International institute of professional studies

Role of packaging on consumer buying behavior

Submitted To: MRS. POOJA JAIN

Submitted By:RAHUL GUPTA MBA (MS) 5 YRS IM2K652


Certified that this dissertation is based on an original project study conducted by Mr. Rahul Gupta under my guidance. This has not formed a basis for the award of any other degree or diploma by any university.

Place: Indore Date: _____________

Guide’s Signature Mrs. Pooja Jain

Student Declaration

I declare that the project titled “role of packaging on consumer buying behavior” is an original project done by me and no part of the project is taken from any other project or materials published or otherwise submitted earlier to any other college or university.

Student signature

Rahul gupta

A teacher is a perennial source of inspiration and guidance in all the academic activities of his students throughout. I whole-heartedly extend my deep and sincere gratitude to Mrs. Pooja Jain for her continuous guidance and help provided for the completion of this Project. I also would like to extend my thanks to Mrs: Geeta Nema


Table of Contents
Abstract Chapter # 1 Introduction Objectives of the study Key terms Defined Chapter # 2 Literature Review Chapter # 3 Theoretical foundation Consumer Buying Behavior Stages of the Consumer Buying Process Types of Consumer Buying Behavior Packaging Objectives of packaging Theatrical Frame work Dependent Variable Independent Variable Packaging color Background-image Packaging Material Font Style Design of wrapper Printed Information Innovation

Chapter # 4 Tools of Data Collection Sampling Technique and Sample Measures Methodology Chapter # 5 Descriptive Analysis Chapter # 6 Discussion: Conclusions Recommendations Summary References .

especially in the point of sale and could be treated as one of the most important factors influencing consumer’s purchase decision. Packaging elements like Packaging color. For collecting the data I will use the questionnaire. Due to increasing self-service and changing consumers’ lifestyle the interest in package as a tool of sales promotion and stimulator of impulsive buying behavior is growing increasingly. By this article we seek to reveal elements of package having the ultimate effect on consumer choice. the research model was developed and tested in order to reveal impact of visual and verbal package elements on consumer’s purchase decisions. Literature analysis on question under investigation has shown that there is no agreement on classification of package elements as well as on research methods of package impact on consumer’s purchase decision. . The significance of the study. Background Image. Taking into consideration that package could be treated as a set of various elements communicating different messages to a consumer. Font Style. while for analysis I will use SPSS 17. So package performs an important role in marketing communications. Design of wrapper. A sample of 100 students will be selected to test the reliability of the model. Packaging Material.Abstract The aim of this thesis is to get the A study to point toward role of packaging on consumer buying behavior. Printed Information and Innovation is taken as predictors. The consumer buying behavior is dependent variable. The packaging is the most important factor. According to this research I try to find the positive relationship between independent variable and dependent variables. The basic purpose of behind it to find out how such factors are behind the success of packaging. its delimitation and limitations are discussed.

however the smartest developments are yet to be seen. re-use. Packaging technology has gone through a fast and significant development in recent decades. Such systems will need to go far beyond the current waste minimization driven principles of reduce. Good packaging facilitates a subtle cooperation between product. self-selling marketing. via low cost storage and distribution. high tech applications and smart operations. Value chain management. in principle. Adding value through the development of partnership relations in the supply chain seems to be the credo for the next decennium. convenient consumer use to responsible waste management practices. globally the packaging material and machinery industry is estimated to be worth $US 500 billion per year. sustainable packaging systems. Today's modern society depends to a large extend on the availability and use of modern packaging technology. representing between 12% of the GDP in industrialized countries. An estimated 100. Packaging systems that will minimize impact on the environment. will seamlessly meet social requirements and expectations. packaging process and material with the objective of fulfilling needs of all stakeholders along the supply chain including the post-consumer waste manager. product stewardship and life cycle management are considered key attributes that will drive the development of future. comprising a vast variety of modern materials. and will be economically effective are the business winners of the future. .000 packaging manufacturing companies employ in excess of 5 million people and. serve all business sectors manufacturing and/or trading physical products. recycle.Introduction According to the World Packaging Organization (WPO). Modern packaging technology aims to meet a vast range of requirements ranging from providing food safety. Packaging is more than a clever way of combining materials. and recovery. Thanks to modern packaging technology products can be economically distributed over large geographical areas or stored over time without unacceptable quality loss.

. Farley & Armstrong. Underwood et al. helps consumers to choose the product from wide range of similar products. Silayoi & Speece. 2001). Literature analysis on question under investigation has shown that there is no agreement on classification of package elements as well as on research methods of package impact on consumer’s purchase decision.g. and influences consumer’s perceptions about product. its elements and their impact on consumer’s buying behavior became a relevant issue. 2001. works as a tool for differentiation.. All above mentioned confirms the necessity to investigate this issue in more detail. 2004. Silayoi & Speece. 2008). 2007. 2001. while others concentrates on separate elements of package and their impact on consumer buying behavior (e. Underwood et al. Also package imparts unique value to products (Underwood. seeking to maximize the effectiveness of package in a buying place. enhances its image. Hewett & Roth. Package becomes an ultimate selling proposition stimulating impulsive buying behavior. while others – on every stage of consumer’s decision making process (e. In this context. Some of researchers try to investigate all possible elements of package and their impact on consumer’s purchase decision (Silayoi & Speece. 1995). increasing market share and reducing promotional costs.In nowadays competitive environment the role of package has changed due to increasing selfservice and changing consumers’ lifestyle. i.g. Firms’ interest in package as a tool of sales promotion is growing increasingly. In the light of these problematic aspects. Klein & Burke. 2007. 2008).. Moreover some researchers investigate impact of package and its elements on consumer’s overall purchase decision (e. 2000. 2007). Furthermore the abundance of scientific literature on this issue do not provide unanimous answer concerning impact of package elements on consumer’s buying behavior: diversity of the results in this area depends not only on research models constructed and methods employed. Butkeviciene. research problem could be formulated as . 2004).. According to Rundh (2005) package attracts consumer’s attention to particular brand. the researches of package. Bloch. Vila & Ampuero. but on the context of the research too. stimulates customers buying behavior (Wells. Butkeviciene et al.g. Stravinskiene & Rutelione.. Madden.e. Thus package performs an important role in marketing communications and could be treated as one of the most important factors influencing consumer’s purchase decision..

and material and transport costs. Dispose) rather then evaluating and assessing the life cycle impacts and developing strategies to reduce impact. Ongoing demographic and life-style changes. addressing and managing a range of issues affecting the sustainable use of packaging. Drivers for development Today's companies in the packaging supply chain are faced with acknowledging. and supply chain demands are important factors of influence for the packaging supply chain. Adequately responding to such issues requires proactivity. progressivism and agility from packaging manufacturers as well as users. . It may take the existing 'waste fat' out of current packaging systems but does not take into account the need to reduce overall environmental impacts in a substantial way. recyclability. There is little doubt that this approach will lead to a reduction of impacts in the short term. regulations. environmental issues (in particular as recognized by legislation and/or voluntary agreements in numerous countries). Recycle. Re-use. increasing demands for product convenience. technology changes. Despite the industry becoming more progressive and pro-active in its approach and seeking shared responsibility.following question: what elements of a package have an ultimate effect on consumer purchase decision? The aim of this paper – basing on theoretical analysis of package elements and their impact on consumer‘s purchase decision empirically reveal the elements having the ultimate effect on consumer choice in a case of different products. consumer dynamics. As a result 'down gauging' and 'recyclability' are still the main drivers in avoiding environmental impact. Recover. the majority of the actions are still undertaken on the basis of the traditional 4-R waste management hierarchy (Reduce. increasing consumer differentiate on and soon. In the longer term this approach will not be sufficient and will fail to provide adequate solutions. It also fails to address the increasing need for packaging systems that meet requirements from new distribution systems. Numerous problem areas will emerge that will require a rigorous overhaul of the use of packaging systems in order to meet ongoing commercial demands. understanding. Issues include the use of renewable and non-renewable resources.

