarized by applying a field through the electro. A voltage then appears across the capacitor and a current will flow through the load. It is not possible to connect the piezoceramic element directly between the mass and the frame because it is a stiff material and would result in having a generator with a very high resonance frequency. the piezoelectric layer adhered to the surface of the beam deforms and causes a charge to be displaced across the capacitor electrodes positioned on the top and bottom surfaces of the piezoelectric elements. Roundy and colleagues have shown that piezoelectric scavengers produce highest level of practical power output. Fig 5: schematic Of piezoelectric scavenger 3.

23 .


Power output is maximized when the driving frequency is operating at the resonance frequency of the generator. That frequency depends on the stiffness and the mass of the beam according to:

3.4 Improving power Output
There are three basic approaches to improving power output from a Piezoelectric cantilever scavenger:The first is to modify the cantilever geometry to produce more strain. This can be accomplished by making a cantilever beam which is longer and narrower or by increasing the proof mass. But because of the brittle nature of piezoelectric ceramics, too much strain will damage them. Second approach is to increase the width/thickness of the piezoelectric material, but this stiffens the beam, reducing overall strain and increasing resonant frequency. Most biomedical applications target frequencies in the 10s of Hz, so a low resonant frequency is essential.


The third approach seems to be the most viable: tuning the resonant frequency of the device to match the frequency of excitation. In cases where the excitation frequency changes (which is true in most practical applications— particularly biomedical), this calls for either widebandwidth designs which are optimized for a wider range of frequencies or adaptive self-tuning mechanisms which can detect excitation frequencies and adjust the cantilever’s resonant frequency to match. The only practical wide-bandwidth design approach involves multiple cantilevers with different resonant frequencies. The obvious problem with this approach is that it increases size and decreases the power-to-volume ratio. Since size is of utmost importance in a biomedical application, we are left with adaptive Self tuning. There are two methods of self tuning, which Roundy calls “active” and “passive”. Active tuning mechanisms run continuously to match the cantilever’s resonant frequency to the excitation frequency. Electronic springs are an example. Passive tuning mechanisms tune the cantilever and then turn off. In other words, no power is required to maintain the desired resonant frequency once it has been set. An example would be a variable/moveable proof mass or a mechanism that adjusts the length of the beam. It has been mathematically shown that active tuning mechanisms will never be practical because the power gains they provide will never be enough to offset the power they require to operate . Therefore, passive tuning is the only viable approach.

3.5 Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Model
This project represent the design and fabrication of piezoelectric power generator to be used as a power source for MEMS(Micro Electrical Mechanical Systems).The system scavenges environmental vibrations and convert it into electrical power through a piezoelectric transduction. Coupled electromechanical models are developed for design and performance prediction of a micro-scale piezoelectric energy harvester and for validation to macro-scale harvester experiments.


3.6 The Piezoelectric Effect
Piezoelectricity is the ability of certain materials to produce a voltage when subjected to a mechanical stress .When these materials are subjected to a mechanical force, their crystal become electrically polarized. The polarities for the tensile and compressive forces are opposite and the polarity is proportional to the applied force. The converse relationship is also true: When the crystalline material is subjected to an electric field it lengthens or shortens according to the polarity of the electric field. The latter is known as the inverse piezoelectric effect. Materials with crystals that have a dipole are termed piezoelectric materials.

Fig 6 : Piezoelectric Effect

Fig 7 : Inverse Piezoelectric Effect

generation of high voltages. Piezoelectricity is found in useful applications such as the production and detection of sound.8 Mathematical Description .27 3. Piezoelectric effect can be understood as the linear electro mechnical interaction between the mechanical and the electrical state in crystalline materials with no inversion symmetry. and ultrafine focusing of optical assemblies. microbalances. 3. electronic frequency generation. Pierre Curie (15 May 1859 – 19 April1906) was a French physicist who received a Nobel prize in Physics in 1903. It is also the basis of a number of scientific instrumental techniques with atomic resolution.7 Discovery of Piezoelectric Effect The effect known as piezoelectricity was Discovered by brothers Pierre and Jacques Curie when they were 21 and 24 years old in 1880.

28 Piezoelectricity is the combined effect of the electrical behavior of the material Where D is the electrical charge density displacement. or constant. of which the strain charge form is where [d] is the matrix for the direct piezoelectric effect and [dt] is the matrix for the converse piezoelectric effect. the superscript T indicates a zero.9 Hooke’s Law Where S is strain. stress field. ε is permittivity and E is the electric field strength. s is stiffness and T is stress. These may be combined into so called coupled equations. 3. Exhibit piezoelectricity . and the subscript t stands for transposition of a matrix. or constant. 3.10 Materials Many material both natural and man made . The superscript E indicates a zero. electric field.

29 3.10.1 Background .2 Man-made crystals • • Gallium orthophosphate (GaPO4). a quartz analogic crystal Chapter-4 Details of Project report work 4.10.1 Naturally-occurring crystals • • • • • • Berlinite (AlPO4). a quartz analogic crystal Langasite (La3Ga5SiO14). a rare phosphate mineral that is structurally identical to quartz Cane sugar Quartz Rochelle salt Topaz Tourmaline-group minerals 3.

