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Preface

1

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For the saxophone student beginning the' serious study of jazz and cor-ternporary styles, this book wi!: help in many ways. First, phrasing and interpretation of rhythms is studied through exercises and original pieces. If should be noted that the pieces contain many phrasing mcrkinqs that would not appear in jazz ensemble parts or "fake books" where it is assumed that the ployer already knows how to phrase in the jazz or rock idiom.

.

I i

......

Secondly, studies to teach both theoretical and technical skills in scales and chords give basics necessary to study and develop lrnprovisonono: skills. We hope that the student will enjoy and leorn from this book. The student should listen to, as many recordings of jazz saxophonists as possib'e in order to gain a concept of the principles tcught in this text.

;

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I !

. ._j

Thanks to Rob Go!dsmith for e.diling this text.

Bill Boy

10· C opyrig ht 1979 Mel Boy Publ ic ctiCY."lS. In c, Pacinc. !vb.

Interroclional Copyright SeclJ.ed AI! fi.ghts res erved f'linled In USA

_.,..... .

Contents

page

Basic RhythmiC Cotx;eoh F<:t A7.

and Cont~ary Ptv~~ ..••.•..•••••...•..•..•.............. 3·14 Special Effects ..••.•.......•.....••..••...•.•••...••.........•...... 15 Heavy Accent .••.•..•...•.••.•••••••..••.•••.•••...••....•...•..... 16 Standard Staccato ••.••.••..••..•.•••.••.•••••.•.•.••......•....... 17 Standard legato ...................................•............... 1 7 The Shake •..•.••••••••..••••••••••••••••••••••.•...••..•.•.••.••••• 1 7 The Flip .••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.•••• ' •••• / •.•.••••• 1 B The Smear •••••••••••••.••••.••••••••••••••.•••••••••••••.••••••••.. 1 B The Doit •...... ~ ..•••....•.•..•.......•.•••...•......•...........•.. 19 Up.(;liss .........••...•...•..•.•...•.... ' ..••..•.....•............... 19 Down-Sllss ....••••.......•...............•..•.•.................... 20 Lifts ...•.••••••••••••.....•••••.••••.•••..•••••...••••...•••..••.••. 21 Spills ......•.....•.•..........•..•....•.•........................... 22 The Plop .. " ...........................•............................. 23

Indefinite Of Muffled Sound _ 23

Be-Bop Phrasing ..•. , , ..•....•.. , .......•.•.. , , 24·26

Rock and Soul Phrosi~ ., " .. , 27-32

Latin Rock .......•........................•..... _ 33

Blues , ..•............ , , •.................... '" 34

Jazz Technique, ..................................••................ 35

Jazz Articulation. Mo.rob'i3 Pol1~ and vcoctoos . , , , . , 3&46

Chord Studies.. .. . , , .......•............... 47

Scale Building ; ............................•.................... 48

Chord Building ChOrt , 49

Order of Keys .•..• ' ••••••.•.••.•.••••••.•.. " ..•.•...........•.•..•... 50

Dominant 7th Chocd 51-52

Blowin' Domioonl 7fh Th:CVJ!1 o:! K€'j'S 53

Minor 7th Chord ' ' , .. , 54-55

Blowin' Minc:t 71n Ihrcv:J~ Oil Ke-,1 56

7 flat 5 Chord orxi Us r(esc;~on 57·58

Blowln' 7 flat 5 Through A:. Ke.,-1 , 59

Minor 7 flat 5 Throug~1 r~s R(>"..o;~~<Ji. , 60-61

Blowin' minor ]. flol 5 Thtcvg~ k: Ke-,'S 62

Augmented 7th cod 115 R!":"'..co'u! en 63-64

Blowin 7th" 5 Through tJ: Keys , • , 65

Diminished Chord arid Ms R"J'S.:;i'f.:en 66

Diminished scoie •••................•.......•.•....•............. 66-69

Vibrato ...•••.•..... , •.....•.•.•..•....•..•••....•............... 70-72

Flexibility Stud;es-HiQ~ o:-od LON r.<eQ.s~&l •.••••.•••••.... '" ..•...•.. 73

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Phrase #1

Doo nit

Coral Rift

Basic Rhythmic Concepts for Jazz

and Contemporary.