What is packaging design? Packaging design can be viewed in four different ways: a means of protecting the contents of a package a contributor to the cost of the end product a sales canvas on which to promote the product’s attributes and benefits a part of the product experience itself The role of packaging Packaging plays many functional roles from protecting contents to helping the user employ the product but perhaps its main job is still seen as one to help sell the product at the point of purchase. consumer safety and convenience. the packaging is one of the key product components that can provide a commercial advantage over competing products. and environmental performance. the packaging is of significant commercial importance for the economical sustainability and growth of businesses. such as food products. once functional considerations are completed the most important design consideration is how best to create and tell a story that stands out from the crowd.Particularly for fast moving consumer goods. There is little value in arguing the need for less packaging while economic growth is predominantly driven by diversification of markets and subsequent product variations. So. Key challenges for future business growth and development are: The ability to meet supply chain and market requirements in terms of distribution efficiency. Hence. . marketing power. Most products are meaningless (or at least undifferentiated) without their packaging – just take a look at any shampoo fixture and think about how you’d chose one from another. To maintain high levels of flexibility for creating commercial advantage through value added packaging systems.

We now also live in the world of food miles where we measure the distance a product has to travel from source to point of purchase. Therefore truly green packaging needs to consider more issues than recyclability. embossed and etched bottles. So. Wal-Mart and Ikea can make savings of millions of pounds on fast moving consumer goods by maximizing the number of products they can ship per pallet and thus saving greenhouse emissions too. To ethics More recently there has been a marked shift in focus towards environmental issues and the role of packaging.From aesthetics In the 80s and 90s it could be argued that packaging designers concerned themselves mostly with how their craft could help add value in terms of improving aesthetic appeal. Companies like Tesco. the rise of the ’savvy shopper’ in the last few years has forced packaging professionals to look at alternatives. We need to consider palette maximization too. In other words how can we design our packs to minimise the amount of air that is shipped during transportation. It is somewhat ironic therefore that this simple eco–friendly. The rise of green packaging But ‘green’ packaging isn’t just about recycling. The use of foil bags. . The growth of retailer ‘basics’ brands and a growing awareness of the impact on the environment of excessive packaging have driven a desire for packs to be wholly recyclable. to then improve sales. textured papers and wax seals. latest print techniques and new materials were options endlessly considered as designers tried to enhance product perception and standout. While the repackaging of many grocery items in foil wrap may still be wholly appropriate in many instances to improve shelf life and product perception. yet beautifully functional design is perhaps also a contemporary benchmark for environmentally sustainable packaging. in the modern day we need packaging to drive top line sales and drive down waste and bottom line cost. Design pundits often quote the egg carton as being a design classic.

It works by creating a visual illusion that the individual pack is bigger than the reality by having multiple facings which create a bigger picture like a jigsaw. Firstly. according to various research findings. across food and non-food items. does the pack communicate its key benefit quickly – be it price (i. this will taste great). This doesn’t mean that packaging necessarily needs to be loud or simple – but it must be clear to the audience for which it is intended. appetite appeal (i. Standing out from the crowd With around 40. and most importantly. a pack on a supermarket shelf has less than three seconds to grab that attention.e. the designer needs to consider the order of secondary information. Over 70% of purchase decisions are made at point of purchase. Getting this hierarchy right is key to creating user-friendly packaging.A well designed pack must also address the needs of its life cycle.000 different packs to choose from in the average supermarket. the challenge is to stand out from the crowd. you need to consider how the packs themselves work as part of the product proposition. Pe All these points are largely about how the pack works on a rational level. and finally – with current tough environmental laws – to its after-use. Once you have attracted the consumer’s attention the pack then has to stand closer scrutiny. Therefore thought also needs . or functional benefits such as size. such as performance criteria or foodstuff ingredients. This life cycle runs from the moment it is used to wrap its product (whether this is by hand or in a factory). Lastly. Telling Block merchandising One technique to ensure standout is known as block merchandising. At this level it is important to consider the hierarchy and digestibility of information. however today’s consumer also requires products to have an emotional dimension. Beyond this. to the point of sale. this is the cheapest on display). There are thousands of products competing for shoppers’ attention in store and.e. to the point of use.

however. new toothpaste dispensers that ensure all the toothpaste can be used. Apple is a good example of a company whose brand is executed with precision at every touch point. The real point here is that the packaging can often end up becoming the thing of real value above and beyond the actual product itself – the packaging becomes the brand. a strong pack can provide . packaging for sunglasses that can be used for storage. Today the after-use is a main consideration for all packaged goods. Unlike most technology brands the packaging has been considered just as much as the product it contains. are sound whatever the sector. Embodying the brand As the pack becomes the embodiment of the brand. This means treating your brand and its every touch point as a representation of your business to the consumer. business needs to remember that brands require tender loving care. and so on. re-sealable bags for peanuts and rice. If both are unwrapped how would you tell the difference? The purple wrap of Cadbury’s Dairy Milk is the emotional reason why we pay more although there may be seemingly little difference in product delivery. This is just a basic overview. This is where competition is at its most fierce and therefore also where innovation is often most valuable. A strongly packaged brand should offer protection and carve out for you a point of difference that can protect you against competitor activity through trade be given to aspects of the product’s social responsibility and how this standpoint can be communicated in a relevant way. But perhaps even more significantly. For instance. Fending off competition We live in a world of infinite consumer choice. Just think about a Cadbury’s Dairy Milk chocolate bar and a supermarket own brand equivalent. meat packaging that changes color if the product has been exposed to temperatures likely to lead to contamination. The focus here is largely on examples from the food retailing sector. widgets in beer cans. The principles.

. A strategic weapon The bottom line for business is that packaging design will almost always have an effect on a company’s profit and loss. Avoiding pitfalls There are also numerous pitfalls that businesses need to be aware of. For example. the desire to over-design packaging and over-promise can lead to a customer backlash. Treated as a cost and nothing more than a cosmetic makeover. Treated as an investment and handled with care as a strategic weapon. It does not matter how pretty it looks if what you are selling on the outside is not matched on the inside. your customers will simply buy something else next time around.the key to unlocking higher margins as you drive an emotional point of difference in addition to a rational one. Following the category cues or the style of the brand leader could lead to trade mark infringement and costly legal action and will most certainly lead to consumers overlooking your product. the effect on the bottom line is likely to be the wrong one. the result can often be huge dividends. Even if they are fooled once.

Objectives of the study Theoretical analysis of package elements and their impact on consumer‘s purchase decision empirically reveal the elements having the ultimate effect on consumer choice in a case of different products To check the effect of the overall role of packaging on the buying behavior. To rate the elements according to the impact on the consumer’s buying behavior. .

purchase. and dispose of goods and services. select. Packaging is the container for a product . in satisfaction of their needs and wants Packaging Packaging can be defined quite simply as an extrinsic element of the product. use.Key terms Defined Consumer Buying Behavior Process by which individuals search for.