2. The final module is the power storage architecture which stores the generated power into a battery or a capacitor efficiently for application specific end use. Piezoelectric materials become electrically polarized when subjected to mechanical strain and the degree of polarization is proportional to the applied strain.2 Project Overview and Design Content The design process can be broke into following steps:1. For applications such as the ones found in many embedded systems the power requirements are often small (less than 100 mW). The second part is the power processor module that effectively processes the converted energy into a form of DC power. or the motions of people as they walk.g. and of sailboats by Phoenicians and Egyptians. The design and construction of a mechanical vibrating system. energy scavenging.g. The use of an energy harvesting circuitry to charge a battery. vibrations generated by the traffic through bridges. Joule Thief TM is made up of a composite beam that consists of a cantilever shim with an attached piezoelectric layer . The experimental measurements.30 Energy harvesting or the process of acquiring energy from the surrounding environment has been a continuous human endeavor throughout history.e. circa 4000 B. e.C. 3.2 Principle of Operation Any vibration based energy harvester can be primarily divided into three parts. 4. These days there is an increasing interest to harvest energy at a much smaller scale. The first part consists of the power generator module which converts the ambient mechanical energy into an electrical equivalent energy. i. the use of watermills in ancient Greece. 4. e. The fundamental concept for piezoelectric energy harvesting involves a piezoelectric layer attached to a vibrating mechanical structure that converts the strain energy into induced electric charge. Piezoelectric materials are great candidates for energy scavenging using vibrations from the surrounding environment.

AdaptivEnergy’s Joule-Thief™ achieves exactly the same requirement using their core RLP® technology. The stress biasing technique effectively places the piezoceramic element in the device under compression. Consequently.31 and a proof mass at its end.3 Micro Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Micro Electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) (also written as micro-electromechanical. Therefore. MicroElectroMechanical or microelectronic and microelectromechanical systems) is the technology of very small . This unique feature of RLP® products provides a great advantage over other systems. Since the ambient surroundings have a definite amount of energy in amplitude and frequencies. The proof mass essentially converts the input base acceleration into an effective inertial force at the tip that deflects the beam. The primary reason for this choice is based on the goal to maximize the stress/strain in the piezoelectric layer for a given fixed vibration input. the need to maximize the strain the piezoelectric layer is essential as the voltage generated in the piezoceramic is proportional to the strain induced. the fundamental optimization in the mechanical device would be to generate maximum power for a given source. the operation range and strain limits for failure for the piezoelectric layer is extended further. places the whole structure in an accelerating frame of reference. The device when directly attached to a vibrating surface. AdaptivEnergy has spent years of research in developing a lamination technique for producing stress biased piezoelectric composites in various sizes and shapes. the device exceeds in performance and reliability resulting in a robust product that can survive harsh environments for extended periods of time. The cantilever configuration is chosen over other designs such as circular plate/membrane configurations or fixed-fixed plate/beam designs. thereby inducing mechanical strain in the piezoelectric layer. 4. This strain produces an effective voltage in the layer that is converted into usable power with the help of a power processor. Consequently.

0. the microprocessor and several components that interact with the outside such as micro sensors.e. MEMS are also referred to as micromachines (in Japan). surface effects such as electrostatics and wetting dominate volume effects such as inertia or thermal mass. As well as making for highly repeatable motion.3.001 to 0.32 mechanical devices driven by electricity.MEMS are separate and distinct from the hypothetical vision of molecular nanotechnology or molecular electronics. silicon is an almost perfect Hookean material. patterning of these layers by photolithography and then etching to produce the required shapes.1 Materials for MEMS manufacturing 4.1 Silicon Silicon is the material used to create most integrated circuits used in consumer electronics in the modern world.MST (in Europe). or Micro Systems Technology . ready availability of cheap high-quality materials and ability to incorporate electronic functionality make silicon attractive for a wide variety of MEMS applications.3. 4. meaning that when it is flexed there is virtually no hysteresis and hence almost no energy dissipation. this also makes silicon very reliable as it suffers very little fatigue and can have service lifetimes in the range of billions to trillions of cycles without breaking. They usually consist of a central unit that processes data.1. the standard constructs of classical physics are not always useful.1. it merges at the nano-scale into nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and nanotechnology.1 mm) and MEMS devices generally range in size from 20 micrometers (20 millionths of a metre) to a millimeter. 4. In single crystal form. The basic techniques for producing all silicon based MEMS devices are deposition of material layers. Silicon also has significant advantages engendered through its material properties. The economies of scale.3. MEMS are made up of components between 1 to 100 micrometers in size (i. At these size scales. Because of the large surface area to volume ratio of MEMS.2 Polymers .