Phrasing

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Written

Jazz "Swing" style eight notes

l:asin' On

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Jazz S~udy

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Easy Fcelin' .

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Mixed Bag

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Should be played like:

Phrase #3B

Doc-den 000-&0 Doo Oil

000- den IAw - den 000 Oil Oil

fro (~ r r f f H---#¥--- - 13 r r ~ r p I

. Should be played like

f*-oo3. °m3 -:: ffi3 -td=i3-= ~- ~-~~l m~' o~Th~o §EiJ~$ gJ ~EEI ~-~

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Phrase #4

l 000 Oit Oil Dit Doo Doo Dit Dab

l~ e V r R F V 1 V r V~V '1 i :11

This phrase can also be written:

~ e V F r F V' p f r '1 t :'1

Blues Riff

Fast _. •

L@ b~'~I~ p tit " ~t f -d ,tft t r p' ~ t "l N .

~,+~ p r r r p' prJ ~ I ,tt IT tp 1£ t 'j-

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LtA~ ~ r t r ffl r r d ,p t t t fr 1 P t '1 - I

L ~hrase #5

h Doo Dil Dit Dit Di DOD Dit

~~ U t '1 P t 1 '1 ~ j D U t :11

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L Keep' Em shert

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Phrase #6

Slowly 000

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000 Dot

IF' D-

: II

The "DOT" sound is a heavy accent, while the "DIT" is short, but not meant to be heavily accented.

Easy Groovin'

Slow ttrn--J J J I
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D - IF' D - "n2'
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Smooth legato tonguing is essential for much of jazz music.

Give all notes full value, separate them with very light tonguing) and keep them

"Swinging. n

~ DooDooDoo~

D::lO

Doo

Doo 000

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Slow

"smooth-pee- Tonguing"

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Phrase #8 "Slow-Doc-Dot"

Slow Doo Doo Doo

,....--3-----,

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Dot

Doo

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l Starlight Sounds

.----3 ~ 3'f---'1j

L;lellrlr prill lJFI(=~QPt]

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k ...., . '4 . .... ~ r; ;-'. ,
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I l J J 1 J I Phrase #9 "Sv~ing Riff"

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Big Band BC]sh

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Phrase -#11.

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Opus 11

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Phrase #12

: II

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Use "Dood-en" tongu\nf: en the eighth note phrases.

Jersey Stomp

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L Doo Doo Doo Dab Doo Doo Dab Doo 000 Dah Doo Doo nit Dab

, :::=-:> ~..

~}'!~ C F r ri F IT (Th r ~; t r r ffl r' - :11

l Medium Soft \f\!inds

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I Dot IXlt Dot Dot Doo Dah

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Phrase #14

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"3/4 Jazz"

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\t"aHcin'

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Doo Dol Doo Dot

Doo Doo Doo

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lL In this style, and all othes latin styles, the eighth notes are played "Straight", and not in the "Swing" style.

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Basie Style Easy Blo\vin'

II.

~ obij rp1 b~~f riD F· j J J J I t i b~ r j.q,# ry P -

\Nhose O(ues

Medium blues

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Special Effects·

L

L The Standardization of Stage Band Articulations

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HEAVY ACCENT Hold fuU value.

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F

HEA VY ACCENT

Hold less than full value.

IF

HEAVY ACCENT Short as possible.

STACCATO

Short - not heavy.

c"'

LEGA TO TONGUE Hold full value.

THE SHAKE

A variation of the tone upwards - much like a trill.

LIP TRILL Similar to shake but slower and with more

lip control.

WIDE UP TRILL Same as above except slower and with wider interval.

ruE FLIP Sound note, raise pitch, drop into following note (done with lip on brass)

THE SMEAR Slide into note from below and reach correct pitch just before next note. Do not rob preceding note.

THE DOlT Sound note then gliss upwards from one to

five steps.

DU

False or muffled tone

WAH

Full tone - not muffled ..

SHORT GLlSS UP Slide into* note from below (usually one

to three steps).

LONG GLISS UP Same as above except longer entrance.

SHORT GLISS DOWN The reverse of the short gliss up,

LONG GLISS DOWN Same as long gliss up in reverse.

SHORT LIFT Enter note via chromatic or diatonic scale beginning about a third below.