Kotler (2003) distinguishes six elements that according to him must be evaluated when employing packaging decisions: size. Packaging and Labeling in Nepal. The impact of package and its elements on consumer’s purchase decision can be revealed by analyzing an importance of its separate elements for consumer’s choice. its elements and their impact on consumer’s buying behavior became a relevant issue. Farley & Armstrong. works as a tool for differentiation. text and brand. color. empirical research There are six variables that must be taken into Consideration by producer and designers when creating efficient package: form. packaging and labeling of new products in consumer product manufacturing units. Research methods that Rita used is systematic and comparative analysis of scientific literature. 2008 studied New Consumer Products Branding.Literature Review Rita Kuvykaite (2009) has descriptive research. stimulates customers buying behavior (Wells. The research result of Rita shows the impact of package elements on consumers purchase decisions can be stronger. necessitating more detail analysis of its elements and an impact of those elements on consumers buying behavior. cigarettes and The study further investigates the new consumer product packaging and labeling status in manufacturing units. Similarly.e. He conclude that Package could be treated as one of most valuable tool in today’s marketing communications. 2007). Klein & Burke. color. noodles. size. The study method was Descriptive presentation of facts collected through questionnaire survey concerned with different section of consumer new products (soap. helps consumers to choose the product from wide range of similar products. Also package imparts unique value to products (Underwood. Material and flavor. i. Bed Nath Sharma Dec. They are . material. biscuit. enhances its image. He basing on theoretical analysis of package elements and their impact on consumer‘s purchase decision empirically reveal the elements having the ultimate effect on consumer choice. graphics. Silayoi & Speece. 2001. 2004). and influences consumer’s perceptions about product. Thus package performs an important role in marketing communications and could be treated as one of the most important factors influencing consumer’s purchase of package. form. This paper focuses on existing practice of branding. According to Rita package attracts consumer’s attention to particular brand.

non-functional attributes (e. A majority of Danish consumers have developed personal norms about choosing environment-friendly packaging and the personal norm is a significant predictor of their (selfreported) propensity to choose environment-friendly packaging in the supermarket. Renaud LUNARDO 2007 has a great research on the influence of label on wine consumption. they were given a questionnaire and asked to rate each of the bottles on 20 statements related their packaging. high quality). With regard to this case. The statements ranged from functional attributes (e. Following this. Moral Norms and Packaging Choice published in Journal of Consumer Policy Kluwer Academic Publishers. The paper presents a study of a case with these two characteristics: Danish consumers’ choice presents a study of a case with these two characteristics: Danish consumers’ choice of environment-friendly packaging. its effects on young consumers’ perception of authenticity and purchasing behavior The main objective of the paper is to identify the effects of authenticity on purchase behavior.g. However.37% (27 out of 32 responses) are using product label as a simple tag attached to the product or an elaborately designed graphic that is part of the package. the evidence supports the claim. His research results that right packaging can help a brand carve a unique position in the marketplace and in the minds on consumers.aware about the value of packaging and labeling. John Th Gersen (2000) worked on The Ethical Consumer. the worst brand differed. For the remaining 20 respondents. I like the colors.89). This Packaging plays an important role in the marketing context. For both groups there was a clear winner and a clear loser in terms of the rankings. right size) to more emotive. easy to drink from. although the top brand chosen was consistent in both groups. Alice Louw (2006) has studied The Power of Packaging the people belonged to Age 20-30 years old University graduates were taken for research. the order of the process was switched: they rated the bottles first and then ranked them.20 respondents were asked to rank 5 water bottles in terms of their overall appeal.33) than the second group who rated the attributes first (variance 0. They used a repertory grid (RG) approach as a methodological framework in order to know which . Printed in the Netherlands. Majority of the consumer products 84. The group that ranked the bottles first showed more variance in terms of their responses (Variance 1.g.

L Renaud 2007 worked on The Influence of Eco-Labeling on Consumer Behavior. As an attempt to extend the research on the influence label of bottled wine can have on consumers’ decisions of buying. All the relationships between authenticity provided by the label of bottles and consumer behavior attributes (performance risk. perceived price and purchase intentions) have all been tested by using linear regressions. etc. This study was intended to provide a more complete understanding of the influence of the authenticity perceive from the label of bottled wine. price. This research investigated consumer perceptions and buying behavior of baby care products. which is particularly powerful for this kind of analysis. Further this study attempts to analyze if the importance of the labeling and packaging differs between product groups. Two thirds of the interviews were conducted in the German-speaking. the current it is clear from these findings is the major role played by labels. Bytyqi Hysen*. The population was defined as ‘parents of children under the age of five who use baby care products’. Adelina Broadbridge & Henry Morgan (2007). This survey was carried out by the Department of . Vegara Mensur (2008) have research on analysis of consumer buying behavior in regard to dairy products in kosovo. time.) for consumers’ buying decisions. consumer buying behavior and perception toward retail and brand baby products. The methodological approach that they chose was discrete choice analysis. The main objective of this study was to assess the relative importance of the labeling in Packaging compared to other product attributes (like brand.pattern of features is better at inducing purchase. The results of the primary research indicated that consumers need to feel confident with the product in terms of reliability and performance and packaging. They surveyed a total of 302 customers. buying purpose With regard to sustainability marketing. Both the qualitative and quantitative research showed that respondents adopted similar risk reduction strategies in their purchase of baby care products. The Variables chose within this study are . Time. present mood. A two-stage research methodology consisting of both qualitative and quantitative research techniques was adopted. The most important result of analysis is the significant willingness to pay for Packaging energy efficient products.

: 4. H Ahasanul .22 and 3. Material are the most important visual elements for purchasing both milk (size and material 3.87 and 3. age of consumer. personality/believe. Rita Kuvykaite1. 3 = average. It was conclusion after analysis that the packaging has great effect on the purchase of dairy products. trust. Perception of consumers about dairy products was assessed using different variables i. 2 = highly important. culture. quality. consumer’s involvement level and individual characteristics were analyzed. and the economy. package.(K Ali 2009) measured the Factors Influencing Buying Behavior of Piracy Impact to Malaysian. 4 = less important. color and graphic could be treated as unimportant elements of package.Livestock and Veterinary Sciences. whereas. that producer and brand couldn’t be underestimated too. 5 = not important). because the importance of both of these elements is treated by customers above the average. Laura Navickiene3 (2009) worked on impact of package elements on consumer purchase decision economics & management. type of shop. Furthermore its worth to add.e. Agriculture Faculty of Prishtina. habits. These are . Kasovo during 2007.24 for milk and 4.5 was used (1 = very important. a coding approach from 1.80) and washing-powder (resp.41). Aistė Dovaliene2. Comparing the impact of visual and verbal elements of package on consumer’s purchase decision it could be stated that verbal elements are more important than visual ones. when purchasing both milk and washing-powder. It can be identified that the dependent variable is consumer perception on piracy. When analyzing importance of verbal elements.: 3. brand and gender of consumer.06 for washing-powder) and country-oforigin (resp. it could be stated that product information (4.88) are the most important elements. According to the research model developed the impact of package’s elements on consumer’s purchase decision depending on time pressure. in this case form. price. Interviews of 304 respondents were conducted in super-markets (677) and mini-markets (397) and later 23 interviews were completed in green market mainly for Sharri cheese and curd. Where else the independent variables would be divided to social influence. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data whereby it was served as primary data to answer the research questions and objectives planning to find out the factors that plays a vital role about consumers perception towards pirated products. To study the reasons for choosing milk products upon supply. origin of product.