1.3 Metals Metals can also be used to create MEMS elements.3. chromium.3.33 Even though the electronics industry provides an economy of scale for the silicon industry.3. MEMS devices can be made from polymers by processes such as injection molding. While metals do not have some of the advantages displayed by silicon in terms of mechanical properties.3. The whole thickness of a silicon wafer is used for building the micromechanical structures.1 Bulk micromachining Bulk micromachining is the oldest paradigm of silicon based MEMS. 4. Anodic bonding of glass plates or additional silicon wafers is used for adding features in the third dimension and for hermetic encapsulation. with a great variety of material characteristics. copper.Commonly used metals include gold. Metals can be deposited by electroplating. and silver. embossing or stereo lithography and are especially well suited to micro fluidic applications such as disposable blood testing cartridges. Polymers on the other hand can be produced in huge volumes.2 Surface micromachining . titanium. metals can exhibit very high degrees of reliability. and sputtering processes. Bulk micromachining has been essential in enabling high performance pressure sensors and accelerometers that have changed the shape of the sensor industry in the 80's and 90's.2 MEMS manufacturing Technologies 4.2. Silicon is machined using various etching processes. 4.2. nickel. 4. evaporation. aluminum. platinum. tungsten. when used within their limitations. crystalline silicon is still a complex and relatively expensive material to produce.

automotive air-bag systems and other applications where low performance and/or high granges are sufficient. The consensus of the industry at the . in HAR silicon micromachining the thickness can be from 10 to 100 µm. A new etching technology. But in many cases the distinction between these two has diminished. anodic bonding or alloy bonding is used to protect the MEMS structures. with the goal of combining MEMS and integrated circuits on the same silicon wafer. has made it possible to combine good performance typical of bulk micromachining with comb structures and in-plane operation typical of surface micromachining.34 Surface micromachining uses layers deposited on the surface of a substrate as the structural materials. rather than using the substrate itself.g. This MEMS paradigm has enabled the manufacturing of low cost accelerometers for e. The materials commonly used in HAR silicon micromachining are thick polycrystalline silicon. known as epi-poly. The original surface micromachining concept was based on thin polycrystalline silicon layers patterned as movable mechanical structures and released by sacrificial etching of the underlying oxide layer. 4. ink-jet nozzles. Bonding a second wafer by glass frit bonding.3.3 High aspect ratio (HAR) silicon micromachining Both bulk and surface silicon micromachining are used in the industrial production of sensors. and bonded silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers although processes for bulk silicon wafer also have been created (SCREAM). Analog Devices have pioneered the industrialization of surface micromachining and have realized the co-integration of MEMS and integrated circuits. Integrated circuits are typically not combined with HAR silicon micromachining. deep reactive-ion etching. and other devices.2. Surface micromachining was created in the late 1980s to render micromachining of silicon more compatible with planar integrated circuit technology. While it is common in surface micromachining to have structural layer thickness in the range of 2 µm. Interdigital comb electrodes were used to produce in-plane forces and to detect in-plane movement capacitively.

various Nokia mobile phone models. Sensor Actuator Structure In another view point MEMS applications are categorized by the field of application (commercial applications include): Inkjet printers.3 Applications In one viewpoint MEMS application is categorized by type of use. Accelerometers in modern cars for a large number of purposes including airbag deployment in collisions. personal media players / cell phones (Apple iPhone. various HTC PDA models)[11] and a . which use piezoelectric or thermal bubble ejection to deposit ink on paper. 4. Accelerometers in consumer electronics devices such as game controllers (Nintendo Wii). A comparison of different high-aspect-ratio microstructure technologies can be found in the HARMST article.35 moment seems to be that the flexibility and reduced process complexity obtained by having the two functions separated far outweighs the small penalty in packaging.3.

e.4 Piezoelectric Sensors Piezoelectric sensor is a device that uses the piezoelectric effect to measure pressure.. Strain or force by converting them to an electrical signal.g.36 number of Digital Cameras (various Canon Digital IXUS models). which is used for switching technology and alignment for data communications Bio-MEMS applications in medical and health related technologies from Lab-On-Chip to MicroTotalAnalysis (biosensor. and disposable blood pressure sensors Displays e.g. the DMD chip in a projector based on DLP technology. to prevent damage and data loss. used to create interferometric modulation . In this project we are using a Piezo buzzer to convert Vibration present in the environment to electricity. . acceleration. Also used in PCs to park the hard disk head when free-fall is detected. car tire pressure sensors... to deploy a roll over bar or trigger dynamic stability control[12] Silicon pressure sensors e. 4.g. MEMS gyroscopes used in modern cars and other applications to detect yaw. which has a surface with several hundred thousand micro mirrors Optical switching technology. chemo sensor) Interferometric modulator display (IMOD) applications in consumer electronics (primarily displays for mobile devices).reflective display technology as found in mirasol displays.