LONG LlIT

Same as above except longer entrance.

SHORT SPILL Rapid diatonic or chromatic drop. The reverse of the s.hort lift.

LONG SPILL Same as above except longer exit.

THE PLOP A rapid slide down harmonic or diatonic scale before sounding note.

INDEFINITE SOUND

Deadened tone - indefinite- - pitch.

* NOTE: No individual notes are heard when executing a gli"i.

Used.by permission from the Notional Association of Jazz Educators

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(Hold Full Value]

.- 1 1

A rtlculctlcns Heavy Accent #1

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Up tempo:> ~r~

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, Heavy Accent #3

(Short As Possible)

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Standard staccato

In jazz and contemporary music, the staccato note is played short, but lightly. and not with a heavy tongue.

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ffrrt-

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Standard Legato

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Like a trill; usually done by trilling a minor third (three half steps) from the

written note. t\W'

-;f-J' - would be played as 1M ~ E:b€Efr2

,... """ M' A
• A er
IEJ t I Q . - I I r . ij I i 1
lJ - ! (J - - • I

The Flip

A type of "turn" involving notes abore and below the written note.

=!r-:::::::::=t:f= would be played fJt@1---+--

--...

-&g~: ~~~f~~f?~~"""'gf~-++I ~[----+-t§g-t~J~~~~t~.I~~1 r~~-~~II -

v

The Smear

Sounding a note below pitch, then slowly bringing it up to pitch just before the r:c:'t note. This is done by relaxing the embouchure and slightly dropping the jaw to flatten the note, and then bringing the note up to pitch close to the end of its duration. The smear may also be achieved by half-closing the key one-half step below the written note, while also fingering the actual note.

r
..
Slow
! ( frfll .,/ .....---..... h
ro V I 0 t I
-
n , .. ,/ f ?--...-------
V Dr a I 0 I r t ~
- . ..
U
I "

This techique is also called "bending", and is some times notated as: U

r

I .. .I'"V- •

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The Doif

Sound the written note, then "Slide" up one to five steps. The notes in the "Slide"(or gliss) should not sound individually.

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Slow blues

t 14 [J;( P 1-

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~@ -t1- .--- ~~ A
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bJ I ~ I ~ i ~:t E I i .~
0 ..
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Short Up Gnss
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"Sliding" into a note from one to three steps below its written pitch.

Thi s can be done with the embouchure and jaw with or without fingering the gl iss notes.

" ,z!

Long Up Gliss

Same as short gliss up, but from a greater distance below the 'written note .

Fingering the notes would be neccessary. Start three steps to an octave below the written _noh"

L

In both cases the actual pitch should be reached at the time that the note 'would be played

if there was no gliss. In other words, the gliss must be played "before the beat". ,

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. . ~.... .

Gliss Study·

-, 1 1

A

i~~Db(~~lf~t~r~a~·]§Em~q~·f~Qt8~~) ~~-~/j~V~t~B~ll

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Also called short fall-off. Play the written note for about one-half of its value, them quickly "Slide" down chromatically.

The chromatic notes should not sound individually, and there should not be any particular 1

Pitch in evidence at the end of the gliss!

'------"-----_____::::..._------____.~

J

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Long DOV\fn Glass

Also called long fall-off. Similar to short gliss down except that the w ritten note is held a little longer and the gliss goes lower and slower.

l I I L'ss §' V @ I -
s < s

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3 1

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Connecting Gliss

A gliss between two notes. If the notes are no more than a third (two steps) apart, use the chromatic scale to connect them. If the notes are more than a third apart ; use an applicable major or minor scale.Iej the first note sound for at least half of its value before starting the gliss.

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Start about three steps below the written note and "rip" into it using r.r.romatic and/or diatonic movement,

------------------------------------------~

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I ~ note.
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J long t!ft

Start about five or six steps below and use diatonic movement to "r ip" into the

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Lifts

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btt~ i: J HtJDt "& II J

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The reverse of the lift;keys should be heard moving after the air has stopped.

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Spalls

,Short SpiH

Long Spill

1

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Plop

A type of spill, done from about a fifth above the written note. The scale is laved very quickly and clarity of scale notes is not important.

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Ploppillg Along

bi rybp M 1 m I~,J

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L@=LL J 1r

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IndeY!nite Sound

Also called "ghosting". The note is played with a deadened tone, and is "inferred" rather than actually played out. The effect is produced by laying the top of the tongue against the r eed / whi ch mutes the tone , Do not pre 5S hard aga inst t he reed as this

L ca';1 close off the mouthpiece completely.

------------------------------------~

Inojeih1iie!y

I UiR I !lih R r Pc rP'

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. - .........

1 1 1 1

Changes J

Up tempo

Be-Bop

Much of today's jazz remains under the influence of "be-bop" phrasing. All of the following studies should be played slowly at first. Keep the tonguing light. Rememberthe studies should swing. They should not sound rrechanical , Use breath ac cents for phrasing instead of a lot of tonguing.

EI]? . u ----

t ~ IIJ
1
1
_.J Very fast l

~~~'(~~g~q~~~J)~~~t~I~-~~~~~~§U~I~D~;t~m~ll

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Theme For Bird

The A1essenger

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Cool(in'

Up tempo

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Cool Affair

@~= (! [ L~r r r rr r If rtj f vf r IV rWald' ICttr£1lcta ~

, i~ ~rr r E:F Or I~J. ~·d Pld. t 1"1 Db n l£i§' I -~

, ~~J) aD an ITIC erqctu I2:Ef&Qqj] Ip. l ~ ~

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L----------------------------------~

Rock music is characterised by hard-driving" even-eights" rhy-thms. The swing-style

Rock

Rhythm Exercise

I

-

is a rhythm pattern fr equently found in rock. The Ioll owing exercise should help in understanding the rhythm.

in'-

L~ ~~,.lJ-·-A~~~~~~~~-A~~-A~~~~-~

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jF IP jEi r t I

=,

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Rhythm r~

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:j_ I ' ~,,~ {'- ~ - ~ &iiii' f'- ~." ~ -----;; 1

~ ~'& - ~ WJIL Ltv F VI- '1~IC Cib4@lr'..t - II _

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Soul ~sff J

:# ,hi! Jj"l "I' #_@'llt8M:-IJi'l J·lt @1J14D~\'\" --il J ~ ~~

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Detroit Dance

L. Rhythm

L. Chocfaw Bridge .

L l\Iediu~.rock. ~~ ___,

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,8t ~ la IAr !tiff'. It rCf@:Jm I J J tQfJ -

~ ". ~ .....

: .. ....... .

t ,,,, --~~~------------

,

--

Soul Prelude

~J.= ~) <ibm [ ~r rib WIT C"t?g 0 'I l II

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1

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1 1 1 1

~~~s~~-~~~I C=E~~ .. :::::+.d~:+~r~=="'~=====:¥IDb~=+=r~_§;:::' :~~EgC!!F~Ebr=f-de7~iE-~·========~

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Basically Soul

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Jazz Techniques

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Jazz and Contemporary Music requires certain techniques (especially in solo performance) which frequently are not perfected in studying traditional saxophone literature. There are two extremes to avoid. I have heard players with great ideas who simply did not hove the technique to express themselves properly. Also. I have listened to players with great technique who played so cleanly and "legitimately" that they sounded doted and square. In studying the following pages. remember to achieve sharp and clean technique: but keep in mind that in app!ying technical facility-you must phrase properly so

. as to convey the feeling and beat of the music. Remember this-Great Technique is an incomparable asset to any style.

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It is important to have control and technical facility over the whole range of the saxophone.

These studies will work within the basic written range of:

Notes above F, while possible, will not be dealt' with in this text.

/iI1ovable Patterns

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Notice the "formula" used to build this pattern:

From the starting note, a sequence of half step down-whole step up is used:

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A half - step is used to resolve the pattern .

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The student should continue this pattern, raising the starting note one-half step each time until reaching:

And continue, lowering the starting note one-half step each time until reaching:

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And continue, lowering the starting note one-hali step each time until reaching:

r' . Learning to start each of these patterns on different parts of the

l " beat will be of tremendous help when improvising. Each of the

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~'")~es as described in the previous section .

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1) Half step down from starting note

2) Then alternate half step up-whole step down 1

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Articulation

The following patterns are valuable as articulation studies and as helpful phrases for playing through chord changes when improvising. First-learn the phrase and be able to "swing" on it. Second--mernorize the phrase. Third--play the phrase down or up chromatically (Playing it up or down through the various keys by ear or memory is strongly recommended) Finally--play in all keys by ear.

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Chord end Scale Studies

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In this section. effort should be made to develop both technical and aural

(hearing) skills.

Jazz musicians speak of players who have "good ears:' This refers to players who have developed their aural skills to the point where they can instantly recognize and react to scales, chords, and intervals which are either played by someone else or that occur in a plover's own mind as an "idea:'

To help develop these skills, it is recommended that the student play and sing aU of the exercises in this section. The singing is very important as it will help develop the aural skills infemally.

Here is a procedure for practicing in this fashion:

1. Pioy lhe exercise until if sounds familiar. Really listen to whal is being played. Don't ever practice with your "ears closed:'

2. Sing the exercise using eiiher syllables. letter nornes. or scale step numbers.

3. Play it again on the Instrument and compare .

The development of these skins is not easy and will probably not come quickly. but serious effort will payoff; and the results are definitely worth the effort.

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Chord Studies

The important thing in studying chords is to learn to hear the relationship of invervals within a given chord. Training the ear by applying the following studies will help the Sax player begin to improvise with both technical and harmonic freedom.

Scale Building

Study the following section on scale building and constructing chords from scale degrees, so that you will understand the musical theory behind the studies that follow.

A1ajor Scale

A MAJOR SCALE IS A SERIES OF EIGHT NOTES ARRANGED rn A PATTERN OF WHOLE STEPS AND HALF STEPS •.

C Major
Scale C D E F G A B C
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D to E = Whole Step
E to F = 1/2 Step
F to G = Whole Step
G to A = Whole Step
A to B = Whole Step
B to C = 1/2 Step j J

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TO CONSTRUCT A l'.1AJOR SCALE WE FIRST START WITH THE NAME OF THE SCALE (Frequently called the Root or Tonic). WITH THE C SCALE THIS WOULD BE THE NOTE "C". THE REST OF THE SCALE WOULD FALL IN LINE AS FOLLOWS:

DISTANCE FROM
SCALE TONES PRECEDING NOTE
ROOT (C)
2nd (D) WHOLE STEP
3rd (E) 'WHOLE STEP
4th (F) 1/2 STEP
5th (G) WHOLE STEP
6th (A) WHOLE STEP
7th (B) WHOLE STEP
Octave (C) 1/2 STEP WITH THE ABOVE FORMULA YOU CAN CONSTRUCT ANY :MAJOR SCALE I

G h~01jor SCOJle

TO CONSTRUCT THE G MAJOR SCALE, START J WITH THE NOTE G, CONSTRUCT IT AS FOLLOWS:

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NOTICE THAT rn ORDER TO 1iAKE OUR FORMULA WORK WITH THE G SCALE WE MUST SHARP (;) THE F. THERE MUST BE A WHOLE STEP BETWEEN THE 6th AND - 7th TONES OF THE SCALE. IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH A WHOLE STEP BETWEEN E AND F WE MUST SHARP THE F.

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Note: The student's success ill learning to hear chords in this section is entirely dependant upon his diligence in playing the chord study examples in all keys!