First. food grains and pulses. Orth (2009) worked on Packaging Design as resource for the construction of Brand Identity. Ulrich R. Colors. Typography. They tend to learn cooking and eating new food items after relocation without discontinuing their traditional food items. appropriate wine packaging design elements were identified and a sample of real and representative designs was selected. which were observed after their settlement to a new region. Some of the changes in buying and consumption behavior of relocated people. people have started preferring more healthy foods and are willing to try out new dishes. primary data was collected from 326 respondents in Uttar Pradesh and National Capital Region The relative importance of various food purchasing criteria was estimated for four different food categories. a review of the branding literature determined a list of strategically relevant brand impressions for wine. This research aimed at generating guidelines for managing strategic brand impressions.the factors that could influence consumers’ perception on piracy thereby supporting out dependent variable. which means an individual might purchase a pirated product merely because his/ her friend or family members bought the product and introduced it to them. There is also influence of children on the type of food items that they eat. Third. milk and milk products. The present study explored the consumer behavior for food products in India from different perspectives. Sizes. were not significantly different from the level of changes in behavior of non-moving people. compared to the last 10 years. Finishes. However. Purchase Intention. professionals in the design and advertising industry rated wine packaging designs on the previously identified design elements. Shapes. This research was conducted by collecting information and data in four stages. food and vegetables. People accepted the fact that their food habits get affected with the shifting to a new region but many basic buying and consumption behavior do not change. Social influence would include susceptibility. Impressions. Images. . A thorough review of the literature on packaging design reveals that there are no meaningful guidelines for developing holistic packaging design. Second. and processed foods on 1-5 scale. namely brand identity created by the wine packaging design Kriti Bardhan Gupta (2009) has study on Consumer Behavior for Food Products in India. and Brand.

0 was used in this study with a 0. 2000. 1999. preferably also a single score. Garber et al.1977). Economical costs and environmental impact can be expressed in a single score. Packages are found to attract attention (Underwood et al. 1981. A convenience sample with a shopping mall-intercept technique was employed for the sampling method.. Brand. From an economical and environmental perspective it is very costly to apply sales packaging (with additional material use and transport volume) to products that do not need them. Schoormans & Robben. Pictures on . demands that the test be relatively simple. Distribution. indicating the packs performance. Salesperson. RigauxBricmont. 2001. 2001. Promotion. Other studies researched packages as a means of communication as well as a means of communicating brand and product meaning (Underwood & Klein. 2000. thus justifying the use of sales packaging. 2000. Homer & Gauntt. Goldberg et al. optimization is still important. McDaniel & Baker. 1997. Packaging. normality and outliers. 1997). (1999) found that by dismissing such non-verbal signs as colors.. Garber et al. missing values.. To allow proper management of the pack design the sales performance should be expressed in as simple a way as possible. Price. The data set was screened and examined for incorrect data entry.. The closed-ended questionnaire developed from standard questions of relevant literature was chosen as a research instrument.05 level of significance for all of the statistical assessments. Schoormans & Robben. Advertising... 2002. However.. As calculating the sales performance is impossible a test will need to be used. Goldberg et al. In fact. Schoormans & Robben. Garber et al. Gordonet al. The conceptual model of male consumer behavior in buying skin care products beliefs in product attributes Quality. E Barry (2008) published a paper with subject of a model of male and consumer behavior in buying skin care products in Thailand.This paper has shown that impulse buying is indeed a relevant factor in CE retailing. Several studies have investigated issues such as packages as a means of attracting the attention of consumers (Underwood et al. 1992.Goldberg et al. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences program (SPSS) version 15. or to apply them in an ineffective way. 1994. S Nuntasaree and Dr.. 1999. 1997). the attention to verbal signs can be increased. The pressure from time-to-market in the CE industry. This study used a quantitative research method.

Pires Gon¸calves. In other words. Liang Lu (2008) worked on a paper :Packaging as a strategic tool University of Halmstad school of Business and Engineering. Little research has been done on packages as extrinsic attributes used by consumers as signs of perceived quality. Other studies show that deviating package colors and shapes attract attention (Garber etal. for instance brand. thus this study is a small contribution to that lack of scholarly research on packages... (2001). 1977) convey brand meaning. and materials (McDaniel & Baker. 2001). according to him When they choose among competing products consumers are faced with quality and product performance uncertainty. 1981). as signals of perceived quality. and they are both essential features of packages.. The model proposed in this study builds on previous models of consumer quality perception and signals of quality from product cues. Furthermore. package and warranty. Underwood et al.. on the other hand. Packaging must be functional. but also acts as a mean of communicative information of the products and brand character. Schoormans & Robben 1997). 2000. past research has discovered that deviating packages attract attention.packages are emphasized to attract attention. brand names (Rigaux-Bricmont. Studies that have focused on other single signs than pictures on packages have found that such single package signs as colors (Gordon et al. In this research. Labels are one of the most important features of product packaging. 2000. Ricardo (2008) worked on Product Characteristics and Quality Perception. and they are designed to communicate a message. packages are claimed to attract attention when their appearances are not typical within a product class (Garber et al. Colors and shapes are important elements of marketing strategies. particularly when consumers are not very familiar with the brands (Underwood et al. in shipment and often in use. 1994). hence. Besides. Schoormans & Robben 1997). Packaging is an important part of the product that not only serves a functional purpose. especially in product labels. it has also the function that can give customers the ease of . it must protect the products in good storage. price. colors and shapes combinations in labels are considered as the extrinsic attributes used as signals of quality by consumers. they rely on cues as extrinsic attributes. found that pictures on packages attract attention particularly in cases when consumers are less familiar with a brand.

we will turn to different theory relating to packaging design and its important elements in order to help us to solve the first research question.K. P. level of involvement. the brand and the price of the product. After looking at Kolter theory about packaging. which was more important than the brand (14 points) and the price (13 points). It will also be . Overall. The study is advantageous in giving marketers a more thorough picture of how message framing affects consumer response in various numerical alternatives and level of involvement. it is An Exploratory Study into the Impact of Color And Packaging as Stimuli in the Decision Making Process for a Low Involvement NonDurable Product The consumers and the manager agreed that important factors when deciding which packet of potato crisps to purchase were the quality. K Sony (2008) studied the consumer responses toward attribute framing in product packaging. and numerical difference on consumer response.Ariyawardana (2003) has a great study in the impact of lutritional labeling on Consumer Buying Behavior.Prathiraja and A. Fresh milk is commonly considered as health-related product. Of those who are willing to pay something additional. Stuart Wai and Antonio Lobo (2003). Judy Rex. This study has the following suggestion for packaging design based on the findings. This was about twice as important as the quality (21 points). This study shows that consumers use nutritional labeling when making a purchasing decision and that it is especially because of health consciousness. have had tertiary education and the households had less than 4 members. Fresh-milk product was chosen as the object for experiment.access and use on the purpose of convenience. with flavor also being an important factor for the consumers. the consumers indicated that the flavor of the product was easily the most important stimulus when selecting potato crisps with an average rating of 38 points. a greater proportion was in the age category 36 to 50 years. A majority of the respondents revealed that they are willing to pay something additional for the nutritional information provided on food items. The consumers used a constant sum scale (out of 100) to rate the six attributes of flavor. size and shape. brand.H. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of message framing. price. quality. While brand and price were of about equal importance. and the color of the packaging.