1 Principle of Operation Depending on how a piezoelectric material is cut. and shear. longitudinal. 1.4. Transverse Effect A force is applied along a neutral axis (y) and the charges are generated along the (x) direction. When dimensions a. where a is the dimension in line with the neutral axis. Cx = dxyFyb / a. three main modes of operation can be distinguished: transverse.37 Fig 8 : Piezoelectricity 4. The amount of charge depends on the geometrical dimensions of the respective piezoelectric element.b. perpendicular to the line of force.c apply. b is in line with the charge generating axis and d is the corresponding piezoelectric coefficient .

the charges produced are strictly proportional to the applied forces and are independent of the element’s size and shape. Shear Effect Again. where dxx is the piezoelectric coefficient for a charge in x-direction released by forces applied along x-direction (in pC/N). Fx is the applied Force in x-direction [N] and n corresponds to the number of stacked elements . 4. In contrast to the longitudinal and shear effects. both increasing the .4. I is the insulation leakage resistance of the transducer element. 3. For n elements mechanically in series and electrically in parallel the charge is Cx = 2dxxFxn. this also acts in parallel with the insulation resistance. If the sensor is connected to a load resistance. The inductance Lm is due to the seismic mass and inertia of the sensor itself.2 Electrical Properties A piezoelectric transducer has very high DC output impedance and can be modeled as a proportional voltage source and filter network. the transverse effect opens the possibility to fine-tune sensitivity on the force applied and the element dimension. Using several elements that are mechanically in series and electrically in parallel is the only way to increase the charge output. The voltage V at the source is directly proportional to the applied force. Longitudinal Effect The amount of charge produced is strictly proportional to the applied force and is independent of size and shape of the piezoelectric element. The output signal is then related to this mechanical force as if it had passed through the equivalent circuit. Ce is inversely proportional to the mechanical elasticity of the sensor. C0 represents the static capacitance of the transducer. resulting from an inertial mass of infinite size. pressure.38 2. The resulting charge is Cx = dxxFxn. or strain.

Fig 9 : schematic symbol and electronic model of a piezoelectric sensor 4. a thin membrane and a massive base is used. For accelerometers. The load and leakage resistance need to be large enough that low frequencies of interest are not lost. the flat region of the frequency response plot is typically used. the most common are pressure and acceleration.4. It can also be modeled as a charge source in parallel with the source capacitance. between the high-pass cutoff and the resonant peak. determined by the standard formula for capacitance of parallel plates. the invariant seismic mass loads the elements according to Newton’s second law of motion F = ma.3 Sensor Design Based on piezoelectric technology various physical quantities can be measured. A simplified equivalent circuit model can be used in this region.39 high-pass cutoff frequency. with the charge directly proportional to the applied force. in which Cs represents the capacitance of the sensor surface itself.For use as a sensor. When the accelerometer experiences a motion. . ensuring that an applied pressure specifically loads the elements in one direction. a seismic mass is attached to the crystal elements. For pressure sensors.

the acceleration signal (released from the compensation element) is subtracted from the combined signal of pressure and acceleration to derive the true pressure information. Pressure sensors show false signal when they are exposed to vibrations. Sensors often tend to be sensitive to more than one physical quantity. This is accomplished by using piezoelectric materials to convert mechanical strain into usable electrical energy. By carefully matching those elements. while in accelerometers the forces are applied by an attached seismic mass.Piezoelectric ceramics .4 Sensing Material Two main groups of materials are used for piezoelectric sensors: 1. Sophisticated pressure sensors therefore use acceleration compensation elements in addition to the pressure sensing elements.40 The main difference in the working principle between these two cases is the way forces are applied to the sensing elements.Vibration sensors can be used to harvest otherwise wasted energy from mechanical vibrations. In a pressure sensor a thin membrane is used to transfer the force to the elements.4. Fig 10: Frequency response of a piezoelectric sensor 4.

/ 30cm / 9VDC • Oscillating Frequency: abt.Single crystal materials The ceramic materials (such as PZT ceramic) have a piezoelectric constant sensitivity that is roughly two orders of magnitude higher than those of single crystal materials and can be produced by inexpensive sintering processes.41 2. they push on one conductor and pull on the other. / 9VDC . 2. When a sound wave is passed. they create an electric signal that is passed on to an audio amplifier. Electrical Specifications: • Sound Pressure Level: 97dB min. quartz. The degradation is highly correlated with temperature. In this project a vibrating Module interact with the Piezo buzzer and it convert Mechanical Vibrations into Electricity. so unfortunately their high sensitivity degrades over time. The piezoeffect in piezoceramics is "trained". tourmaline) have a much higher – when carefully handled.9 or 3. When a voltage is applied to these crystals. almost infinite – long term stability 4. like signaling when a period of time is up or making a sound when a particular button has been pushed. These buzzers can be used for many things. The less sensitive crystal materials (gallium phosphate. The result of this push and pull is a sound wave. The process can also be reversed to use as a guitar pickup.05KHz / 9VDC • Current Consumption: 20mA max.5 Piezoelectric Buzzer A Piezo buzzer is made from two conductors that are separated by Piezo crystals.

0 gms • Tone: Dual . Mechancial Specifications: • Operating Temperature: -20°C to +70°C • Storage Temperature: -40°C to +85°C Materials: • Case: PC (UL 94V-2) • Lead Wire: UL 1007 26AWG • Weight: 15.42 • Operating Voltage: 5 to 20VDC.

