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Fig 1.1 A robot is a mechanical or virtual, artificial agent. It is usually a system, which, by its appearance or movements, conveys a sense that it has intent or agency of its own. The word robot can refer to both physical robots and virtual software agents, but the latter are usually referred to as bots to differentiate While there is still discussion about which machines qualify as robots, a typical robot will have several, though not necessarily all of the following properties: 1.1 Is not 'natural' i.e. artificially created 1.2 Can sense its environment, and manipulate or interact with things in it 1.3 Has some ability to make choices based on the environment, often using automatic control or a preprogrammed sequence 1.5 Moves with one or more axes of rotation or translation
1.6 Makes dexterous coordinated movements 1.7 Appears to have intent or agency
1.2 Robot Fatalities
The first human to be killed by a robot was Robert Williams who died at a casting plant in Flat Rock, MI (January 25, 1979). A better known case is that of 37-year-old Kenji Urada, a Japanese factory worker, in 1981. Urada was performing routine maintenance on the robot, but neglected to shut it down properly, and was accidentally pushed into a grinding machine. Some examples of factory robots: 1.2.1 Car production: This is now the primary example of factory automation. Over the last three decades automobile factories have become dominated by robots. A typical factory contains hundreds of industrial robots working on fully automated production lines - one robot for every ten human workers. On an automated production line a vehicle chassis is taken along a conveyor to be welded, glued, painted and finally assembled by a sequence of robot stations. 1.2.2 Packaging: Industrial robots are also used extensively for palletizing and packaging of manufactured goods, for example taking drink cartons from the end of a conveyor belt and placing them rapidly into boxes, or the loading and unloading of machining centers. 1.2.3 Electronics: Mass produced printed circuit boards (PCBs) are almost exclusively manufactured by pick and place robots, typically with SCARA manipulators, which remove tiny electronic components from strips or trays, and place them on to PCBs with great accuracy. Such robots can place several components per second (tens of thousands per hour), far out-performing a human in terms of speed, accuracy, and reliability.
Fig 1.2 HelpMate trackless pharmacy bot navigates autonomously to transport drugs, lab specimens, supplies and medical records. 1.2.4 Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs): Mobile robots, following markers or wires in the floor, or using vision or lasers, are used to transport goods around large facilities, such as warehouses, container ports, or hospitals. Early AGV-style robots were limited to tasks that could be accurately defined and must be performed the same every time. Very little feedback or intelligence was required, and the robots may need only the most basic of exteroceptors to sense things in their environment, if any at all. However, newer AGV's, such as the Speci-Minder, ADAM, Tug, and PatrolBot Gofer qualify under the JARA definition of intelligent robots. They use some form of natural features recognition to navigate. Scanning lasers, stereovision or other means of sensing the environment in two- or three-dimensions is combined with standard dead-reckoning calculations in a probabilistic manner to continuously update the AGV's current location, eliminating cumulative error. This means that the Self-Guided Vehicle (SGV) can navigate a space autonomously once it has learned it or been provided with a map of it. Such new robots are able to operate in complex environments and perform nonrepetitive and non-sequential tasks such as carrying tires to presses in factories, delivering masks in a semi-conductor lab, delivering specimens in hospitals and delivering goods in warehouses.
1. and their performance and computational ability rises. These jobs are known as the "dull. usually only requiring a command to begin their job. They tend to be relatively autonomous.3 The Roomba domestic vacuum cleaner robot does a menial job There are many jobs which a human could perform better than a robot but for one reason or another the human either does not want to do it or cannot be present to do the job. The job may be too boring to bother with. At such. Other jobs are physically inaccessible. floor cleaning and lawn mowing.5 Robots in the home: As their price falls. By 2006. 2006 saw an explosion in the number of domestic robots sold. They then proceed to go about their business in their own way. robots are increasingly being seen in the home where they are taking on simple but unwanted jobs. For example. for example domestic cleaning. for example exploring inside a volcano. cleaning the inside of a long pipe or performing laparoscopic surgery. and dangerous" jobs. and are considered intelligent robots. making them both affordable and sufficiently autonomous.Fig 1. 4 . iRobot had sold more than 2 million vacuuming robots. or be too dangerous. they display a good deal of agency. While they have been on the market for several years. exploring another planet. dirty.2. such as vacuum cleaning.
Intouchhealth's RP-7 remote presence robot. or inaccessible. 1. This increases the number of patients a doctor can monitor. like the Predator Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. far away.2.Fig 1.4 A laparoscopic robotic surgery machine. or telerobots are used. At the other end of the spectrum. An interesting use of a telerobot is by the author Margaret Atwood. 1.7 Military robots: Teleoperated robot aircraft. The Longpen is similar to the Autopen of the 1800s. teleoperated robots. These robots can 5 . This saves the financial cost and physical inconvenience of traveling to book signings around the world. are increasingly being used by the military. is being used by doctors to communicate with patients. significantly shortening recovery time. The robot may be in another room or another country. Rather than following a predetermined sequence of movements a telerobot is controlled from a distance by a human operator.2. who has recently started using a robot pen (the Longpen) to sign books remotely. One robot in use today. or may be on a very different scale to the operator. iRobot ConnectR robot is designed to be used by anyone to stay in touch with family or friends from far away. allowing the doctor to be anywhere in the world.6 Telerobots: When a human cannot be present on site to perform a job because it is dangerous. A laparoscopic surgery robot such as da Vinci allows the surgeon to work inside a human patient on a relatively small scale compared to open surgery.
It is expected that these new types of robot will be able to solve real world problems when they are finally realized. 1. choosing where to fly or selecting and engaging enemy targets.2. Fig 1. but others are being developed that can make decisions automatically. military to defuse roadside bombs or Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in an activity known as Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD). Autonomous robots such as MDARS and Seekur are being developed to perform security and surveillance tasks at military facilities to address manpower shortages as well as keeping troops out of harm's way. and new ways to manufacture them.S. without endangering those in control. especially Japan. but on investigations into new types of robot.5 6 . and even fire on targets. robots are gradually being introduced. Many of these robots are teleoperated.be controlled from anywhere in the world allowing an army to search terrain. meaning that there are increasing numbers of elderly people to care for but relatively fewer young people to care for them. The Crusher Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) is being developed to perform military missions autonomously.3 Unconventional Robots Much of the research in robotics focuses not on specific industrial tasks.8 Elder Care: The population is aging in many countries. Humans make the best carers. but where they are unavailable. Hundreds of robots such as iRobot's Packbot and the FosterMiller TALON are being used in Iraq and Afghanistan by the U. 1. alternative ways to think about or design robots.
weaponry and cleaning. Researchers at Tufts University recently developed robots with silicone bodies and flexible actuators (air muscles.3. This is in contrast to most natural organisms. especially metal and plastic. The control software emphasizes soft behaviors using fuzzy logic and neural networks.6 Molecubes in motion 7 . such as bearings. they would be constructed from molecular machines. Some of these robots are currently exhibited at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMa) in New York City. So far. the earth would turn into "grey goo". utility fog. researchers have mostly produced only parts of these complex systems. and Synthetic molecular motors.2 Soft Robots: Most man-made machines are made from hard. while others argue that this hypothetical outcome is nonsense.3. stiff materials. Fig 1. ferrofluids). Possible applications include micro surgery (on the level of individual cells). enabling new applications. manufacturing. electroactive polymers. sensors.1 Nanorobots: Nanorobotics is the still largely hypothetical technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of a nanometer (10-9 meters). and behave differently from traditional hard robots. Also known as nanobots or nanites. 1. Soft-bodied robots can look. which are mostly soft tissues. Researchers also hope to be able to create entire robots as small as viruses or bacteria. Some people have suggested that if there were nanobots which could reproduce. feel.A nanocar made from a single molecule 1. but functioning robots have also been made such as the entrants to the Nanobot Robocup contest. which could perform tasks on a tiny scale.