Consumer Response to Sponsorship Leveraged Packaging (SLP). different types of products can be investigated further. The outcomes from the research will contribute to a better understanding of sponsorship effects on consumer behavior and provide managers with the means to develop more effective branding strategies and promotions. Assoc. implying that FMCG brands may benefit from marketing strategies that communicate the sponsorship relationship on packaging. This program of research aims to test a model that examines the structural relationships between SLP and consumer attitudes and purchase intentions toward the sponsors’ products as well as the factors that impact this relationship. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyses the data from the experiment. This paper outlines a framework of consumer response to SLP. It is critical that brand managers identify the affect SLP has on consumer behavior and evaluate the degree to which it can enhance communication of the sponsorship relationship in the marketplace. proposing a three step process of exploratory and experimental methodologies. . Research suggests sponsorship leverage packaging may act in a similarly way to celebrity endorsement on product packaging. For future study. Professor Jane (2005).helpful in developing successful packaging strategy.

purchase. use. and is influenced by factors such as the consumer's (1) Societal role (parent.Theoretical foundation Theoretical frame-work focuses on the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. . when and how consumers buy. and dispose of goods and services. See also consumer decision making. and (3) Aspirations and inhibitions Buying Behavior is the decision processes and acts of people involved in buying and using products. The distinction between dependent and independent variables is as important in a comparative study as in a regression analysis. spouse. (2) Social and cultural environment and norms. Dependent variable in case of a comparative study is the one which we aim to predict and independent variables here are the ones who are used to predict the dependent variable. therefore need to analyze the what. in satisfaction of their needs and wants. Purchase decision making pattern that is a complex amalgam of needs and desires. where. etc. select. Consumer Buying Behavior Process by which individuals search for.). A firm needs to analyze buying behavior for: Buyer’s reactions to a firms marketing strategy has a great impact on the firms success. Consumer Buying Behavior refers to the buying behavior of the ultimate consumer. worker. Need to understand Why consumers make the purchases that they make? What factors influence consumer purchases? The changing factors in our society. The marketing concept stresses that a firm should create a Marketing Mix (MM) that satisfies (gives utility to) customers.

Hunger stimulates your need to eat. Actual purchasing is only one stage of the process. Hunger--Food. Marketers try to influence by "framing" alternatives. features the buyer wants or does not want. Rank/weight alternatives or resume. Friends and relatives (word of mouth). determined by the degree of complexity. . Stages of the Consumer Buying Process Six Stages to the Consumer Buying Decision Process (For complex decisions).Marketers can better predict how consumers will respond to marketing strategies. Information from different sources may be treated differently. Can be stimulated by the marketer through product information.. Marketer dominated sources. memory. Deficit in assortment of products. public sources etc. The 6 stages are: Problem Recognition (Awareness of need)--difference between the desired state and the actual condition. Evaluation of Alternatives Need to establish criteria for evaluation.. Information search Internal search.discussed next. External search if you need more information. comparison shopping. Not all decision processes lead to a purchase. All consumer decisions do not always include all 6 stages.

This can be reduced by warranties. Importance and intensity of interest in a product in a particular situation. Buyers level of involvement determines why he/she is motivated to seek information about a certain products and brands but virtually ignores others. have you made the right decision. Post-Purchase Evaluation--outcome: Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction. includes product. high priced goods. store. product availability. may think that really you wanted a Chinese meal instead.Purchase Decision Choose buying alternative. Types of risk: Personal risk Social risk Economic risk . package. High involvement purchases--Honda Motorbike. After eating an Indian meal. time lapse between 4 & 5. Types of Consumer Buying Behavior Types of consumer buying behavior are determined by: Level of Involvement in purchase decision. method of purchase etc. and the higher the risk the higher the involvement. Purchase May differ from decision. products visible to others. Cognitive Dissonance. after sales communication etc.

Extensive Decision Making Complex high involvement. snack foods. When you need to obtain information about unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category. Impulse buying. Limited Decision Making Buying product occasionally. no conscious planning. Spend a lot of time seeking information and deciding. store personnel etc. Go through all six stages of the buying process. friends and relatives. perhaps. need very little search and decision effort. Product can shift from one category to the next. purchased almost automatically. but limited decision making for someone else. unfamiliar. Requires a moderate amount of time for information gathering. Categories that Affect the Consumer Buying Decision Process A consumer. The reason for the dinner. computers. milk etc. Examples include soft drinks. The purchase of the same product does not always elicit the same Buying Behavior. education. Examples include cars. whether it is an anniversary celebration. Examples include Clothes--know product class but not the brand. For example: Going out for dinner for one person may be extensive decision making (for someone that does not go out often at all). making a purchase decision will be affected by the following three factors: Personal Psychological . or a meal with a couple of friends will also determine the extent of the decision making. expensive and/or infrequently bought products. homes. Information from the companies MM. High degree of economic/performance/psychological risk.The four type of consumer buying behavior are Routine Response/Programmed Behavior Buying low involvement frequently purchased low cost items.

MASLOW hierarchy of needs!! Physiological Safety Love and Belonging Esteem Self Actualization Need to determine what level of the hierarchy the consumers are at to determine what motivates their purchases. hearing. Young people purchase things for different reasons than older people. organizing and interpreting information inputs to produce meaning.Social The marketer must be aware of these factors in order to develop an appropriate MM for its target market. not just one. smell and touch. Age etc. taste. Race. Demographic Factors. Psychological factors Psychological factors include: Motives A motive is an internal energizing force that orients a person's activities toward satisfying a need or achieving a goal. satisfies current needs. intensity of input changes (sharp price drop). Sex. Actions are effected by a set of motives. Personal Unique to a particular person. Selective Exposure-select inputs to be exposed to our awareness. . Perception What do you see?? Perception is the process of selecting. If marketers can identify motives then they can better develop a marketing mix. More likely if it is linked to an event. Information inputs are the sensations received through sight.

Personality All the internal traits and behaviors that make a person unique. There is a difference between attitude and intention to buy (ability to buy). Attitudes Knowledge and positive and negative feelings about an object or activity-maybe tangible or intangible. Individual learns attitudes through experience and interaction with other people.. buyers must process information. Consumers screen information that conflicts with their attitudes. Inexperience buyers often use prices as an indicator of quality more than those who have knowledge of a product. changes in a person's behavior caused by information and experience. because they assume that the greater price indicates greater quality.. Learning. Non-alcoholic Beer example: consumers chose the most expensive sixpack. Attitudes and attitude change are influenced by consumer’s personality and lifestyle. living or non. IE brand loyalty. When making buying decisions. need to give them new information re: product. Consumer attitudes toward a firm and its products greatly influence the success or failure of the firm's marketing strategy. Examples include: Work a holism Compulsiveness Self confidence .Selective Distortion-Changing/twisting current received information. Distort information to make it consistent and selectively retain information that reinforces our attitudes. Knowledge is the familiarity with the product and expertise. uniqueness arrives from a person's heredity and personal experience. Advertisers that use comparative advertisements (pitching one product against another).Drive perceptions.. have to be very careful that consumers do not distort the facts and perceive that the advertisement was for the competitor.. Therefore to change consumers' behavior about your product. Ability and Knowledge Need to understand individual’s capacity to learn. inconsistent with sample

Social Factors Consumer wants.) Roles and Family Influences Role. Marketers try to attract opinion leaders. .. social class and culture. reference groups. person's family.they actually use (pay) spokespeople to market their products. Gatorade etc.things you should do based on the expectations of you from your position within a group. Consumers buy products that are consistent with their self concept. motives etc.. Lifestyles are the consistent patterns people follow in their lives. natural lifestyle.. are influenced by opinion leaders. Opinion leaders Spokespeople etc. this may be due to unreliable measures. Michael Jordon (Nike. learning. Marketers try to match the store image to the perceived image of their customers.Friendliness Adaptability Ambitiousness Dogmatism Authoritarianism Introversion Extroversion Aggressiveness Competitiveness. Lifestyles Recent US trends in lifestyles are a shift towards personal independence and individualism and a preference for a healthy. People have many roles. Traits affect the way people behave. There is a weak association between personality and Buying Behavior.. Nike ads. McDonalds.