.6 Super Capacitor Capacitor is a device that can store electrical charge.43 Fig 11 : Spectrum of a piezo device The time signal shows the voltage output when the piezo device is subjected to motion with a vibrator built by the instructors. The frequency signal (the spectrum) shows the frequency components or content of the time signal.In a capacitor equal amount of positive and negative charges are stored on two separate conductors. 4.

They are complementary to batteries as they deliver high power density and low energy density. • Other function is to block the flow of DC. Super capacitor or Electric double layer capacitor (EDLC). Capacitors have two main application:• One of which is a function to charge or discharge electricity. . This has led to new concepts of the so-called hybrid charge storage devices in which electrochemical capacitor is interfaced with a fuel cell or a battery.44 Fig 12 : Basic capacitor construction In this project we are using a super capacitor for Charge storage. where the electric charge stored at a metal/electrolyte interface is exploited to construct a storage device. They also have longer cycle life than batteries and possess higher energy density as compared to conventional capacitors. The interface can store a Electric charge in order of ~1000000 farad. These capacitors using carbon as the main electrode material for both anode and cathode with organic and aqueous electrolytes are commercialized and used in day to-day applications the main electrode material for both anode and cathode with organic and aqueous electrolytes are commercialized and used in day today applications.

engine start or acceleration for hybrid vehicles and electricity storage generated from solar or wind energy. EDLC works on the principle of double-layer capacitance at the electrode/electrolyte interface where electric charges are accumulated on the electrode surfaces and ions of opposite charge are arranged on the electrolyte side. EDLCs fill up the gap between the batteries and the conventional capacitor. which can store much more energy than conventional capacitors and offer much higher power density than batteries.. loadleveling. backup power sources for electronic devices.45 Fig 13 : Construction of Different type of capacitors Electric/electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) is a unique electrical storage device. .e. allowing applications for various power and energy requirements i.

the electrode material consist of either transition metal oxides or mixtures of carbon and metal oxides/polymers. whereas the super capacitor sustains a Faradic reaction between the electrode and the electrolyte in a suitable potential window. . The electrolytes can be either aqueous or Non-aqueous depending on the mode of construction of EDLC cell. Thus the electrode material used for the construction of the cell for the former is mainly carbon material while for the latter.46 Fig 14 : EDLC charge storage mechanism There are two main types of double layer capacitors as classified by the charge storage mechanism: (1) Electrical double-layer capacitor (2) Electrochemical double layer capacitor or super/pseudo-capacitor An EDLC stores energy in the double-layer at the electrode/electrolyte interface.

47 Fig 15 : Typical configuration of an EDLC cell .

In case of large forward bias (current in the direction of the arrow). When the reverse bias breakdown voltage is exceeded. a diode with a Zener breakdown voltage of 3. The device was named after Clarence Zener.2 V will exhibit a voltage drop of very nearly 3.7 ZENER Diode A Zener diode is a type of diode that permits current not only in the forward direction like a normal diode. Unless this current is limited by circuitry. a reverse-biased Zener diode will exhibit a controlled breakdown and allow the current to keep the voltage across the Zener diode close to the Zener breakdown voltage. the diode will be permanently damaged due to overheating. The Zener diode is therefore ideal for applications such as the generation of a reference voltage (e. the diode exhibits a voltage drop due to its junction built-in voltage and internal resistance. A Zener diode exhibits almost the same properties. but also in the reverse direction if the voltage is larger than the breakdown voltage known as "Zener knee voltage" or "Zener voltage". who discovered this electrical property. the so-called Zener voltage. for an amplifier stage). By contrast with the conventional device.g. For example. The amount of the voltage drop depends on the semiconductor material and the doping concentrations.48 4. a conventional diode is subject to high current due to avalanche breakdown. or as a voltage stabilizer for low-current applications. A conventional solid-state diode will not allow significant current if it is reverse-biased below its reverse breakdown voltage. . except the device is specially designed so as to have a greatly reduced breakdown voltage.2 V across a wide range of reverse currents.

In the project we are using a ZENER Diode in the Energy .49 Fig 16 : Zener Diode Fig : 17 Transfer characteristic Of zener Diode Current-voltage characteristic of a Zener diode with a breakdown voltage of 17 volts.

which periodically reverses direction. and other components. four diodes are required instead of the one needed for half-wave rectification. vacuum tube diodes. Rectifiers may be made of solid state diodes. and is more efficient.50 harvesting Circuit For the protection of Super Capacitor. Full-wave rectification converts both polarities of the input waveform to DC (direct current). mercury arc valves. which is in only one direction. However. in a circuit with a non-center tapped transformer. to direct current (DC). Rectifiers have many uses including as components of power supplies and as detectors of radio signals. a process known as rectification.8 Full Wave Rectifier A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC). It is connected in parallel with the super capacitor. 4. A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input waveform to one of constant polarity (positive or negative) at its output.Four diodes arranged this way are called a diode bridge or bridge rectifier Fig 18 : Full wave Rectifier The average and root-mean-square output voltages of an ideal single phase full wave rectifier can be calculated as: .