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CHORD BUILDING CHART*

Chord Type Scale Degrees Used Symbols
Major Rool, 3rd, 5th Maj
Minor Root. P.3rd, 5th mi',-,m
Diminished Root. b3rd. bSth. ~ b7th dim.o
Augmented Root, :lrd. ~5th +. aug.
Dominant Seventh Root. 3rd, 5th. P7lh dom.7,7
Minor Seventh Root, P3rd, 5th. b7th -7, min 7
Major Seventh Root, 3rd, 5th. maj. 7th M7. rna 7
Major Sixth Root. 3rd, Sih. 6th M6. MG. 6
t. Minor Sixth" Root. b3rd, 5th. 6th mi 6,-6
Seventh ;;Sth Reot, 3rd, ::5th. b 7th ]h,7""
Se ve nth PSth RC'Jt, 3rd. PSth. b?lh 7-' 7(,.
M ajar 7th. b3rd Rool, b3rd. 5th. rna]. 7th Ma 7-'
Minor 7th ,5th Rool. D3rd, bSth. b7th mi t- •. -*.
Seventh Suspended 4th Root. 4 th, 5th, P7th 7 sus 4,
(Ii nth Root, 3rd, 5th. b7th, 9th 9
Minor Ninth Root. b3rd, 5th, b7th, 9th rni 9.-9
Major Ninth Root, 3rd, 5th, rna], 7th, 9th Ma9
Ninth Augmented 5th Root, 3rd, f5th, b 71h, 91h if'. gf'.
Ninth Flatted 5th Root, 3rd, PSth. b 7th, 9th ~, 9\05
SeventhP9 Root. 3rd, 5th, P7th. ~91h 7-G:fr.' ,
Augmented Ninth Root, 3rd, 5th, P7th, ;;9th 9~~
9/6 Root, 3rd, 5th, 6th, 9th i. 6 add 9
L Eleventh Root, 3rd, 5th, brth. 9th, 11th 11
Augmented Eleventh Root, 3rd, 5th, klh. 9th, f.'11th 11T", 7 aug 11
Thirteenth Root. 3rd, 5th. P7th. 9th, 11th, 13th 13
Thirteenth P9 -
Root. 3rd, 5th, b7th. b9th, 11th, 13th 13 ....
Thirteenth b~ bs Root, 3rd. b5th. b7lh, b9th, 11th. 13th 13h1os
Half Diminished R oot .b3td. VSlh, \:.71h -t..Iole- 'ToO anive .ta.c.le degree. ,abo"""e 1 oct.", •. U.I:. 9th. 111h. 1 ::UhJ conl'inue you. _CAlf!: up:2 OC;:I • v .. s: .n~ te-IIIIP I'!IUl:f'lbf'nhQ The 2nCl 1lc:.11' Clegte.e wjll boa ttl.

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The circle is known as the "Circle of Fifths" because each tone is the interval of a perfect fifth lower than the tone preceeding it.

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for ear training. )

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Dominant 7th Chord

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All chords, scales and studies should be played in all keys, using the following order and this procedure

1) Start on Ule lowest possible root:

2) Play each as high as possible (up to and including high F) as determined by the notes in the particular chord, scale or study J and down as low as possible.

3) Play back up to finish on the starting note.

The dom. 7th usually resolves to a chord down a fifth (or up a fourth).

Thus:

~C7--....

G7' F7

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For a complete study into the technical and harmonic aspects of Jazz Improvising. See Bill

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Minor 7th Chord ( Oc-(\'Q- J

Dominant 7th Minor 7th

The basic resolution of a minor 7th

chord is to IV7. 1-

Thus, Cm7-----+F7.

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The minor 7D5 is used frequently when Improvising. J

It usually resolves to a dominant 7th chord a 4 th above.

Thus: Cmi7b5 -----)0- F7

Play the following studies in all keys. j

Remember-Play and sing in all kt;'S

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~ As with most 7th chords, the 7+5 chord resolves to a 4th above.

Lb.. Thus: C7+5 -i-- F

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The diminished 7th chord could be called a minor 6b5.

A minor 6)5 tends, because of the ~5, to resolve to a fourth above. A diminished chord, however, serves as a passing chord resolving 1/2 step up or down.

Thus: Cdim -----r C~7 or Cdim ----7 B7

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diminished chord is constructed by using minor third intervals. In order to create

cale that will work with the. diminished chord.we will construct the scale on a whole

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The diminished chord is constructed using minor third intervals. The scale uses alte rnating whole steps and half steps.

S~udy #1

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If we begin our diminished scale with a 1/2 step, we have a slightly different sounding scale which will 'work well when played against chords built on diminished type irite rvals. (ie 7'9, 7'9~11, 7:9, Dr 7; 9;11, etc.)

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Vibrato

Vibrato is on important port of saxophone playing. It is recommended fhaf1he student lisfen to both saxophonists and vocalisfs to gain a concept of how and when vibrato is used.

The vibrato is created by a slight movemenf of the jaw. The syllable "woh" produces a sulfable jaw movement. Keep the support and the air stream steady.

The following exercises will help in the development of CJ smoofh and even vibrato. [)Q not leave an exercise until the vibrato is under control.

Development of vibrato is not an ovemight task. If requires daily practice.

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