Credit Cards etc. Stores project definite class images. All operate within a larger culture. Membership groups (belong to) Affinity marketing is focused on the desires of consumers that belong to reference groups. father. employer/e. the types. Families. quality.!! Aspiration groups (want to belong to) Disassociate groups (do not want to belong to) The degree to which a reference group will affect a purchase decision depends on an individuals susceptibility to reference group influence and the strength of his/her involvement with the group. Social class determines to some extent. Individuals role are continuing to change therefore marketers must continue to update information. sororities. Any group that has a positive or negative influence on a persons attitude and behavior. Marketers get the groups to approve the product and communicate that approval to its members. Lower class people tend to stay close to home when shopping. civic and professional organizations.Husband. quantity of products that a person buys or uses. Reference Groups Individual identifies with the group to the extent that he takes on many of the values. attitudes or behaviors of the group members. do not engage in much pre purchase information gathering. friends. Family is the most basic group a person belongs to. Family. Marketers must understand: Many family decisions are made by the family unit Consumer behavior starts in the family unit Family roles and preferences are the model for children's future family (can reject/alter/etc) Family buying decisions are a mixture of family interactions and individual decision making Family acts an interpreter of social and cultural values for the individual. . reference groups and social classes are all social influences on consumer behavior.

individualism and freedom. attribute that is related to the product but does not form part of the physical product itself. dust. different cultural values. labeling and materials used” (Arens. ideas.1996). temperature. Culture determines what people wear.Small objects are typically grouped together package for transport and handling efficiency. different levels of needs. bulk in one . compression. water vapor. how they buy and when they buy. etc. Objectives of packaging Packaging and package labeling have several objectives: • Physical Protection – Protection of the objects enclosed in the package from shock. holistic interpretations. education. Alternatively. What is packaging? The definitions of ‘packaging’ vary and range from being simple and functionally focused to more extensive. and attitudes that are accepted by a homogenous group of people and transmitted to the next generation. shape. Cultural values in the US are good health. reside and travel.A barrier from oxygen. Culture effects what people buy. eat. Packaging can be defined quite simply as an extrinsic element of the product (Olson and Jacoby (1972)) . • Barrier Protection . “Packaging is the container for a product – encompassing the physical appearance of the container and including the design. • Containment or Agglomeration . Culture also determines what is acceptable with product advertising. vibration. etc. Different society.Culture and Sub-culture Culture refers to the set of values. Culture can be divided into subcultures: Geographic regions Human characteristics such as age and ethnic background.

recycle. Packaging may be looked at as several different types.Packaging that cannot be re-closed or gets physically damaged (Shows signs of opening) is helpful in the prevention of theft. Sale. bulk chemical packaging. and handle the product or inner packages. etc. opening. or Dispose of the package or product is often contained on the package or label. transport. • Reducing theft .Information on how to use. store. use. • Convenience . pharmaceutical packaging. display.Commodities (such as salt) can be divided into packages that are a more suitable Size for individual households. Packaging may be discussed in relation to the type of product being packaged: medical device packaging. • Information transmission . Packages also Provide opportunities to include anti-theft devices. and re-use. military materiel packaging.features which add convenience in distribution. • Marketing . over-the-counter drug packaging. handling. re-closing. retail food packaging. . Some identify a consumer package as one which is directed toward a consumer or household. For example a transport package or distribution package can be the shipping container used to ship.The packaging and labels can be used by marketers to encourage Potential buyers to purchase the product.

Theatrical Frame work Independent Variable Packaging color Background Image Dependent Variable Packaging Material Consumer Buying Behavior Font Style Design of wrapper Printed Information Innovation .

they use simple tri tone color schemes of black. in any transparent areas of the image. Background-image The background image property specifies the background image for an element. One good example of successful use of color psychology is in the Apple iPod advertisements. . Thus.Independent Variable Packaging color Background Image Packaging Material Font Style Design of wrapper Printed Information Innovation Dependent Variable Consumer Buying Behavior Packaging color Color plays an important role in a potential customer’s decision making process. The bright background color is to give the advertisement a fun feel and the contrasting white on black is to focus attention. the background color will be visible. it is rendered on top of the background color. authors should also specify a background color property that will be used when the image is unavailable. white and a bright background color. When setting a background image. certain colors set different moods and can help to draw attention. Note also that when the image is available.

Consumer can change its decision regarding Packaging material. Mostly the children of 10-18 years are so sensitive to the design of wrapper. enhance name recognition. High quality Packaging attract consumer then low quality Packaging. As additional materials such as aluminum and several types of plastic were developed. Processed materials were used to form packages as they were developed. Font Style The font style of Packaging grab customer attraction.Packaging Material Any material used especially to protect something. The labels on packages are important components of the overall marketing mix and can support advertising claims. The study of old packages is an important aspect of archaeology. and optimize shelf space allocations. Paperboard cartons and corrugated fiberboard boxes were first introduced in the late 19th century. they were incorporated into packages to improve performance and functionality.packing. theft deterrence. So we can say that there is relation between font style and buying behavior Design of wrapper The over all design also play a vital role in attracting the consumer. . The first packages used the natural materials available at the time. The attractive package has innovative font style. and product promotion. early glass and bronze vessels. They hire specialist in composing which create mind blowing and attractive font styles. For example. establish brand identity. The up gradation of IT technology have support this feature. wadding. The successful companies have best practices of the font styles. Iron and tin plated steel were used to make cans in the early 19th century. The companies try their best to create attractive design of packaging Printed Information Container or wrapper for a consumer product that serves a number of purposes including protection and description of the contents. So packaging material have strong have with buying behavior.

which shows the relation between buying behavior and innovation of packaging.The consumer can change his decision on the basis of information printed on the packaging. Mostly in Merchandises and daily FMCG the consumer can perform . easy-store. easy-open. Manufacturers today strive to have packaging that maintains the key equities of the brand. The customer can adopt product on the basis of its innovative packaging. tamper-proofing. child-proofing.evaluation on the basis of printed information Innovation Innovative packaging may actually add value to the product if it meets a consumer need such as portion control. recyclability. and is sustainable but with lower production costs. and non breakability. . has stand out appeal on the retailer’s shelf. easy-carry.