So a Diode bridge is used to convert DC from AC.51 Fig 19: Working of Diode Bridge Energy generated from the piezo buzzer is A. 4.But for the Charging of battery we need DC energy.9 Charging Circuit .C.

.47F 5.52 Fig 20:Energy harvesting Circuit A super capacitor (0. A Zener diode (BZX85‐C5V6) is used to protect the super capacitor .5v) is used to store electric Charge.

.10 Micro power Module Consists of the piezoelectric scavenger and an energy storage system composed of a super capacitor and a rechargeable battery . The AC/DC converter consists of a rectifier built with diodes.53 Fig 21 : Charging Circuit 4.

54 Fig 22 : Micro Power Module .

. Fig 23 : Time Vs Voltage curve The graphs below show the data points of the battery’s charge every 5 minutes till we reached the half hour mark . 5.1 The Future of Power Harvesting The idea of carrying electronic devices such as a portable radio and never worrying about when the batteries will need to be replaced could be far closer than one would think.55 Chapter-5 Result and Discussion The goal of this project was to build an energy harvesting device that would charge a battery over a period of a half hour. Once we found out which voltage did best with both of our designs. leaving only one limitation before these devices can become a reality. We realized that our design would both have to produce a charge and hold together for a half hour while getting vibrated the whole time Different voltages are given to Vibrating structure to change the Vibrating Frequency. This thought has caused the desire for self powered electronics to grow quickly. it was time to see which of the two would charge the battery best.

methods of increasing the amount of energy generated by the power harvesting device or developing new and innovative methods of accumulating the energy are the key technologies that will allow power harvesting to become a source of power for portable electronics and wireless sensors. the intended location of the power harvesting system must be identified so that its placement can be optimized and the excitation range realized to allow for tuning of the power harvesting device. However. However.56 The one issue that still needs to be resolved is a method to generate sufficient energy to power the necessary electronics. Therefore. Much of the early research into power harvesting looked to the capacitor as a method of storing energy and powering electronics. causing the electrical output of such circuitry to switch on and off as the capacitor charges and discharges. Additionally. However. By tuning the power harvesting medium with the structure the excitation can be made to maximize the strain of the piezoelectric material using the concept of resonance. This aspect of the capacitor is not suitable for powering computational electronics. the rechargeable battery can be charged and then used to run any number of electronic devices for an extended period of time while being continuously charged by ambient motion. with the advances in power harvesting that have been outlined in this paper the ability to obtain and accumulate the necessary amount of energy to power such devices is clearly possible. . the capacitor has poor power storage characteristics due to its quick discharge time. Innovations in power storage such as the use of rechargeable batteries with piezoelectric materials must be discovered before power harvesting technology will see widespread use. the efficiency of the power harvesting circuitry must be maximized to allow the full amount of energy generated to be transferred to the storage medium. Gains in this area are a necessity for the successful use of piezoelectric materials as power harvesting devices. The continuous advances that are being made in low power electronics must be studied and utilized to both optimize power flow from the piezoelectric and minimize circuit losses. The major limitations facing researchers in the field of power harvesting revolve around the fact that the power generated by piezoelectric materials is far too small to power most electronics. One recent advance that shows great promise for power harvesting is the use of rechargeable batteries as a means of accumulating the energy generated during power harvesting. Furthermore.

com Piezotag Ltd. UK) Piezotag has developed a tyre pressure Monitoring system that is based on the piezoelectric effect-energy is harvested from the roatation of the . thus allowing the contributions and in flow of ideas to increase. The group have demonstrated the first working electrostatic and also invented a type of generator architect that is insensitive to frequency and presented a unified analytic framework. The control and power group at imperial college covered several areas. Commercial Organizations:Perpetuum Ltd.The products use electromagnetic energy harvesting techniques offering a good combination of simplicity .The team has investigated various energy harvesting techniques and made a number of break through .57 Finally. With the advances in wireless technology and low power electronics. Examples include installation at shell gas plant in Norway. power harvesting is the missing link for completely self-power systems.Dept. integrated circuits and multi domain system modeling.low cost and reliable operation. Perpetuum is a world-leading vibration energy harvesting company funded in 2004.The group developed a generator. including MEMS. WEB : www. Imperial college London. University of Southampton: school of electronics and computer science This university has a long record in energy harvesting research and one of the largest team in the world .(Conventry. practical applications for power harvesting systems such as wireless sensors and self-power damage detection units must be clearly identified to encourage growth in this area of research.perpetuum. 5.2 Current Scenario Organizations active in either carrying out research on Energy Harvesting technologies or in developing energy harvesting products and integrating energy harvesting into sensing element. of electrical and electronics engg. which is 10 times more powerful than any other similar device and is less than 1 cm3 in size.