which are being used to research collective behaviors.7 A swarm of robots from the Open-source micro-robotic project 1. such as finding something hidden. and mostly consist of a small number of cube shaped units. which can move relative to their neighbours. for example SuperBot. but the emergent behaviour of the swarm would be more complex. or spying. In a similar way to natural evolution. where failure can be extremely costly.3. researchers hope to create very large swarms (thousands) of tiny robots which together perform a useful task. or their ability to perform a task is 8 . The whole set of robots can be considered as one single distributed system. Algorithms have been designed in case any such robots become a reality.5 Evolutionary Robots: is a methodology that uses evolutionary computation to help design robots. a large population of robots is allowed to compete in some way.3.3. like the fictional T-1000. in the same way an ant colony can be considered a superorganism. The largest swarms so far created include the iRobot swarm. or motion and behaviour controllers. Fig 1. 1.1. cleaning. Each robot would be quite simple. This makes them attractive for space exploration missions. and the Open-source micro-robotic project swarm. the swarm can continue even if several robots fail. Real robots are nowhere near that sophisticated however. especially the body form.4 Swarm robots: Inspired by colonies of insects such as ants and bees. Swarms are also more resistant to failure.3 Reconfigurable Robots: A few researchers have investigated the possibility of creating robots which can alter their physical form to suit a particular task. Whereas one large robot may fail and ruin the whole mission. They would exhibit swarm intelligence.
the Cylons in BattleStar Galactica. and I. These robots. and eventually a satisfactory robot may appear. which have new behaviors based on those of the winners. and to explore the nature of evolution. build their own hardware to upgrade themselves or if they change their own source code. Runaway. Robot. 1. this technique may be run entirely or mostly in simulation. Specialized robots are in widespread use in the haptic research community. Over time the population improves.6 Virtual Reality: Robotics also has application in the design of virtual reality interfaces. Because the process often requires many generations of robots to be simulated. and replaced by a new set.measured using a fitness function. Robocop. Robotic forces allow simulating the mechanical properties of "virtual" objects. Researchers use this method both to create better robots. which users can experience through their sense of touch. then tested on real robots once the evolved algorithms are good enough. This happens without any direct programming of the robots by the researchers. that they could develop a conscience and a motivation to take over or destroy the human race. The principal theme is the robots' intelligence and ability to act could exceed that of humans.) Robots could be dangerous if they were programmed to kill or if they are programmed to be so smart that they make their own software. The Matrix. Those that perform worst are removed from the population. 1.3. fears and concerns about robots have been repeatedly expressed in a wide range of books and films. called "haptic interfaces" allow touch-enabled user interaction with real and virtual environments. (See The Terminator. the Replicators in Stargate.4 Dangers and fears Although current robots are not believed to have developed to the stage where they pose any threat or danger to society. 9 .
The Japanese craftsman Hisashige Tanaka. Designing and programming robots to be intrinsically safe and to exhibit safe behavior in a human environment is one of the great challenges in robotics. A robot falling on someone or just stepping on his foot by mistake could cause much more damage to the victim than a human being of the same size. Probably the best known author to have worked in this area is Isaac Asimov who placed robots and their interaction with society at the center of many of his works. some of which were capable of serving tea. He believes this represents an important and dangerous trend where humans are transferring more of our cognitive structures into our machines. and excrete. "smart missiles. Although industrial robots may be smaller and less powerful than other industrial machines. such as Eliezer Yudkowsky." and autonomous bombs equipped with artificial perception to make decisions about killing us. they are just as capable of inflicting severe injury on humans. Some theorists. often called the first science fiction novel. since a robot can be programmed to move in different trajectories depending on its task. is potentially dangerous because of its large moving masses. firing arrows drawn from a quiver. known as "Japan's Edison. The landmark 10 . a robot. Therefore.Frankenstein (1818). flap its wings. However.5 Early modern developments An early automaton was created in 1738 by Jacques de Vaucanson. Currently. Even without malicious programming." created an array of extremely complex mechanical toys. powerful actuators and unpredictably complex behavior. most industrial robots operate inside a security fence which separates them from human workers. especially a future model moving freely in a human environment. or even painting a Japanese kanji character. malicious programming or unsafe use of robots may be the biggest danger. Manuel De Landa has theorized that humans are at a critical and significant juncture where humans have allowed robots. have suggested that developing a robot with a powerful conscience may be the most prudent course of action in this regard. Of particular interest are Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics. who created a mechanical duck that was able to eat and digest grain. has become synonymous with the theme of a robot or monster advancing beyond its creator. 1. its movement can be unpredictable for a person standing in its reach.
11 . They were named Elmer and Elsie.8 Unimate's PUMA arm It wasn't until the second half of the twentieth century. Patent 723. These robots could sense light and contact with external objects. Hornyak. Westinghouse Electric Corporation made a humanoid robot known as Elektro. Fig 1. Loving the Machine: The Art and Science of Japanese Robots [New York: Kodansha International. that it became possible to build robots as we imagine them. exhibited at the 1939 and 1940 World's Fairs. Patent 725.605 for "teleautomation".809 .S. The first electronic autonomous robots were created by William Grey Walter of the Burden Neurological Institute at Bristol. 2006]) In 1898 Nikola Tesla publicly demonstrated a radio-controlled (teleoperated) boat. England in 1948 and 1949.text Karakuri Zui (Illustrated Machinery) was published in 1796.188 and U.S. similar to a modern ROV. when integrated circuits were invented.S.6 Modern Developments In the 1930s. Tesla hoped to develop the wireless torpedo into a weapon system for the US Navy. (Cheney 1989) 1. and computers began to double rapidly in power (roughly every two years according to Moore's Law). N. (T. U. Patent 613. Based on his patents U. and use these stimuli to navigate.
A high degree of autonomy is particularly desirable in fields such as space exploration.Until that time. The exact orientation and position of the next object of work and (in the more advanced factories) even the type of object and the required task must be determined. and waste water treatment. underground. Many kinds of robots have some degree of autonomy. Other more mundane uses benefit from having some level of autonomy. programmable. The first Unimate was personally sold by Devol to General Motors in 1960 and installed in 1961 in a plant in Trenton. Patent 2. It is worth noting that not a single patent was cited against his original robotics patent (U. like cleaning floors. and their movements were complex. 12 . Some modern factory robots are "autonomous" within the strict confines of their direct environment. and while they may have looked humanoid.7 Autonomous robot Autonomous robots are robots which can perform desired tasks in unstructured environments without continuous human guidance.237 ). mowing lawns. New Jersey to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them.988. underwater. 1. or in space. Maybe not every degree of freedom exists in their surrounding environment but the work place of the factory robot is challenging and can often be unpredictable or even chaotic.S. The first truly modern robot. One important area of robotics research is to enable the robot to cope with its environment whether this be on land. they were not capable of the selfcontrol and decision making that robots are today. This can vary unpredictably (at least from the robot's point of view). digitally operated. automatons were the closest things to robots. where communication delays and interruptions are unavoidable. and teachable. Different robots can be autonomous in different ways. in the air. was invented by George Devol in 1954 and was ultimately called the Unimate.
1 Gain information about the environment.A fully autonomous robot has the ability to 1.9 Exteroceptive sensors: 1) blue laser rangefinder senses up to 360 distance readings in a 180-degree slice.7. 2) 24 round golden ultrasonic sensors sample range readings in a 15degree cone.7.3 Move either all or part of itself throughout its operating environment without human assistance. 4) break beams between the lower and upper segments sense tables and other mid-level obstacles. 1.7. 1.2 Work for an extended period without human intervention. 3) ten touch panels along the bottom detect shoes and other low-lying objects. (Courtesy MobileRobots Inc) 13 . Fig 1. An autonomous robot may also learn or gain new capabilities like adjusting strategies for accomplishing its task(s) or adapting to changing surroundings.