Data methodology Tools of Data Collection: In order to find data on Role of packaging on consumer buying behavior. Sampling Technique and Sample The Population of my study will be students in which the sample size of 100 students will be taken for conducting the study by using simple random sampling in order to generalize the findings in the particular sector. Dependent Variable Consumer Buying Behavior Independent Variable Packaging color Background Image Packaging Material Font Style Design of wrapper Printed Information Innovation Each of above mentioned variable was measure by asking the seven questions by using the 5points itemized rating type scale ranging from (1) strongly disagree to (5) strongly agree . Some were used to support the main questions on which the descriptive analysis is done. I will collect data on four variables: The first benefit to use questionnaire technique is that result. Measures: There were at least 15 questions in the survey obtaining data for one variable and some questions were directly obtaining data with no complications.

whereas high standard deviation indicates that the data are spread out over a large range of values. and mean values of data along with the standard deviation. Descriptive statistics are distinguished from inferential statistics (or inductive statistics). maximum. or a probability distribution is the square root of its variance. It shows how much variation there is from the "average" (mean) (or expected/budgeted value). Descriptive analysis I have used first techniques for generating result is descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics are used to describe the main features of a collection of data in quantitative terms. It helps detect tampering of data. It shows minimum. rather than being used to support inferential statements about the population that the data are thought to represent. Standard deviation is a widely used measure of the variability or dispersion. In probability theory and statistics. A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be very close to the mean. being algebraically more tractable though practically less robust than the expected deviation or average absolute deviation. the standard deviation of a statistical population. . a data set. in that descriptive statistics aim to quantitatively summarize a data set.Methodology: To make analysis of data I will use SPSS software in which we will make analysis in to two parts where part one will lead descriptive statistics that will be use to “describe and summarize data .

skewness and kurtosis have been shown. Table 2 . Standard deviation and the extreme values (minimum in comparison to maximum value) give the idea about the dispersion of the values of a variable from its mean value.772 Skewness Kurtosis Std. The value of the kurtosis for all the variable is between +1 and – 1 which shows us that are result that we have derived from the questionnaire is normally distributed. The Mean value is 3. Deviation Statistic . values of standard deviation of dependent Variable.252 .99 with standard deviation of 0. The Minimum value is 2 while Maximum value is 5.772. Error Statistic -. This also justifies the value of standard deviation. Number of observations of each variable is 100. Error .99 Std. maximum values.599 In the above table 1 the minimum values. Mean value provides the idea about the central tendency of the values of a variable. mean values.478 Statistic Std.241 -.Descriptive Analysis Table 1 Descriptive Statistics N Statistic Cb Valid N (listwise) 100 100 Minimum Maximum Statistic 2 Statistic 5 Mean Statistic 3.

The values can be deviated by 0. This also justifiy the value of standard deviation. maximum values 5.347 .478 In the above table 2 the minimum values is 1. Number of observations of each variable is 100.624 or -0. Table 3 Descriptive Statistics Std.624 Skewness Kurtosis Statistic Std.023 Std.241 Kurtosis Statistic 2.241 .624. Error . The value of the kurtosis for all the variable is between +1 and – 1 which shows us that are result that we have derived from the questionnaire is normally distributed.Descriptive Statistics N Statistic color Valid N (listwise) 100 100 Minimum Statistic 1 Maximum Statistic 5 Mean Statistic 3.624.821 Skewness Statistic -1.93 Deviation Statistic . Mean value provides the idea about the central tendency of the values of a variable.478 The above table 5. N Statistic background Valid N (listwise) 100 100 Minimum Maximum Statistic 2 Statistic 5 Mean Statistic 3. Error . This also justifiy the value of standard deviation.3 the minimum value of 2 and maximum value of 5. . Deviation Statistic .821.207 . and mean values 3. This also justifies the value of standard deviation. The value of the kurtosis for all the variable is between +1 and – 1 which shows us that are result that we have derived from the questionnaire is normally distributed. The value of the kurtosis for all the variable is between +1 and – 1 which shows us that are result that we have derived from the questionnaire is normally distributed.95 while the values of standard deviation is 0. Error Statistic Std. Which means that the mean value can varied by +0.95 Std. Error -.172 Std.

maximum values 5. Error Statistic Std.842.842 or -0.241 -.062 .478 The above table 4 the minimum value of 2 and maximum value of 5. Error .691 . Which means that the mean value can varied by +0.680. This also justifies the value of standard deviation. Error -.305 Std. Deviation Statistic . Mean value provides the idea about the central tendency of the values of a variable. Number of observations of each variable is 100.680 Skewness Statistic -. The value of the kurtosis for all the variable is between +1 and – 1 which shows us that are result that we have derived from the questionnaire is normally distributed.96 while the values of standard deviation is 0. Mean here is 4.842. The values can be deviated by 0. Table 5 Descriptive Statistics N Statistic font Valid N (listwise) 100 100 Minimum Statistic 2 Maximum Statistic 5 Mean Statistic 3.842 Skewness Kurtosis Statistic Std. Deviation Statistic .241 Kurtosis Statistic .09.478 In the above table 5 the minimum values is 2. This also justifiy the value of standard deviation.Table 4 Descriptive Statistics N Statistic Quality Valid N (listwise) 100 100 Minimum Maximum Statistic 2 Statistic 5 Mean Statistic 4.09 Std. .343 Std. The value of the kurtosis for all the variable is between +1 and – 1 which shows us that are result that we have derived from the questionnaire is normally distributed. Error . and mean value is 3.96 Std.

This also justifies the value of standard deviation.478 In the above table 6 the minimum values is 2.703.97 Std.049 Std.Table 6 Descriptive Statistics N Statistic wrapper Valid N (listwise) 100 100 Minimum Statistic 2 Maximum Statistic 5 Mean Statistic 3. Error . Deviation Statistic . Error .314 Std.241 Kurtosis Statistic .97 while the values of standard deviation is 0. Mean value provides the idea about the central tendency of the values of a variable The value of the kurtosis for all the variable is between +1 and – 1 which shows us that are result that we have derived from the questionnaire is normally distributed.703 Skewness Statistic -. maximum values 5. Table 7 . and mean value is 3.

Error .609 Skewness Statistic -. The value of the kurtosis for all the variable is between +1 and – 1 which shows us that are result that we have derived from the questionnaire is normally distributed. This also justifies the value of standard deviation Table 8 Descriptive Statistics N Statistic innovation Valid N (listwise) 100 100 Minimum Statistic 2 Maximum Statistic 5 Mean Statistic 4.241 Kurtosis Statistic -. Deviation Statistic .05 while the values of standard deviation is 0.15 while the values of standard deviation is 0.085 Std.672. The value of the kurtosis for all the variable is between +1 and – 1 which shows us that are result that we have derived from the questionnaire is normally distributed. Deviation Statistic .672 Skewness Statistic -.478 In the above table 8 the minimum values is 2.478 In the above table 7 the minimum values is 3. Mean value provides the idea about the central tendency of the values of a variable. maximum values 5. Error .262 Std. Mean value provides the idea about the central tendency of the values of a variable.358 Std. maximum values 5. and mean value is 4. and mean value is 4. Error .053 Std. Error .05 Std.609. This also justifies the value of standard deviation .241 Kurtosis Statistic -.Descriptive Statistics N Statistic printed Valid N (listwise) 100 100 Minimum Statistic 3 Maximum Statistic 5 Mean Statistic 4.15 Std.