they can initially be used to recharge batteries and gradually replace them as self-sufficient devices. their acceptance in the market depends on many factors such as performance metrics. Along with developments in materials and control electronics. It faces difficulty in penetrating the market as it is still in the early prototyping or early commercialization stage. these devices eliminate toxic waste from disposed batteries and provide the perfect solution to many countries that are implementing stringent rules to monitor power consumption and environmental waste. aerospace. funding for R&D and collaboration between manufacturers and technology developers. Additionally. defense and medical applications. By replacing batteries. automotive. they can be gradually used to power portable devices and utilized in buildings for lighting and temperature control. as opposed to battery technology. growing awareness among consumers to use environmental friendly technology further strengthens demand. Although micro-level energy harvesting technologies are very new compared to batteries. Low output power and below-par efficiency of energy harvesting systems currently limit the application scope of energy harvesting technology.3 Scope Energy harvesting technologies such as piezoelectric. Starting with lowpower sensor applications. which is well established. improvements in energy harvesting technologies would allow these devices to provide reliable and constant power for industrial. Energy harvesting technology will be able to establish itself in the market place on dealing with most of these aspects." As energy harvesting technologies harness ambient and renewable sources of energy. . Although the future looks promising for these emerging eco-friendly energy harvesting technologies. thermoelectric and others will have potential applications in wireless sensor networks and low-power devices.The system transmits RF signals from the wheels to a receiver every 6s advising the driver of the current temperature and pressure of the tyres. consumer awareness of harnessing ambient energy. 5. researchers and manufacturers concentrate their efforts on the exploration of various kinds of energy sources and improve the performance characteristics.58 tyre.

Piezoelectric Energy harvesting can be used for Bio-Mems devices as a Biomechanical Energy Harvester. A better wireless power solution would be to harvest ambient mechanical. asset tracking and industrial automation.59 5. DARPA(Defense advanced research project agency) program concerns power MEMS designed to harvest vibration energy from the movement of wings. Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS)contain sensors for monitoring the external state of helicopters. . The vibration of the helicopter structure can be used to power low-power wireless electronic systems used in the HUMS modules. The main driver of this program is to eliminate the size and weight issues caused by the battery. The problem is that even wireless sensors require batteries that must be regularly replaced—a costly and cumbersome maintenance project.4 Energy harvesting Application Advances in low power technology are making it easier to create wireless sensor networks in a wide range of applications. from remote sensing to HVAC monitoring. thermal or electromagnetic energy from the sensor’s local environment.

60 Fig 24 : Biomedical Energy Harvester Self powered Wireless Sensors. Fig 25 : Self Powered Wireless sensors Wireless corrosion monitoring System .

whereby structural vibrations are directly converted into a voltage output by using an electrode piezoelectric material.61 Fig 26 : Corrosion Monitoring system Chapter-6 Conclusion There is little doubt that the field of vibration energy harvesting continues to expand apace. One major advantage is that this transduction principle is particularly well suited to micro engineering. Piezoelectric Generator These offer the simplest approach. There is no requirement for having complex geometries and numerous additional components. There is a wide range of piezoelectric materials available for different application environments. then it is possible to generate an electrical supply by using a micro-generator to harvest the mechanical excitation. If there are sufficient ambient vibrations available. . Piezoelectric generators are the simplest type of generator to fabricate and can be used in force and impact coupled harvesting applications. The piezoelectric method is capable of producing relatively high output voltages but only at low electrical currents. With the predicted proliferation of wireless sensor networks. since several processes exist for depositing piezoelectric films (thin and thick). Each of the technologies described in this review has their own advantages and disadvantages and these are now summarized. There are three main approaches that can be used to implement a vibration-powered generator. an alternative (or at least complementary) approach to battery power is required.

as this can be used to provide the necessary initial excitation level. Energy density of the generator can be increased by decreasing the capacitor spacing. High transduction damping. there are also problems associated with the assembly and alignment of submillimetre scale electromagnetic systems. There is a wide variety of spring/mass configurations that can be used with various types of material that arewell suited and proven in cyclically stressed applications. however. facilitating miniaturization. macro-scale coils are readily available. is achievable by incorporating small capacitor gaps and high voltages. electrostatic generators require an initial polarizing voltage or charge. is also decreased by reducing the capacitor surface area. the limitations on the number of turns achievable with planar coils and the restricted amplitude of vibration (hence magnet/coil velocity). The energy density. Electromagnetic Generator These offer a well-established technique of electrical power generation and the effect has been used for many years in a variety of electrical generators. The output impedance of the devices is often very high and this makes them less suitable as a power supply. The output impedance of piezoelectric generators is typically very high (>100 k). Also the transduction efficiency is ultimately limited by piezoelectric properties of materials employed. Highperformance bulk magnets and multi-turn. Unfortunately. however. Inevitably. The output voltage produced by the . Electro-Static Generator The electrostatic concept is easily realizable as a MEMS and much processing know-how exists on the realization of inplane and out-of-plane capacitors. at low frequencies.Wafer-scale systems. This is not an issue in applications that use the generator to charge a battery. Comparatively high output current levels are achievable at the expense of low voltages (typically <1 V).62 The piezoelectric materials are required to be strained directly and therefore their mechanical properties will limit overall performance and lifetime. Electrostatic generators can utilize electrets to provide the initial charge and these are capable of storing charge for many years. are quite difficult to achieve owing to the relatively poor properties of planar magnets.

the choice of material will have little affect on the maximum power extracted. to which the resonant energy harvester resonance frequencies are aligned. Take. macro scale) and the operating environment (e. the electrical response (voltage and current) is . Based on the dominant damping terms of the structure.63 devices is relatively high (>100 V) and often results in a limited currentsupplying implementation. battery-less industrial condition monitoring systems are already close to commercialization. the piezoelectric mode of operation has negligible effect on the maximum power extracted. A few years ago. Wireless. but are now capable of running wholly off solar power. Since these properties vary little for typical piezoelectric ceramics. however. since the dominant damping components differ for these conditions. such energy levels would have been considered as ‘unusable’. Modern-day VLSI circuit designs. the electronic calculator whose early form required several ‘AA’ sized cells. medical implants and smart clothing. The three main techniques of harvesting energy from ambient vibrations have been shown to be capable of generating output power levels in the range of μW to mW.1 Contribution from this project Ambient vibration sources were measured and it was found that vibration levels Suitable for harvesting exist in the frequency range below 300 Hz.vs. A simple dissipative model was developed to interpret the vibration spectra. Furthermore. Damping dependency on frequency is carefully considered. optimal input vibration frequencies(operating points) are identified (for maximum power harvesting). as an example. vacuum or atmospheric).g.. 6. However. Vibration-powered wireless sensor systems can be used in numerous scenarios and several research groups across the world are addressing possible uses in ambient intelligence. are being built with low-power operation in mind and many commercial circuits can now be used with energy harvesting solutions. Only piezoelectric material properties that affect the maximum power generated are the elastic stiffness and density. The selected operating point will depend on the device size (micro.

for high quality factors. This Project has focused on the design and modeling of a single harvester. The next step is to implement the harvester design with the rest of the power sub-system. it is likely desirable to incorporate a frequency-tuning mechanism into the harvester design. among others. consisting of conditioning circuitry and a storage device (battery).64 dependent on the piezoelectric coupling. High quality factors are achievable with MEMS resonators. However. very narrow response peaks are obtained. 6. which need to be aligned with the dominant frequency component of the vibration source. The resonant frequencies of the harvester need to be aligned to this low frequency.2 Recommendations Low-level. . The piezoelectric material choice and mode of operation will have a significant effect on the voltage/current performance and need to be considered once application-specific electrical requirements are imposed. low-frequency vibrations in the ambient have been targeted for harvesting in this project. which is a component of the power sub-system of the wireless node. Given the variability of ambient sources and micro fabrication processes.

Leonov. ULP meets energy harvesting: A gamechanging combination for design engineers. Whetten. V. Vullers.15. ” DOC: IEEE802. T.” www.65 Chapter-7 References 1.M. “Energy Harvesting Sensor Systems – A Proposed Application for 802. Sterken.be 4.imec.M.Imec.” Special Report in Microsystems & Nanosystems.R.4f. A. 2008 2.15-09/0074-00-004f . Nov. June 2006 3.imec. Schmitz.” www. “Micropower generation and storage.Imec. “Design for analog and RF technologies and systems.” Texas Instrument White Paper. Raju. OnBoard Technology.J.F. “Energy Harvesting. “Energy Scavengers For Wireless Intelligent Microsystems.be 5.

E. E.be/scavenger.R.. Van Hoof C. V.. J.M.“Vibration Scavenger” http://www. E..C. . Cossio.. 2005. Soliman. of Intl. pg. Vullers.html 8. S. M. B. 12.org/Electret 14. F. “Improving Power Output for Vibration-Based Energy Scavengers”. OnBoard Technology Magazine.wikipedia. 10. of Sensors.” EDN. “Piezoelectric Terminology” http://www. Leonov. Mansour. March 20. J. Baert K. Borghs G.S. IEEE Pervasive Computing. Lai.. S.1. IEEE Proc. Puers R. El-Saadany..powermems. Rabaey. Schmitz.. “Energy Scavenging for Wirelss Sensor Networks: with Special Focus on Vibrations”. an Overview”. Rabaey. Conf onMechatronics and Automation.66 6. Wright.html 11. 2008 7.K. 2004. Sterken. “Comparative Modeling for Vibration Scavengers”. E. IEEE Proc.M.. T. Sundararajan. J.“Electret” http://www. Raafat R.com/tech1terms. S. 2005. Baker. Fiorini P. “Harvest energy using a piezoelectric buzzer. 13. P. Roundy. “Electromagnetic and Electrostatic Micro-Power Generators. “Energy Scavengers for Wireless Intelligent Microsystems”.piezo.J. E..9496. P. Carleton. 9. V. Otis. A. Leland.Roundy. Reilly. Sterken T.M. Wright.

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