• Common exteroceptive sensors are 14 . and some toys like Sony's Aibo are capable of self-docking to charge their batteries. The display is for user information only. Autonomous robots monitor and respond to proprioceptive sensors without human intervention to keep themselves safe and operating properly. Increased proprioception will be required for robots to work autonomously near people and in harsh environments. Another common proprioceptive sensor is for heat monitoring.10 Robot GUI display showing battery voltage and other proprioceptive data in lower righthand corner. the robot can tell proprioceptively that its batteries are low and it then seeks the charger. or sensing one's own internal status.The first requirement for complete physical autonomy is the ability for a robot to take care of itself. (Courtesy MobileRobots Inc) 1.8 Sensing the environment Exteroception is sensing things about the environment. Self maintenance is based on "proprioception". In the battery charging example. Fig 1. Many of the battery powered robots on the market today can find and connect to a charging station. Autonomous robots must have a range of environmental sensors to perform their task and stay out of trouble.
1. they navigate over wide areas and pilot in tight situations around homes using contact and non-contact sensors. For instance. Both of these robots use proprietary algorithms to increase coverage over simple random bounce. and some vacuum cleaning robots have dirt detectors that sense how much dirt is being picked up and use this information to tell them to stay in one area longer. with a flood of small vacuuming robots beginning with iRobot and Electrolux in 2002.11 Indoor position sensing and navigation 15 . Fig 1. security robots can be programmed to detect intruders and respond in a particular way depending upon where the intruder is.9 Task performance The next step in autonomous behavior is to actually perform a physical task. A new area showing commercial promise is domestic robots. The next level of autonomous task performance requires a robot to perform conditional tasks.Electromagnetic spectrum Sound Touch Smell. odor Temperature Range to things in the environment Some robotic lawn mowers will adapt their programming by detecting the speed in which grass grows as needed to maintain a perfect cut lawn. While the level of intelligence is not high in these systems.
Their control system changes its path on-the-fly if something blocks the way. These robots originally used manually created CAD floor plans.  With such electronic access-control interfaces. These advances also bring concommitant protections: robots' internal maps typically permit "forbidden areas" to be defined to prevent robots from autonomously entering certain regions. controlling elevators and electronic doors. The next generation. vacuuming robots will gain the ability to clean a specific user specified room or a whole floor. The first commercial robots to achieve this were Pyxus' HelpMate hospital robot and the CyberMotion guard robot.Robot interface GUI showing a robot building map with forbidden areas highlighted in yellow on the right side of the screen. Security robots will be able to cooperatively surround intruders and cut off exits. most indoor robots navigate handicapped-accessible areas. have the ability to create their own laser-based maps of a building and to navigate open areas as well as corridors. both designed by robotics pioneers in the 1980s. which requires highly specialized hardware. such as MobileRobots' PatrolBot and autonomous wheelchair both introduced in 2004. For a robot to associate behaviors with a place (localization) requires it to know where it is and to be able to navigate point-to-point. Such navigation began with wire-guidance in the 1970s and progressed in the early 2000s to beacon-based triangulation. The selected robot will then travel to any location clicked in the map. 16 . Current commercial robots autonomously navigate based on sensing natural features. As these indoor techniques continue to develop. Autonomously climbing stairs and opening doors manually are topics of research at the current time. Robots listed on the left side of the GUI can be selected by mouseclick. robots can now freely navigate indoors. unless it is in a forbidden area. sonar sensing and wall-following variations to navigate buildings. Rather than climb stairs. Defined task sequences and goals are in the second column.
17 . using the MRHA software architecture planned for all unmanned military vehicles.10 Outdoor autonomous position-sensing and navigation Outdoor autonomy is most easily achieved in the air. c) weather exigencies and d) instability of the sensed environment. the MDARS project. (Courtesy of MobileRobots Inc) In the US. since obstacles are rare. Outdoor autonomy is the most difficult for ground vehicles. due to: a) 3-dimensional terrain. Fig 1.1. Some of these unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are capable of flying their entire mission without any human interaction at all except possibly for the landing where a person intervenes using radio remote control. Cruise missiles are rather dangerous highly autonomous robots. utilty plants.8 The Seekur and MDARS robots demonstrate their autonomous navigation and security capabilities at an airbase. corrections facilities and Homeland Security. The General Dynamics MDARS robot can navigate semi-autonomously and detect intruders. But some drone aircraft are capable of a safe. b) great disparities in surface density. is now moving into production and will be implemented in 2006. The Seekur robot was the first commercially available robot to demonstrate MDARS-like capabilities for general use by airports. automatic landing also. Pilotless drone aircraft are increasingly used for reconnaissance. which defined and built a prototype outdoor surveillance robot in the 1990s.
fast.Chapter-2 Dual-tone multi-frequency Fig 2. telephone systems employed a system commonly referred to as pulse (Dial Pulse or DP in the U.S. 2.2 History In the time preceding the development of DTMF.1 A DTMF telephone keypad 2. unacknowledged. Until better out-of-band signaling equipment was developed in the 1990s. The version of DTMF used for telephone tone dialing is known by the trademarked term Touch-Tone and is standardized by ITU-T Recommendation Other multi-frequency systems are used for signaling internal to the telephone network.1 Introduction Dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) signaling is used for telephone signaling over the line in the voice-frequency band to the call switching center. DTMF tones were also used by cable television broadcasters to indicate the start and stop times of local commercial insertion points during station breaks for the benefit of cable companies. As a method of in-band signaling. and loud DTMF tone sequences could be heard during the commercial breaks of cable channels in the United States and elsewhere.) or loop disconnect (LD) 18 .
Dual Tone Multi-Frequency. or to issue commands to switching systems or related telephony equipment. The exchange equipment counts those clicks or dial pulses to determine the called number. Loop disconnect range was restricted by telegraphic distortion and other technical problems. The DTMF dialing system traces its roots to a technique AT&T developed in the 1950s called MF (Multi-Frequency) which was deployed within the AT&T telephone network to direct calls between switching facilities using in-band signaling. and placing calls over longer distances required either operator assistance (operators used an earlier kind of multi-frequency dial) or the provision of subscriber trunk dialing equipment. symbols and letters . sounds like a series of clicks. 19 .signaling to dial numbers. similar to flicking a light switch on and off. or DTMF is a method for instructing a telephone switching system of the telephone number to be dialed. The repeated connection and disconnection.as detailed below. 105. a derivative technique was offered by AT&T through its Bell System telephone companies as a "modern" way for network customers to place calls." The consumer product was marketed by AT&T under the registered trade name TouchTone. which functions by rapidly disconnecting and connecting the calling party's telephone line. The DTMF system uses eight different frequency signals transmitted in pairs to represent sixteen different numbers. as the dial spins. In AT&Ts Compatibility Bulletin No. In the early 1960s. Other vendors of compatible telephone equipment called this same system "Tone" dialing or "DTMF". AT&T described the product as "a method for pushbutton signaling from customer stations using the voice transmission path.
20 . B. military also used the letters. and if all lines were in use. it would disconnect any non-priority calls. in their now defunct Autovon phone system. the lettered keys were dropped from most phones. The idea was to allow important traffic to get through every time. Precedence dialing is still done on the military phone networks. relabeled.S. Consequently. The levels of priority available were Flash Override (A). Pressing C. Immediate. This led to the addition of the octothorpe number sign (#) and star (*) keys as well as a group of keys for menu selection: A. cutting in over existing calls if need be. In the end. Immediate (C).Public payphones that accept credit cards use these additional codes to send the information from the magnetic strip. Pressing one of these keys gave your call priority. it is limited to the White House Communications Agency. before dialing would make the switch first look for any free lines. The U. C and D. Flash Override will kick every other call off the trunks between the origin and destination. and Priority (D).Fig 2.2 An Autovon telephone keypad with the four precedence levels The engineers had envisioned phones being used to access computers. overriding other conversations on the network. and it was many years before these keys became widely used for vertical service codes such as *67 in the United States and Canada to suppress caller ID. and surveyed a number of companies to see what they would need for this role. with Flash Override being the highest priority. Flash (B). Here they were used before dialing the phone in order to give some calls priority. and then any priority calls.
control of the repeater while connected to an active phone line.2. DTMF keypad frequencies (with sound clips) 21 . among other uses. and each column representing a high frequency. B. 2. C and D tones are used in amateur radio phone patch and repeater operations to allow. B. Their use is probably prohibited by most carriers.3 AUDIO SAMPLE 2. Pressing a single key (such as '1' ) will send a sinusoidal tone of the two frequencies (697 and 1209 hertz (Hz)). DTMF tones are also used by some cable television networks and radio networks to signal the local cable company/network station to insert a local advertisement or station identification. The multiple tones are the reason for calling the system multifrequency. The A. These tones are then decoded by the switching center to determine which key was pressed. the A key is used on some networks to cycle through different carriers at will (thereby listening in on calls). For example. and exclusive to network control. The original keypads had levers inside. Previously. with each row representing a low frequency. terrestrial television stations also used DTMF tones to shut off and turn on remote transmitters.3. These tones were often heard during a station ID preceding a local ad insert. however in the USA only Bell 202 modulated FSK signaling is used to transfer the data. DTMF tones are also sometimes used in caller ID systems to transfer the caller ID information. so each button activated two contacts.3.1 Dtmf push to talk id Present-day uses of the A.2 Keypad The DTMF keypad is laid out in a 4×4 matrix. C and D keys on telephone networks are few.
No frequency is a multiple of another. the difference between any two frequencies does not equal any of the frequencies. as defined by the Precise Tone Plan.1 3 6 9 # A B C D DTMF event frequencies Event Busy signal Dial tone Low frequency High frequency 480 Hz 350 Hz 620 Hz 440 Hz 480 Hz Ringback tone (US) 440 Hz Table 2. and the sum of any two frequencies does not equal any of 22 .2 The tone frequencies.1209 Hz 1336 Hz 1477 Hz 1633 Hz 697 Hz 1 770 Hz 4 852 Hz 7 941 Hz * 2 5 8 0 Table 2. are selected such that harmonics and intermodulation products will not cause an unreliable signal.
8% from their nominal frequency. The frequencies may not vary more than ±1. This tutorial will not discuss telephone interfacing. low-cost components. The tone generator (top) uses the 5589 chip and a DIP switch.DTMF can be decoded using the Goertzel algorithm. The generator/decoder above are tethered together by a single wire. The minimum duration of the tone should be at least 70 msec. accessing your messages from an answering machine. Dual-tone-multi-frequency (DTMF. and readily available with off-the-shelf. But you can expand upon this foundation for wireless remote control using a microphone. retrieving your account balance info from your bank's database). which is slightly less than a whole tone. or the switching center will ignore the signal. The bottom circuit uses the 8870 to decode a tone and display its associated number on the 7-segment LED. Touch-tone is familiar to many (telephone). 23 . The loudness difference between the high and low frequencies can be as large as 3 decibels (dB) and is referred to as "twist". although in some countries and applications DTMF receivers must be able to reliably detect DTMF tones as short as 45ms. single-chip. it is a mature technology. The frequencies were initially designed with a ratio of 21/19. 2. The high frequencies may be the same volume or louder as the low frequencies when sent across the line. For longer distances maybe you can add a pair of walkietalkies. Rather it will give you a basic working foundation which you can build upon.4 DTMF Generator/Decoder The photo depicts a DTMF generator/decoder pair you can build in an afternoon or two. You can actually hear the tones through the speaker. also known as touch-tone) are the audible sounds you hear when you press keys on your phone. For these reasons DTMF is often used in remote control applications that typically use telephones (e. and decoding with the other.the frequencies. generating audible tones into one.g.
I then look at Digikey and JDR and Radio Shack. Since tones are just electrical pulses.3: DTMF Generator PART DESCRIPTION TCM5589N 16-PIN DIP TONE VENDOR PART GENERATOR JAMECO #32803 PRICE (1998) 3. The bottom line is that DTMF was designed for optimal performance with each tone being very distinct.95 QUANTITY 1 24 . They usually have items in stock. Additionally.g. For example. the basic circuit might also help you to build devices the respond to your call. you can replace the speaker with an IR emitter and add an IR detector to the decoder. I tend to buy parts from these US-based electronic mail-order companies. When Jameco (reasonable prices) doesn't have a part. through touch-tones. TABLE 2. In this scenario. Additionally. along with the vendor part number and cost (in 1998). Well hopefully I got you motivated. Note: I have no association with these vendors. Yet another experiment is to interface either the generator or the emitter or both to a PC or embedded microprocessor (e. This makes decoding the tone very easy even in surrouding noise. 8051. If you are familiar with how telephones work. I list the source from which I bought it from. Parts List and Potential Vendor Source Below are parts I used for constructing my DTMF generator/decoding pair. Part placement is not critical. can respond and control. I used a combination of soldering and wirewrapping on a prototyping board (Radio Shack). PIC or Stamp). the PC or a peripheral.Another possibility is to use infrared (IR). you can build upon the decoder and add relays to control household devices that respond when you call your home. It is this performance that makes DTMF ideal for clear transmission and reception in remote control (wireless or through phone lines) applications.
579545 MHZ CRYSTAL 7-SEG DISPLAY VENDOR PART see below JAMECO 1.49 1 1 2 3 1 TABLE 2.4: DTMF Decoder PART DESCRIPTION 8870 DTMF DECODER 18-PIN DIP 3.99 0.95 1.35 0.79 0.89 1.05 0.05 1.3.15 PRICE (1998) QUANTITY 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 #14533 COMMON JAMECO CATHODE #24782 74LS48 7-SEG DRIVER 16-PIN JAMECO DIP 16-PIN WIREWRAP SOCKET 18-PIN WIREWRAP SOCKET 0.579545 MHZ CRYSTAL 8 OHM SPEAKER 16-PIN WIREWRAP SOCKET 8-POSITION DIP SWITCH TIP31 NPN TRANSISTOR JAMECO #14533 JAMECO #88410 JAMECO #37479 JAMECO #38842 JAMECO #33048 1.35 0.35 1.1 uF CAPACITOR 100 KOHM RESISTOR 300 KOHM RESISTOR #47811 JAMECO #37479 JAMECO #38148 JAMECO #151116 25 .
Micro. They sell Teltone's M-8870-01 (18-pin DIP package) unit for about $1. R2. The JDR part number is CD22202E and costs $3. R3 and R4) and 3 columns (C1. Inc. Your phone only uses 12 of the possible 16 tones. JDR Microdevices offers this chip. Check out their webpage for locations. there are only 4 rows (R1.5.Teltone offers the 8870 chip.G.1 So what are these tones? In DTMF there are 16 distinct tones.99. Please note that I have not used the CD22202E.5 Theory of Operation 2. your decoder should still work. The exact value of the frequencies are listed in Table 3 below: TABLE 2. Namely Harris Semiconductor's CD22202. Each tone is the sum of two frequencies: one from a low and one from a high frequency group. This part can be ordered from Component Distributors.25. C2 and C3).25 and the 5089 for $1. They are based in Dallas. (Added the following 08/13/99) One visitor alerted me to B. It is not pin-compatiable with the 8870 but functions in the same way. There are four different frequencies in each group. Texas: Telephone: 1-800-276-2206. It has also come to my attention that there are similar DTMF decoding chips.50 in single quantities and can ship internationally. I imagine that if you wire it up taking into account that the pinnumbers differ with those of the 8870. The rows and columns select frequencies from the low and high frequency group respectively.5: DTMF Row/Column Frequencies LOW-FREQUENCIES ROW # R1: ROW 0 R2: ROW 1 R3: ROW 2 FREQUENCY (HZ) 697 770 852 26 . If you look at your phone. This mail-order house sells the 8870 for $2. 2. They have local offices around the US.
look at your phone again. Each key is specified by its row and column locations.3 You can see that the DTMF generated signal is very distinct and clear.R4: ROW 3 HIGH-FREQUENCIES COL # C1: COL 0 C2: COL 1 C3: COL 2 C4: COL 3 C4 not used in phones 941 FREQUENCY (HZ) 1209 1336 1477 1633 Thus to decipher what tone frequency is associated with a particular key. Thus using the above table. The frequency of the tone is about 1900 Hz . 27 . The following graph is a captured screen from an oscilloscope. For example the "2" key is row 0 (R1) and column 1 (C2). "2" has a frequency of 770 + 1336 = 2106 Hz The "9" is row 2 (R3) and column 2 (C3) and has a frequency of 852 + 1477 = 2329 Hz. It is a plot of the tone frequency for the "1" key: Fig 2.close to the 1906 Hz predicted by Table 3 (697+1209). The horizontal axis is in samples.
2 Tone Generator Fig 2.6.6 Construction This section is organized as follows: o o Schematics Construction Hightlights 2. 2.1 Schematics The schematic in the figure below is relatively straightforward.2.6.4 28 . I recommend that you use a combination of soldering and wirewrapping using sockets for all IC component placement.
4. Only 3 of the 5089's 4 column pins (3. these pins normally high (+5V).5 2.7. Again you can use a combination of wirewrapping and soldering.g.3 Tone Decoder The schematic for the DTMF decoder in the figure below.5) and all 4 row pins (11 to 14) were used. In a single-package this DIP contains 8 single-pole-single-throw (SPST) switches.2. When the circuit is powered on.7 Construction Highlights 2. 29 . a pin is enabled when it is grounded.1 Tone Generator The DTMF generator circuit is straight forward to construct. Part placement is not critical. Thus it uses only 12 of the 16 touch tones (just like your phone). /C1). In other words. In this schematic you'll note the "/" in front of column and row pin labels (e. This means that these pins are active low. It is much cheaper to use than 8 real SPST switches. Fig 2.6. C1-C3 and R1-R4 are wired to an 8-position DIP switch.
Often surplus keypads do not come with techsheets. The numbers in bold and parenthesis are your desired key tone 30 . collector and emitter pins respectively in the schematic are not standard. I think the proper keypad will have 9 pins: 8 (for 4 rows plus 4 columns) plus 1 for a common which you'd connect to ground. Be sure to check your spec sheet for your TIP31. Note: the labels 1. In this photo DIP positions 1 and 4 (C1 and R1 respectively) are in their ON positions. The speaker will emit the touch-tone associated with the "1" key (see Table 4) The speaker is driven through the TIP31 transistor. You could use a 12-key keypad available from many surplus or electronics mail-order companies. C1 and R1 is "1" on your phone's keypad. Not all keypads can be used with the 5089. TABLE 2.You slide a DIP position to open or close its switch. When closed that particular switch connects its associated column or row pin to ground and makes it active. and you will have to manually figure out which pin is associated with which row or column. 2 and 3 that refer to the base. But you must be aware of what you buy.6: DIP SWITCH POSITIONS (1) DIP: 1+4 (2) DIP: 2+4 (3) DIP: 3+4 (4) DIP: 1+5 (5) DIP: 2+5 (6) DIP: 3+5 (7) DIP: 1+6 (8) DIP: 2+6 (9) DIP: 3+6 (*) DIP: 1+7 (0) DIP: 2+7 (#) DIP: 3+7 Table 4 shows the DIP positions that will activate the tone associated with the key. I found to my surprise that my particular surplus 12-key keypad (from Electronic Goldmine) did not have this common pin and so I resorted to using a DIP.
Note: A "0" tone lights up as "[" and not zero. Similarly. the 7-segment display will light up the number associated with the touch-tone you activate with the DIP switch.7. You will have to physically wire (using alligator clips for instance) the TONE OUT pinout from the generator to the TONE IN pinout of the decoder. you would slide only positions 2 and 7 on the DIP switch. Because the 7-segment displays only a single digit.(like your phone).2 Tone Decoder The decoder circuit is also easy to construct. This is because. 31 . "0" key's tone is actually a ten in binary (1010). the "*" (binary 1011) and "#" (binary 1100) light up as "]" and "U" respectively. 2. ten is displayed as a "[". Thus if you wanted to dial a "0". Once physically wired together.
1 RESISTOR : 3.CHAPTER 3 VARIOUS DEVICES USED 3.1 Introduction A resistor is a two-terminal electrical or electronic component that opposes an electric current by producing a voltage drop between its terminals in accordance with Ohm's law: The electrical resistance is equal to the voltage drop across the resistor divided by the current through the resistor while the temperature remains the same.1 Axial-lead resistors on tape. The tape is removed during assembly before the leads are formed and the part is inserted into the board.1. 32 . Fig 3. Resistors are used as part of electrical networks and electronic circuits.
The tolerance for a 4band resistor will be 1%. 3. or green. The scheme is simple: The first two numbers are the first two significant digits of the resistance value. green-blue-yellow red : 56 x (10^4) ohms = 56 x 10000 ohms = 560 kohms ±2%). blue. and the fourth is the tolerance of the value (e. Cases are usually brown. 3. Surface-mount resistors are marked numerically. or 10%. the third is a multiplier.2 Identifying resistors Most axial resistors use a pattern of colored stripes to indicate resistance. shown in the chart below. Each color corresponds to a certain number.1. 5%. Color 1st band 2nd band 3rd band (multiplier) 4th band (tolerance) Temp. Coefficient Black 0 Brown 1 Red 2 0 1 2 3 4 ×100 ×101 ×102 ×103 ×104 ±1% (F) ±2% (G) 100 ppm 50 ppm 15 ppm 25 ppm Orange 3 Yellow 4 33 .One can also use a multimeter or ohmmeter to test the values of a resistor.Fig 3.2 Three carbon composition resistors in a 1960s valve radio.g.1. It consists of four colored bands that are painted around the body of the resistor.3 Four-band axial resistors Four-band identification is the most commonly used color coding scheme on all resistors. though other colors are occasionally found such as dark red or dark grey.
Green 5 Blue 6 5 6 7 8 9 ×105 ×106 ×107 ×108 ×109 ×10-1 ×10-2 ±0.21 ohm E96 series resistor. between 10 and 100. Each multiple of 34 .25% (C) ±0. E24.5% (D) ±0. Resistors are often marked with their tolerance (maximum expected variation from the marked resistance). In practice. N=8 and 10^(8/96)=1. whereas those confirming to the E24 series would have 24 distinct values. These series are called E6. can have 12 distinct values between 10 and 100. The number tells how many standardized values exist in each decade (e. E96 and E192. only a limited range of values from the IEC 60063 preferred number series are commonly available. as defined above.1 3.1% (B) ±0. the discrete component sold as a "resistor" is not a perfect resistance.21 ohm. These E numbers correspond to the formula R= 10^(N/E). So for an 1.05% (A) Violet 7 Gray 8 White 9 Gold Silver None ±5% (J) ±10% (K) ±20% (M) Table 3.g. or between 100 and 1000).4 Preferred values Resistors are manufactured in values from a few milliohms to about a gigaohm.1. E12. So resistors conforming to the E12 series.
1.5 Power dissipation The power dissipated by a resistor is the voltage across the resistor multiplied by the current through the resistor:All three equations are equivalent. However.1 ohm resistor would have a N= 8+96 = 104.However. the resistor may depart from its nominal resistance. and other two are derived from that by Ohm's Law. Significantly excessive power dissipation may raise the temperature of the resistor to a point where it burns out. each edge of which has been replaced by a resistor. 35 . N can also be found by using the formula E*LOG10(R) = N. 3. and may be damaged by overheating. To find their total equivalent resistance (Req): The parallel property can be represented in equations by two vertical lines "||" (as in geometry) to simplify equations. For instance. Consider a cube. For two resistors. many resistor networks cannot be split up in this way. For example.96 added to the remainder gives the next decade. if all twelve resistors are equal.1. The sum of the potential differences (voltage) is equal to the total voltage. 3. To find their total resistance: A resistor network that is a combination of parallel and series can sometimes be broken up into smaller parts that are either one or the other. So a 12. but the voltage across each resistor can be different. determining the resistance between two opposite vertices requires matrix methods for the general case.6 Series and parallel circuits Resistors in a parallel configuration each have the same potential difference (voltage). which could cause a fire in adjacent components and materials. The first is derived from Joule's law.The current through resistors in series stays the same. The total amount of heat energy released is the integral of the power over time: If the average power dissipated exceeds the power rating of the resistor. the corner-to-corner resistance is 5⁄6 of any one of them.
building up on each plate. 3. but opposite polarity. Since the farad is a very large unit.2 CAPACITOR 3. Capacitors are occasionally referred to as condensers. Capacitors are often used in electric and electronic circuits as energy-storage devices. nanofarads (nF). This is considered an antiquated term in English. but most other languages use an equivalent. or plates.3 Capacitance The capacitor's capacitance (C) is a measure of the amount of charge (Q) stored on each plate for a given potential difference or voltage (V) which appears between the plates: In SI units. like "Kondensator" in German. This property makes them useful in electronic filters.2. and involves electric charges of equal magnitude.3. or picofarads (pF). "Condensador" in Spanish. an electric field is created in the region between the plates that is proportional to the amount of charge that 36 . or "Kondensa" in Japanese.2. The process of storing energy in the capacitor is known as "charging". 3. a capacitor has a capacitance of one farad when one coulomb of charge is stored due to one volt applied potential difference across the plates.2 Physics Diagram of a parallel-plate capacitorA capacitor consists of two conductive electrodes. separated by a dielectric. They can also be used to differentiate between high-frequency and low-frequency signals. values of capacitors are usually expressed in microfarads (µF). When there is a difference in electric charge between the plates.2.1 Introduction A capacitor is an electrical/electronic device that can store energy in the electric field between a pair of conductors (called "plates").
has been moved from one plate to the other. This electric field creates a potential difference V = E·d between the plates of this simple parallel-plate capacitor. The capacitance is proportional to the surface area of the conducting plate and inversely proportional to the distance between the plates. It is also proportional to the permittivity of the dielectric (that is, non-conducting) substance that separates the plates. The capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor is given by: where ε is the permittivity of the dielectric (see Dielectric constant), A is the area of the plates and d is the spacing between them. In the diagram, the rotated molecules create an opposing electric field that partially cancels the field created by the plates, a process called dielectric polarization.
3.2.4 Stored energy
As opposite charges accumulate on the plates of a capacitor due to the separation of charge, a voltage develops across the capacitor due to the electric field of these charges. Ever-increasing work must be done against this ever-increasing electric field as more charge is separated. The energy (measured in joules, in SI) stored in a capacitor is equal to the amount of work required to establish the voltage across the capacitor, and therefore the electric field. The energy stored is given by: where V is the voltage across the capacitor. The maximum energy that can be (safely) stored in a particular capacitor is limited by the maximum electric field that the dielectric can withstand before it breaks down. Therefore, capacitors made with the same dielectric have about the same maximum energy density (joules of energy per cubic meter), if the dielectric volume dominates the total volume.
3.2.5 Capacitor types
Fig 3.3 Capacitors: SMD ceramic at top left; SMD tantalum at bottom left; through-hole tantalum at top right; through-hole electrolytic at bottom right. Major scale divisions are cm.
Fig 3.4 Various types of capacitors. From left: multilayer ceramic, ceramic disc, multilayer polyester film, tubular ceramic, polystyrene, metallized polyester film, aluminium electrolytic. Major scale divisions are cm.
3.3 CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR
A miniature 4 MHz quartz crystal enclosed in a hermetically sealed HC-49/US package, used as the resonator in a crystal oscillator. A crystal oscillator is an electronic circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time (as in quartz wristwatches), to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits, and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters/receivers.
Fig 3.7 Inside construction of a modern high performance HC-49 package quartz crystal
It was often used in mechanical filters before quartz.3. the quartz will generate an electric field as it returns to its previous shape. For example. (See RLC circuit. For applications not needing very precise timing. repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions.) Quartz has the further advantage that its elastic constants and its size change in such a way that the frequency dependence on temperature can be very low.3. the resonant frequency of the plate. molecules. shape. such as those used in digital watches. More than two billion (2×109) crystals are manufactured annually. Low-frequency crystals. a low-cost ceramic resonator is often used in place of a quartz crystal. When the field is removed. rectangular plate. The resonant frequency depends on size. steel is very elastic and has a high speed of sound.2 Operation A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms. filter or oscillator will remain accurate. This means that a quartz clock. with a precise resonant frequency. 40 . and the speed of sound in the material. Almost any object made of an elastic material could be used like a crystal. called a crystal oven. The specific characteristics will depend on the mode of vibration and the angle at which the quartz is cut (relative to its crystallographic axes)1 Therefore. either. High-frequency crystals are typically cut in the shape of a simple. The result is that a quartz crystal behaves like a circuit composed of an inductor. which depends on its size. with appropriate transducers.. and can also be mounted on shock absorbers to prevent perturbation by external mechanical vibrations. When a crystal of quartz is properly cut and mounted. Quartz timing crystals are manufactured for frequencies from a few tens of kilohertz to tens of megahertz. or ions are packed in a regularly ordered. since all objects have natural resonant frequencies of vibration. will not change much. it can be made to distort in an electric field by applying a voltage to an electrode near or on the crystal. This property is known as piezoelectricity. For critical applications the quartz oscillator is mounted in a temperature-controlled container. are typically cut in the shape of a tuning fork. capacitor and resistor. and this can generate a voltage. elasticity.
This forms a negative feedback servo control loop.4 VOLTAGE REGULATOR 3. all modern electronic voltage regulators operate by comparing the actual output voltage to some internal fixed reference voltage. the output voltage is held roughly constant. insufficient voltage will be present at the regulators output.2 Voltage Regulator 7805 The Digilab board can use any power supply that creates a DC voltage between 6 and 12 volts. however. In this way. For some regulators if the output voltage is too high. If a DC supply of greater than 12V is used. many just stop sourcing current and depend on the current draw of whatever it is driving to pull the voltage back down. it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages.4. 41 . excessive heat will be generated. The control loop must be carefully designed to produce the desired tradeoff between stability and speed of response. or passive or active electronic components. It may use an electromechanical mechanism. If the output voltage is too low.1 Introduction A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. If a DC supply of less than 5V is used. Depending on the design.3. and the board may be damaged.excess voltage is converted to heat and dissipated through the body of the regulator. 3. the regulation element is commanded to produce a lower voltage. the regulation element is commanded to produce a higher voltage. The regulator functions by using a diode to clamp the output voltage at 5VDC regardless of the input voltage .4. A 5V voltage regulator (7805) is used to ensure that no more than 5V is delivered to the Digilab board regardless of the voltage present at the J12 connector (provided that voltage is less than 12VDC). With the exception of shunt regulators. Any difference is amplified and used to control the regulation element.
The "fin" on the regulator body (the side that protrudes upward beyond the main body of the part) helps to dissipate excess heat more efficiently. Fig 3. If the board requires higher currents (due to the use of peripheral devices or larger breadboard circuits). the regulator must dissipate significant heat.Fig 3.8 If a power supply provides a voltage higher than 7 or 8 volts. then the regulator may need to dissipate more heat.9 42 . In this case. the regulator can be secured to the circuit board by fastening it with a screw and nut (see below). By securing the regulator tightly to the circuit board. excess heat can be passed to the board and then radiated away.
Soldering is distinguished from brazing by use of a lower melting-temperature filler metal. The filler metal used in the process is called solder. rain gutters and automobile radiators have also historically been soldered. it is distinguished from welding by the base metals not being melted during the joining process. causing the solder to melt and be drawn into the joint by capillary action and to bond to the materials to be joined by wetting action. which is below 400 °C. Soldering is an ancient technique mentioned in the Bible and there is evidence that it was employed up to 5000 years ago in Mesopotamia. and watertightness for many uses.3. the resulting joints are not as strong as the base metal. Soft soldering is characterized by the melting point of the filler metal. 3. but have adequate strength.5. In a soldering process.10 (De)soldering a contact from a wire. Joints in sheetmetal objects such as food cans. After the metal cools. the filler metal having a relatively low melting point. Jewelry and small mechanical parts 43 . Another common application is making permanent but reversible connections between copper pipes in plumbing systems. electrical conductivity. Soldering is a process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint. heat is applied to the parts to be joined. roof flashing. and occasionally still are.1 Applications The most frequent application of soldering is assembling electronic components to printed circuit boards (PCBs).5 Soldering Fig 3.
Soldering can also be used to effect a semi-permanent patch for a leak in a container cooking vessel. mechanical assembly. and other applications. which minimizes heat stress on electronic components during the soldering process. For environmental reasons. In electronics assembly. a eutectic formulation has the lowest possible melting point. or for outdoor use where rain and other precipitation may wash the lead into the groundwater.3 50/50: melts between 185–215°C (365–419 °F) Lead-free solder alloys melt around 250 °C (482 °F).2 60/40: melts between 183–190°C (361–374 °F) 3. Other alloys are used for plumbing. Lead-free solders are suggested anywhere children may come into contact (since children are likely to place things into their mouths). Common solder alloys are mixtures of tin and lead. 3. the eutectic alloy of 63% tin and 37% lead (or 60/40. Unfortunately most 'no-lead' solders are not eutectic formulations. depending on their composition. Additionally.are often assembled by soldering. respectively: 3. i. A non-eutectic formulation must remain still as the temperature drops through the liquidus and solidus temperatures. Any differential movement during the plastic phase may result in cracks. the absence of a plastic phase. making it more 44 . This allows for quicker wetting out as the solder heats up. and quicker setup as the solder cools.5. chief among these is the coincidence of the liquidus and solidus temperatures.e. giving an unreliable joint.1 63/37: melts between 180–185 °C (356–365 °F) 3.2 Solders Soldering filler materials are available in many different alloys for differing applications. which is almost identical in performance to the eutectic) has been the alloy of choice. Soldering is also used to join lead came and copper foil in stained glass work. 'no-lead' solders are becoming more widely used. A eutectic formulation has several advantages for soldering.
This will leave a bright. Other common solders include low-temperature formulations (often containing bismuth).difficult to create reliable joints with them. and high-temperature formulations (usually containing silver) which are used for high-temperature operation or for first assembly of items which must not become unsoldered during subsequent operations. Flux will remain which can easily be removed by abrasive or chemical processes. as well as making the new solder flow very quickly and easily.5. Once the solder's capacity for the base metal has been achieved it will no longer properly bond with the base metal. Specialty alloys are available with properties such as higher strength. in stained glass work. Desoldering wicks contain plenty of flux that will lift the contamination from the copper trace and any device leads that are present. which are often used to join previously-soldered assemblies without un-soldering earlier connections. 3. It is good practice to remove solder from a joint prior to resoldering—desoldering braids or vacuum desoldering equipment (solder suckers) can be used. resulting in a new joint. leaving it mostly intact though the outer layer will be "tinned" with solder. This tinned layer will allow solder to flow into a new joint. shiny. See complete discussion below. 45 .3 Desoldering and resoldering Used solder contains some of the dissolved base metals and is unsuitable for reuse in making new joints. usually resulting in a brittle cold solder joint with a crystalline appearance. see also RoHS. The lower melting point of solder means it can be melted away from the base metal. clean junction to be resoldered. better electrical conductivity and higher corrosion resistance.
vias (the through-hole paths to the other surface). or may be oxidized.3. a populated PCB. Movement of metals being soldered before the solder has cooled will cause a highly unreliable cracked joint. An improperly selected or applied flux can cause joint failure.4 Soldering defects Various problems may arise in the soldering process which lead to joints which are non functional either immediately or after a period of use. may corrode the metals in the joint over time and cause eventual joint failure.6 Printed circuit board Fig 3.5.11 Part of a 1983 Sinclair ZX Spectrum computer board. This is usually the result of the soldering iron being used to heat the solder directly. and some mounted electrical components 46 . rather than the parts themselves. the parts to be connected are heated by the iron. which in turn melts the solder. resulting in an unsound joint. The most common defect when hand-soldering results from the parts being joined not exceeding the solder's liquidus temperature. resulting in a "cold solder" joint. Without flux the joint may not be clean. guaranteeing adequate heat in the joined parts for thorough wetting. Properly done. or if not properly cleaned off the joint. showing the conductive traces. 3.
Alternative names are printed wiring board (PWB). Insulating materials have a wider scale: phenolic paper. etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. also known as a printed circuit board assembly (PCBA). FR-4 (Woven glass and epoxy).and etched wiring board. which are a combination of glass fibre mat. 3. inexpensive. FR-6 (Matte glass and polyester).1 Materials Conducting layers are typically made of thin copper foil. Copper foil and prepreg are typically laminated together with epoxy resin. G-10 (Woven 47 . FR-5 (Woven glass and epoxy). assembly.6. PCBs are rugged. and can be highly reliable. or PCB. FR-3 (Cotton paper and epoxy). They require much more layout effort and higher initial cost than either wire-wrapped or point-to-point constructed circuits. Well known prepreg materials used in the PCB industry are FR-2 (Phenolic cotton paper).Fig 3.11 PCB Layout Program A printed circuit board. is used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components using conductive pathways. Usually PCB factories use prepregs (short for preimpregnated). but are much cheaper and faster for high-volume production. glass fibre and different plastics are commonly used. A PCB populated with electronic components is a printed circuit assembly (PCA). Much of the electronics industry's PCB design. and quality control needs are set by standards that are published by the IPC organization. nonwoven material and resin. or traces.
12 A PCB as a design on a computer (left) and realized as a board assembly with populated components (right). Other widely used materials are polyimide. 48 . CEM-4 (Woven glass and epoxy). with through-hole plating. and white silkscreen printing. Fig 3. CEM-2 (Cotton paper and epoxy). green solder resist.glass and epoxy). CEM-1 (Cotton paper and epoxy). teflon and some ceramics. Both surface mount and through-hole components have been used. CEM-3 (Woven glass and epoxy). The board is double sided. CEM-5 (Woven glass and polyester).
Chapter 4 MT 8870 IC 4.1 Features • Complete DTMF Receiver • Low power consumption • Internal gain setting amplifier • Adjustable guard time • Central office quality • Power-down mode • Inhibit mode • Backward compatible with MT8870C/MT8870C-1 4.2 Applications • Receiver system for British Telecom (BT) or CEPT Spec (MT8870D-1) • Paging systems • Repeater systems/mobile radio • Credit card systems • Remote control • Personal computers • Telephone answering machine 49 .
clock oscillator and latched three-state bus interface 4. External component count is minimized by on chip provision of a differential input amplifier. the decoder uses digital counting techniques to detect and decode all 16 DTMF tonepairs into a 4-bit code.3 Description The MT8870D/MT8870D-1 is a complete DTMF integrating both the bandsplit filter and digital decoder functions. Its architecture consists of a bandsplit filter section.4. low power consumption and high performance. The filter section uses witched capacitor techniques for high and lowgroup filters.4 Functional Description The MT8870D/MT8870D-1 monolithic DTMF receiver offers small size. 50 . which separates the high and low group tones. followed by a digital counting section which verifies the frequency and duration of the received tones before passing the corresponding code to the output bus.
Fig 4.1 51 .
3 52 .4.2 20 PIN SSOP/TSSOP Fig 4.5 MT8870D/MT8870D-1 ISO2-CMOS 18 PIN CERDIP/PLASTIC DIP/SOIC Fig 4.
4.6 PIN DESCRIPTIONS:- 53 .
Its architecture consists of a bandsplit filter section.Table 4. 55 . low power consumption and high performance.7 Functional Description The MT8870D/MT8870D-1 monolithic DTMF receiver offers small size.1 4.
The contents of the output latch are made available on the 4-bit output bus by raising the three state control input (TOE) to a logic high. followed by a digital counting section which verifies the frequency and duration of the received tones before passing the corresponding code to the output bus. 4. Provided signal condition is maintained (ESt remains high) for the validation period (tGTP). This check is performed by an external RC time constant driven by ESt. GT continues to drive high as long as ESt remains high.8 Steering Circuit Before registration of a decoded tone pair. after a short delay to allow the output latch to settle. 56 .which separates the high and low group tones. The steering circuit works in reverse to validate the interdigit pause between signals. vc reaches the threshold (VTSt) of the steering logic to register the tone pair. signalling that a received tone pair has been registered. the receiver will tolerate signal interruptions (dropout) too short to be considered a valid pause. latching its corresponding 4-bit code into the output latch. Finally. Thus. together with the capability of selecting the steering time constants externally. At this point the GT output is activated and drives vc to VDD. This facility. A logic high on ESt causes vc to rise as the capacitor discharges. the receiver checks for a valid signal duration (referred to as character recognition condition). the delayed steering output flag (StD) goes high. allows the designer to tailor performance to meet a wide variety of system requirements. as well as rejecting signals too short to be considered valid.
Limiting is performed by high-gain comparators which are provided with hysteresis to prevent detection of unwanted low-level signals. the bandwidths of which correspond to the low and high group frequencies. 57 .Basic steering circuit Fig 4. Each filter output is followed by a single order switched capacitor filter section which smooths the signals prior to limiting.9 Filter Section Separation of the low-group and high group tones is achieved by applying the DTMF signal to the inputs of two sixth-order switched capacitor bandpass filters.4 4. The filter section also incorporates notches at 350 and 440 Hz for exceptional dial tone rejection (see Figure 3).
10 Guard Time Adjustment In many situations not requiring selection of tone duration and interdigital pause.The outputs of the comparators provide full rail logic swings at the frequencies of the incoming DTMF signals.5 4. Component values are chosen according to the formula: tREC=tDP+tGTP tID=tDA+tGTA 58 . the simple steering circuit shown in Figure is applicable. Filter response Fig 4.
This may be necessary to meet system specifications which place both accept and reject limits on both tone duration and interdigital pause. Different steering arrangements may be used to select independently the guard times for tone present (tGTP) and tone absent (tGTA). Guard time adjustment also allows the designer to tailor system parameters such as talk off and noise immunity. leaving R to be selected by the designer. Alternatively. a relatively short tREC with a long tDO would be appropriate for extremely noisy environments where fast acquisition time and immunity to tone drop-outs are required.6 59 .The value of tDP is a device parameter (see Figure 11) and tREC is the minimum signal duration to be recognized by the receiver. Increasing tREC improves talk-off performance since it reduces the probability that tones simulated by speech will maintain signal condition long enough to be registered. Fig 4. A value for C of 0.1 μF is recommended for most applications. Design information for guard time adjustment is shown in Figure .
7 60 . which permits the adjustment of gain with the feedback resistor R5.4. In a single-ended configuration. Provision is made for connection of a feedback resistor to the op-amp output (GS) for adjustment of gain. Figure shows the differential configuration. Fig 4. the input pins are connected as shown in Figure with the op-amp connected for unity gain and VRef biasing the input at 1/2VDD.11 Differential Input Configuration The input arrangement of the MT8870D/MT8870D-1 provides a differential-input operational amplifier as well as a bias source (VRef) which is used to bias the inputs at mid-rail.
The oscillator output of the first device in the chain is coupled through a 30 pF capacitor to the oscillator input (OSC1) of the next device.8 oscillator connections 61 . i. Subsequent devices are connected in a similar fashion.e. However.579545 MHz crystal and is normally connected as shown in Figure (Single. it is possible to configure several MT8870D/MT8870D-1 devices employing only a single oscillator crystal.. Refer to Figure for details.12 Crystal Oscillator The internal clock circuit is completed with the addition of an external 3. Fig 4.Ended Input Configuration). The problems associated with unbalanced loading are not a concern with the arrangement shown.4. precision balancing capacitors are not required.
9 Single ended input configuration 4.13 resonator specifications recommendation Table 4.Fig 4.2 62 .
4 63 .15 Recommended operation conditions Table 4.14 Absolute maximum condition Table 4.4.3 4.
15 DC Electrical characterstics Table 4.4.5 64 .
17 Operating AC characterstics:- Table 4.6 4.7 65 .4.16 Operating characterstics Table 4.
18 Applications The purpose of this Application Note is to provide information on the operation and aplication of DTMF Receivers. one from a low group (697-941Hz) and one from a high group (12091633Hz) with each group containing four individual tones. each selecting its low group tone from its respective row and its high group tone from its respective column . The buttons are arranged in a matrix. This scheme is known as DTMF (Dual Tone Multi. As its acronym suggests. suffering severe distortion over long wire loops.A. was not only slow.D) being reserved for special signalling. 1a). More than 25 years ago the need for an improved method for transferring dialling information through the telephone network was recognized. As a result DTMF coding has proven to provide a flexible signalling scheme of excellent reliability. TouchTone™ or simply. The DTMF coding scheme ensures that each signal contains one and only one component from each of the high and low groups. The traditional method. the remaining six (*. a valid DTMF signal is the sum of two tones.#.Frequency). Most telephone keypads contain ten numeric push buttons plus the asterisk (*) and octothorp (#).C. The tone frequencies were carefully chosen such that they are not harmonically related and that their intermodulation products result in minimal signaling impairment (Fig. hence motivating innovative and competitive decoder design. into its two single frequency components each of which may be handled individually.B.4. Dial pulse signalling. This scheme allows for 16 unique combinations. Ten of these codes represent the numerals zero through nine. tone dialling. 66 .but required a DC path through the communications channel. A signalling scheme was developed utilizing voice frequency tones and implemented as a very reliable alternative to pulse dialling. The MT8870 Integrated DTMF Receiver will be discussed in detail and its use illustrated in the application examples which follow. This significantly simplifies decoding because the composite DTMF signal may be separated with bandpass filters.
10 67 .DTMF Spectrum Fig 4.
1.5 V (HIGH NOISE IMMUNITY) INTERNAL CLAMP DIODES Fig 5.4 5.1.1 68 .1.2A PEAK OUTPUT CURRENT (non repetitive) PER CHANNEL ENABLE FACILITY OVER TEMPERATURE PROTECTION LOGICAL”0” INPUT VOLTAGE UP TO 1.1 5.3 5.1Features 5.CHAPTER-5 L293D 5.5 600mA OUTPUT CURRENT CAPABILITY PER CHANNEL 1.2 5.1.1.
5. To simplify use as two bridges each pair of channels is equipped with an enable input. This device is suitable for use in switching applications at frequencies up to 5 kHz. A separate supply input is provided for the logic. allowing operation at a lower voltage and internal clamp diodes are included. The L293DD is assembled in a 20 lead surface mount which has 8 center pins connected together and used for heatsinking. DC and stepping motors) and switching power transistors. high current four channel driver designed to accept standard DTL or TTL logic levels and drive inductive loads (such as relays solenoids. The L293D is assembled in a 16 lead plastic package which has 4 center pins connected together and used for heatsinking.1Description The Device is a monolithic integrated high voltage. 69 .
2 70 .5.2 Block Diagram Fig 5.
3 Absolute Maximum Ratings Table 5.5.3 71 .4 PIN CONNECTIONS (Top view) Fig 5.1 5.
Tamb = 25 °C. VS = 24 V. VSS = 5 V.2 72 . unless otherwise specified) Table 9.5 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (for each channel.5.
7 Switching Times Fig 5.4 73 .4 5.3 Z = High output impedance (*) Relative to the considered channel 5.6 TRUTH TABLE (one channel) Table 9.8 THERMAL DATA Table 5.5.
5 74 .Junction to ambient thermal resistance vs. area on board heatsink (SO12+4+4 package) Fig 5.
5 Power dip 16 package mechanical data Table 5.5 75 .9OUTLINE AND MECHANICAL DATA Power dip 16 Fig 5.5.
Table 5.6 76 .
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