Past research has been focused on the impact of packaging on consumer buying behavior. (Rundh (2005) package attracts consumer’s attention to particular brand. Using a quantitative method that is to check and to see the generalizability of the research to the large population with the sample size of 100 students. enhances its image. and .Discussion: The primary purpose of the present study is to investigate the role of packaging on consumer buying behavior.

packaging material.influences consumer’s perceptions about product. font style. The descriptive analysis showed us the degree of positiveness of each element towards the buying behavior as per the sample. wrapper design and innovation). Here is the table based on the mean value obtained which shows the ranking or the impact that element has on the buying behavior in descending order. Through an extensive literature review on initial model is proposed which encompass that how packaging elements mediates the relationship with packaging color. background. And the standard deviation proves that the result has very less fluctuation accompanied by the skewness and kurtosis. A mean greater than 2. As shown by the data obtained that packaging overall has a impact on consumer behavior. Also package imparts unique value to products). packaging material.5. printed information. which justifies it. Questionnaire was developed for data collection purpose on seven variables (packaging color. Descriptive analysis used to describe the data by using descriptive summary. font style. background. printed information. . The literature review has provided the basic theoretical evidence with regard to the link between packaging and buying behavior. The mean table deduced the impact of the elements on the buying behavior. shows the impact is more than 50% towards the buying behavior of the consumer. wrapper design and innovation in packaging.

96 Printed information has a mean value of 4.97 3.95 3. But all shows a positive impact on consumer and they should be considered while packaging. it is the most important element according to the sample population with regards to consumer behavior and the background with mean as 3.e.05 3.Ranking 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Elements Printed information Quality Innovation Wrapper font Color Background Mean values 4.15 4.09 4.96 has the least among all the elements. .15 i.96 3.

Besides each element’s single function. The impact of package and its elements on consumer’s purchase decision can be revealed by analyzing an importance of its separate elements for consumer’s choice. country-of-origin and brand are considered as important ones. and material of packaging are considered. we think that a good combination of those elements may let the product more eye-catching and attractive. time pressure or individual characteristics of consumers. innovation while product information. the impact of package elements on consumers purchase decisions should be evaluated depending on the consumer’s involvement level. For a major part of consumers’ a size and material are the main visual elements. producer. size. while product information is also the main verbal elements when purchasing milk and washing-powder. Moreover. wrapper design. The need for the research was to see the impact of packaging and its elements on the consumer buying behavior. The research has revealed that elements of package are the most important for consumer’s purchase decision. or an easy handle/open/dose/dispose package shape. For this purpose main package’s elements could be identified: graphic. Results of research on role of packaging on consumer’s buying behavior stipulated following conclusions: Package could be treated as one of most valuable tool in today’s marketing communications.Conclusions This study was about the role of packaging on the consumer buying behavior. Appropriate and vivid picture or packaging color which delivers them a happy feeling. form. color. . printed information. necessitating more detail analysis of its elements and an impact of those elements on consumers buying behavior. All these elements contribute each important effort to catch consumers’ attention and interest.

With its different functionality to ease and to communicate with consumers. Research into packaging has found that different packaging cues impact how a product is perceived. Packaging in different serving sizes can extend a product into new target markets or help to overcome cost barriers.Packaging has a better reach than advertising does. As a matter of fact. According to my research. It promotes and reinforces the purchase decision not only at the point of purchase. but there is a positive thinking and trend about well-designed package shows high product quality. . we can not say there is a 100% equal relationship between good package and good product quality. but also every time the product is used. I found out that most consumers like the product quality after they purchased their desired packaged products. and can set a brand apart from its competitors. illustrations and graphics can influence how a product is perceived. people are becoming more and more demanding. Aspects such as packaging color. typography. there is no doubt about increasingly important role of packaging as a strategic tool to attract consumers’ attention and their perception on the product quality. Based on those facts. packaging has been gradually shown his important role in a way to serving consumer by providing information and delivering functions.

I think that it is important for international companies to take a consideration of culture differences when they design the product package. Brand name using plan implementation must be effective in the units. market segmentation. Consumer new product manufacturers mostly use the label in their products. where it was made. what it contains. Thus. new product introduction. how to use it etc. for instance. product differentiation. the choices of packaging colors are quite different between the West and Far East. during our research. All the marketing units pay attention for good packaging. It is necessary to set the packaging standard and to implement accordingly for better protection and promotion of a product. I do believe that culture difference does have an impact on companies’ initiatives to design the product package. pricing. Further more they believe that the consumers are properly guided by label to use the products. promotion etc. It must also be more useful technically. The information given in the label and its value have to be highlighted while promoting the product in the market. . They accept that poor packaging is one of the causes of product failure in the market.Recommendations Brand is important and its strategy is in consideration in the units. when it was made. Product packaging is valuable for brand equity. Basically they describe that made it.

Summary Summarizing. . is necessary in order to implement efficient packaging decisions. it could be stated that detail evaluation of package elements and their impact on consumer’s purchase decision. individual characteristics of consumers. taking into consideration involvement level.

5 (3). S Nuntasaree and Dr. Z. Rutelione (2008). 'Impact of consumer package communication on consumer decision making process'. sales performance of packaging for consumer electronics products. consumer buying behavior and perception toward retail brand baby products. R. (2007). Thorhsbury S. 38 (1). P. H. journal of marketing Practice: applied marketing science.19th annual world symposium Indian institute of management Erzsebet Hetesi1 . 59(July). seeking the ideal form: product design and consumer Response. & Twede D. (1995). E Barry (2008). pp. 78-88. Inzinerine EkonomikaEngineering Economics(1). V..Zoltan Veres (2007) . packaging as a tool for product development: Communicating value to consumers. Adelina Broadbridge & Henry Morgan (2007). delft university of technology. Gonzalez M. journal of food distribution research. Butkeviciene. (1999). 16-29. . Stravinskiene and A. a model of male consumer behavior in buying . P.. J. & Wisenblit. Grossman.. P.References Bloch. An empirical investigation on loyalty The case of packaging industry Renee Wever. 61-66. 57-65. journal of marketing.. J. Berny de Vries (2006). what we know about consumers’ color choices.

41 (11/12). L. Klein. R. & Speece. Vila. The communicative power of product packaging: creating brand identity via lived and mediated care products in Thailand..... Consumer evaluation of unbranded and unlabelled food products: the case of bacalhau. R. Journal of Food Products Marketing. . J. P. M. Vazquez. L. The role of packaging in positioning an orange juice. 29. Prendergast. No. Smith. G. (1996). Sogn-Grundvag.. 13 (3). & Taylor. D. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice. P. 105 (9). & Østli. M. Underwood. London: Kogan Page. Underwood.. Marketing communications: an integrated approach (4th edition). & Studd. product characteristics and quality perception. Pitt. 1495-1517. (2007) The importance of packaging attributes: a conjoint analysis approach. Bruce. Packaging communication: attentional effects of product imagery. marketing. M. N. 1 Pires Gon¸calves. J. A case study exploring the packaging design management process within a UK food retailer. Journal of Product & Brand Management. & Ampuero.ABAC Journal Vol. 21-48. 602-617. O. (2004). N. 213228. (2009). European Journal of Marketing.. R. L. British Food Journal. (2003). European Journal of Marketing. 62-76. (2001). R. (2007). Ricardo (2008). Winter. logistics and the environment: are Silayoi. 10 (7). R. Packaging. 403-422. 43 (1/2). & Burke. (2003).. G..

(2007).Wells. 17 (2).com/t-scopes/research. Wikipedia Online Encyclopedia.html Miriam Webster dictionary. H. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall. . E. & Armstrong. 35 (9).bubley. Www. Measuring success: Using consumer research to document the value of package design. A. K. G.m-w. http://en. Farley. Englewood Cliffs.. (2006). (2003) Marketing management... 60-65. Websites Bubley packaging research. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Ph. Kotler.epnet. L. Design management review. 9th ed. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management. http://www. measuring and managing brand equity. L. Strategic brand management: www. The importance of packaging design for own-label food brands.wikipedia. Books Keller. Search. (2003).

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful